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Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater

Developing Transfer Functions from Heat & Material Balances

Example Transfer Functions — Stirred Tank Heater

F0, T0,0

h, Ac, T,

Fs, Ts

F1, T1,1

We will develop the transfer functions for a stirred tank heater by setting up the heat &
material balance equations for the case where the volume might change (since flow out of
the tank is controlled by a valve). The overall mass balance on this system will be:

d  1V 
 0F0  1F1
dt

where the volume in the tank, V , might be changing with time (since the liquid level might
be changing). If we simplify the physical properties by assuming a constant liquid density,
1  0   , and if the valve has linear flow characteristics, F1  Cv h , then:

d  Ac h dh
 F0  F1  Ac  F0  Cv h .
dt dt

Remember that the steady state version of this equation is:

0  F0*  Cv h* .

The energy balance will be:


d 1VHˆ 1    F Hˆ  1F1 Hˆ 1  UA Ts  T1 
0 0 0
dt

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -1- © Copyright 2017
April 23, 2017

edu) -2. 2017 . We would still like to convert the enthalpy terms into terms that directly relate to temperature.Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater We can split apart the time derivative term: 1V    Hˆ d Hˆ 1 d  1V   0F0 Hˆ 0  1F1 Hˆ 1  UA Ts  T1  1 dt dt and then insert the mass balance ODE for the second time derivative: 1V    Hˆ F  d Hˆ 1  F11   0F0 Hˆ 0  1F1 Hˆ 1  UA Ts  T1  . © Copyright 2017 April 23. Even with a temperature dependent heat capacity the time derivative can be split into: dT   1VCˆ p1 1  0F0 Hˆ 0  Hˆ 1  UA Ts  T1  . then: Hˆ T   Cˆ p T  Tref   Hˆ ref and Hˆ ref . 1 0 0 dt Doing a little bit of math gives: 1V    F  Hˆ d Hˆ 1  F11 Hˆ 1  0F0 Hˆ 0  1F1 Hˆ 1  UA Ts  T1  0 0 1 dt 1V    F  Hˆ d Hˆ 1  0F0 Hˆ 0  UA Ts  T1  0 0 1 dt 1V     F Hˆ d Hˆ 1  F00 Hˆ 1  UA Ts  T1  0 0 0 dt dHˆ 1 1V dt    0F0 Hˆ 0  Hˆ 1  UA Ts  T1  . dt If we assume that the heat capacities are constant and that there is no reaction. dt John Jechura (jjechura@mines.0 and: dT 1VCˆ p 1  0F0Cˆ p T0  T1   UA Ts  T1  .1  Hˆ ref .

constant inlet flow rate Let’s develop the transfer functions using these ODEs as our starting point. So we only need to deal with the energy balance equation.   Changing temperatures. This ODE gets converted to transfer functions by taking the Laplace transform : VCˆ p  s  T1  F0Cˆ p  UA  T1  F0Cˆ p   T0  UA  Ts        VCˆ  s  F Cˆ p 0 p   UA  T1  F0Cˆ p   T0  UA  Ts John Jechura (jjechura@mines. so 1  0   and: dT VCˆ p 1  F0Cˆ p T0  T1   UA Ts  T1  . 2017 . so V (and hence h ) will be constant. dt The steady state version of this equation is:   0  F0*Cˆ p T0*  T1*  UA Ts*  T1* .Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater For final simplicity let’s assume the density is essentially constant.   dt     Note that this equation shows how the stirred tank fluid temperature is affected by changes in the other temperatures. too. When we linearize this we need to put it in terms of the deviation variables T0 and Ts (for the independent variables) and T1 (for the dependent variable):  VCˆ p  dT1   F0Cˆ p T0  T1   UA Ts  T1    T0 *   dt T   0   *  F0Cˆ p T0  T1   UA Ts  T1    Ts Ts     *  F0Cˆ p T0  T1   UA Ts  T1    T1 T1    VCˆ p  dT1  F0Cˆ p   T0  UA*  Ts   F0Cˆ p  UA  T1 * *   dt      VCˆ p  dT1  F0Cˆ p  UA  T1  F0Cˆ p   T0  UA  Ts . We will hold F0 constant.edu) -3. © Copyright 2017 April 23. Let’s assume that the only independent variables that can change are T0 and Ts .

one). This can be done by dividing everything by the existing factor on the T1 term. VCˆ p  s  F0Cˆ p  UA VCˆ p  s  F0Cˆ p  UA         This shows that we have two transfer functions: T1  G0  s T0  Gs  s Ts where: F0Cˆ p  UA G0  s     and Gs  s   . K 0  ... VCˆ p  s  F0Cˆ p  UA VCˆ p  s  F0Cˆ p  UA         Notice that both of these transfer functions come from the same first order ODE.edu) -4. 2017 .Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater F0Cˆ p  UA T1     T0   Ts . © Copyright 2017 April 23.e. and K s  ˆ F0C p  UA ˆ F0C p  UA F0Cˆ p  UA so: dT1   T1  K 0  T0  K s  Ts dt  s  1T1  K 0  T0  K s  Ts K0 Ks T1   T0   Ts s  1 s  1 and the transfer functions are now: John Jechura (jjechura@mines. F0Cˆ p  UA .  F0Cˆ p  UA  dt  F0Cˆ p  UA   F0Cˆ p  UA  We can simplify the form of the equation by defining new symbols for the groupings: VCˆ p F0Cˆ p UA  . so both are referred to as first order transfer functions. Starting with the deviation variable form of the ODE:    VCˆ p  dT   F0Cˆ p   UA    1  T1     T0     Ts . We’ll see in a later section that we would like to put the equations into a standard form that arises when the multiplier on the T1 term is unity (i.

