Road_safety_strategy Arrive Alive 2008-2017 | Road Traffic Safety | Automobile Safety

victoria’s road safety strategy: arrive alive 2008-2017

Victorians are more likely to
die violently as the result of
a road crash than from any
other cause.
Victorians are more likely to die violently as the
result of a road crash than from any other cause.
Every life we lose on our roads is one too many.
Road trauma causes great pain and heartbreak
to those Victorians who lose family and friends
in road crashes – and places a huge economic
burden on our entire community.
arrive alive 2008-2017 sets out how the Victorian
Government will continue its leadership in road
safety to deliver a safer system for all road users
and make a signifcant reduction to road trauma.
Road safety is a shared responsibility and all
Victorians can contribute to safer roads and
safer driving behaviour.
By working together, we can substantially
reduce serious casualties from road crashes
and spare many Victorian families the grief of
suffering the loss or serious injury of a loved one
on our roads.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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CONTENTS 2
MESSAGEFROMTHEPREMIER 4
MESSAGEFROMTHEMINISTERS 6
HIGHLIGHTS 8
ROADSAFETYINVICTORIA 10
TOWARDSASAFESYSTEM 12
INVOLVINGALLVICTORIANS 14
1.SAFERROADSANDROADSIDES 16
1.1Run-off-roadcrashes 17
1.2Sideimpactcrashes 17
1.3Rear-endcrashes 17
1.4Head-oncrashes 18
1.5Levelcrossingcrashes 18
2.SAFERVEHICLES 20
3.SAFERROADUSERS 24
3.1Speedandspeeding 24
3.2Drinkdriving 26
3.3Drugdriving 28
3.4Fatigueddriving 30
3.5Driverdistraction 32
3.6Youngdrivers 34
3.7Olderdrivers 36
3.8Motorcyclists 38
3.9Pedestrians 40
3.10Cyclists 43
3.11Heavyvehicledrivers 44
contents
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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3.12Publictransportusers 46
3.13Countryroadusers 46
MAKINGTHESTRATEGYWORK 50
Howthestrategywillwork 50
Timeframe 50
Measuringperformance 50
Actionplans 50
Areasofaction 51
Communityeducationandawareness 51
Enforcementanddeterrence 51
Legislation 52
Roadsafetytechnology 52
Infrastructure 53
Licensing 53
Occupationalhealthandsafety(OHS)policies 54
Researchanddata 54
MANAGINGTHESTRATEGY 55
Partnerships 55
ROADSAFETYMANAGEMENTSTRUCTURE 56
Photos: VicRoads and Department of Infrastructure.
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Road trauma has a devastating and long lasting impact on individuals, lowest road tolls since records began. Prior to the introduction of arrive alive the
families and communities. For those who lose a loved one in a road crash – annual road toll was 444, compared to 332 in 2007, a reduction of 25 per cent.
or those who are seriously injured or permanently disabled – the emotional
This achievement refects not only the Government’s tough approach to
and personal costs are immeasurable. Those personal costs extend to the
road safety, but also the commitment of Victorian road users to driving
police, paramedics and emergency workers who attend road crashes,
and travelling more safely. However, we must not become complacent.
and to the doctors and nurses who deal with the distressing consequences
The fact remains that road trauma kills and maims thousands of
of accidents.
Victorians every year. More young people die from road crashes than from
In 1970 over a thousand Victorians lost their lives in road crashes. Since then, any other cause. Alongside those who lose their lives on our roads, over
Victoria has made a strong and determined effort to reduce road trauma and 7,000 Victorians are seriously injured in road crashes each year.
is recognised as a world leader in road safety. The introduction of compulsory
These people are part of our hidden road toll; the people who bear the
seatbelts, random breath testing, improved roads, an effective speed
enormous and often ongoing social costs, the personal and emotional pain
management system and highly visible public advertising campaigns have all
that road trauma creates.
played a part in signifcantly improving road safety in our state.
Victoria’s new 10 year road safety strategy arrive alive 2008-2017 builds
One of Victoria’s great success stories is the arrive alive strategy, which
on the signifcant achievements of the 2002-2007 strategy.
has played a vital part in substantially reducing the state’s road toll and has
prevented some 580 deaths. In the fve years to 2007, Victoria recorded its
message
from the premier
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While continuing to deliver the successful elements of the arrive alive
strategy, we are introducing new actions and initiatives to further improve
road safety and create a safer transport system. By the end of the arrive
alive 2008-2017 strategy, the Government aims to have reduced the road
toll by 30 per cent. By the end of 2017 the strategy will save an extra 100
lives a year, prevent over 2,000 serious injuries a year and reduce the
severity of serious injuries.
These new targets are ambitious and achieving them will require a
partnership approach between the Government and the entire
Victorian community.
The Victorian Government makes no apologies for being tough on road safety.
But we also recognise that road safety is a shared community responsibility
in which everyone has a part to play. I urge all Victorians to get behind the
arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy and work together to reduce the senseless
and unnecessary deaths and injuries on our roads.
John Brumby - Premier of Victoria
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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When it comes to road safety, Victorians have already achieved a great deal.
But we can – and must – do more.
In 2006, the Government released the Meeting Our Transport Challenges
action plan, which will invest an unprecedented $10.5 billion to improve
Victoria’s transport system over the next decade. Meeting Our Transport
Challenges provides a major boost in funding for road safety, including the
development of a new road safety strategy. arrive alive 2008-2017 meets this
commitment and delivers new actions and investments to further reduce the
state’s road toll and improve safety on our roads.
arrive alive 2008-2017 builds on the strong foundation put in place by
Victoria’s previous – and highly successful – road safety strategy.
Under the new strategy, the Government continues to invest in road
safety initiatives with a proven track record – initiatives that have saved
the lives of many Victorians.
At the same time, we are using new evidence, methods and technologies
to increase our road safety efforts.
Since 1999, the Government has allocated in excess of $500 million to deliver
targeted road safety infrastructure programs. This has included the
$240 million TAC funded Statewide Blackspot Program, the biggest of its
kind in Australian history and the ground breaking $240 million Safer Roads
Program currently underway.
The arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy sees Victoria formally incorporating
the Safe System approach to road safety. In taking this step, the
Government is making a frm commitment to the principles of the Safe
System approach and to making this approach the foundation of our future
actions in road safety.
message
from the ministers
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The Safe System approach recognises that, even with the best preventive
programs in place, road crashes will still occur – and aims to build a road
system that offers maximum protection to all users by providing safer
road infrastructure, increasing the proportion of safe vehicles on our roads
and improving the safe behaviour of road users by targeting areas such as
speeding, drink and drug driving, fatigued driving and driver distraction.
Victoria has established an internationally recognised record in road safety
by resolutely tackling the main causes of road trauma.
With the best known road safety measures in place, our challenge is to
continue making signifcant road safety gains by being just as resolute in
tackling more diffcult and testing issues and behaviour.
arrive alive 2008-2017 sets out a strong framework to meet this challenge.
We look forward to working with the Victorian community to deliver arrive
alive 2008-2017 and to ensure that Victoria continues to be a world leader
in road safety.
tim pallas - Minister for Roads
and Ports
tim holding - Minister responsible
for the Transport Accident Commission
Bob cameron - Minister for Police
and Emergency Services
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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arrive alive 2008-2017 builds on Victoria’s strong road safety record and
introduces new actions and targets to save lives, reduce road crashes and
improve safety on Victoria’s roads over the 10 years from 2008 to 2017.
oUr neW targets
By the end of arrive alive 2008-2017, the Victorian Government aims to reduce
deaths and serious injuries by 30 per cent. By the end of 2017 the strategy will:
• save an extra 100 lives a year
• prevent over 2,000 serious injuries a year
• reduce the severity of serious injuries.
Meeting these targets will signifcantly reduce the emotional, physical and
fnancial impact of road trauma on individuals, families and communities. It
will keep Victoria at the forefront of Australian and international efforts to
reduce road trauma, deliver further major improvements to our road transport
system, and improve safety for all Victorian road users.
oUr neW actions
While continuing to deliver proven road safety measures, arrive alive
2008-2017 introduces major new initiatives with signifcant potential
to reduce road trauma, including:
• Introducing a requirement for registration that all new vehicles
manufactured after 31 December 2010 be ftted with electronic stability
control and all new vehicles manufactured after 31 December 2011 be
ftted with head protecting technology (such as side curtain airbags)
should a national system not be in place at this time.
• New media and public awareness campaigns to encourage consumer
demand for vehicles with high safety ratings and advanced safety
features and technologies. The Government will play a vital leadership
role by committing to purchase safer vehicles.
• A new graduated licensing system (GLS) for young drivers is to
commence on 1 July 2008 to ensure that young Victorians gain
adequate supervision and experience as learners, and to introduce a
new two stage P1 and P2 probationary licence system before moving
to a full licence. This new system will also introduce a peer passenger
restriction for P1 drivers in their frst year.
highlights
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• A major infrastructure program delivering unprecedented investment
of $650 million to improve road and roadside infrastructure across
Victoria, with a focus on reducing the most common types of crashes,
together with an expanded Greyspot program and its emphasis on
proactive treatments.
• A tough new focus on reducing drug driving through public awareness
campaigns and a heightened enforcement effort, including an expanded
program of roadside drug testing and ensuring the routine alcohol and
drug testing of all drivers involved in serious injury crashes.
• A crackdown on road users who place the community at risk by using
intelligence based policing to target specifc anti-social behaviour, such
as repeat drink driving and speeding offenders, hoons on country roads
and heavy vehicle drivers and operators who fail to comply with safety
standards and speed limits.
These actions – and others – will be implemented over the duration
of arrive alive 2008-2017 through the development of three short term
action plans. These plans will keep the strategy on track and effective,
respond to emerging road safety trends and challenges, and make sure
that we achieve our targets.
oUr neW approach
For the frst time, Victoria is formally incorporating the Safe System approach
to road safety into the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy. This approach aims to
create a much safer road environment in which alert and responsible road
users should not lose their lives – or be permanently disabled – as a result of a
crash on our road system.
The Safe System values the health and wellbeing of road users and takes
human error into account while focusing on:
improving the safety of Victoria’s roads and roadsides −
increasing the safety of vehicles on Victoria’s roads −
improving the safe behaviour of Victorian road users. −
While Victoria’s road safety agencies adopted the Safe System approach
in 2003, arrive alive 2008-2017 formally endorses the approach as the
foundation for the Victorian Government’s future road safety activities and
investments. The Safe System commits the Government to developing
a community-wide culture of road safety and to creating a safer road
environment across Victoria.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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Victoria’sroadsandroadusersareamongstthesafestintheworld.
ThissafetyrecordrefectsthesuccessofVictoria’sevidenceledapproachto
improvingroadsafetythroughacomprehensiverangeofinitiativesdelivered
inacloseworkingpartnershipbetweentheVictorianGovernment,local
governmentandcommunitygroups.
Overthelastfveyears,initiativesdeliveredunderarrivealive!2002-2007
havepreventedsome580deathsandreducedby11percentpeopleadmitted
tohospitalformorethanoneday.
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Victoria’s roaD safetY recorD
roaD safetY
in Victoria
Victoria’s fatality rate of 6.38 per 100,000 in 2007 is lower than the average for the rest of
australia which is 8.1.
since 1990, annual road fatalities in Victoria have declined from 548
to 332 in 2007.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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Signifcantimprovementsinroadsafetywereachievedunderarrivealive!
2002-2007throughactionsthatincluded:
targetinghighriskbehaviourssuchasspeedinganddrinkdriving −
implementingenforcement,educationandawarenessinitiativesto −
ensurethatanincreasingmajorityofmotoristscomplywiththeroad
rules
undertakingextensiveresearchanddevelopmenttogainabetter −
understandingofthecausesofroadcrashesandthemosteffective
meanstoreduceroadtrauma
substantiallyimprovingthesafetyofthestate’sroadnetwork −
throughincreasedinvestmentinroadsafetyinfrastructure,including
Australia’slargestevertargetedaccidentblackspotprogram.
Whiletheseactionswillcontinuetoplayanimportantroleinimprovingroad
safetyinVictoria,furtherreductionsintheroadtollrequireincreasedeffort
andnewtargets,actionsandinvestment.
Overthenext10years,Victoria’spopulationgrowthandtheincreasing
demandfortravelandfreightwillgeneratenewchallengesinroadsafety.
Tomeetthesechallengesandfurtherreducetheroadtoll,Victoriamust
domorethansimplysustaintheexistinglevelofroadsafetyeffort.
Forexample,basedonVictoria’sprojectedpopulationgrowthalone,ifthe
currentrateoffatalitiesper100,000headofpopulationwasmaintained,
thestate’sroadtollwouldincrease11percentto375bytheyear2017.
Jurisdictionswiththebestroadsafetyrecords,suchasSwedenandthe
Netherlands,recognisesafetyasakeycomponentoftheirtransportsystems,
andhavemadesignifcantroadsafetyadvancesbyunderstandinghowto
mosteffectivelymodifythesystemtoprotectroadusers.
ThisSafeSystemapproachrecognisesthebeneftstobegainedfroman
overarchingstrategythatdeliverssafertravelthroughsafervehicles,safer
roadsandroadsides,andsaferroadusers.TheSafeSystemapproachforms
thebasisforthedevelopmentandmanagementofthearrivealive2008-2017
strategytobedeliveredbytheVictorianGovernmentanditsagencies,
includingtheTransportAccidentCommission,VictoriaPolice,theDepartment
ofJusticeandVicRoads.
Througharrivealive2008-2017,theVictorianGovernmentwilltakeactionto
improvesafetyforallroadusers,promotingacommunitywidecultureofroad
safetyandcreatingasaferroadenvironmentacrossVictoria.
Overthenext10years,theGovernmentwillincreaseitseffortstoensurethat
fewerlivesarelostonourroadsandthatVictoriacontinuestobealeaderin
reducingtheimpactofroadtraumaonindividuals,familiesandcommunities.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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Victoria’smovetowardsaSafeSystemapproachtoroadsafetyrepresents
asignifcantshiftinthinkingaboutroadsafety.Bytakingatotalviewofthe
combinedfactorsinvolvedinroadsafety,theSafeSystemapproachaimsto
designandbuildatransportsystemthatwillprotectresponsibleroadusersand
reducethenumberofdeathsandseriousinjuries.
TheSafeSystemapproachrecognisesthatevenwithafocusonprevention,road
crasheswilloccur–therefore,theroadsystemmustbedesignedtobemore
forgivingofhumanerrorandattempttomanagecrashforcestosurvivable
levels,whilereducingthecontributionofunsaferoaduserbehaviourtoroad
crashes.
ASafeSystemisonewherethelikelihoodofaroadcrashisreduced,and
whereanycrashthatdoesoccurminimisesdeathandseriousinjury.TheSafe
Systemapproachidentifesthesharedresponsibilityofroadsystemandvehicle
designers,providersandusersinachievingthisoutcome.
AchievingaSafeSystemofroadtravelisbasedonanunderstandingthatthe
humanbodyisvulnerableandunlikelytosurviveanuncushionedimpactat
aspeedofmorethan30km/h.Evenrelativelylowspeedscankillorseriously
injureunlessthevehicleandtheroadandroadsideenvironmenttakeaccountof
thephysicalvulnerabilityofallroadusers.
TheSafeSystemapproachencouragesabetterunderstandingoftheinteraction
betweenthekeyelementsoftheroadsystem:roadusers,vehicles,roads
androadsides,andtravelspeeds.Exploringtheseinteractionsmaximisesthe
potentialadvantageofinitiativesinreducingdeathsandinjuriesfromlinking
differentroadsafetyactivities.
UndertheSafeSystemapproach,roadusershavearesponsibilitytocomply
withtherulestoensurethattheyactwithinthelimitsofthesystem’sdesign.
Thetablebelowshowstheestimatedcrashimpactspeeds,basedonthesafest
vehicles,wheretheforcesarelikelytoexceedthetoleranceofthehumanbody
(inotherwords,thosecrashesthatarelikelytoresultindeathorseriousinjury).
iMPact sPeed road User tyPe crasH tyPe
30km/h+ Vehicleoccupant Sideimpactcrashwith
fxedroadsideobjects
suchaspolesandtrees
40km/h+ Pedestrian,cyclist,
motorcyclist
Impactwithothervehicles
50km/h+ Vehicleoccupant Sideimpactcrashwith
anothervehicle
70km/h+ Vehicleoccupant Head-oncrashwith
asimilarvehicle
toWarDs
a safe sYstem
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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the safe system approach includes:
designingandmaintainingroadsandroadsidestoreducerisktoas −
lowasreasonablypractical
settingspeedlimitsaccordingtothesafetyoftheroadandroadside −
advising,educatingandencouragingroaduserstocomplywithroad −
rules,beunimpairedandalert,anddriveaccordingtotheprevailing
conditions
encouragingconsumerstopurchasesafervehicleswithprimary −
safetyfeaturesthatreducethelikelihoodofacrash,suchas
electronicstabilitycontrol,andsecondarysafetyfeaturesthat
reduceinjuryseverityinacrash,suchassidecurtainairbags.
ThesuccessoftheSafeSystemapproachisdependentonroadusers
actingwithinthelimitsofthesystem’sdesign.Hencetheimportancegiven
toensuringthecommunitybecomesmoreawareoftherisksassociated
withroadtravel,andthatpeopleareabletomakebetterinformed
decisionsonissuessuchasvehiclechoice,speedandbehaviour.
Additionally,throughenforcementinitiatives,theSafeSystemapproach
willprotectthewidercommunityfromtheactionsofaminorityofroad
userswhorepeatedlyputthecommunityatriskwithanti-socialbehaviour.
DeliVering the safe sYstem
TheSafeSystemwilldeliverreductionsindeathsandseverityofinjuries
byco-ordinatingthemanagementofallthecomponentsofthetransport
systemthatimpactonsafety.Thediagrambelowshowsthemainsystem
componentsandrelationships.
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of sofer speeds, sofer roods ond roodsides ond sofer vehicles.I
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reduced risk of being killed or seriously in|ured
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VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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Improvingroadsafetyrequiresacommunityeffort-andallVictorianroad
userssharearesponsibilitytohelpmakeourroadssafer.
Substantialbeneftscanbeachievedbyinvolvingthecommunityinroadsafety
activitiesasmuchaspossible.Communityparticipationinroadsafetyis
essentialfor:
providinggovernmentandotherdecisionmakerswithaclearand −
accurateunderstandingofthepublic’sprioritiesandneeds,especially
atthelocallevel
maintainingstrongpublicsupportforroadsafetyinitiatives −
disseminatinginformationquicklyatthelocallevel −
ensuringtheeffectivedeliveryofservices −
takingroadsafetymessagestoaswideanaudienceaspossible, −
especiallytogroupswithinthecommunitythatarehardtoreach
encouragingpeopletoactasadvocatesforroadsafety. −
Greaterlevelsofcommunityparticipationinroadsafetyhavealreadybeen
achievedinVictoriathrough:
ongoingstrongpartnershipsbetweenVictorianGovernmentagencies −
andcommunityorganisations
highlyeffectivepubliceducation,awarenessandadvertising −
campaigns
locallybasedprogramsthataddressspecifclocalissues −
themajorroleplayedbylocalgovernmentindeliveringinitiativesthat −
directlyaffectroadsafety
thesubstantialcontributionmadebyVictoria’s24Road − Safe
CommunityRoadSafetyCouncils,whichactaseffectiveadvocatesfor
roadsafetywithinlocalcommunities
opportunitiesforroaduserstocontributetothedevelopmentofroad −
safetystrategiesandinitiatives.
inVolVing
all Victorians
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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community consultation for arrive alive 2008-2017
TheGovernmentwillcontinueconsultingwithVictorianroadusersaboutthe
mosteffectivewaystoimproveroadsafety.Consultationforthedevelopment
ofthearrivealive2008-2017strategyhasbeenundertakenacrossthe
Victoriancommunity,includingrepresentativesfromlocalgovernment,
researchinstitutes,roadusergroups,healthandeducationorganisationsand
emergencyservices.

