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Chapter I

The Problem and Its Settings
This chapter introduces the problem of the study. And explains the nature of the study.
Background of the Study
Herbal medicines are the use of herbal plants to improve one’s body or wellbeing.
According to a study of the ResearchGate.net, in the year 2014, almost 80% of the countries
across the world are using herbal plants as alternative for medical drugs. The Philippines are
one of those countries. Because of the rising prices of medical drugs in the country, more than
100 million Filipino’s are pushed into poverty every year just because of pricey medical drugs.
High-priced drugs are sometimes the reason why bacterial diseases such as meningitis, ulcer,
gastritis and pneumonia are not treated and leads to death. Under the Republic Act (RA) 8423
or Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act of 2007 by the former Sec. Juan M. Clavier states
that the use of plants as alternative medicine is encouraged by the Philippine Government. The
Philippines Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) was created to
promote and advocate the use of traditional, alternative, preventive and curative health care
modalities that have been proven safe, effective, cost-effective and consistent with government
standards on medical practice.
There are over 40 ethnic groups present in the Philippines. And 18 of those tribes are
in Mindanao. They can be classified as “Tribal groups” and “Indigenous groups”. The B’laan
are the major indigenous groups in Mindanao. They believe in their God or what they call
Dawata. B’laan have rituals for everything- including their medicines. They believe that all of
the plants on earth are planted by Dawata and these plants will help them to cure such illnesses
that will make them healthier. But they are not aware of what specific plant are they going to
use and what are the good or bad effects to them.
Plant-based natural constituents can be derived from any part of the plant like bark,
leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds, etc i.e. any part of the plant may contain active components.
Tañgisang bayauak (Ficus variegata blume) is a native plant which commonly grows on
primary forests and places with low and medium altitudes. It is a tall, spreading plant with pale
bark, broad leaves and fruits that grows or attached on its bark where the fruit are on its twigs.
The latex of its bark is commonly used in treating external wounds together with its leaves.
Native people in this area call by many names according to their tribe. Badyang (Alocasia
macorrhiza) are commonly found in T’boli, South Cotabato, although this plant can be seen
everywhere and is valued an ornamental. This is sometimes referred to as “Elephant ears” and
“Giant taro” because of its upright and large leaves standing straight up pointing skyward.
According to folktales, the plant’s stems is edible and are eaten as vegetable during scarce
times. Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora) is a forb and an abundant seed-producing plant with
hairy leaves and stem. The stem of this plant is erect, branched, grows up to 60 cm and is
slightly hairy. The leaves of this plant is slightly hairy, grows up to 6cm long and 4m wide
simple and ovate.

Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) and Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora) extracts on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Mupirocin. The zone of inhibition of Tañgisang bayauak (Ficus variegata blume). Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) and Galinsoga (Galinsoga farviflora) plants extract are greater than the positive control. Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) ointment and Galinsoga (Galinsoga farviflora) against the reference strain S. What is the level of efficacy of the antibacterial activity using the mean zone of inhibition of Tañgisang bayauak (Ficus variegata blume). Alternative 1. . aureus? Hypotheses This study will be conducted to prove the following hypotheses: Null 1. which are present in their community. The use of medicinal plant extract for the treatment of human diseases is ancient practice. aureus? 2. Badyang and Galinsoga. It gives them scientific explanations to support their beliefs. Badyang (Alocasia macorrhiza) and Galinsoga (Galinsoga farviflora) plants extract against the reference strain S. Mupirocin. Significance of the Study According to a study of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Statement of the Problem This study aims to identify the Antibacterial activity of Tangisan bayuak (Ficus variegata blume). Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) and Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora) is the same with the positive control. 2. The zone of inhibition of Tañgisang bayauak (Ficus variegata blume). can heal their illnesses. Folktales and beliefs that herbal plants found in the community which can be used as medicines are widespread in rural places and in tribes like B’laan. The mean zone inhibition of the positive control is lesser than the mean zone of inhibition of the Tañgisang bayauak (Ficus variegata blume). Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) and Galinsoga (Galinsoga farviflora) plants extract are the same with the positive control. allmost 91% of the deaths in the year 2013 are caused by bacterial diseases which were untreated because of poverty. More specifically the study aims to answer to following problem: 1. 2. Mupirocin. It also creates . What is the level of antibacterial activity using the mean zone of inhibition of Tañgisang bayauak (Ficus variegata blume). The results of this study is useful the B’laan people in understanding why certain plants like Tangisang bayawak. The mean zone of inhibition of Tañgisang bayauak (Ficus variegata blume). Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) and Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora).

