You are on page 1of 33

INTERNSHIP REPORT ON

GREEN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF CITI BANK, N. A.

Supervisor:
Dr. Sabnam Jahan
Associate Professor

Prepared by:
Maeen Uddin
ID: 18-123
4 Year, 8th Semester
th

Batch: 18th, BBA Program

Department of management
Faculty of Business Studies
University of Dhaka

Date: 28th February, 2016.

1|Page
Letter of Transmittal
Date: 28th February, 2016

Dr. Sabnam Jahan


Associate Professor
Department of management
Faculty of Business Studies
University of Dhaka

Subject: Submission of Internship Report.

Maam,
This is my pleasure to present my internship report entitled Green Human Resources
Management Practices of Citi Bank, N. A., I have conducted my internship program in
Human Resource Department, Citibank, N. A., Gulshan-8, Gulshan-1, Laila Tower, Gulshan
Avenue, Dhaka-1212.

I believe that the knowledge and experiences I have gathered during the internship period will be
helpful in my future professional life. I will be grateful to you if you accept the report. I will be
available for defense on this report any time.

Your support in this regard will be highly appreciated.

Thanking you.

Sincerely yours

____________

Maeen Uddin
ID: 18-123
4th Year, 8th Semester
Batch: 18th, BBA Program

2|Page
Letter of Certification

This is to certify that, Maeen Uddin bearing ID: 18-123, a student from Batch: 18, Department of
Management, has successfully completed his Internship assignment at Citi Bank N. A. under my
supervision as part of the completion of his B.B.A. Program. I hope that, the experiences he
achieved through this endeavor will be helpful to him in the days to come.

I wish him success in future.

---------------------------

Dr. Sabnam Jahan


Associate Professor
Department of Management
Faculty of Business Studies
University of Dhaka

3|Page
Acknowledgement
Thanks to the Almighty Allah at first, A Research study cant be completed without the
guidance, assistance, inspiration and cooperation from various quarters. This study also bears the
inspiration of many persons. This study required hard work, sincerity and devotion which I tried
my best to put in and in turn gained a lot of knowledge and confidence from this study. I am
deeply grateful to my internship supervisor guide Dr. Sabnam Jahan who has helped me in
completion of this report. She has been a constant guiding force and source of illumination for
me. It entirely goes to her credit that this research has attained its final shape.

I am thankful to the honorable Head of Human Resources of Citibank, N. A. of Gulshan Branch


Mr. Asif Jaman and all the pupils I met there namely Mr. Salahuddin Ahmed, Ms. Trisha
regardless of posts for providing me with valuable information during my internship period
although their busy work schedule.

I am also thankful to all the respondents (bank employees) who spared their valuable time for
filling up the questionnaire and helped me out with this report. Finally, I would like to thank my
parents and all my friends, who provided me with their constant support and took the pain to help
me in completing the report.

4|Page
Table of Contents

Chapter Serial Title Page No.


Number
Letter of Transmittal 2
Letter of Certification 3
Acknowledgement 4
Table of Content 5
Executive Summary 6-7
Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction 8
1.2 Problem Statement 8
1.3 Literature Review 9-13
1.4 Objectives of the Study 13
1.5 Scope of the Study 13
1.6 Significance of the Study 13
1.7 Limitations of the Study 14
Chapter 2 2.1 Research Design 14
2.2 Data Collection 15
2.3 Data Analysis Method 15
Chapter 3 3.1 About Citibank 16
3.2 Organizational Structure 17
3.3 Work Ethics 17
3.4 Types of Work 18
3.5 Performance Evaluation and Employee Promotion 18
Chapter 4 4.1 Meaning of Green 18
4.2 What is Green HRM 19
4.3 Why Green HRM 19
4.4 Making HRM functions Green 19
4.5 Green HRM practices at Citi 21-22
Chapter 5 Findings and Analysis 23-27
Chapter 6 Conclusion and Recommendations 28-29
Appendices and Bibliography 30
Appendix A (Questionnaire) 31-32
Appendix B ( Abbreviations and Elaborations) 33

5|Page
Executive Summary
Today, Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) has become a key business strategy for
the significant organizations where Human Resource Departments play an active part in going
green at the office. The research largely focuses upon the various Green Human Resource
Practices pursued by the organizations all over the world and, explains the simplified meaning of
GHRM. The Green Human Resources Management (Green HRM) has emerged from companies
engaging in practices related to protection of environment and maintaining ecological balance.
The source of such initiatives, referred to as green management, is the green movement with its
agenda of Protection of Environment and saving the planet Earth from future man-made
disasters. Green HRM encompasses all activities aimed at helping an organization carry out its
agenda for environment management to reduce its carbon footprint in areas concerning on
boarding and acquisition of human resources, their induction, performance management,
learning and development and compensation and reward management. Green HRM can play a
useful role in business in promoting environment related issues by adopting and following Green
HR policies and practices. Green HRM can enhance corporate image and brand. Green HR will
play an important role in making the employees aware of and concerned for preservation of
natural resources and contribute in pollution control, waste management and manufacture of eco-
friendly products.

Understanding about why green is (mentioned above) indicates the importance of green HRM. If
reiterated in another form, greening is essential for the following:

1) To avoid or minimize global warming.


2) To avoid or minimize natural disasters such as acid rains, red rains, tsunamis, flooding,
hurricanes, droughts etc. owing to informal, harmful and greedy usage of natural
resources for production and consumption.
3) To avoid or minimize health diseases owing to pollution.
4) To avoid or minimize harms to animals and other natural creatures.
5) To ensure appropriate balance of relationships among plants, animals, people, and their
environment.
6) To ensure survival of humans and business organizations for a prolonged period of time.