TheVictorianGovernmentrecognisesthatongoingcommunity
engagementandconsultationisessentialtosuccessfullyimplementing
arrivealive2008-2017,andwillcontinuetosupportcommunitypartnerships
andconsultationmechanismstodeliverpositiveandlastingchangesinthe
attitudesandresponsesofVictorianstoroadsafety.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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WithintheSafeSystemapproach,arrivealive2008-2017addressesthreecritical
elements:saferroadsandroadsides,safervehiclesandsaferroadusers.
Byadoptingeffectivemeasuresineachoftheseareas,andwiththe
co-operationandsupportofVictorianroadusers,arrivealive2008-2017will
signifcantlyimproveroadsafetyacrossthestateandsubstantiallyreducethe
incidenceofdeathsandseriousinjuriesonVictorianroads.
safer roaDs anD roaDsiDes
Improvingthesafetyofroadsandroadsideswillprovideamuchsafer
environmentforallroadusersinVictoria.
ThelikelihoodofVictoriansbeingkilledorseriouslyinjuredasaresultof
involvementincommontypesofcrashescanbereducedthroughimprovedroad
infrastructure.Forexample,riskassociatedwithrun-off-roadcrashescanbe
reducedthroughtheremovalofroadsidehazardsandinstallationofsafetybarriers.
TherewillalsobeafocusonpreventionthroughanexpandedGreyspot
programwhichisaproactivesafetyprogramtargetingoutermetropolitanand
ruralintersections.Intersectionsthathavebeenidentifedasaroadsafety
concernbythecommunityandothersareeligiblefortreatments.
Themostcommoncrashtypes–sideimpactcrashes,run-off-roadcrashes,
head-oncrashesandrear-endcrashes–accountforaround72percentof
allfatalcrashesonVictoria’sroadseachyear.Byimprovingroadandroadside
infrastructure,arrivealive2008-2017willmakeamajorcontributiontowards
reducingthenumberandseverityofthesecommontypesofroadcrashes.
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1. safer roaDs
anD roaDsiDes
over the last fve years the most common crash types (run-off-road, side
impact at intersection, rear-end and head-on) account for 72 per cent of all
fatal and serious injury crashes on Victoria’s roads each year.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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1.1 rUn-off-roaD crashes
Arun-off-roadcrashoccurswhenavehicleleavestheroadandoftencollides
witharoadsideobjectsuchasatreeorapole.
Run-off-roadcrashesaccountforanaverageof140deathsonVictoria’sroads
eachyear.
What the strategy will do
arrivealive2008-2017willreducetheincidenceandseverityofrun-off-road
crashesthroughmeasuresthatinclude:
• Designingnewroadsandroadsides,monitoringandimprovingexisting
roadstothesafestlevelspracticablethroughinfrastructuretreatments
includingsafetybarriers,rumblelines,shouldersealing,andremoval/
relocationofroadsidehazardsandobjects.
• Settingspeedlimitsaccordingtothesafetystandardsofroadsand
roadsides.
• Streamlinerequirementstoremoveortrimnativevegetationinorderto
maintainthesafetyandeffciencyoftheroad.
1.2 siDe impact intersection crashes
Asideimpactcrashisoneinwhichthefrstpointofimpactisonthesideofa
vehiclewherethereislittlevehicleprotectionforoccupants.Thistypeofcrash
usuallyoccursatintersections.
Sideimpactcrashesaccountforanaverageof45deathsonVictoria’sroadseachyear.
What the strategy will do
Measurestoreducetheincidenceandseverityofsideimpactcrasheswillinclude:
• Designingnewroads,roadsidesandintersections,monitoringand
improvingexistingroadstothesafestlevelspracticable.
• Increasingtheenforcementofroadrulesatintersections.
• Reviewingspeedlimitsathigherriskintersections.
1.3 rear-enD crashes
Rear-endcrashesaccountforanaverageofninedeathsonVictoria’s
roadseachyear.
What the strategy will do
Measurestoachievethearrivealive2008-2017targetforrear-endcrashes
willinclude:
• Designingnewroadsandroadsides,monitoringandimprovingexisting
roadstothesafestlevelspracticableincludingskidresistancetreatments.
• Settingspeedlimitsaccordingtothesafetystandardsofroadsand
roadsides.
• Increasingthestrategicenforcementeffort,forexample,bydevelopingand
usingtechnologytodetervehiclesfromtravellingtooclosetooneanother.
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1.4 heaD-on crashes
Head-oncrashesaccountforanaverageof59deathsonVictoria’sroadseachyear.
What the strategy will do
Measurestakenunderarrivealive2008-2017toreducetheincidenceand
severityofhead-oncrasheswillinclude:
• Designingnewroadsandroadsides,andimprovingexistingroadstothe
safestlevelspracticableincludingovertakinglanes,duplication,centre-
roadbarriers,andcentre-linerumblelines.
• Settingspeedlimitsaccordingtothesafetystandardsofroads
androadsides.
1.5 leVel crossing crashes
Whilelevelcrossingcrashesbetweenvehiclesandtrainsaresmallinnumber
theyaregenerallyverysevereintermsofdeathsandinjuriesandcanhave
devastatingeffectsoncommunities.
What the strategy will do
Measurestoreducetheincidenceofthesetypesofcrasheswillinclude:
• Infrastructureprogramstoprogressivelyupgradesafetyatlevelcrossings
inMelbourneandprovincialVictoria.Measurestoimproveraillevel
crossingsafetywillincludeautomatedadvancewarningsignsat
highwayandhighvolumesitesandplacingrumblestripsontheroad
toalertmotoriststhattheyareapproachingraillevelcrossings.
• Streamlinerequirementstoremoveortrimnativevegetationin
ordertomaintainthesafetyandvisibilityofraillevelcrossingsand
theirapproaches.
improVing roaD infrastrUctUre
Targeted improvements to road infrastructure will help to save the lives
of Victorians and reduce the severity of injuries in road crashes. arrive
alive 2008-2017 will deliver a combination of targeted infrastructure
improvements across Victoria.
safetY Barriers
Steel guardrails and wire rope safety barriers are highly effective in
absorbing the impact of vehicles travelling at high speeds. In particular,
wire rope barriers can reduce fatal and serious injury crashes by up to
90 per cent. A combination of these barriers will be installed at places
where there is a high risk of cars running off the road and hitting trees
and other roadside objects.
safer roaDs anD roaDsiDes (continued)
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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remoVal of hazarDs from the roaDsiDe
Deaths and serious injuries in run-off-road crashes are strongly linked to
collisions with trees and other objects on the roadside. In some locations,
removing trees and other objects close to the roadside will give motorists
a greater chance of survival if they run off the road.
sealing of roaD shoUlDers
Shoulder sealing will be used to provide a smoother, more stable surface
at the road’s outer edge and minimise the chances of motorists losing
control of their vehicles and running off the road.
improVeD signage anD roaD gUiDance
Lack of awareness of road conditions can be a factor in run-off-road
crashes. Improvements that help drivers to become more aware of the
road environment will include line marking, ‘cats eyes’ refective road
markers, and warning and advisory speed signs at locations with high
crash risks.
intersection improVements
A number of infrastructure improvements will be made to reduce
the risk and severity of intersection crashes, including:
• Roundabouts – which can reduce fatal and serious injury crashes by
up to 85 per cent and are the most effective way to reduce serious
injury crashes at intersections because they require motorists
to signifcantly reduce their speed when approaching and travelling
through an intersection.
• Traffc lights – which will be installed at intersections to control
heavy volumes of traffc and complex traffc movements which
would not be effectively managed with a roundabout treatment.
In some cases, the sequence of existing traffc lights will be
altered to ease congestion and allow more time for diffcult turns.
• Traffc separation – which will improve safety at intersections by
creating a better separation between traffc turning and travelling
through the intersection. Improvements will include better lane
marking, traffc islands and separate lanes for left and
right turning vehicles.
• Rumble strips – will be installed at certain locations which will
alert motorists that they are approaching intersections and
rail level crossings.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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IncreasingtheproportionofvehiclesonVictoria’sroadswithhighstandard
safetyfeatureswillsubstantiallyreducerisksforallroadusers–drivers,
passengers,motorcyclists,pedestriansandcyclists.
Vehicleswithhighstandardsafetyfeaturesreducenotonlythelikelihood
ofcrashesoccurring,butalsotheseverityofcrashoutcomesonallthose
involved,whethertheyareinsideoroutsidethevehicle.
Australasianresearchindicatesthatifeachmotoristupgradedtheirvehicleto
thesafestinitsclass,roadtraumawouldimmediatelydropbyuptoone-third.
About85percentofnewcarstestedbytheAustralasianNewCar
AssessmentProgram(ANCAP)in2006achievedafourorfvestarsafety
ratingcomparedtoonly69percentin2001.
InVictoriain2006,approximately20percentofallnewvehiclessoldachieved
themaximumsafetyratingoffvestars,comparedtosomecountriesin
Europewhere85percentofvehiclessoldachievethemaximumrating.The
takeupofadvancedsafetyfeaturessuchaselectronicstabilitycontrol(ESC)
isabout70percentinnewvehiclessoldinleadingEuropeancountries.
InVictoria,lessthan40percentofnewvehiclessoldhavethislifesaving
technologyandonlyaboutathirdhavesidecurtainairbags.Thesetakeup
ratesareabovetheaveragetakeupratesfortherestofthenation.
ImprovingtheaveragelevelofsafetyofvehiclesonVictoria’sroads–as
measuredbycrashworthinessratingsandthepresenceofelectronicstability
control,sidecurtainairbagsandotherheadprotectingtechnologies–will
signifcantlyreducefatalitiesandseriousinjuriesresultingfromcrashes.
Toachievetheseimprovements,manufacturers,governmentagenciesand
consumersmustworktogethertoraisethestandardofvehiclesafetyandto
ensurethatVictoriaandAustraliacatchupwithandmatchthebestpractice
vehiclesafetystandardssetinEuropeandtheUnitedStates.
Nextgenerationtechnologiessuchasintelligentspeedassist(ISA)and
fatiguemonitoringdevicesmustalsoberefnedanddemonstratedtodevelop
amarketfortheseproducts.
Withcorporatesafetyinitiativesintheirinfancy,itisalsoimportantfor
companies–bothpublicandprivate–tobeencouragedandsupportedin
introducingsafevehiclelease/purchasepolicies.
2. safer
Vehicles
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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What the strategy will do
arrivealive2008-2017willimprovevehiclesafetyinVictoriathroughthe
followingmeasures:
• Acceleratingtheintroductionofvehiclesafetyfeatures,inparticular
electronicstabilitycontrolandheadprotectingtechnologiessuchasside
curtainairbags.
• Raisingawarenessofand,inturn,creatingconsumerandorganisational
demandforvehiclesafetyfeaturesincludingintelligentspeedassist,
electronicstabilitycontrol,airbags,seatbeltreminders,anti-lockbraking,
andfrontalprotection.
• Exploringopportunitiestoprovideincentivesforconsumerstopurchase
safervehicles.
• Directlysupportingtheconductofcrashtestinganddatabaseanalysis
toensurethatcontemporaryandscientifcallyaccurateinformationis
availabletotheVictoriancommunityaboutthesafetyperformanceofnew
andusedcars.
• EncouragingcustomertakeupofAustralasianNewCarAssessment
Program(ANCAP)andUsedCarSafetyRatinginformationwhen
purchasingvehicles.
• AddressingOHSissuesinco-operationwithWorkSafetoensurethat
helpfulandaccurateguidanceisprovidedtofeetmanagerswhen
choosingvehiclesforemployees.
• Assessinganddemonstratingnextgenerationsafetytechnologies
withaviewtocreatingfuturemarketsforthemosteffectiveofthese
technologies.
• WorkingwithvehiclemanufacturersandtheANCAPBoardtoenable
consumerstobeawareofthesafetyratingsofcarsatthetimeof
purchase.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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improVing Vehicle safetY
Safer vehicles on our roads means fewer lives lost and fewer Victorians
suffering serious injuries in road crashes. New standards, features and
technologies are now available to consumers, vehicle builders and road
designers to signifcantly improve the safety of vehicles on Victorian roads
over the next 10 years. The Government will play a vital leadership role by
committing to purchase safer vehicles.
aUstralasian neW car assessment program (ancap) /
UseD car safetY ratings
New and used car safety ratings provide an indication of a vehicle’s ability
to protect its occupants and other road users in a crash. These can be
used to measure improvements in the average crash rating of vehicles
on Victoria’s roads. It is vital that these results are communicated to
consumers to help them to make safe choices when buying a car.
electronic staBilitY control (esc)
ESC helps drivers to avoid crashes by reducing the danger of skidding,
or losing control as a result of oversteering. It uses computer control
technology to apply individual brakes to bring the car safely back on
track, without the danger of fshtailing. Australian research indicates that
ESC reduces the risk of single vehicle crashes, across all vehicle types,
by approximately 30 per cent. For 4WD vehicles, the crash risk can be
reduced by over 50 per cent.
siDe cUrtain air Bags
Side curtain air bags, which deploy from the roof-rail above the door,
provide head and neck protection for front and rear seat passengers,
particularly in the event of a side impact crash. Research from the USA
indicates that this technology can reduce the risk of death in a side impact
crash by up to 40 per cent.
safer Vehicles (continued)
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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next generation technologies
Next generation technologies such as intelligent speed assist (ISA), lane
departure warning systems and fatigue monitoring devices have the
potential to reduce crashes and save lives. Intelligent speed assist (ISA)
for instance automatically warns a driver when they intentionally or
inadvertently travel over the speed limit. Most ISA systems establish the
position of the vehicle on the road, and compares the current speed of
the vehicle with the speed limit at that location. The system then issues
warnings if the vehicle exceeds this limit.
These technologies need to be assessed and demonstrated, with a view to
developing future markets for those which are most effective.
fleet Vehicles
With around one-quarter of road fatalities involving feet vehicles,
encouraging the purchase of feet vehicles with high level safety features
has the potential to signifcantly improve road safety. The fow-on benefts
from safe feet vehicles are considerable, given that about one-half of new
vehicles in Australia are purchased for commercial purposes and most of
these enter the private vehicle market within two to three years.