one of the selected B’laan plants in South Cotabato that are manipulated in the study. Staphylococcus aureus.one of the selected B’laan plants in South Cotabato that are manipulated in the study.a substance that inhibits oxidation or reactions promoted by oxygen. This study will only test the effectivity of Tañgisang bayawak (Ficus variegata blume. on the testing of the bioactive compunds present in the plant and the antioxidants present in the plants.a spot for the B’laan people to discover plants in their community which can aid them in their illnesses. Bioassay. This study created an option to those people who can’t afford medicines prescribed by their doctors for they can substitute these safe herbal plants as medicines as they can use this study as a basis in creating alternative medicines. Scope and Limitation This study will focus on the effectiveness of Tañgisang bayawak (Ficus variegata blume). Antioxidant. peroxides.refers to the determination of the strength of a drug or biological product by testing its effect on living organisms using aseptic techniques. Tañgisan bayauak to inhibit the growth of a bacteria. Galinsoga (Galinsoga farviflora) in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. or free radicals. Badyang (Alocasia macorrhiza). Galinsoga (Galinsoga farviflora) to lessen the growth of Staphylococcus aureus-. Antibacterial. this study is an addition to the list of the usage of natural resources.This study also focuses on the capacity of the B’laan plants extract in the ointment formulation. Galinsoga (Galinsoga farviflora). aiding the government in lowering the high percentage of incurable bacterial diseases due to poverty. Badyang (Alocasia macorrhiza). Lastly.one of the selected B’laan plants extract in South Cotabato that are manipulated in the study.it is the area to be measured in order to know the potential of the plant.common gram-positive bacteria which will be used to test the antibacterial property of the extract. Tañgisang bayuak (Ficus variegata blume).refers to the ability of the selected B’laan plants extract to suppress or inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria through the measurement of the mean zone of inhibitions. Ascorbic Acid. . Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza). Operational Definition of Terms The following terms are define to provide clarity and better understanding of the words frequently used in the following pages.the standard used in the reducing property test to determine the reducing property of the selected B’laan plants. Zone of inhibition. The government can now provide medicines which the populace can afford.