In order to achieve organizational environmental goals or greening, green human resource


requirements need to be identified. What are the green human resource requirements for greening
or corporate environmental management? There are four categories of green human resource
requirements, i.e. green competencies, green attitude, green behaviors and green results. Though
these major types of green human requirements are related they can be distinctly treated. Figure
3 shows these requirements and relevant dimensions.

6|Page
Green HR Requrements

Green attitude Green behavor


cognititve aspect Green
Green (believing in organizational Green results
competencies greening) citizenship bahavor
Knowledge and Affective aspct Green innovations
Green interpersonal
skills about Green outcomes
greening Behavioral aspect citizenship behavior
(intention to behave Green official
positively) behavior

Figure 1: Green Human Resource Requirements.

Green ideas and concepts are beginning to gather pace within the HR space, often
complementing existing sustainability-based initiatives. Increasingly they are delivering tangible
benefits to the business, rather than simply adding a gloss to brand and reputation. These new
processes, policies, products and tools are actually helping to ensure compliance and improve
productivity too. In this regard, the study, thus brings out how the HRM function, by its policies
and practices, can contribute to environmentally sustainable business.
And with legislation now in place to effectively formalize the need for a new corporate approach
to the environment, it is time for HRM to embrace the green agenda. Adopting environmental
practices help companies save money, find new sources of business and avoid trouble. Green
companies believe that it is more economical to go green than it is to continue endangering the
environment in general. Going green also helps companies enhance their public relations and
image which also impacts profits.

7|Page
CHAPTER: 1

1.1 Introduction
We are entering a green economy-one in which consumer and employee expectations and future
environmental change will require business to address green issues. Environmental conscious
organizations will become increasingly prominent as we re-enter into a period of growth. Green
HR is a not just a strategy used primarily for reducing the carbon footprint of each employee and
talent retention.
Green HR has two essential elements: environmentally friendly HR practices and the
preservation of knowledge capital.

Most people will say that Green HRM involves reducing your carbon footprint via less printing
of paper, video conferencing and interviews, etc. The most important definition to remember in
terms of our current economic situation is there claiming of top talents of the organization.
Companies are quick to layoff when times are tough before realizing the future implications of
losing that knowledge capital. Green HR initiatives help companies find alternative ways to cut
cost without losing their top talent; furloughs, part time work, etc. More employees are becoming
more concerned about the environment and climate change. HR departments are seeing Green
HR as a cutting edge way to keep top talent in house. Top talent is considered the industrys
most valued asset, yet many corporations have been treating them as expendable. As
knowledgeable, experienced professionals become harder to find and retain, companies must
continue to be creative at finding ways of keeping these highly skilled workers. This is a win/win
scenario for the employee and the employer. First and foremost, it helps the environment. The
employer gets to hold onto top talent, while increasing productivity because those employees are
happy to be there. A happy employee is a productive one. The employer has to be willing to
provide strong leadership, care for their employees, offer opportunities for professional growth,
offer opportunities for more responsibility, offer flexibility, and last they must offer perks. The
main environment focus of many business was paced on reducing waste and optimizing
resources. However, HR is never going to have a truly significant impact on a business through
the improvement of HR processes alone so the greater opportunity is to contribute to the
green agenda to the business as a whole.

1.2 Problem Statement


Environmental sustainability is generating increased concern among business executives,
governments, consumers, and management scholars. Amidst the stakeholders struggle and the
challenges and opportunities from environmental concerns, HRM function joins the ongoing
discussions and debates. The business domain sees the genesis of Green HRM with the
expanding role of the HRM function in pursuit of environmentally sustainable business. Are
HRM (or simply, HR) policies and practices getting transformed to incorporate a new way of
work for people? The green way? In view of this, the study intends to explain the concept of

8|Page
Green Human Resource Management, the companies approach towards green HRM, its
advantages, policies and practices. The study discusses the current trends of green HRM
practices in companies based on findings from a few studies, survey reports and secondary data
from the banks resources. It also brings out the role of HRM function towards creating a green
culture in companies.

1.3 Literature Review


Gill Mandip (2012) in his research on Green HRM: People Management Commitment to
Environmental Sustainability, has found that Green human resources refer to using every
employee touch point/interface to promote sustainable practices and increase employee
awareness and commitments on the issues of sustainability. It involves undertaking environment-
friendly HR initiatives resulting in greater efficiencies, lower costs and better employee
engagement and retention which in turn, help organizations to reduce employee carbon footprints
by the likes of electronic filing, car-sharing, job-sharing, teleconferencing and virtual interviews,
recycling, telecommuting, online training, energy-efficient office spaces etc. In this green world
the green HR or people management function has sustainability at its core as part of its people
management and talent management focus and organizations engage with the society by aligning
their agendas with it. Communities, customers and contractors all become equal stakeholders
along with employees and shareholders. Refer Figure 2.

Green HR or
People and
Society
Function

People
People Society
Shared Sustainability
Engagement Engagement
Services

Figure 2: Green HR for people and society function.

9|Page
A. Anton Arulrajah, Prof. H.H.D.N.P. Opatha, Dr. N.N.J.Nawaratne ( 2015), in their research
work on Green Human Resource Management Practices: A Review found that, to a significant
extent, inherent capacity of HRM functions in greening employees and organizational
operations. From job design function to employee relations, HRM has gigantic potential in
greening organization and its operations. The key challenge in front of HR professionals is to
understand the scope and depth of green HRM in transforming their organizations as green
entities. This effort ultimately leads to better environmental performance of the organization. In
other words, greening of HRM functions will reduce negative environmental impacts of the
organization and improve the positive environmental impacts of the organization. In improving
organizations environmental performance, people factor is one of the key factors. To create,
practice and maintain environmental related innovative behaviors of employees coupled with
right attitude of greening, green HRM practices are critical. Without proper green HRM
practices, it is difficult to create and maintain sustainable environmental performance. Hence, we
assert that by understanding the scope and depth of green HRM practices organizations will have
a capability of performing in more environmentally friendly manner than ever before.