The Government will play a vital leadership role by committing to
purchase safer vehicles and mandating the use of electronic stability
control (ESC) and head protecting technologies in its feet.
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3. safer
roaD Users
Whilearrivealive2008-2017commitstheVictorianGovernmenttoimproving
thestate’sroadsystem,allVictorianssharearesponsibilitytousethesystem
safelyandresponsibly,andwithconsiderationforotherroadusers.
Asaferoadsystemisapartnershipbetweengovernmentandroadusers.The
Governmentiscommittedtoprovidingaworldleadingtraffcsafetysystem
thatassistsindividualroaduserstotravelsafelyandeffciently.Bycomplying
withtherequirementsofthissystem,suchasfollowingtheroadrulesand
drivingsafely,roaduserswillensurethatallVictoriansbeneftfrompublic
investmentinroadsafety,aswellasmakingavitalcontributiontosavinglives
andreducingseriousinjuriesonourroads.
3.1 speeD anD speeDing
Travelspeedaffectsboththeriskofacrashhappeningandtheseverityof
injuriessustainedwhenacrashdoeshappen.Evensmallincreasesinvehicle
speedsignifcantlyimpactonroadsafetyrisks.
Speedingandinappropriatetravelspeedsdirectlycontributetoatleast
30percentofdeathsonVictoria’sroadseachyear.Impactspeedsarea
crucialdeterminantoftheseverityinallcrashes,makingitvitalthatspeeds
aremanagedtooptimiseroadsafetyoutcomes.
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travelling at 65 km/h in a 60 km/h zone doubles the risk of a crash.*
*Kloeden,C.N.,McLean,A.J.,Moore,V.M.&Ponte,G.1997.TravellingSpeedandtheRiskof
CrashInvolvement.FederalOffceofRoadSafety,Canberra,page391.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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Severalissuesarecriticaltomanagingtravelspeeds:
Infrastructure: Settingspeedlimitsaccordingtothesafetystandardsofroads
androadsidesisaneffectivemeasuretoreducetheincidenceandseverityof
crashes.Forhigherrisksectionsofroadswhereinfrastructureimprovement
isnoteconomicallyfeasible,orwouldnotreducerisk,speedlimitreductions
shouldbeconsidered.
Vehicletechnology: Increasingtheproportionofvehicleswithtopspeed
limitingdevicesandintelligentspeedassist(ISA)willsignifcantlyreducethe
incidenceofspeeding.
Education: Educatingdriversaboutthecrashrisksassociatedwithspeeding
andthesevereimpactsonvulnerableroaduserssuchaspedestrians,cyclists
andmotorcyclistsareimportantelementsinreducingspeeding.Increasing
awarenessofspeed-relatedissuesneedstoaddressthecommonmyths:that
lowlevelspeedingisnotasafetyissue,thatspeedmanagementmeasuresdo
notreduceroadtrauma,andthatenforcementisdesignedtoraiserevenue.
Enforcement: Onehighlyeffectivewaytoreducetheincidenceofspeeding
isthroughenforcement.Usingappropriateintelligence,policecantarget
speedingathighrisktimesandlocationswithon-roadpatrolsandsafety
cameratechnology.
Measurescanalsobetakentopreventrecidivistspeedoffenderswholose
theirlicencesfromcontinuingtospeedwhentheyreturntodriving/riding.
What the strategy will do
arrivealive2008-2017willtakeactiontoreducetheincidenceofspeeding
andthenumberoffatalitiesandseriousinjuriescausedbyspeedingthrough
measuresthatinclude:
• Settingspeedlimitsaccordingtothesafetyofroadsandroadsides.
• Promotinggreatercompliancewithspeedlimitsthrough:
increasingmotoristawarenessofthespeed/crashrelationship −
increasingenforcementmeasuresthattargetthesmallminority −
ofmotoristswhoputsaferoadusersatriskwithanti-social
speedingbehaviour
improvingsignagetoassistmotoriststocomplywithspeedlimits −
increasingtheproportionofvehicleswithintelligentspeedassist −
(ISA)andtopspeedlimitingdevicestoassistmotoriststocomply
withspeedlimits.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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3.2 Drink DriVing
Drinkdrivingcontributesupto30percentofdriverandriderdeathson
Victoria’sroadseachyear.
Whilethereisapproximatelyanequalnumberofdrinkdrivingdeathsin
metropolitanMelbourneandcountryVictoria,whenpopulationistakeninto
accountmotoristsoncountryroadsaremorethantwiceaslikelytobekilled
indrinkdrivingcrashescomparedtomotoristsonmetropolitanroads.
Severalissuesareimportantindeliveringaneffectiveresponsetodrink
drivinginVictoria:
Drinkdrivingdata:Therearegapsinthecurrentprocessesusedto
establishthebloodalcoholconcentrationofdriverswhoareinjuredin
crashes,butnotkilled.Thesegapscompromisethedevelopmentand
effectivenessofdrinkdrivingcountermeasures.
Drinkdrivinginruralareas:Thehighrateofdrinkdrivinginthecountry
refectsboththediffcultiesinapplyingrandombreathtestingeffectivelyin
ruralareasandthelackofalternativetransportoptionsinmanyofthese
areas.Speciallytargetedprogramsareanimportantelementintackling
thedrinkdrivingproblemoncountryroads.
Recidivistdrinkdrivers:Researchshowsthatrepeatdrinkdriversoften
havealcoholabuseproblems.Alcoholinterlockprogramsand
rehabilitationprogramsaimedataddressingalcoholproblemscanbe
effectiveinmodifyingthebehaviourofrecidivistoffenderswhodonot
respondtomainstreamdeterrenceandeducationprograms.Vehicle
impoundmentcanalsobeconsideredforoffenderswhoabusethealcohol
interlockprogramorunlicenseddriversundertheinfuenceofalcohol.
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on a per head basis, motorists on country roads are more than twice as likely to be
killed in drink driving crashes compared to motorists on melbourne roads.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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What the strategy will do
Measurestakenthrougharrivealive2008-2017toreducetheincidenceof
drinkdrivingwillinclude:
• Increasingenforcementofdrinkdrivinglaws,targetinghighrisklocations
andtimesfordrinkdriving.
• Followingdiscussionswiththeemergencyhospitalsector,ensuringthe
routinebloodsamplingofalldriverswhoareinjuredincrashes.
• Undertakingspeciallytargetedprogramstotackledrinkdrivingon
countryroads.
• Educatingmotoriststo:
-understandthedrinkdriving/crashriskevenatlowlevelsof
consumption,particularlyforyoungerdrivers
-beawareofpoliceenforcementandlikelihoodofdetection
-planalternativestodrivingwhenintendingtoconsumealcohol
-usepublicandapprovedpersonalbreathtestingdevices.