Rolando V.html). Galinsoga parviflora is a forb and an abundant seed-producing summer annual with hairy leaves and stems. along gullies and rivebanks.iastate. up to 6cm long and 4cm wide. cuts. Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora) Galinsoga parviflora is an herbaceous plant in the Asteraceae (daisy) family. farmlets. (Fuentes.. Its receptacles are about 1 cm in diameter and are clustered on long branches. html). The stem below the cotyledon (hypocotyl) is very short. The leaves of this plant are broad or elliptic-ovate. Fruit is an achene and propagation is by seed. At seedling stage. (http://agron- www. Badyang Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) or sometimes called “Giant Taro” is a large evergreen plant with extremely large erect or spreading leaves. The stem is erect. cultivated widely in tropics for its edible rhizome and shoot and are used in wet warm regions as a stately ornamental. Tañgisang Bayauak Ficus variegate blume is a tall spreading tree with pale bark. converging at the base and the margin is shallowly toothed. Young leaves are opposite. It commonly grows in primary forests and can also grow in countries in secondary forests. It is known or believed to treat external wounds using its boiled leaves extract.org/Agi. Evelyn & Mascunaña. People sometimes use this plant as decoration. grows up to 60cm high and is slightly hairy. (http://www. it produces club-shaped cotyledons with slightly indented tip. It is also widely distributed in moist areas of low to medium elevations like forest.agron. that measure 10 to 17 centimeters long and are yellowish-brownish. interior works and etc. wounds (Invasive Alien Plants: An Ecological Appraisal for the Indian Subcontinent. triangular with slightly toothed margins. and 4-5 white 3-lobed ray florets surrounded by membranous bracts. The inflorescence is flower heads 5-8mm in diameter on stalks 12-25mm long. forest thickets. Chapter II Review of Related Literature This chapter presents the literature taken from various works and researchers which are significant in conducting this study.edu/~weeds/weedbiollibrary/517%20student%20pages/2000/Galinsogad. ovate and slightly hairy. It has a shallow fibrous root system.. 2012). This plant is commonly used in rituals not only by the B’laan people but also of the Folk-Healers of Siquijor. The wood are known to be used in temporary construction. . The leaf juices of the plant is used as astringent for stings. Flower heads consist of many yellow tubular florets. Three distinct veins mark the leaf. mouldings.stuartxchange. becoming maroon with age. simple. and covered with hairs. 2005). Galinsoga has medicinal benefits yet it still considered as noxious weed (Cultural History of Plants. This plant is involved in the minasa ritual where it is believed to further bestow potency to the brew. Their young shoot-tips and young fruits are sometimes eaten raw. Any plant of the genus Alocasia has large showy basal leaves and boat-shaped spathe and reddish leaves. It is a herb and a leafy vegetable used in some cuisines in Colombia and on East African countries. branched. 2004). green. Leaves are opposite. The leafy inflorescence is regularly branched at the stem apex and from upper leaf axils.

lanolin. and the wide range of human immune responses against bacterial infection. (Khakdan. Strakosch’s study. olive oil.. the genetic basis of resistance to anti-bacterial drugs. a base consisting of mannide monooleate-ceresin wax-petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol. It covers the characteristic features of bacterial pathogenicity. Recent advances in research and development of new classes of antibacterial drugs are examined. The basics of bacterial structure describing the basis for your understanding mechanisms of antibacterial action. plasters and ointments were one of those.org/content/78/1/65. as revealed by this study is as follows: the base consisting of: liquid petrolatum-peanut oil-steric acid-triethanolamine-acetyl alcohol and water.nlm. It is used especially when a person has burns. Michelle A. rose water ointment. and finally petrolatum as such.abstract).. the biochemical mechanisms of action of antibacterial drugs. Ficus infectoria. Ficus religiosa. 2003). cream base and honey.” Because of multi-drug resistance among many bacterial species has been reported to be on the increase due to inappropriate or widespread use of antimicrobials. Ointments formulated from herbal plants with bioactive compounds were proven safe and effective. & Lockyer. (http://www. insect bites and etc. Antibacterial may refer to anything that destroys bacteria or suppresses their growth or ability to reproduce. . (http://jpet. isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. According to Ernest A.Anti-bacterial Antibacterials are topical agents that eliminate the bacteria that causes epidermal infections. The antibiotic neomycin is frequently used in ointments for this purpose. Alternative ointments were also introduced in the modern years. Herbal ointments were also introduced to the market. Creams. Penetration of Various Ointments Bases.ncbi. lecithin ointment. These ointments has different basis with different penetrations. petrolatum and lanolin to equal parts. petrolatum plus five per cent cetyl alcohol. Ointments are prepared in small preparations and are made to fill the doctor’s prescribed formula. Ointments are thick liquid substance that creates a soothing effect when applied to the skin.nih. man has applied preparations to soothe and medicate the skin. Resistance to antimicrobials has been observed in various parts of the world. "Hydrosorb" (Abbott). The efficacy of different ointments have been proved through breakthroughs of different studies. In vitro study of the release of antimicrobials and kill-time studies of the herbal ointments was carried out against multi-drug resistant isolate of Pseudomonas. Because of this. The ointment showed bactericidal activity within 2 h against the resistant strain of Pseudomonas spp. Buchman. ointments were revealed to have different penetration with different bases. and Piper betel were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains. how antibacterial drugs reach their targets in gram-positive 3and gram-negative bacteria. 2013). Fatemeh & Khosro. stearyl alcohol-mineral oil-water-petrolatum. lard. David M. Ointment For the past years. "Aquaphor" (Dule).aspetjournals. cold liver oil. sodium alginate. vaseline (Chesebrough). “The relative intensity of the penetration into the normal human skin of the different test substances listed in the order from the best to the worst penetration. Extracts from different plant extracts like Aloe vera. (Allan. These were then evaluated to find a suitable base for preparation of an ointment. carbopol. Karen D. gelatin. Piri.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3003181/).