Jacob Cherian & Jolly Jacob (2012), in International Journal of Business and Management; Vol.
7, No. 21; 2012, explained on A Study of Green HR Practices and Its Effective Implementation
in the Organization: A Review, and found that the importance of green HRM practices is vital
to promote
employee morale and this may help in arriving at a great deal of benefit for both the company
and the employee. For example some of the benefits that an organization can attain as a result of
introducing green HRM principles in EMS include:
Improvement in retention rate of employee
Improvement public image
Improvement in attracting better employees
Improvement in productivity and sustainability
Reduction in environmental impact of the company
Improved competitiveness and increased overall performance

Apart from this it is to be identified that employees who are actively involved in environment
management principles may play a vital role in arriving at better environmental strategies to be
implemented. Employees may feel empowered to adopt specific environment management
principles as a resulted of promoted human resource policies which present better opportunities
for improvements related to reduction of waste and promotion of lean manufacturing. This also
may help in arriving at greener products and green savings from waste elimination. The
promotion of such values will also indirectly improve consumer satisfaction. Today most
consumers look for companies which adopt environmental standards. Through this article the

10 | P a g e
author has highlighted the importance of green HR principles which an organization should
adopt during implementation of an environment management program. In specific
different implications can be arrived at for managers and supervisors.

H.H.D.N.P Opatha & A. AntonArulrajah (2014) have found on their research entitled Green
human resources management: simplified general reflections that Green HRM is referred to all
the activities involved in development, implementation and on-going maintenance of a system
that aims at making employees of an organization green. It is the side of HRM that is concerned
with transforming normal employees into green employees so as to achieve environmental goals
of the organization and finally to make a significant contribution to environmental sustainability.
It refers to the policies, practices and systems that make employees of the organization green for
the benefit of the individual, society, natural environment, and the business. The purpose of
green HRM is to create, enhance and retain greening within each employee of the organization
so that he or she gives a maximum individual contribution on each of the four roles, i.e.,
preservationist, conservationist, non-polluter, and maker.

Dr. Douglas Renwick, Professor Tom Redman, Dr. Stuart Maguire (April 2008), in their research
paper entitled Green HRM:A review, process model, and research agenda have explained that,
There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource
Management (HRM) Green HRM research practice. A review of the literature shows that a
broad process frame of reference for Green HRM has yet to emerge. A concise categorization is
needed in this field to help academics, researchers and practitioners, with enough studies in
existence to guide such modeling. This article takes a new and integrated view of the literature in
Green HRM, using it to classify the literature on the basis of entry-to-exit processes in HRM
(from recruitment to exit), revealing the role that HR processes play in translating Green HR
policy into practice. The contribution of this article lies in drawing together the extant literature
in this area, mapping the terrain in this field, and in proposing a new process model and research
agenda in Green HRM.

Kathak Mehta, Pawan Kumar Chugan ( 2015) in their research on Green HRM in Pursuit of
Environmentally Sustainable Business have discussed that, Environmental sustainability is
generating increased concern among business executives, governments, consumers, and
management scholars. Amidst the stakeholders struggle and the challenges and opportunities
from environmental concerns, HRM function joins the ongoing discussions and debates. The
business domain sees the genesis of Green HRM with the expanding role of the HRM function in
pursuit of environmentally sustainable business.

Michael Muller-Camen, Susan E. Jackson, Charbel J. C. Jabbour,Douglas Renwick (2010) have


found on their research entitled Green Human Resource Management that During the past two

11 | P a g e
decades, a worldwide consensus has begun to emerge around the need for proactive
environmental management. In response, scholars from management functions as diverse as
accounting, marketing and supply-chain management have been analyzing how managerial
practices in these areas can contribute to environmental management goals. In contrast, with
some exceptions, such as a very early 1996 edited book by Wehrmeyer (Greening People:
Human Resources and Environmental Management), there is a scarcity of research linking the
field of human resource management (HRM) and environmental management. This is surprising,
as any organizational responses to environmental concerns must involve decisions and behavior
by an organizations employees. Fortunately, the potential role of HRM practices is beginning to
be recognized. For example, at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, which
had as its theme Green Management Matters, papers were presented that linked HR functions
such as performance management and recruitment to environmental management. Studies
designed to improve our understanding of environmentally-friendly employee attitudes and
behaviors also have begun to appear. A 2008 review from the University of Sheffield (Renwick
et al, Green HRM: A Review, Process Model and Research Agenda) as well as a Green HRM
AOM Connect Group established in 2009 suggest that the term Green HRM could become the
umbrella term for this research.

Prasad, Apeejay (2013), in their research topic entitled Green HRM - Partner in Sustainable
Competitive Growth, has found that The Green Human Resources Management (Green HRM)
has emerged from companies engaging in practices related to protection of environment and
maintaining ecological balance. The source of such initiatives, referred to as green management,
is the green movement with its agenda of Protection of Environment and saving the planet Earth
from future man-made disasters. Green HRM encompasses all activities aimed at helping an
organization carry out its agenda for environment management to reduce its carbon footprint in
areas concerning on boarding and acquisition of human resources, their induction, performance
management, learning and development and compensation and reward management. Green
HRM can play a useful role in business in promoting environment related issues by adopting and
following Green HR policies and practices. Green HRM can enhance corporate image and brand.
Green HR will play an important role in making the employees aware of and concerned for
preservation of natural resources and contribute in pollution control, waste management and
manufacture of eco-friendly products.