• Extendingthealcoholinterlockprogramtoyoungandinexperienced
motorists,andstronglyencouragingthevoluntarytakeupofalcohol
interlocks.
• Encouragingvehiclemanufacturerstoincludealcoholinterlocksinthe
designofnewvehicles.
• Developingandassessingmandatoryrehabilitationprogramsforrecidivist
drinkdriversasaconditionofrelicensing.
• Examiningtoughersanctionsforrecidivistdrinkdrivers,including
extensionofvehicleimmobilisation/impoundmentprovisions.
• Encouragingresponsiblealcoholservingpracticesandworkplacepolicies
thatreducethelikelihoodofdrinkdrivingbehaviour.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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3.3 DrUg DriVing
Drugdrivingwhereoneormoreillicitdrugsarepresentisfoundin
approximately40percentofdriverdeathsonVictoria’sroadseachyear.
RandomdrugtestingofdriversinVictoriashowsthatonedriverin48tests
positivelytothepresenceofillicitdrugs.
IssuesaffectingVictoria’sresponsetodrugdrivinginclude:
Drugdrivingdata: Therearegapsinthecurrentprocessesusedtoestablish
whetherdrugsarepresentindriverswhoareinjuredincrashes,butnot
killed.Thesegapscompromisethedevelopmentandeffectivenessofdrug
drivingcountermeasures.
Prescriptionmedication: Theimpactofprescriptionmedicationonroaduser
behaviouriscurrentlyunclear.Inthecontextofanageingpopulation,itis
importantthatresearchcontinuesintotheimpactsofprescriptiondrugson
roaduserbehaviourtodevelopeffectiveroadsafetymeasures.
safer roaD Users (continued)
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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What the strategy will do
Measurestoreducetheincidenceofdrugdrivingwillinclude:
• Moretargetedenforcementthroughroadsidedrugtestingprograms.
• Educatingmotoriststobetterunderstandthedrugdriving/crashrisk
relationship,andthehighriskofdetection.
• Undertakingresearchtoincreaseunderstandingoftheroleofbothillicit
andprescriptiondrugsonroadsafety.
• Followingdiscussionswiththeemergencyhospitalsector,ensuringthe
routinebloodsamplingofalldriverswhoareinjuredincrashes,butnot
killed.
• Exploringtheintroductionofadruginterlockprogramtoseparatedriving
fromdruguse,similartothealcoholinterlockprogram.
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3.4 fatigUeD DriVing
Whilethecontributionoffatiguetoroadtraumaisdiffculttoassess,itis
estimatedthatfatigueisafactorin20percentofdriverdeathsonVictoria’s
roadseachyear.
Severalissuesarecriticaltoreducingtheimpactoffatigueddriving:
Fatigueddrivinginruralareas:Fatiguerelatedcrashesaresignifcantly
moreprevalentoncountryroadscomparedtoroadsinmetropolitan
Melbourne.Specifccountermeasurescanhelptoaddressthehigherrisk
oncountryroads.
Publiceducation: Publiceducationisakeymechanismtoaddressfatigued
driving,intheabsenceoffatiguedetectiondevicesorenforcementmeasures.
Enforcement: Whileitisdiffculttodeterfatigueddrivinginthepassenger
vehiclefeetthroughenforcement,heavyvehicleoperatorscanbetargeted
usingChainofResponsibilitylaws.Addressingfatigueddrivingamong
non-heavyvehicleoperatorsinthefuturewillrequireanemphasison
technologicaladvancements,ratherthanenforcement.
Vehicletechnology: Researchwillcontinueintoin-vehiclefatiguewarningand
detectiondevices.However,theonlyeffectivecureforfatigueissleep.
Thisshouldbekeptinmindwhenassessingin-vehicledevicestoreduce
fatiguerelatedcrashes.
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the risk of being involved in a fatigue related crash is at least three times higher
between 2 am and 4 am, compared to the safest time of midday to 2 pm.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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Infrastructure: Engineeringtreatmentsdesignedtoaddresshead-oncrashes
areeffectivewaystoaddressfatiguerelatedcrashes,withfatigueestimatedto
contributetomorethanhalfofallfatalhead-oncrashes.Similarly,measures
toreducethecrashseverityofrun-off-roadcrasheswillalsolimittheimpact
offatigueontrauma.
Heavyvehicles: Heavyvehiclesareestimatedtobeinvolvedintwiceas
manyfatiguerelatedcrashesasothervehicles.Whilethisdoesnot
necessarilymeanthatthetruckdriveristhefatiguedpersoninthese
crashes,itdoesidentifytheheavyvehicleindustryasakeyaudiencefor
educationaboutfatigue.
What the strategy will do
Measurestakenthrougharrivealive2008-2017toreducetheincidenceand
severityoffatiguerelatedcrasheswillinclude:
• IncreasingenforcementandenforceabilityofChainofResponsibilitylaws.
• Increasingmotoristawarenessofthefatigue/crashrelationship.
• Designingandmodifyingroadsandroadsidestoaddresshead-onand
run-off-roadcrashesthroughtreatmentssuchasroadduplication,
roadsideandcentre-roadbarriers,centre-roadrumblelines,overtaking
lanesandremovingroadsidehazardssuchastreesandpoles.
• Improvingexistingandprovidingadditionalreststopfacilities.
• Encouragingthedevelopmentofnewin-vehicletechnologiesthatidentify
theonsetoffatigue.
• Developingarobusttestforfatiguetostrengthenenforcement.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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3.5 DriVer Distraction
Thereisagrowingbodyofevidencethatdriverdistractions,bothwithin
vehiclesandintheroadenvironment,arebecominganincreasinglylarge
causeofroadtrauma.
IntheUSA,itisestimatedthatapproximatelyone-quarterofvehiclecrashes
resultsfromthedriverbeinginattentiveordistracted.
Aswirelesscommunication,entertainmentanddriverassistancesystems
proliferateacrossthevehiclemarket,thereareconcernsthatdistraction-
relatedcrashesmayescalate.
Severalissuesareimportantinrespondingeffectivelytodriverdistraction:
Driverdistractiondata: Collectingcomprehensivecrashinformationis
animportantfrststepinaddressingroadsafetyrisksrelatedtodriver
distraction.Thisinformationshouldprovideabetterunderstandingofthe
prevalenceofdriverinvolvementindistractingactivities,andbeusedto
developeffectivemeansofaddressingroadsafetyrisks.
In-vehicledriverdistractions: Technologybasedin-vehicledriverdistractions
includemobilephonesandentertainmentsystemssuchasradio,CDandDVD
players.Usingamobilephone,whetherhandheldorhandsfree,isestimated
toincreasecrashriskbyuptofourtimes.
Withgrowingconsumerdemandforpotentiallydistractingin-vehicle
technology,itisimportanttoidentifytheextenttowhichthistechnology
isbeingused,theassociatedroadsafetyrisksandanyeffective
countermeasures.
Otherdistractions,suchasconversingwithpassengersandchanging
music,canalsodistractthedriver.Researchsuggeststhatforsomedrivers,
passengersareagreatersourceofdistractionthanmobilephonesorother
electronicdevices.
Out-of-vehicledistractions: Poorlyconsideredroadsidesignageand
advertisingcangeneratevisualclutter,creatingadistractionfordrivers.
Amorestrategicapproachisrequiredregardingtheinstallation,useand
contentofscrolling,movingandvideostyleadvertising.
Vehicletechnology/design: Vehicledesignhasamajorimpactonthepotential
distractingeffectsofnewin-vehicletechnologies.Waysofimprovingthe
safetyofin-vehicletechnologyanditsuserequiresongoinginvestigationand
development,inliaisonwithvehicledesignersandmanufacturers.
Publiceducation: Educationcampaignshavethepotentialtoraiseawareness
ofboththeknownrisksrelatedtodistractionanddriving,andofthelimitsof
andtheoptimaluseofin-vehicletechnologiestominimisedistraction.Driver
licensingprocessesarealsoeffectivechannelsthroughwhichroaduserscan
beeducatedaboutdriverdistractionrisk.
safer roaD Users (continued)
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What the strategy will do
Measurestoreducetheincidenceandseverityofdriverdistractionrelated
crasheswillinclude:
• Conductingresearchtoascertaintheprevalenceofmobilephoneuse,and
otherin-vehicletechnologiesbydriversinVictoriatoquantifytheproblem
andprovidebenchmarksfordevelopingandevaluatingcountermeasures.
• Engagingbehaviouralscientiststoreviewguidelinesfortheregulationof
allroadsidesignageandadvertising,includinglocation,sizeandcontent.
• Triallinginnovativeenforcementtechniquestodetectillegalmobilephone
use.
• Engagingvehiclemanufacturersinestablishingappropriatedesign
principlesinrelationtoin-vehicletechnology.
• Undertakingtargetedpubliceducationcampaignstohighlighttheroad
safetydangersassociatedwithdistractionfromelectronic
in-vehicledevices,andwitheverydaydistractionssuchasconversingwith
passengers.
• Includingawarenessofdriverdistractioninthedriverlicensingprocesses.
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3.6 YoUng DriVers
Youngdriversaredefnedasmotoristsaged18to25years.
Approximately44youngdriversarekilledand990seriouslyinjuredon
Victoria’sroadseachyear.Thesedriversaccountforoverone-quarterof
driverfatalities,yetrepresentonly13percentofalllicenseddrivers.
Severalissuesareimportantinreducingtheinvolvementofyoungdriversin
roadcrashes:
Inexperience: Crashriskishighestinthefrstyearofdriving.Inexperienceis
themostsignifcantfactorinyoungdrivercrashes.
Multiplepassengers:Researchshowsthatcarryingmultiplepassengers
signifcantlyincreasestheriskofaninexperienceddriverbeinginvolvedin
afatalcrash.Theriskofaprobationarydriverbeinginvolvedinafatalcrash
increasesfourfoldwithtwoormorepassengers.Around26percentoffrst
yearprobationarydriversinvolvedinfatalcrashesarecarryingtwoormore
passengers,butonlyninepercentoftheirtotaldrivingandsevenpercentof
theirtripsinvolvedrivingwithtwoormorepassengers.Multiplepassengers,
inparticularagroupofalcoholaffectedpeerpassengers,poseadangerous
distractionandcanencouragerisktakingforaninexperienceddriver.
Risktaking: Youngnovicedriversfacehighlevelsofriskwhenmakingthe
transitionfromsupervisedtosolodriving.Lackofexperienceandincreased
risktaking,suchasdrinkdrivingandspeeding,contributetoincreasedcrash
ratesfornovicedrivers.

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a young driver in their frst year of probationary driving is in the most vulnerable group
of all road users. probationary drivers are involved in casualty crashes at three times
the rate of experienced drivers.
annual number of drivers in casualty crashes per 10,000 licences and learner permits (2002-2006)
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
35
Drinkdriving: Alcoholisacontributingfactorinsome20percentofdeaths
indriversaged18to20yearsandsome50percentofdeathsindriversaged
21to25years.
Vehiclesafety:Youngdriversaremorelikelytodrivesmaller,oldercarsthat
arelesscrashworthyandhavefewersafetyfeatures.Thisplacesthemand
theirpassengersatgreaterriskofseriousinjuryordeathintheeventofa
crash.Promotingvehiclesafetyfeaturestodriversinthemarkettopurchase
theirfrstvehicleisanimportantmeasuretoimproveyoungdriversafety.
What the strategy will do
Measurestakenthrougharrivealive2008-2017toimproveyoungdriversafety
includethefollowing:
• Introducinganewgraduatedlicensingsystemthatwilleaseyoung
driversintothedrivingtaskandassistinensuringthattheissueofdriver
inexperienceisaddressedsystematically.
• IntroducinganewP1(oneyear)andP2(threeyear)probationarylicence
system,withmorerestrictionsintheP1period,andarequirementfora
gooddrivingrecordtoprogressthroughlicencestagestoafulllicence.
• ApeerpassengerrestrictionforP1drivers,whowillbelimitedtodriving
withonepeerpassenger.
• Examiningfurthergraduatedlicensingmeasures.
• Promotingthepurchaseofsafervehiclestoyoungdrivers.
• Triallingabestpracticepost-licencedriverdevelopmentprogram.
• Promotingresponsibleandsafepracticesbyyoungerdrivers.
• Undertakingtargetedinitiativestoimproveyoungdriversafetyin
countryVictoria.
• Promotingvoluntarytakeupofalcoholinterlocksandintelligentspeed
assist(ISA)toreducerisksamongyoungdrivers.