org/wiki/Staphylococcus_aureus) Staphylococcus aureus. especially on the hands are most likely to contaminate the food. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework The concept of the research is a comparative study where the process is based upon comparison of two independent variables with its effect to the dependent variable. However. Persistent use of an antibiotic favors the continued presence of the specific antibiotic resistance plasmid in the bacterial population. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT VARIABLE VARIABLES  Zones of Inhibition  Tañgisang bayauak EXTRACTION in culture of  Galinsoga Staphylococcus aureus  Badyang CONTROL  Mupirocin. aureus which can be found as part of the normal skin flora and in anterior nares of the nasal passages. It is still one of the five most common causes of nosocomial infections and is often the cause of postsurgical wound infections. Another involvement of staphylococci is in the most prevalent type of food poisoning. 1 Diagram of Theoretical and Conceptual Framework . antibiotic resistance in S.. 2011). the gold pigmented form. (http://en. The presence of antibiotics at the carriage sites of man only increases the probability of selection of resistant strains. Food preparers and handlers who have staphylococcal lessions of the skin. (Boyd. enzymes. to explain their metabolic activities. structure and antigen of most cultivatable microorganisms. metabolites. are the ones to be tested whether or not it will affect the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. There is extensive information about the products. In staphylococcal treatment it has been recommended that the use of tropical antibiotics be eliminated. and to control the microorganisms. aureus is created.wikipedia. Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora) and Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) leaves extract. It produces infection of the skin. & Hoerl.Staphylococcus Aureus S. It is estimated that 20% of the human population are long- term carriers of S. Robert F. The knowledge about these substances is used to identify the microorganisms. due to the presence of extrachromosomal genetic units called plasmids. to interpret their virulence. extracts. is a durable organism found on the mucous membranes and skin of a considerable segment of the population. The independent variables. Aureus was first identified in 1880 by the surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint. Fig. Many patients in the hospital are contracted to staphylococcal infection. Ryan G. but it is also noted for causing a variety of serious infections. which are the Tañgisan bayauak (Ficus variegate blume). particularly in the debilitated.

Chapter III Methodology Research Site and Duration This study will follow a simple research design. wherein the research instruments and materials used for the experiment are already complete and provided by the school itself Research Design This study will employ a descriptive-quantitative design for assessing the antibacterial properties of Tañgisan bayauak (Ficus variegate blume). Aureus. The experiment will take place in the pharmacy lab of General Santos Doctors' Medical School Foundation Inc. Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora) and Badyang (Alocasia macrorrhiza) leaves extract and its efficacy against the growth of S. It assessed the selected B’laan plants to show its properties through bioassay.. B’laan plants’ extract Bioassay Ointment T1 S. Aureus Zone of Inhibition T2 R2 Scavenging Activity R3 R1 T3 R2 Legend: R3 T – Treatment R1 R – Replicate T4 R2 T1 – Positive Control (Mupirocin) R3 T2 – Negative Control (Water) R1 T3 – 50% concentration of Selected B’laan T5 plants’ extract R2 T4 – 75% concentration of Selected B’laan R3 plants’ extract T5 – 100% concentration of Selected B’laan plants’ extract .