Shoeb Ahmad (2015), has found in his research paper entitled Green Human Resource
Management: Policies and practices, Recently, there has been observed an increasing awareness
within business communities on the significance of going green and adopting various
environment management techniques. As the corporate world is going global, the business is
experiencing a shift from a conventional financial structure to a modern capacity-based economy
which is ready to explore green economic facets of business. Today, Green Human Resource
Management (GHRM) has become a key business strategy for the significant organizations
where Human Resource Departments play an active part in going green at the office. The paper

12 | P a g e
largely focuses upon the various Green Human Resource Practices pursued by the organizations
all over the world and, explains the simplified meaning of GHRM. The study also adds to the
extant literature by discussing future direction of some GHRM functions. Finally, the paper
suggests some potentially prolific HR initiatives for Green organizations.

According to Ken Peattie (1995), green was a buzz word that was used by marketers in the 1980
as a consequence of the increased awareness of the sustainability issues in politics, mass-media
and financial groups. More than often the resulting products or services had little to do with
marketing and even less with the environment and were just an opportunistic way to respond to
consumer needs.

1.4 Objective of the Study


The broad objective of the study is to determine the practices of Green Human Resources
Management Practices of Citi Bank, N.A. and explain the elements that might lead to motivating
employees to be more eco-friendly, environment-conscious. A careful review of those areas led
to the identification of following specific research objectives:

1. To what extent and how HR policies and practices can improve the environmental
performance of organizations.
2. The Role of the HR professional in environmental management
3. Changing attitudes and behaviors related to environmental issues in the workplace.

1.5 Scope of the study


The report has been prepared from everyday working experience, discussion with the concerned
officers of Human Resource Department of Citibank, N. A. and the theoretical learning from
library and journal reference. In order to collect information on this emerging issue Green HRM,
I had to contact with most of the employees who were available at Citibank N.A, Gulshan Head
Office (regardless of posts) to fill the questionnaire up.

1.6 Significance of the study


In the last decade, sustainability has become an increasingly integral part of doing business in
any industry. Sustainability seeks to balance and simultaneously optimize environmental, social
and financial concerns. For companies to balance their financial, social and environmental risks,
obligations and opportunities, sustainability must move from being an add-on to the way
things are done. It has been recognized that organizational culture plays a fundamental part in
the shift toward sustainability. Organizational culture is considered a key determinant and
indicator of the success or failure of environmental management programs at companies. An
organizations culture embodies the main assumptions, values, symbols and activities within an
organization that reflect what the employees and top management think about environmental
sustainability issues. There has been recognition of the strategic link between HRM practices and

13 | P a g e
policies in helping to create, reinforce and change organizational cultures; to act as the
messenger or change agent.

HRM plays a critical role in embedding sustainability strategy of the organization for creating
the skills, motivation, values and trust to achieve a triple bottom line. It ensures long term health
and sustainability of both the organizations internal and external stakeholders. Thus there is a
growing need for the integration of environmental sustainability into human resource
management (HRM) Green HRM.

1.7 Limitations of the study


Every study has certain limitations. In my study, also there were certain limitations, which I
could not able to solve.
1. The presence of Close-ended Questions refused personal opinion.
2. Time constraints on part of the respondents.
3. The respondents mostly in careless manner filled the questionnaire, so it was difficult to
make them hold for time.
4. Very limited set of people were included so results are shown in percentage form to make
it presentable.

CHAPTER: 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1 Research Design


Step 1: Define the problem and research objectives

At first, I have defined the problem in connection with the objectives of the report. It was not too
broad or short in nature. It was important to make the respondents understand on the topic in a
precise manner.

Step 2: Develop the research plan

Designing the research plan calls for decisions on data sources, choice of research design,
research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan, and contact methods. Keeping in
mind all these issues, I developed my research plan on how, when, and whom to knock.

Step 3: Collect the information

I have collected the information over a period of 1 and half month from the employees of
Citibank, N. A. of different posts.

14 | P a g e
Step 4: Analyze the information

After the process of gathering information was completed, I tabulated the data and developed
graphical representations and tried to extract the findings from the survey.

Step 5: Present the findings

Finally, I have prepared the research report on the survey and along with I have also presented
the recommendations.

2.2 Data collection


The task of data collection begins after problem has been identified. While deciding the method
of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types of data
viz, primary data and secondary data. The primary data are those which are collected a fresh and
first time and thus happen to be original in character. The secondary data are those which have
already been collected by someone else and which have already passed through statistical
process.

Primary Data
Since primary data are to be originally collected, I have used the following ways to collect
primary data:
1. Observation method
2. Interview method
3. Through questionnaires

Secondary Data
Manuals of Citibank, N. A.
Website of Citibank, N. A.
Various publications of Citibank, N. A.
Various reports collected from internal bodies and library.
Many papers and documents collected from different wings and desks.

2.3 Data Analysis Method:


To analyze data, I chose the tools that fit my research purpose best. In this case, I found the
following tools easier and reliable enough to analyze my data.
The analysis was conducted maintaining the following procedures:
a) Editing and proofreading survey data.
b) Developing and providing instructions for coding data for analysis.
c) Selection and description of data analysis method.
d) Application of graphical representation tool, Bar Diagram and short description.

15 | P a g e
CHAPTER: 3 COMPANY OVERVIEW

Type Public Company


Founded 1812
Headquarters New York City, United states
Parent Citigroup
Slogan Citi Never Sleeps

3.1 About Citibank


Citi bank is the leading global financial services company which has about 200 million customer
accounts and has operations in more than 160 countries. Citibank delivers a collection of banking
services which includes lending and investment services to customers, small businesses, large
companies and governments. Citibank has shown growth and prosper in those areas where it has
operated and its leaders have brought success to different places. Citibank is regarded as the
Worlds Global Bank.