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the risk of a probationary driver being involved in a fatal crash increases four fold if
they are carrying two or more passengers.
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3.7 olDer DriVers
Olderdriversaredefnedasthoseaged75yearsandabove.
Driversaged75yearsandoverrepresentapproximatelyfourpercentof
Victoria’spopulationandaccountforfvepercentoffatalitiesandthreeper
centofseriousinjuries.
Inthecontextofanageingpopulation,olderroadusersafetywillcontinue
tobeakeyconcernforanincreasinglylargepercentageoftheVictorian
community.Encouragingdriverstopreparefortheeffectsofageingontheir
mobilitywillbecriticaltoaddressingrisksforolderdrivers.
Anumberofissuesareimportantinimprovingroadsafetyforolder
Victorians:
Vehiclesafety: Thephysicalfragilityofolderroadusersmeansthattheyareat
aparticularlyhighriskofseriousinjuryordeathfromcrashes.Encouraging
thepurchaseofsafevehiclesthatofferhighlevelsofoccupantprotectionisan
importantmeasuretoimprovesafetyforolderdriversandtheirpassengers.
Olderoccupantsafetycanbeimprovedbythecorrectwearingofseatbelts
andbythepurchaseofvehicleswithahighoccupantprotectionrating.
Mobility: Itisimportantthatolderpeoplemaintaintheirmobilityforaslong
aspossible.Thiscanbefacilitatedthroughthepromotionofself-regulation,
encouragingolderdriverstoavoiddrivinginconditionsinwhichtheyfeel
threatenedoruncomfortable.
Mobilityforolderpersonscanalsobefacilitatedbyexpandingalternative
localtransportservices,encouragingolderdriverstobecomefamiliar
withalternativemeansoftravelbeforetheyneedtostopdriving,and
assistingolderdrivers,theirfamilies,healthprofessionalsandcommunity
organisationstoassistinaperson’stransitionfromdrivertonon-driver.
safer roaD Users (continued)
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37
Prescriptionmedication: Somemedicalconditionsaremoreprevalentwith
age,andthemedicationsprescribedtodealwiththesecanhaveanadverse
effectonsafedriving.Investigatingtheeffectsofprescriptionmedication
ondriving,particularlyamongolderroadusers,isanimportantelementin
developingeffectiveroadsafetymeasures.
Increasedphysicalfrailty: Onceinvolvedinacrash,olderroadusersareat
extremelyhighriskofsevereinjurybecauseoftheirgreaterfrailtycompared
toyoungerpeople.Improveddetectionofvisualandcognitiveproblemswill
enablebettertargetedcountermeasurestobeintroducedtoreducetheinjury
risktoolderroadusers.
Infrastructure: Complextraffcsituationssuchasintersections,multi-lane
roadsandbusy,fastmovingtraffcpresentchallengesforolderdrivers.Older
driverscanexperiencediffcultiesinteractingwiththeroadenvironmentas
currentroaddesignpracticesdonotalwaystakeintoaccounttheirspecifc
needs.
Itisimportantfortraffcengineerstotakeintoaccountthechanged
capabilitiesofolderdriversandavoidstandardassumptionsaboutdriver
capabilitiesinthedesignandupgradeofroadsandroadsides.
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What the strategy will do
Measurestoimproveolderdriversafetywillinclude:
• Improvingroaddesignandsignage,andamendinglanduseplanning
guidelinestoaccommodatetheneedsofolderdrivers.
• Encouragingolderdriverstopurchasevehicleswithhighlevel
crashworthinessratings.
• Encouragingandeducatingolderdriverstoself-regulatedrivingability.
• Encouragingolderdriverstolearntousealternativeformsoftransport.
• Developingeducationalprogramswhichraiseawarenessoftheeventual
needtostopdrivingandhowtoplanforthis.
• Conductingresearchtoincreaseunderstandingofthecrashrisksfor
olderroadusersassociatedwithvisualand/orcognitiveimpairment,and
theeffectsofmedicalconditionsandmedications.
• Improvingdriverlicensingprocesses,toincludecognitiveandimproved
eyesightscreeningforolderdriversconsideredtobeatrisk.
• Developingeducationstrategiestoaddressolderdriversafetyissuesfor
drivers,healthprofessionals,family,friendsandcaregivers.
• DevelopingandpilotinglocaltransportservicesforolderVictorians.
• Providingassistanceforolderdriverstousealternativetransportmodes.
3.8 motorcYclists
Approximately46motorcyclists(includingpillionpassengers)arekilledon
Victoria’sroadseachyear.Motorcyclistsareapproximately30timesmore
likelytosustainfatalorseriousinjuryperkilometretravelledthanother
vehicleoccupants.
Motorcyclistsandpillionpassengersaccountforapproximately14percent
oftheroadtoll,yetmotorcyclesmakeuponlythreepercentofallregistered
vehiclesinVictoria.
Trendsinmotorcycleandpillionfatalitiessince2002havebeenencouraging
withanaverage20percentreductioninVictoriacomparedtoa15percent
increaseinfatalitiesfortherestofAustralia.
Basedonage,motorcyclistsaremorelikelytobekilledorseriouslyinjured
whentheyarebetween21and36yearsold,ratherthanbetween18and25
fordrivers.Thisrefectstheincreasingpopularityofmotorcyclingamong
olderriders,manyofwhomreturntomotorcyclingafteralongbreakduring
whichridingskillsmaydeteriorate.
safer roaD Users (continued)
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39
Anumberofissuesneedtobeconsideredinimprovingsafety
formotorcyclists:
Oldermotorcycleriders: Ademographicshifthasseenthepopularityof
motorcyclingsignifcantlyincreaseamongolderagegroups.Thismeansthat
roadsafetyprogramswillneedtohaveanincreasedfocusonolderriders.
Infrastructure: Head-on,run-off-roadandsideimpactcrashesaccountfor
around75percentofallmotorcyclistfatalities.Improvementstoroadsand
roadsides,includingintersections,willsignifcantlyincreasemotorcyclistsafety
byreducingtheincidenceofthesecrashes.
Protectivewear: Theseverityofpersonalinjurysustainedbyamotorcyclistin
theeventofacrashissignifcantlyreducedifthemotorcyclistiswearinghigh
standardprotectivewear.
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the most vulnerable (i.e killed or seriously injured) age range for motorcyclists is 21
to 36. this compares to the age range of 18 to 25 for drivers.
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What the strategy will do
arrivealive2008-2017willtakemeasurestoimprovemotorcyclistsafety
thatinclude:
• Improvingroadandroadsidedesigntothesafestlevelspracticablefor
motorcyclistsincludingmotorcycleBlackspottreatmentsand
Blacklengthtreatmentsonpopularmotorcycleroutes.Preliminary
analysisofthemotorcycleBlackspotprogramhasfounda38percent
reductioninmotorcyclecasualtycrashesattreatedlocations.
• Encouragingmotorcyclemanufacturerstodevelopnewtechnologiesthat
willhelppreventmotorcyclecrashesandprotectriders.Theseinclude
motorcycleairbagsandintegratedbrakingsystems.
• Introducingimprovedtrainingprogramsandlicensingsystemsforriders
toenhancethedefensiveridingskillsofinexperiencedriders.
• Increasingtargetedenforcementtoreducetheincidenceofunlicensedriding.
• Educatingdriverstobeawareofmotorcyclistsontheroadandtheirsafety
requirements.
• Promotingtheuseofhighstandardprotectivewearbymotorcyclists.
3.9 peDestrians
Eachyearonaverage51pedestriansarekilledonVictoria’sroads.
Severalissuesarecriticaltoimprovingroadsafetyforpedestrians:
Speedlimits:Lowerspeedlimitssignifcantlyimprovesafetyforpedestrians.
Apedestrianstruckbyavehicletravellingat40km/hormoreisunlikelytosurvive.
Intoxicatedpedestrians: Intoxicatedpedestriansareataparticularlyhighriskof
beingkilledinacrash.PedestrianswithaBACof.05orgreaterrepresentmore
thanhalfofalldeathsofpedestriansaged16to49years.
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safer roaD Users (continued)
alcohol is a signifcant issue in fatalities involving pedestrians aged
between 21 and 49.
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Olderpedestrians: Althoughpeopleaged65andolderrepresentlessthan14
percentofthepopulation,theyfeaturein32percentofpedestriandeaths.
Improvingsafetyforolderpedestriansisparticularlyimportantgiventhatolder
peoplearemorelikelytorelyonwalkingfortransportation,andinthecontext
ofanageingpopulation.
Motorisedmobilitydevices:Motorisedmobilitydevicesareincludedinthe
defnitionofpedestrians.Clearguidelinesneedtobedevelopedfortheuseof
thesedevices.
Children: Childrenaged16yearsandyoungeraccountfor14percentofall
pedestrianfatalities,withrisksincreasingsignifcantlyforchildrenwhen
theybeginschool.Inaddition,theincreasingnumbersofchildrenbeing
driventoschoolhighlightstheneedforparentaleducationonroadsafety
aroundschools.
Vehiclesafety: Thedesignofvehiclescontributessignifcantlytotheseverity
ofinjuriessustainedbyapedestrianinacollision.Forinstance,apedestrian
struckbyavanorfourwheeldrivewithahighbumperismuchmorelikelyto
incurseriousheadinjuriesthanwhenstruckbyabonnettypepassengercar.
Infrastructure: Providingvehicle-freepathsandfacilitiesforpedestriansisan
extremelyeffectivewayofimprovingtheirsafety.Similarly,barrierfencingand
guardrailsonroadedgesandmediansalsoeffectivelyreducesrisksforpedestrians.
Asspeedisakeycontributortopedestrianroadtrauma,traffccalming
measuressuchasspeedhumpsandroundaboutsthatreducethespeedof
vehiclesinlocalstreetsalsoreduceroadsafetyrisks.
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3.9 peDestrians (continued)
What the strategy will do
Measurestakentoimprovepedestriansafetyunderarrivealive2008-2017will
include:
• Designingnewroadsandroadsides,andimprovingexistingroadsto
thesafestlevelspracticableforpedestriansincludingtraffccalming
measures,safetyfenceandbarriertreatments,andimproved
crossingfacilities.
• Increasingoff-roadwalkingpathsandfacilitiesthatseparatepedestrians
frommotorisedtraffc.
• Settingspeedlimitsaccordingtothesafetystandardsoflocationswith
highpedestrianactivity.
• Conductingtargetedpubliceducationcampaignstoencouragesafe
walkingpractices.
• Conductingconsumerawarenessraisingcampaignstodiscourage
purchaseoflarge,aggressivevehicles,includingthosewithrigidbullbars,
andtoincreasetakeupofvehicleswithfeaturesthatdolessharm
topedestrians.
• Improvingcompliancewithroadrulesbyallmotorisedandnonmotorised
roadusersusingenforcementandeducation.
• Reviewingthepenaltiesforillegalpedestrianbehaviourandaccompanying
policeenforcementtoensurethatpenaltiesrefecttheseriousnessofthe
offenceandtheroadsafetyimpact.
• ReviewingAustralianDesignRulestoensurethatpedestriansafety
standardsareaddressedbyvehicledesigners.
• Infuencingtownplanningandresidentiallayouttofacilitatesafetravel
forpedestrians.
safer roaD Users (continued)
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3.10 cYclists
Onaverage,eightcyclistsarekilledonVictoria’sroadseachyear.
Severalissuesarecriticaltoimprovingroadsafetyforcyclists:
Speedlimits:Lowerspeedlimitssignifcantlyimprovesafetyforcyclists.
Acycliststruckbyavehicletravellingat40km/hormoreisunlikely
tosurvive.
Vehiclesafety:Thedesignofvehiclescontributessignifcantlytotheseverity
ofinjuriessustainedbyacyclistinacollision.Forinstance,acycliststruck
byavanorfourwheeldrivewithahighbumperismuchmorelikelytoincur
seriousheadinjuriesthanwhenstruckbyabonnettypepassengercar.
Infrastructure:Providingvehicle-freepathsandfacilitiesforcyclistsisan
extremelyeffectivewayofimprovingtheirsafety.
Asspeedisakeycontributortocyclistroadtrauma,traffccalmingmeasures
suchasspeedhumpsandroundaboutsthatreducethespeedofvehiclesin
localstreetsalsoreduceroadsafetyrisks.
What the strategy will do
Measurestakentoimprovecyclistsafetyunderarrivealive2008-2017willinclude:
• Designingnewroadsandroadsides,andimprovingexistingroadstothe
safestlevelspracticableforcyclistsincludingtraffccalmingmeasures,
safetyfenceandbarriertreatments,andimprovedcrossingfacilities.
• Increasingoff-roadcyclingpathsandfacilitiesthatseparatecyclistsfrom
motorisedtraffc.
• Settingspeedlimitsaccordingtothesafetystandardsoflocationswith
highcyclistactivity.
• Conductingtargetedpubliceducationcampaignstoencouragesafe
cyclingpractices.
• Conductingconsumerawarenessraisingcampaignstodiscourage
purchaseoflarge,aggressivevehicles,includingthosewithrigidbull
bars,andtoincreasetakeupofvehicleswithfeaturesthatdoless
harmtocyclists.
• Improvingcompliancewithroadrulesbyallmotorisedandnon-motorised
roadusersusingenforcementandeducation.
• Reviewtheexistinglegislationtoensurethatcyclistscanbechargedwith
serioustraffcoffencessimilartothoseappliedtodrivers.
• Influencingtownplanningandresidentiallayouttofacilitatesafetravelforcyclists.
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44
3.11 heaVY Vehicle DriVers
Approximately12heavyvehicledriversand59otherroadusersarekilledeach
yearonVictoria’sroadsfromcrashesinvolvingheavyvehicles.
Anumberofissuesarerelevanttoreducingtheincidenceofroadcrashes
involvingheavyvehicles:
Increaseinthefreighttask: Aneffcientroadfreightindustryisvitalto
Victoria’seconomy.ForecastsbytheBureauofTransportandRegional
Economics(BTRE)predictthefreighttaskinAustraliawilldoubleby2020with
roadtransportbeingthedominantmode.Thechallengeandtaskaheadisto
developandimplementstrategieswhichmorethanoffsettheimpactofthis
growth.TheGovernmentisalsocommittedtodevelopingstrategiesaimedat
increasingtheamountoffreighttransportedbyrail.
Heavyvehiclecrashresponsibility: Researchshowsthatheavyvehicledrivers
areresponsible,orpartlyresponsible,foronly30percentoffatalcrashes
involvingtrucks.Welldevelopedandtargetededucationcampaignsplayan
importantpartinmakingallroadusersawareofhowtointeractsafelywith
heavyvehicles.
Seatbeltuse: Asignifcantcontributortoheavyvehicledriverdeathsand
seriousinjuriesisthelowseatbeltwearingratesofthesedrivers.Itis
estimatedthat40percentto50percentofheavyvehicledriverdeathscould
bepreventedifseatbeltuseratesweresimilartothoseachievedinpassenger
vehicles.Educationprograms,targetedenforcementandOHSregulations
thatrequireemployerstoensuresafeoperationsforworkersareimportant
measurestoreduceriskstoheavyvehicledriversfromnon-seatbeltuse.
Saferroads: Ongoingimprovementstoroadandroadsideinfrastructure
willhelptosupporttheanticipatedgrowthinheavyvehicletraffcwithout
increasesintruckcrashcasualties.Theprovisionofstrategicallylocatedrest
stopsforheavyvehiclesisakeyinitiativetoreducefatiguerisksforheavy
vehicledrivers.
Speedmanagement: Aroundsevenpercentofheavyvehicledriversexceed
thepostedspeedlimitoncountryroads.Itisestimatedthatifheavyvehicle
speedingwascompletelyeliminated,around25percentofseriouscasualties
involvingaheavyvehiclecouldbeprevented.
Whilethereisarequirementforheavyvehiclestobefttedwithspeedlimiters,
dataindicatesthattherearemanynon-compliantheavyvehiclesontheroad.
Targetedenforcementofheavyvehiclesforspeedlimitcomplianceisakey
elementinimprovingsafetyforallroadusers.
safer roaD Users (continued)
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Driverimpairment: Surveysindicatethatfatigueddrivingisaregularpart
oftheworkexperienceofmanyheavyvehicledrivers.Further,thereisa
closerelationshipbetweenfatigueandillicitdruguse,withsomeheavy
vehicledriversusingillicitstimulantdrugstomanagetheimpactoffatigue.
Improvingthemanagementoftheheavyvehicleindustrythroughthe
enforcementoflegislationsuchasthatrelatedtoChainofResponsibilityand
OHSwillimproveworkingconditionsandreducetheincidenceofimpaired
drivingbyheavyvehicledrivers.TheChainofResponsibilitymeansthat
anybody,notjustthedriver,whohascontrolinatransportoperationcanbe
heldresponsibleforbreachesofroadlawsandmaybemadelegallyliable.
Saferheavyvehicles: Heavyvehicleswithimprovedseatbeltsystems,
improvedcabinstrengthandbetterunderrunprotectionhavethepotential
toimprovesafetyforallroadusers.Theseimprovementscouldbeachieved
throughtheintroductionofAustralianDesignRulesforheavyvehiclecabin
strength,andfront,rearandsideunderrunprotection.
What the strategy will do
Measurestakenunderthearrivealive2008-2017strategytoimprovethe
safetyofheavyvehicledriversandallroaduserswillinclude:
• Improvingroadandroadsideinfrastructuretobetteraccommodateheavy
vehiclesandtheforecastincreaseinthefreighttask.
• Undertakingeducationcampaignstoincreaseawarenessofrisksfor
heavyvehicledriversandallroaduserswhointeractwithheavyvehicles.
• InvestigatingchangestoAustralianDesignRulestoimprovethesafetyof
heavyvehicles.
• Targetingenforcementofspeed,seatbelt,ChainofResponsibility
andOHSlaws.
• Targetingenforcementofdrug/drinkdrivingwithintheheavy
vehicleindustry.
• Encouragingthefttingofintelligentseatbeltremindersystems.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
46
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3.12 pUBlic transport Users
Increasingpublictransportusehasthepotentialtodeliverroad
safetybenefts.
However,therearesomemajorsafetyrisksfrompublictransportusethat
mayincreaseaspatronageincreases.Whilethenumberoffatalitiesand
seriousinjuriesresultingfromcrashesinvolvingtrains,tramsandbuses
islow,thesafetyofpassengersboardingandalightingtramsrepresents
achallengewhichmustnotbeunderstated.Fallsinsidetramsarealso
common,oftencausedbyasuddenbrakingofatramwhenotherroad
vehiclesencroachontotramtracks.Also,crashesinvolvingtrainstypically
resultinfatalities.
What the strategy will do
Measurestoimproveroadbasedpublictransportsafetywillinclude:
• Introduceanetworkofroadswheretramsandbuseshavetraffcpriority
whichwillimprovethesafetyofpublictransportusers.
• Undertakingeducationprograms,supportedbyenforcement,toprotect
peopleboardingandalightingfrombusesandtrams.
3.13 coUntrY roaD Users
Whilesignifcantgainsweremadeunderarrivealive!2002-2007inreducing
roadtraumainmetropolitanareas,theseachievementswerenotmatchedin
countryVictoria.
Countryroadcasualtiesremaindisproportionatelymorenumerousper
populationthaninMelbourne.
safer roaD Users (continued)
in 2007, for every 100,000 road users in country Victoria, 12.4 were killed in a road
crash, compared to only 4.1 for every 100,000 in metropolitan melbourne.
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Countrycrashtypes:Countryroadusersaremoreatriskofafatalcrashas