A. Aureus Preparation of Inoculum Preparation of Plate Preparation of Extract disks Reading of Zone inhibition . Procedure for Bioassay B’laan Plants’ Extract Antibacterial Screening Reference strains S.

Pure Leaves Extract Extraction Bioassay Raw Materials Agar medium Tañgisan bayauak plant Nutrient agar Galinsoga plant S.5 L of 95% ethyl alcohol for 48 hours and will be filtered. resulting to a thick.Materials and Instruments Table 1 List of Raw Materials and Laboratory Equipment for Pure Extract Extraction and Bioassay. The crude ethanolic extract will then be concentrated by using a rotary evaporator at temperature 60°. aureus Mani-manian plant Laboratory equipment Laboratory Equipment Autoclave Weighing scale Petri dishes Scissors Beaker Petri dishes Erlenmeyer flasks Graduated cylinder (500 mL) Forceps Volumetric flasks Incubator Beaker Whattman discs Stirring rod Vernier caliper Funnel Screw capped test tube Spatula/Ladle Test tube stand Erlenmeyer flasks Sterile cotton swabs Extractor setup Vortex mixer Rotary evaporator Micropipettor Filter paper Solvents Distilled water 95% ethanol Experimentation and General Procedure A. Five hundred fifty grams (550 g) of freshly washed Tañgisan bayauak’s pericarp and Badyang and Galinsoga leaves will be completely soaked in 1. viscous and syrupy extract which was later used for the tests involved in the study. Badyang (Alocasia macorrhiza) and Galinsoga (Galinsoga Farviflora) plant will be collected at South Cotabato. . Preparation of Plant’s Leaves Extract Tañgisang bayuak (Ficus variegata blume).

A sterile cotton swab was dipped onto the standardized organism inoculums suspension. 2005) Position of Paper Disks for Preliminary Screening of Antibacterial Activity Twenty microliters (20 μL) of each leaves extract was dispensed into sterile paper disks with the use of a pipette. This preparation will be done in the biosafety cabinet. The assay will be done in triplicate and the means will be computed. pressed and rotated firmly against the inside wall of the tube just above the fluid to remove the excess liquid. Figure 8.B. Tetracycline disk and distilled water was used as positive and negative controls. Using sterile forceps. The entire surface of the solidified agar will be swabbed evenly to ensure even and complete distribution of the inoculum. (Guevara et al. The impregnated paper disks was air-dried under for two hours the biosafety hood. Position of Paper Disks for Preliminary Screening as Antibacterial Agent Legend: 1. The plates was inverted and incubated for 24 hours at 350C. the impregnated paper disks will be placed in a clockwise order onto the seeded plate at equidistant positions. (Guevara et al.. 3 .5 McFarland standard solution with sterile Normal Saline Solution (NSS). The plates will be allowed to dry for 15 minutes. The drugs was allowed to diffuse through the agar for 60 minutes. respectively.replicates 2 1 3 . 2. It will be adjusted using 0. The diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured in millimeter (mm) using a ruler. These will serve as the standardized inoculum. 2005) Preparation of Seeded Agar Plate Twenty (20) mL of Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) will be dispensed into sterile petri dishes to a depth of 4 mm and allowed to cool and solidify. Procedure for Bioassay: Antibacterial Activity of Tañgisan bayauak (Ficus variegate blume) Badyang (Alocasia macorrhiza) and Galinsoga (Galinsoga Farviflora) Extract Against the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus Preparation of Inoculum Colonies of Staphylococcus aureus will be inoculated onto 2 different 5 mL Mueller- Hinton broth (MHB) and incubated at 35ºC for 2 hours to allow bacteria to grow.