Citibank is the consumer and corporate banking division of leading financial services company
Citi group. The bank has its headquarter in new York. Citibank focuses substantial resources on
growth in emerging markets. Citibank is one of the worlds leading financial services company.
In Asia the bank has more than 33 million customer accounts across 12 different markets which
comprised of more than 600 branches and more than 2,500 ATMs.

Citis mission

Citi works diligently to serve individuals, communities, institutions and nations. With 200 years
of experience meeting the worlds toughest challenges and seizing its greatest opportunities, we
strive to create the best outcomes for our clients and customers with financial solutions which are
simple, creative and responsible. An institution connecting over 1000 cities, 160 countries and
millions of people, we are your global bank, we are Citi.

16 | P a g e
About Citibank, N.A Bangladesh

Citibank, N.A is a multinational bank started its operations on 24 June, 1995 after obtaining
license from Bangladesh bank in January 1995. The bank had its representative office established
on the year 1987 but it launched its complete operations in 1995 in the capital city Dhaka.

Since 1987 Citis operations include mostly on Corporate and commercial banking services
under the Institutional clients group (ICG). The services provided by Citibank include treasury
management, transaction services, foreign exchange and structured finance to corporate clients,
governments and financial institutions. The has been proving its clients the highest standards of
financial services backed by advanced technology and innovative product solutions. The bank
also provides remittance services to the foreign employees throughout the world.

Citibanks operations include Corporate banking, global transaction services, Financial


Institutions and sales and training (Treasury) under the global corporate and investment banking
(CIB) umbrella. Other departments are Operations and technology (O&T), Credit
administrations, Trade and Operations, Financial Control, Human Resources Compliance.

3.2 Organizational Structure


Organizational culture
Citibank, N.A. is one of the leading multinational banks in Bangladesh. Over the years, it has
been very consistent in its performance as it has been able to satisfy its clients by fulfilling the
clients needs. This would not been possible without the loyal and dedicated workforce of the
bank, which is one of the major assets of Citibank, N.A. Bangladesh.

Citibank, N.A. pursues the Open-desk- policy where subordinates and the supervisors sit in the
same floor and in the same areas. This strategy encourages the dedication and motivation of
employees as the employees or the subordinates think that they are given importance by their
bosses or superiors. Citibank, N.A. also allows empowerment by encouraging opinions from
different members of the workforce. The bank also maintains clean desk policy which states
that employees should leave no papers or documents on the desk while leaving their workplace.
This is a vital strategy which is being implemented by Citibank, N.A. as they want to secure the
privacy of their clients.

3.3 Work ethics


Citibank, N.A. gives greater emphasis to employees to show ethics in their work. The
supervisors allow the subordinates to confess if the subordinates have done any mistakes or not.
However, in here there is less number of employees who rarely possesses such work ethic.
Majority of the employees in the Citibank, N.A. tries to maintain the work ethic and they do
reveal to their supervisors if they have made any mistakes so that there is a mutual understanding
between the supervisors and the subordinates.

17 | P a g e
Understanding among departments, colleagues and supervisors
The bonding among the subordinates, entry level officers or the mid-level managers is very good
across different departments at Citibank, N.A.

3.4 Types of work


Most of the task in the Citibank, N.A. involves clerical work. Performing the same clerical work
sometimes leads to monotony in the minds of the employees. Nonetheless, the monotony does
not remain long as the supervisors have to meet the deadlines from Bangladesh bank which is a
challenge. The supervisors or the heads of different units rarely engages in clerical tasks s they
have to setup strategies , make decisions and engage in meetings with clients as well as with the
representatives of Bangladesh bank. Moreover, the Relationship Manager rarely engages in
clerical tasks as they work in front office so they have to interact with customers frequently so
they are able to satisfy the needs of the customers. Also, the employees working in other
departments like Human resources compliance, Corporate and Investment banking have to use
their interpersonal, analytical communication and appraisal skills to complete their tasks.

3.5 Performance evaluation and Employee promotion


Employee performance is assessed by the unit head and the head of the department. The
performance is a big factor while evaluating an employee. However, in Citibank, N.A. promotion
is not completely based on individual performance; it also depends on the performance of the
unit where the employee is working as well as how effectively the employee is communicating
with the unit head and the department head. There are cases where employees get promotion as
they maintain good connection with their bosses and department head.

CHAPTER 4: GREEN HRM

4.1 Meaning of Green


What do you mean by the term green? The term green is used as an adjective and a noun in the
normal context of our usage. The New Oxford Thesaurus of English (2000) presents several
meanings such as verdant (grassy, grass-covered, leafy, verdurous, rural, pastoral (opposite:
barren); environmentally friendly; unripe; unseasoned; raw; inexperienced; naive; vivid;
vigorous; and pale (in combining form) to the term green. The same defines green as a noun as
environmentalist, conservationist, preservationist, nature-lover, or eco-activist. Thus, the term
green has different meanings. However, mostly it means something relevant to nature or
natural environment. Green means environmental. Green or Greening has at least four
meanings in the context of managing people at work/human resource management (HRM).
1) Preservation of the natural environment: all the things in the world which are neither caused
nor controlled by human beings and they include land, forests, plants, animals, and other natural
phenomena are referred to as the natural environment. To keep it in its original form and protect
it from harm, loss, or negative change.