aresultofarun-off-roadorhead-oncrash.Infrastructureimprovements
designedspecifcallytoaddressthesetypesofcrashrisksoncountryroads
androadsidescansignifcantlyreducerisksforcountryroadusers.
Drinkanddrugdriving:Factoringinpopulation,alcoholisaroundtwiceas
likelytobeacontributingfactorinfatalcrashesoncountryroads.Reducing
theincidenceofdrinkdrivingisakeychallengetoimprovingtheroad
safetyforcountryroadusers.Similarlydrugdrivingisagrowingproblem
particularlyamonghighriskgroupssuchasyoungandheavyvehicledrivers.
Fatigue:Fatiguerelatedcrashesarefarmoreprevalentinregionalareas
comparedtometropolitanMelbourne.Measuressuchasinfrastructure
improvementsandtargetededucationinitiativesareessentialinorderto
reducetheinvolvementoffatigueincrashes.
Levelcrossingsafety:ComparedtometropolitanMelbourne,countryVictoria
hasagreaternumberoflevelcrossingswithoutboomgatesorfashinglights,
buthave‘STOP’or‘GIVEWAY’signs.Improvinglevelcrossingsafetywillhave
signifcantsafetybeneftsforcountryroadusers.
Heavyvehicles:Withmostfatalitiesinvolvingheavyvehiclesoccurringon
countryroads,reducingtheroadsafetyrisksforheavyvehicles,including
thoserelatedtofatigueandspeed,willhaveapositiveeffectforallcountry
roadusers.
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What the strategy will do
Measurestoreducetherisksforcountryroaduserswillinclude:
• Undertakingimprovementstocountryroadsandroadsidestoreduce
majorcrashrisks.Thesewillincluderemovingroadsidehazardsand
installingroadsidebarrierstoaddressrun-off-roadcrashes.
Steelguardrailsandwireropesafetybarriersarehighlyeffectivein
absorbingtheimpactofvehiclestravellingathighspeeds.
• Shouldersealingwillbeusedtoprovideasmoother,morestablesurface
attheroad’souteredgeandminimisethechancesofmotoristslosing
controloftheirvehiclesandrunningofftheroad.Additionally,rumble
linesalongtheshoulderalertmotoriststhattheyaretravellingtooclose
totheedgeoftheroad.
• Rumblelinesalongthecentre-lineofroadsandovertakinglanesare
provenmeasuresthatreducethechancesofhead-oncrashesoccurring
bywarningdriverstheyarecrossingontothewrongsideoftheroad.
• Infrastructureimprovementswillbemadetoreducetheriskand
severityofcountryintersectioncrashes,includingroundabouts–which
canreducefatalandseriousinjurycrashesbyupto85percent–and
othersafetyimprovementssuchasskidresistancetreatments,lighting
improvements,vehicleactivatedsignsandconversionofYintersectionsto
saferTintersections.
• Carryingoutamajorprogramoflevelcrossingsafetyimprovements,
includingtheinstallationoffashingwarningsignsatlevelcrossingson
regionalVictorianhighwaysandrumblestrips,whichareraisedroad
stripsthatalertmotoriststhatalevelcrossingisahead.Reductionof
speedlimitswillalsooccurathighrisk,highroadspeedruralraillevel
crossings.Theseinfrastructureimprovementswillbesupportedby
targetededucation,tougherpenaltiesforlevelcrossinginfringements
andenforcementprograms.
safer roaD Users (continued)
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• Reducingtheincidenceofdrinkanddrugdrivingthroughtargeted
initiativesthatfocusontheissuesassociatedwithdrinkanddrugdriving.
Initiativesincludingeducationcampaignswillbedeliveredtoimprove
driversafetyincountryVictoria.Thiswillinvolveworkingcloselywith
licensedpremisesandsportingclubs.
• Targetedenforcementofdrinkdrivingwillbecarriedoutusingexisting
specialisedboozebusesforoperationsincountryVictoriaandtargeted
enforcementofdrugdrivingincountryVictoriawillalsobeundertaken.
• Prioritiestoreducetheincidenceandseverityoffatiguerelatedcrashes
willbethroughnewpublicawarenesscampaigns,improvementsto
countryreststopfacilities,andinfrastructureimprovementstoreduce
run-off-roadcrashesandhead-oncrashesoncountryroads.
• Heavyvehiclesafetywillbeimprovedbyimplementingarangeofactions
toreducetherisksassociatedwithheavyvehicles,includingongoing
improvementstoroadandroadsideinfrastructureandimprovingthe
drivingpracticesofotherroaduserssharingtheroadwithheavyvehicles.
• Improvedenforcementofheavyvehiclespeedswillbedonebyensuring
thecomplianceandintegrityofheavyvehiclespeedlimiterswhich
restrictthevehicle’stopspeedto100km/h,andcompliancewithChain
ofResponsibilitylawswhichmeansthatanybody,notjustthedriver,who
hascontrolinatransportoperationcanbeheldresponsibleforbreaches
ofroadlaws.
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hoW the strategY Will Work
Shortertermactionplansandperformancemeasureswillbeusedtoensure
theeffectivenessandresponsivenessofthearrivealive2008-2017strategy
acrossits10yeartimeframe.
time frame
Thearrivealive2008-2017strategysetsthedirectionforroadsafetyinitiatives
inVictoriaforthe10years2008to2017.Thetimeframeofthestrategyallows
programsrequiringanongoingsustainedefforttorealiseroadsafetybenefts
tobeproperlyplannedanddelivered.
Forexample,improvingthesafetyfeaturesinvehicles–akeyelementinthe
strategy–requiresanongoingpubliceducationcampaigntofrstincrease
consumerawarenessanddemandforsafervehicles,therebyprompting
vehiclemanufacturerstorespondtoconsumerleddemand.
measUring performance
Monitoringandevaluatingtheperformanceofthestrategy–andspecifc
roadsafetyinitiativesdetailedinthearrivealive2008-2017actionplans–are
essentialtoachievingthestrategy’stargets.
Toensurethesetargetsareachieved,overallandspecifcmeasureswillbe
usedtomonitorperformance.Thesemeasureswillenableprogresstobe
assessedandemergingissuestobeidentifedandaddressed.
Measuresofinjuryseveritywillbemonitoredusinghospitalcasualtydata.
Thebeneftsthroughreductionsintheseverityofcrashoutcomeswillbe
measuredbythosehospitalisedformorethan14dayscomparedtothose
hospitalisedformorethanoneday.Thesevalidatedmeasureswilldetermine
trendsovertimeintheseverityofinjuries.
action plans
Toensurethattheeffectivenessofthestrategyissustainedacrossits10year
timeframe,threeshortertermactionplanswillbedevelopedtodeliverthe
strategy.Theactionplanswillensurethatthestrategyremainsrelevant,effective
andon-tracktomeettheVictorianGovernment’snewtargetsforroadsafety.
Eachactionplanwilldeliveracomprehensiverangeofactivitiesinlinewiththe
strategy’sbroaddirectionsandinitiativesacrosseightareasofaction:public
education,enforcement,infrastructure,technology,legislation,licensing,
occupationalhealthandsafety,andresearchanddata.
Developmentofthearrivealive2008-2017actionplanswillbeinformed
byongoingcommunityconsultationandevaluationoftheprogressofthe
arrivealive2008-2017strategy.TheVictorianGovernmentwillinvolvelocal
government,theCommonwealthGovernment,RoadSafeCommunityRoadSafety
Councils,otherkeyroadsafetyorganisationsandthegeneralpublicindeveloping
theactionplans.
making the
strategY Work
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Thesuccessofroadsafetyinitiativessetoutineachactionplanwillbe
measuredagainstclearperformancetargets.Thesetargetswillensurethe
progressivereductionoffatalandseriousinjurycrashesoverthelifeofthe
arrivealive2008-2017strategy.
areas of action
Thearrivealive2008-2017strategyandactionplanswillapplytheSafe
Systemapproachtodesigningandintroducingprogramsthatlinkthevarious
componentsofthestrategytodelivergreatercumulativesafetybenefts.
Campaigns,projectsandinvestmentswillbedeliveredacrosseightareasof
action,givingmaximumeffecttoVictoria’seffortstosavelivesandreducethe
numberofpeoplebeingseriouslyinjuredonourroads.
community education and awareness
Roadusersrequirecurrent,accurateroadsafetyinformationtoplaytheirpart
inaSafeSystemofbehavingresponsiblyandinaccordancewiththeroadrules.
Underarrivealive2008-2017,thisinformationwillbeprovidedthrougha
combinationofmassmediaandtargetededucationcampaignstogether
withtheGovernment’sroadsafetypartners,includingRoadSafeCommunity
RoadSafetyCouncils,theDepartmentofEducationandEarlyChildhood
Development,andschoolsandclubs.Inadditiontotraditionalmediachannels,
‘new’communicationsmediawillbeharnessed.
Localgovernment,workingincollaborationwithRoadSafeCommunityRoad
SafetyCouncils,willhaveanimportantroleinimprovingsafetyonlocalroads
throughtargetedcampaignsthataddresslocalroadsafetyissues.
arrivealive2008-2017recognisesthateducationandinformationsharing
mustoccuronatwo-waybasis.Roadusersneedinformationtoberesponsible
roadusers;similarly,roadsafetydecisionmakingorganisationssuchas
thegovernment,policeandroadauthoritiesneedinformationaboutthe
community’sroadsafetyexpectations.
Toachievethisimportantdialogue,arrivealive2008-2017willfocuson
strategiesdesignedtodeliveratwo-wayinformationsharingprocessbetween
theroadusercommunityandroadsafetydecisionmakingorganisations.
enforcement and deterrence
Researchshowsthatthemosteffectivewaytoimproveroaduserbehaviouris
throughacombinationofeducationandenforcementoftheroadrules.
Enforcementseekstoensurethatthemajorityofroaduserswhobehave
responsiblyareprotectedfromaminoritywhoputthesafetyofothersin
jeopardythroughanti-socialbehavioursuchasdrinkdrivingandspeeding.
EnforcementoftheroadruleshasbeenakeyfactorinreducingVictoria’s
roadtolltodate,andwillcontinuetobeafocusunderarrivealive2008-2017.
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Theenforcementeffortwilltargetkeycontributingfactorstoroadtraumain
Victoria,suchasspeeding,impaireddriving(drugs,alcoholandfatigue)and
restraintuse.
legislation
Theenforcementeffortcanonlybeeffectiveifunderpinnedbyappropriate
legislation.
Anongoingpriorityforarrivealive2008-2017andthestrategy’s
supportingactionplanswillbetoexamineexistinglegislationand,where
appropriate,amendorintroducenewlegislationtorespondtoemerging
roadsafetytrends.
road safety technology
Maximisingtechnologicaldevelopmentsintheareasofvehiclesafety,road
engineeringsystems,andenforcementdeviceswillreducethelikelihoodof
crashesoccurringandtheseverityofoutcomeswhentheydooccur.
Whilethetakeupofsometechnologieswillbeconsumerdriven,thepotential
beneftsofferedbyvehicle-basedtechnologies,inparticular,areconsiderable
andtheVictorianGovernmentwilltakeanactiveandleadingapproachtotheir
introductionandpromotion.
Underarrivealive2008-2017,Victoriawillcontinuetoleadthewayin
identifying,developingandintroducingarangeofthemosteffectiveroad
safetytechnologies:
Vehicletechnology: Increasedconsumertakeupofvehicleswithsafety
featuressuchaselectronicstabilitycontrolandintelligentspeedassisthas
thepotentialtosignifcantlyreducethelikelihoodofcrashesoccurringand
theseverityofinjurieswhencrashesdooccur.
Oneofthemostpromisingmeasurestodecreasetheincidenceofsingle
vehiclerun-off-roadcrashesiselectronicstabilitycontrolinwhichsensors
detectlossofcontrolandtakecorrectiveaction.Itisestimatedthatabout
40roaddeathscouldbepreventedinVictoriaeachyearifelectronicstability
controlwasfttedinallcars.
Opportunitiesexisttostimulatetheadoptionofsafervehicletechnology
byraisingawarenessthroughpublicity,feetpurchasingpoliciesand
encouragingvehiclemanufacturerstointroducesafetyfeaturesavailablein
manyoverseasvehicles.
Roadandroadsidetechnology:Vehicle-to-vehicleandvehicle-to-
infrastructureroadsafetyrelatedtechnology,includingspeedadvisory
systems,havethepotentialtosignifcantlyimprovesafety.
hoW the strategY Will Work (continued)
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Researching,triallingandimplementingthesetechnologiesareapriorityfor
actionunderarrivealive2008-2017.
Enforcementtechnology:Increasingtheuseofavailabletechnologywill
improveeffciencyinenforcingVictoria’sroadrules.Thesetechnologies
includeautomaticnumberplaterecognition(ANPR),in-carvideosystems,a
varietyofspeedmonitoringequipmentincludingspeedcameratechnology
(suchaspoint-to-pointanddigitalcameras),androadsidedrugandalcohol
testingdevices.
infrastructure
Improvingthesafetyofroadsandroadsidesisoneofthesinglemosteffective
measurestoreducetheincidenceandseverityofcrashes.
Extensiveinfrastructurebasedsafetyimprovementswillbeimplemented
underarrivealive2008-2017toreducefatalitiesandseriousinjuriesfromthe
mostcommoncrashtypesonVictoria’sroads.
Theseinfrastructureprojectswillbecarefullyselectedtoaddressthe
mostfrequentandseverecrashtypes.Treatmentswillincludeamixof
provenroadsafetycountermeasuresandwillbecomplementedbythe
introductionofinnovativetreatmentsfowingfromthestrategy’sresearch
anddevelopmentprogram.
AkeyaspectindeliveringtheSafeSystemistomatchmoreeffectivelythe
speedofvehicleswiththeinherentsafetyofourroadsandroadsides.
licensing
ImprovingthelicensingrequirementsforVictorianmotoristswillincrease
safetyforallroadusers,andparticularlythemostvulnerableusers,suchas
novicedriversandolderdrivers.
Novicedriversareoverrepresentedincrashesbyaratioofthreetoone
comparedtoexperienceddriversandareatparticularriskinthefrstfew
monthsofdriving.Theintroductionofanewgraduatedlicensingsystem,
requiringaminimumnumberofhoursofdrivingpractice,willreduceriskfor
youngdrivers.
Olderdriversareatincreasedriskofseriousinjuryanddeathduetothe
fragilityassociatedwiththeageingprocess.Underarrivealive2008-2017
opportunitiestoreducethisriskwillbeinvestigated.Tomaintainsafemobility,
olderdriverswillbeencouragedtoself-regulatetheirdriving.Inaddition,the
useofconditionallicencesformedicallyimpaireddriverswillbeexplored.
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
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Forpeoplewithseriousorlifethreateninginjuriesorillnesses,organor
tissuetransplantationcouldmeanasecondchanceatlife.Aconsequenceof
roadtraumacanoftenbetheneedforadonationoflifesavingorgans.The
opportunitywillbemadeforallVictoriandriversatthetimeoflicencerenewal
toindicatetheyarewillingtomakeanorgandonation.
occupational health and safety (oHs) policies
ThedevelopmentofOHSpoliciesusedbytheVictorianGovernmentandthe
privatesectorthataddressdutyofcareissuesforemployeeswhosework
involvesdrivingvehicleshasthepotentialtosignifcantlyimproveroadsafety.
OHSpoliciesshouldemphasisesafedrivingbehaviourrequiredofemployees,
includingtravelwithinspeedlimitsandatanappropriatespeed,required
useofseatbelts,discouraginganymobilephoneusewhilethevehicleisin
motion,responsiblealcoholpoliciesandazerodrugrequirement.
Theselectionofsafevehiclesbyfeetpurchaserswillbeakeymeansto
infuencesafetyonourroadsystem.
research and data
Victoriawillremainattheforefrontofroadsafetyresearchthroughcontinual
interactionwithglobalexperts,theMonashUniversityAccidentResearch
Centre(MUARC)andotherresearchspecialists.Thesepartnershipswill
provideabetterunderstandingofwhycrasheshappenandhowdeathsand
injuriescanbeavoided.
Asignifcantstepinresearchwillbetheestablishmentofaspecifcprogram
withMUARCtodevelopsolutionsforactivitiescentraltoachievingstrategy
goalsandensuringtargetsareachieved.
Itisimportantthatthecollectionandanalysisofcrashrelateddatais
continuallyimprovedtoensuretheongoingdevelopmentofinnovativeand
effectiveroadsafetycountermeasures.
arrivealive2008-2017willestablishbetterdatasetsandlinkagesbetween
differentagencies,creatingarepositoryofrichinformationtounderstand
highriskroaduserbehaviours,crashesandtheiroutcomes.
hoW the strategY Will Work (continued)
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arrivealive2008-2017willbemanagedinpartnershipwithcommunity
organisationsandthrougharoadsafetymanagementstructurethatincludes
thePremierandgovernmentministers,andsenioroffcersofVictoriaPolice,
VicRoads,theTransportAccidentCommissionandtheDepartmentofJustice.
Partnerships
Victoria’sroadsafetyachievementshavebeendeliveredthroughstrong
andco-ordinatedpartnershipsbetweengovernment,itsagenciesand
thewidercommunity.
Successfullyimplementingthearrivealive2008-2017strategywilldepend
uponthesupportandeffortsofstateandlocalgovernment,communities,
organisationsandindividualsthroughoutVictoria.
ThesupportofVictoria’sMembersofParliamentisanimportantelement
inthesuccessofroadsafetyinitiatives.AkeyfeatureofVictoria’sroad
safetyframeworkistheParliamentaryRoadSafetyCommittee,comprising
MembersofParliamentfromallpoliticalparties.TheVictorianGovernment
willcontinuetosupporttheworkoftheRoadSafetyCommitteeandcontinue
toencourageall-partysupportforVictoria’sarrivealive2008-2017strategy.
TheGovernmentwillcontinueitsco-ordinatedapproachtoroadsafety,
ledbythethreeministersresponsibleforroadsafetyinVictoria-theMinister
forRoadsandPorts,theMinisterforPoliceandEmergencyServices
andtheMinisterresponsiblefortheTransportAccidentCommission(TAC).
TheMinisterswillprovideleadershipintheimplementationofarrivealive
2008-2017anddevelopmentoffutureactionplansandroadsafetyinitiatives.
VicRoads,TAC,VictoriaPoliceandtheDepartmentofJusticeareresponsible
fordeliveringthekeyinitiativesunderthestrategy,andwillrelyheavilyon
maintainingandbuildingstakeholderandcommunityinvolvement.
CommunitymemberswillcontinuetoplayacentralroleinreducingVictoria’s
roadtollbyacceptingtheirresponsibilitiesaslawabidingroadusers,andby
continuingtocontributetothedevelopmentofroadsafetyinitiatives.
LocalgovernmentandRoadSafeCommunityRoadSafetyCouncilswill
continuetobeimportantroadsafetypartnersatthelocallevel,withmajor
rolesinadvocacy,increasingtheunderstandingofroadsafetyissuesintheir
communities,implementinglocalprogramsanddrawingattentiontoroad
safetyissuesimportanttotheircommunities.
managing
the strategY
VI CTORI A’ S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRI VE ALI VE 2008-2017 www. arri veal i ve. vi c. gov. au
56
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Victorians are more likely to die violently as the result of a road crash than from any other cause.
Victorians are more likely to die violently as the result of a road crash than from any other cause. Every life we lose on our roads is one too many. Road trauma causes great pain and heartbreak to those Victorians who lose family and friends in road crashes – and places a huge economic burden on our entire community.