When we linearize these ODEs we need to put them in terms of the deviation variables F0 .edu) -5. T0 G0 + + + T1 Ts Gs Allow Inlet Flow Rate to Change The previous set of transfer functions were derived from the energy balance ODE linearized only for changes in temperature. © Copyright 2017 April 23. The overall material balance becomes: dh  F0  Cv h  F0 * Ac  dt F0  F0  Cv h  T0 *  T0  F0  Cv h  Ts *  Ts  F0  Cv h  h *  h    F0  Cv h  T  * T dh Ac  1  F0  0  T0  0  Ts   Cv   h  0  T  dt dh Ac  F0  Cv h dt John Jechura (jjechura@mines. and Ts (for the independent variables) and h & T1 (for the dependent variables). If the inlet flow rate also changes then we must also take this into account in both ODEs. T0 .Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater K0 Ks G0  s   and Gs  s   . 2017 . s  1 s  1 A block diagram for the stirred tank heater can be drawn as follows.

© Copyright 2017 April 23. dt The energy balance becomes (remember to first divide by h to put all variables on the left- hand side of the ODE): *  F Cˆ  Ac Cˆ p  dT1    0 p T0  T1   UA Ts  T1    F0   dt F  h 0  h  *   F0Cˆ p UA    T0  T1   Ts  T1   T0 T0  h h  *   F0Cˆ p UA    T0  T1   Ts  T1   Ts Ts  h h  *   F Cˆ UA    0 p T0  T1   Ts  T1   h h  h h  *   F0Cˆ p UA    T0  T1   Ts  T1   T1 T1  h h  * *  Cˆ   F Cˆ  * Ac Cˆ p  dT1   p T0  T1    F0   0 p   T0   UA   Ts   dt  h   h   h    *  F Cˆ UA     02 p T0  T1   2 Ts  T1    h  h h  *  F Cˆ UA     0 p    T1  h h   Cˆ   F *Cˆ  Ac Cˆ p  dT1   *p T0*  T1*   F0   0* p   T0   UA     Ts   dt  *   h   h  h   F0*Cˆ p * UA        *2 T0  T1*  *2 Ts*  T1*   h   h h   F0*Cˆ p UA     *  *   T1  h h  John Jechura (jjechura@mines.Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater dh and:  Ac   Cv  h  F0 .edu) -6. 2017 .

Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater  F *Cˆ   Cˆ p *   F0*Cˆ p  Ac Cˆ p  dT1   0* p  UA    UA    T1   * T0  T1   F0   *   T0   *   Ts *   dt *  h h   h   h  h   F0*Cˆ p * UA     *2 T0  T1*  *2 Ts*  T1*   h     h h  We can multiply through by the steady state level. 2017 .edu) -7. h* : Ac h*Cˆ p  dT1  F0*Cˆ p  UA   T1  Cˆ p T0*  T1*   F0  F0*Cˆ p   T0  UA  Ts     dt         F0*Cˆ p T0*  T1*  UA Ts*  T1*       h  h*  Notice that the term multiplying h is the steady state energy balance and is zero.     dt       Now we can get the transfer functions by converting to Laplace variables & algebraically manipulating. so: Ac h*Cˆ p  dT1  F0*Cˆ p  UA  T1  Cˆ p T0*  T1*   F0  F0*Cˆ p   T0  UA  Ts . First from the mass balance:  Ac   s  h  Cv   h  F0  Ac s  Cv   h  F0 1 h  F0 Ac s  Cv Next from the energy balance:  A h Cˆ  s  F Cˆ c * p 0 * p     UA  T1  Cˆ p T0*  T1*   F0  F0*Cˆ p   T0  UA  Ts  Cˆ p T0*  T1*     T1   F0 * ˆ * ˆ Ac h C p  s  F0 C p  UA      * ˆ F0 C p  UA     T0   Ts Ac h*Cˆ p  s  F0*Cˆ p  UA  Ac h*Cˆ p  s  F0*Cˆ p  UA          John Jechura (jjechura@mines. © Copyright 2017 April 23.

edu) -8.Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater Now there are three transfer functions from the energy balance: T1  GF  F0  G0  T0  Gs  Ts where:  Cˆ p T0*  T1*     GF  * ˆ * ˆ Ac h C p  s  F0 C p  UA     F0*Cˆ p  G0  s     Ac h C p  s  F0*Cˆ p  UA * ˆ     Gs  s   UA . 2017 . © Copyright 2017 April 23. Ac h*Cˆ p  s  F0*Cˆ p  UA      There is only one transfer function from the mass balance: 1 h  Gh  F0 where Gh  . Ac s  Cv The full block diagram relating the independent & dependent variables are shown in the following figure. Gh h F0 GF T0 G0 + + + T1 Ts Gs John Jechura (jjechura@mines.