18 | P a g e
2) Conservation of the natural environment: to be very careful in the way of using it in order to
let it last as long as possible, to use it at the minimum level so that future generations will be able
to utilize it.
3) Avoidance or minimization of environmental pollution: to stop contaminating the water, air,
atmosphere, etc. through unpleasant and poisonous substances and wastes. To guard against
outcomes that will ultimately endanger the planet/earth where humans and non-humans are
living.
4) Generation of gardens and looking-like natural places: to create parks and places which have
plants, trees, and grass.

4.2 What Is Green HRM?


Green HRM is referred to all the activities involved in development, implementation and on-
going maintenance of a system that aims at making employees of an organization green. It is the
side of HRM that is concerned with transforming normal employees into green employees so as
to achieve environmental goals of the organization and finally to make a significant contribution
to environmental sustainability. It refers to the policies, practices and systems that make
employees of the organization green for the benefit of the individual, society, natural
environment, and the business. The purpose of green HRM is to create, enhance and retain
greening within each employee of the organization so that he or she gives a maximum individual
contribution on each of the four roles, i.e., preservationist, conservationist, non-polluter, and
maker.

4.3 Why Is Green HRM?


Four specific reasons are given below for Green HRM:

1) The organization gets natural resources including materials, people and water from the
environment in which it is operating. Hence it has to show gratitude to give something to protect
and improve the environment.
2) The organization causes to pollute the environment (air, sand, noise etc.). The polluted
environment will be a danger to the organizational members in future. Environmental pollution
will threaten the survival of all. Hence it needs to be stopped, or at least minimized by various
CSR activities.
3) The people of the society and the government will make demands to the organization to
conserve resources for future generation, to protect and improve prevailing conditions of the
environment where all citizens live.
4) Through Green HRM activities an organization can enhance its image as a good corporate
citizen which will make people appreciate the organization and consequently customers will
become loyal and employees will become loyal. Also the organization will be able to attract

19 | P a g e
more suitably qualified applicants for its job vacancies. Investor preference generates. Eventually
the organization can reap an increased profit from a generally improved society.

4.4 Making HRM Functions Green


In order to make sure that the organization gets right employee green inputs and right employee
green performance of job, it is indispensable that HRM functions are adapted or modified to be
green. Traditionally there are 18 functions of HRM including job design, job analysis, human
resource planning, recruitment, selection, hiring, induction, performance evaluation, training and
development, career management, pay management, incentives management, welfare
management, management of employee movements, discipline management, health and safety
management, grievance management and labor relations. Making a HRM function green
involves inclusion of policies, procedures, and practices which ensure right employee green
inputs and right employee green performance of job. Ideally it is possible to make each function
green. An attempt is made to show how to make some major HRM functions green in this study.

HRM Functions Green policies, procedures, or practices


Job analysis
To include environmental dimension as a duty in job
description.
To include green competencies as a special component in
job specification.

Recruitment
To include environmental criteria in the recruitment
messages.
To communicate the employers concern about greening
through recruitment efforts.

Selection
To select applicants who are sufficiently aware of
greening to fill job vacancies.
To select applicants who have been engaging in greening
as consumers under their private life domain.

Induction
To make new employees familiar with greening efforts
of the organization.

20 | P a g e
To develop induction programs showing green
citizenship behavior of current employees.

Training
To impart right knowledge and skills about greening (the
four green roles) to each employee through a training
program exclusively designed for greening.
To do training needs analyses to identify green training
needs of employees.

Performance evaluation
To evaluate employees job performance according to
green-related criteria.
To include a separate component for progress on
greening in the performance feedback interview.

Rewards management
To give financial incentives to employees for their good
green performance of job.
To give non-financial rewards such as praises and
recognitions to employees for their greening.

Discipline management
To formulate and publish rules of conduct relating to
greening.
To develop a progressive disciplinary system to punish
employees who violate the rules of green conduct.

Source: International Business Research Vol. 7, No. 8; 2014.

4.5 Green HRM practices at Citi


Citibank, N.A. is very much conscious bout keeping its activities in the level that is very much
eco-friendly and that do no harm to the environment. They are adopting Green policies
regardless of departments across different countries it is operating. Among various initiatives to
go green movement, the most important one that Citibank is adopting is to be much more
technology orientation. In case of recruiting employees, they are doing every steps through on-
line from job analysis to vacancy fulfillment, Citibank is adopting both intranet and extranet that
reduces the use of paper a lot.

21 | P a g e
But sometimes it is very difficult to do some tasks without paper-pencil, as it a banking
institution. Several different trainings are arranged by Citibank from time to time in order to
orient the employees to reduce paper work and encourage them to be Green-minded. In Citi
culture health is considered as an important issue and to keep a sound and fit health various
poster work, health cautions are also provided from time to time. In Citi, its like growing as a
family in a healthier way towards achieving its goals maintaining a continuous policy which is
updated from time to time incorporating Green Human Resources Management.

Citi bank already follows the following policies in order to bring about a green environment for
its betterment now and future.

Steps Policies
Job Analysis Citi includes environmental obligations of employees are a must in
order to fulfill the vacancies.
Selection Citi Bank tries to select those applicants who are environment
conscious.
Induction Citi has a rich culture to make the employees acquainted with the green
movement followed by it.
Training Citi Bank arranges periodical training in order to make employees more
motivated to Green movement.
Performance Citi always tries to evaluate the performance of employees in green
Evaluation related criteria to encourage the employees to be more eco-friendly.
Rewards Citi follows the policy that it gives extra incentives to the employees
Management who contribute to the organization in a green way.
Discipline Citi always tries to follow the rules and policies set by the Government
Management of host country towards greening the environment.

22 | P a g e
CHAPTER: 5 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Summary of Findings
By condensing the responses of all the respondents, I have derived to the conclusion that, Green
Human Resources Management (GHRM) policies, being not so widely accepted term in our
country, are getting popularized day by day. Most of the dynamic organizations are now well
aware of it. Organizations are now adopting Green HRM policies soon after they realized its
benefits. Most of the employees are motivated to make a shift from traditional paper-based
policies to Go-green policies. Organizations motivate their employees to take initiative to
Greening, in order to leave a safe, happy and Green environment to the generations to come.

As I have conducted my Survey based on Citibank, N.A. I have seen a lot more initiatives taken
by the HR towards go green policies. The employees are very much aware of Green HRM. Most
of the employees I contacted there provided me with information congenial to Green HRM
policies. As a Global organization, Citibank, N. A global has been adopting this Go-green
policies in most of the countries it is operating. In Bangladesh, there is no exception at all.

According to my survey, about 70% employees are aware of Green HRM, they are not only
aware of it, rather they are already implementing Green HRM policies in their organization-
Citibank, N.A. the other 30% employees who are not playing any proactive role towards green
HRM, they are not barrier to the implementation to Green HRM policies. It will take some more
time to change the attitude of people towards green HRM policies. We are eagerly waiting for
those days, when every organization will show proactive attitude towards Green HRM.

23 | P a g e
Analysis
Sample size: 30 employees
.
Q1. Do you know about green HRM ?

I. Yes
II. No
III. (Not sure) May be heard from someone

25
20
15
10 Series1
5
0
Yes No Heard from
someone

Data Interpretation: 24 respondents knew about GREEN HRM. Only 2 were not aware. This shows that
people are aware about the term but are not aware about its practical application.

Q2. To what extent green HR policies can improve environment and make name for organization?

I. Great
II. Average
III. Low
IV. No impact

20

15

10 Series1

0
Great Average Low No Impact

Data Interpretation: Most of the respondents believe that, Green HR policies can improve environment
and make name for the organization, and very few think otherwise. So Green HR policies are welcomed
by most of the employees at Citibank, N.A.

24 | P a g e
Q3. Role of HR in environment management

I. High
II. Medium
III. Low

20
15
10 Series1

5
0
High Medium Low

Data Interpretation: HR policies are having a big role if organization wants to make the GREEN theme
hit. 5 respondents feel that HR policies are having no role at all as there are other things which one go for
rather HR policies as it is difficult task to implement these policies successfully at every level.

Q4. Best practice for going green can be

I. Eliminating excess use of paper


II. Computerized training.
III. Vehicle sharing
IV. Any other

15
10
5
Series1
0

Data Interpretation: Most of the respondents are concerned with the use of paper at offices and at the
same time thinks that this problem could be reduced to a greater extent by implementing Green movement
in offices. And a major portion thinks about other issues which would also contribute a lot to Green HRM
movement.

25 | P a g e
Q5. How you are contributing to the place you work or spend maximum time?

I. Recycle, reduce, reuse


II. Motivating others to participate
III. Doing basics like switching lights and monitors off when not required.
IV. Dont know

25
20
15
10 Series1
5
0
Recycle, Motivating Doing Don't know
reduce, others to basics
reuse participate

Data Interpretation: Most of the employees I questioned on this issue contribute to the reduction of
paper use and Green movement through recycle, reduce, and reuse. Some of them are also motivating
others to contribute to this movement directly or indirectly.

Q6. Why Green HRM?

I. Trend now a days


II. Need of hour
III. Necessity forever

25
20
15
10 Series1
5
0
Trend now a Need of hour Necessity
days forever

Data Interpretation: Green HRM is not something for very transitional purpose, rather it is the most
important issue for not only the time being but also for future. To build a world of happy, affluent, and
green the importance of Green HRM is very crucial. Thats why most of the respondents replied that the
importance of Green HRM is forever.

26 | P a g e
Q7. How many Bangladeshi organizations are promoting Green HRM?

I. Very Much
II. Average
III. Very Less

15

10
Series1
5

0
Very much Average Very less

Data Interpretation: This is a true scenario that, the number of the organizations following Green HRM
policies is very low. But as the time passes, most of the organizations re coming towards this noble
movement for their own betterment and for the betterment of the earth as well. Most of the respondents
suggested that, it is important to let the organizations know about the benefits of Green HRM movement,
and then they will be motivated to take initiative towards it.

Q8. At what level more improvement is needed to spread HR policies in the organization efficiently?

I. At organization level
II. At HR level
III. At employee level
IV. Every level

15
10
5
Series1
0

Data Interpretation: Although there are some levels of organizations who need to take the major
initiative to Green movement but it can never be accomplished without the support and guidance from
other departments as well.

27 | P a g e
CHAPTER: 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion
Green ideas and concepts are beginning to gather pace within the HR space, often
complementing existing sustainability-based initiatives. Increasingly they are delivering tangible
benefits to the business, rather than simply adding a gloss to brand and reputation. These new
processes, policies, products and tools are actually helping to ensure compliance and improve
productivity too. And with legislation now in place to effectively formalize the need for a new
corporate approach to the environment, now's the time for HR to embrace the green agenda Here
are several areas where companies can incorporate more environmentally conscious strategies
like the use of internet or teleconferencing to cut down on business travel, putting employee
manuals, policies or other company information.
The companies can promote the reduction of paper usage and focus on storage of paperwork
electronically, providing recycling trash bins for paper around the and for bottles and cans in the
break area. The companies are focusing on telecommuting/work from home programs. Institute
Ride/Share programs are also successful to introducing greening of business. Research has
shown that employee involvement in green programs dramatically increases when organizations
appoint one employee to lead the efforts. At most organizations, earth-friendly perks emerge
from an overall effort to green the business. As companies begin recycling, upgrade to energy-
efficient heating/air conditioning systems and seek production efficiencies that save energy or
reduce carbon emissions, it's natural to consider green benefits. It is high Time to make
environmental management an integral part of their way of doing business so HR professional
can provide a constant calendar of activities.

Recommendations
Specifically the functional areas where HR can have a green approach and which can have a
bearing on acquisition, development and retention of human capital could be the following.

A. The on boarding process


With the use of new and advanced technology, organizations need less paper in all aspects of
recruitment and selection process. Resumes are submitted online, company websites are used by
candidates to search for jobs and resumes are invited online, which helps to substantially reduce
waste created from printing and mailing resumes. This process is not only completely paperless,
but also makes ones career more accessible and easily shared with potential hirers.

28 | P a g e
B. Sourcing and Acquisition of Human Resources
To start with, HR Department can make Green/EM (Environmental Management) job
descriptions for employees. As higher level executives have to take greater responsibility for
green initiatives, green goals should be included in managerial job descriptions. While
developing the competency model for talent, an organization can include environmental
consciousness as one of the core competencies required of employees.

C. Induction
Employee orientation programs should be designed in such a way as to facilitate the integration
of new employees into a culture of green consciousness. Induction programs should highlight an
organizations concern for green issues of employees like their health, safety and green working
conditions.

D. Performance management and appraisals


Performance management systems should be developed to include 'green' targets in the key
performance areas (KPA). This can be translated into Green performance standards and Green
behavior indicators which should serve as yardsticks in performance appraisal of employees at
all levels. Green targets, goals and responsibilities should be established for managers and
achievement of managers in accomplishing Green results should include in appraisals.

E. Learning and Development Training


Development and learning plans should include programs, workshops and sessions to enable
employees to develop and acquire knowledge in environment management ,green skills and
attitude. Job rotation in green assignments should become an essential part of career
development plans of talented green managers of the future. Training contents should be
developed to increase employee competencies and knowledge in Environment.

F. Compensation and Reward management


Compensation and reward management should recognize contributions in green management.
Compensation packages should be customized to reward green skills acquisition and
achievements by employees. Monetary- based, nonmonetary based and recognition- based
rewards can be used for green achievements of employees. Monetary-based rewards for
contributions in environment management can be allocated in the forms of salary increase, cash
incentives and bonuses while non-monetary rewards may include sabbaticals, special leave and
gifts to employees and their family members. Recognition-based awards can highlight green
contributions of employees through wide publicity and public praise and appreciation of green
efforts by CEO or top management executives.

29 | P a g e
APPENDICES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

List of References

a. Prasad, Apeejay (2013), Green HRM - Partner in Sustainable Competitive Growth,


Journal of Management Sciences And Technology 1 (1), Oct 2013.
b. Suhaimi, Sudin (2011), Strategic Green HRM: A proposed model that supports
Corporate Environmental Citizenship, 2011 International Conference on Sociality and
Economics Development, IPEDR vol.10 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore.
c. H.H.D.N.P. Opatha & A. Anton Arunrajah (2014), Green Human Resources
Management: Simplified General Reflections, International Business Research; Vol. 7,
No. 8; 2014 ISSN 1913-9004 E-ISSN 1913-9012, Published by Canadian Center of
Science and Education.
d. H.H.D.N.P. Opatha & A. Anton Arunrajah, Dr. N.N.J Nawaratne (2015), Green Human
Resource Management Practices: A Review, Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource
Management, Vol.5, No.1, 2015.
e. Jacob Cherian & Jolly Jacob (2012), A Study of Green HR Practices and Its Effective
Implementation in the Organization: A Review, International Journal of Business and
Management; Vol. 7, No. 21; 2012 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119, Published by
Canadian Center of Science and Education.

30 | P a g e
APPENDIX A
QUESTIONNAIRE

[The following questionnaire pertains to a project entitled Green HRM Practices of Citi Bank,
N. A. The intent of the study is to better understand the Green HRM practices at this particular
bank.]

Part: A Introduction

Name
Age
Gender Male
Female
Post

Contact No.

Part: B Questions set

[For the next several questions please select the option that best match with your opinion]

Q1. Do you know about green HRM ?

IV. Yes
V. No
VI. (Not sure) May be heard from someone

Q2. To what extent HR policies can improve environment and make name for organization?

V. Great
VI. Average
VII. Low
VIII. No impact

Q3. Role of HR in environment management

IV. High
V. Medium
VI. Low

31 | P a g e
Q4. Best practice for going green can be

V. Eliminating excess use of paper


VI. Computerized training.
VII. Vehicle sharing
VIII. Any other

Q5. How you are contributing to the place you work or spend maximum time?

V. Recycle, reduce, reuse


VI. Motivating others to participate
VII. Doing basics like switching lights and monitors off when not required.
VIII. Dont know

Q6. Why Green HRM?

IV. Trend now a days


V. Need of hour
VI. Necessity forever

Q7. How much Bangladeshi organizations are promoting Green HRM?

IV. Very Much


V. Average
VI. Very Less

Q8. At what level more improvement is needed to spread HR policies in the organization
efficiently?

V. At organization level
VI. At HR level
VII. At employee level
VIII. Every level

Thanks a lot

32 | P a g e
APPENDIX B

ABBREVIATIONS AND ELABORATIONS

GHRM: Green Human Resources Management.

HR: Human Resources (Department).

N. A. : National Association.

KPA: Key Performance Areas.

CIB: Corporate and Investment Banking.

O & T: Operations and Trade.

EM: Environmental Management.

CEO: Chief Executive officer.

ICG: Institutional Clients Group.

ATM: Automated Teller Machine.

33 | P a g e