arrive alive 2008-2017 sets out how the Victorian
Government will continue its leadership in road safety to deliver a safer system for all road users and make a significant reduction to road trauma. Road safety is a shared responsibility and all Victorians can contribute to safer roads and safer driving behaviour.

By working together, we can substantially reduce serious casualties from road crashes and spare many Victorian families the grief of suffering the loss or serious injury of a loved one on our roads.

contents
CONTENTS MESSAGE FROM THE PREMIER MESSAGE FROM THE MINISTERS HIGHLIGHTS ROAD SAFETY IN VICTORIA TOWARDS A SAFE SYSTEM INVOLVING ALL VICTORIANS 1. SAFER ROADS AND ROADSIDES 1.1 Run-off-road crashes 1.2 Side impact crashes 1.3 Rear-end crashes 1.4 Head-on crashes 1.5 Level crossing crashes 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 17 17 17 18 18 2. SAFER VEHICLES 3. SAFER ROAD USERS 3.1 Speed and speeding 3.2 Drink driving 3.3 Drug driving 3.4 Fatigued driving 3.5 Driver distraction 3.6 Young drivers 3.7 Older drivers 3.8 Motorcyclists 3.9 Pedestrians 3.10 Cyclists 3.11 Heavy vehicle drivers 20 24 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 43 44

VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017

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3.12 Public transport users 3.13 Country road users MAKING THE STRATEGY WORK How the strategy will work Time frame Measuring performance Action plans Areas of action Community education and awareness Enforcement and deterrence Legislation Road safety technology Infrastructure Licensing Occupational health and safety (OHS) policies Research and data

46 46 50 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 54

MANAGING THE STRATEGY Partnerships ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

55 55 56

Photos: VicRoads and Department of Infrastructure.

VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017

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message from the premier
Road trauma has a devastating and long lasting impact on individuals, families and communities. For those who lose a loved one in a road crash – or those who are seriously injured or permanently disabled – the emotional and personal costs are immeasurable. Those personal costs extend to the police, paramedics and emergency workers who attend road crashes, and to the doctors and nurses who deal with the distressing consequences of accidents. In 1970 over a thousand Victorians lost their lives in road crashes. Since then, Victoria has made a strong and determined effort to reduce road trauma and is recognised as a world leader in road safety. The introduction of compulsory seatbelts, random breath testing, improved roads, an effective speed management system and highly visible public advertising campaigns have all played a part in significantly improving road safety in our state. One of Victoria’s great success stories is the arrive alive strategy, which has played a vital part in substantially reducing the state’s road toll and has prevented some 580 deaths. In the five years to 2007, Victoria recorded its lowest road tolls since records began. Prior to the introduction of arrive alive the annual road toll was 444, compared to 332 in 2007, a reduction of 25 per cent. This achievement reflects not only the Government’s tough approach to road safety, but also the commitment of Victorian road users to driving and travelling more safely. However, we must not become complacent. The fact remains that road trauma kills and maims thousands of Victorians every year. More young people die from road crashes than from any other cause. Alongside those who lose their lives on our roads, over 7,000 Victorians are seriously injured in road crashes each year. These people are part of our hidden road toll; the people who bear the enormous and often ongoing social costs, the personal and emotional pain that road trauma creates. Victoria’s new 10 year road safety strategy arrive alive 2008-2017 builds on the significant achievements of the 2002-2007 strategy.

VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017

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www.arrivealive.vic.gov.au

John Brumby .While continuing to deliver the successful elements of the arrive alive strategy.arrivealive.au .000 serious injuries a year and reduce the severity of serious injuries. prevent over 2. By the end of the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy. These new targets are ambitious and achieving them will require a partnership approach between the Government and the entire Victorian community.gov. But we also recognise that road safety is a shared community responsibility in which everyone has a part to play. we are introducing new actions and initiatives to further improve road safety and create a safer transport system. the Government aims to have reduced the road toll by 30 per cent.vic. By the end of 2017 the strategy will save an extra 100 lives a year. I urge all Victorians to get behind the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy and work together to reduce the senseless and unnecessary deaths and injuries on our roads. The Victorian Government makes no apologies for being tough on road safety.Premier of Victoria VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 5 www.

In 2006.message from the ministers When it comes to road safety. The arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy sees Victoria formally incorporating the Safe System approach to road safety. Under the new strategy. But we can – and must – do more. the Government released the Meeting Our Transport Challenges action plan. methods and technologies to increase our road safety efforts. Meeting Our Transport Challenges provides a major boost in funding for road safety. the Government continues to invest in road safety initiatives with a proven track record – initiatives that have saved the lives of many Victorians. the biggest of its kind in Australian history and the ground breaking $240 million Safer Roads Program currently underway. including the development of a new road safety strategy. arrive alive 2008-2017 builds on the strong foundation put in place by Victoria’s previous – and highly successful – road safety strategy. which will invest an unprecedented $10. the Government is making a firm commitment to the principles of the Safe System approach and to making this approach the foundation of our future actions in road safety. we are using new evidence.gov.vic. the Government has allocated in excess of $500 million to deliver targeted road safety infrastructure programs. This has included the $240 million TAC funded Statewide Blackspot Program. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 6 www. In taking this step.au . Victorians have already achieved a great deal. Since 1999.5 billion to improve Victoria’s transport system over the next decade. arrive alive 2008-2017 meets this commitment and delivers new actions and investments to further reduce the state’s road toll and improve safety on our roads.arrivealive. At the same time.

gov. arrive alive 2008-2017 sets out a strong framework to meet this challenge.The Safe System approach recognises that.arrivealive. even with the best preventive programs in place. drink and drug driving. road crashes will still occur – and aims to build a road system that offers maximum protection to all users by providing safer road infrastructure.Minister responsible for the Transport Accident Commission tim pallas . Bob cameron .Minister for Police and Emergency Services VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 tim holding .au 7 . our challenge is to continue making significant road safety gains by being just as resolute in tackling more difficult and testing issues and behaviour. We look forward to working with the Victorian community to deliver arrive alive 2008-2017 and to ensure that Victoria continues to be a world leader in road safety. fatigued driving and driver distraction. With the best known road safety measures in place. increasing the proportion of safe vehicles on our roads and improving the safe behaviour of road users by targeting areas such as speeding.Minister for Roads and Ports www. Victoria has established an internationally recognised record in road safety by resolutely tackling the main causes of road trauma.vic.

physical and financial impact of road trauma on individuals.arrivealive. reduce road crashes and improve safety on Victoria’s roads over the 10 years from 2008 to 2017.vic. It will keep Victoria at the forefront of Australian and international efforts to reduce road trauma. and to introduce a new two stage P1 and P2 probationary licence system before moving to a full licence. arrive alive 2008-2017 introduces major new initiatives with significant potential to reduce road trauma. the Victorian Government aims to reduce deaths and serious injuries by 30 per cent. and improve safety for all Victorian road users. • VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 8 www. deliver further major improvements to our road transport system. A new graduated licensing system (GLS) for young drivers is to commence on 1 July 2008 to ensure that young Victorians gain adequate supervision and experience as learners. including: • Introducing a requirement for registration that all new vehicles manufactured after 31 December 2010 be fitted with electronic stability control and all new vehicles manufactured after 31 December 2011 be fitted with head protecting technology (such as side curtain airbags) should a national system not be in place at this time. New media and public awareness campaigns to encourage consumer demand for vehicles with high safety ratings and advanced safety features and technologies. oUr neW targets By the end of arrive alive 2008-2017.au .highlights arrive alive 2008-2017 builds on Victoria’s strong road safety record and introduces new actions and targets to save lives. Meeting these targets will significantly reduce the emotional.gov. By the end of 2017 the strategy will: • • • save an extra 100 lives a year prevent over 2. • oUr neW actions While continuing to deliver proven road safety measures. families and communities. The Government will play a vital leadership role by committing to purchase safer vehicles. This new system will also introduce a peer passenger restriction for P1 drivers in their first year.000 serious injuries a year reduce the severity of serious injuries.

While Victoria’s road safety agencies adopted the Safe System approach in 2003. including an expanded program of roadside drug testing and ensuring the routine alcohol and drug testing of all drivers involved in serious injury crashes. The Safe System values the health and wellbeing of road users and takes human error into account while focusing on: − − − improving the safety of Victoria’s roads and roadsides increasing the safety of vehicles on Victoria’s roads improving the safe behaviour of Victorian road users.arrivealive.au . such as repeat drink driving and speeding offenders. • These actions – and others – will be implemented over the duration of arrive alive 2008-2017 through the development of three short term action plans. These plans will keep the strategy on track and effective. together with an expanded Greyspot program and its emphasis on proactive treatments. A tough new focus on reducing drug driving through public awareness campaigns and a heightened enforcement effort.gov. A crackdown on road users who place the community at risk by using intelligence based policing to target specific anti-social behaviour. The Safe System commits the Government to developing a community-wide culture of road safety and to creating a safer road environment across Victoria. respond to emerging road safety trends and challenges. with a focus on reducing the most common types of crashes.vic. and make sure that we achieve our targets. This approach aims to create a much safer road environment in which alert and responsible road users should not lose their lives – or be permanently disabled – as a result of a crash on our road system. Victoria is formally incorporating the Safe System approach to road safety into the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy. hoons on country roads and heavy vehicle drivers and operators who fail to comply with safety standards and speed limits. • oUr neW approach For the first time. arrive alive 2008-2017 formally endorses the approach as the foundation for the Victorian Government’s future road safety activities and investments.• A major infrastructure program delivering unprecedented investment of $650 million to improve road and roadside infrastructure across Victoria. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 9 www.

VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 10 www. Victoria’s fatality rate of 6.arrivealive.roaD safetY in Victoria Victoria’s roaD safetY recorD Victoria’s roads and road users are amongst the safest in the world.1. since 1990.au .38 per 100.gov.000 in 2007 is lower than the average for the rest of australia which is 8. initiatives delivered under arrive alive! 2002-2007 have prevented some 580 deaths and reduced by 11 per cent people admitted to hospital for more than one day. local government and community groups. Over the last five years. This safety record reflects the success of Victoria’s evidence led approach to improving road safety through a comprehensive range of initiatives delivered in a close working partnership between the Victorian Government.vic. annual road fatalities in Victoria have declined from 548 to 332 in 2007.

Victoria’s population growth and the increasing demand for travel and freight will generate new challenges in road safety.au . and safer road users. This Safe System approach recognises the benefits to be gained from an overarching strategy that delivers safer travel through safer vehicles. including the Transport Accident Commission. education and awareness initiatives to ensure that an increasing majority of motorists comply with the road rules − undertaking extensive research and development to gain a better understanding of the causes of road crashes and the most effective means to reduce road trauma − substantially improving the safety of the state’s road network through increased investment in road safety infrastructure. the state’s road toll would increase 11 per cent to 375 by the year 2017. promoting a community wide culture of road safety and creating a safer road environment across Victoria. further reductions in the road toll require increased effort and new targets. Through arrive alive 2008-2017. Victoria Police. safer roads and roadsides. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 Jurisdictions with the best road safety records. actions and investment. and have made significant road safety advances by understanding how to most effectively modify the system to protect road users. the Government will increase its efforts to ensure that fewer lives are lost on our roads and that Victoria continues to be a leader in reducing the impact of road trauma on individuals. Over the next 10 years. based on Victoria’s projected population growth alone. the Victorian Government will take action to improve safety for all road users. While these actions will continue to play an important role in improving road safety in Victoria. 11 www. recognise safety as a key component of their transport systems. Over the next 10 years. if the current rate of fatalities per 100. For example. To meet these challenges and further reduce the road toll. families and communities. including Australia’s largest ever targeted accident blackspot program. such as Sweden and the Netherlands.Significant improvements in road safety were achieved under arrive alive! 2002-2007 through actions that included: − targeting high risk behaviours such as speeding and drink driving − implementing enforcement.arrivealive. The Safe System approach forms the basis for the development and management of the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy to be delivered by the Victorian Government and its agencies. Victoria must do more than simply sustain the existing level of road safety effort. the Department of Justice and VicRoads.000 head of population was maintained.vic.gov.

motorcyclist Vehicle occupant Vehicle occupant VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 12 www. the Safe System approach aims to design and build a transport system that will protect responsible road users and reduce the number of deaths and serious injuries. By taking a total view of the combined factors involved in road safety. The table below shows the estimated crash impact speeds. and travel speeds. road users have a responsibility to comply with the rules to ensure that they act within the limits of the system’s design.toWarDs a safe sYstem Victoria’s move towards a Safe System approach to road safety represents a significant shift in thinking about road safety. roads and roadsides. providers and users in achieving this outcome. Exploring these interactions maximises the potential advantage of initiatives in reducing deaths and injuries from linking different road safety activities.au . while reducing the contribution of unsafe road user behaviour to road crashes.gov. A Safe System is one where the likelihood of a road crash is reduced. The Safe System approach recognises that even with a focus on prevention.vic. The Safe System approach identifies the shared responsibility of road system and vehicle designers. Achieving a Safe System of road travel is based on an understanding that the human body is vulnerable and unlikely to survive an uncushioned impact at a speed of more than 30km/h. iMPact sPeed 30km/h+ road User tyPe Vehicle occupant crasH tyPe Side impact crash with fixed roadside objects such as poles and trees Impact with other vehicles Side impact crash with another vehicle Head-on crash with a similar vehicle 40km/h+ 50km/h+ 70km/h+ Pedestrian. Under the Safe System approach. based on the safest vehicles. Even relatively low speeds can kill or seriously injure unless the vehicle and the road and roadside environment take account of the physical vulnerability of all road users. cyclist. the road system must be designed to be more forgiving of human error and attempt to manage crash forces to survivable levels. those crashes that are likely to result in death or serious injury). and where any crash that does occur minimises death and serious injury.arrivealive. vehicles. The Safe System approach encourages a better understanding of the interaction between the key elements of the road system: road users. road crashes will occur – therefore. where the forces are likely to exceed the tolerance of the human body (in other words.

The success of the Safe System approach is dependent on road users acting within the limits of the system’s design. and drive according to the prevailing conditions − encouraging consumers to purchase safer vehicles with primary safety features that reduce the likelihood of a crash. The diagram below shows the main system components and relationships. DeliVering the safe sYstem The Safe System will deliver reductions in deaths and severity of injuries by co-ordinating the management of all the components of the transport system that impact on safety. and that people are able to make better informed decisions on issues such as vehicle choice. educating and encouraging road users to comply with road rules. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 13 www.au . such as side curtain airbags.vic. be unimpaired and alert.gov.the safe system approach includes: − designing and maintaining roads and roadsides to reduce risk to as low as reasonably practical − setting speed limits according to the safety of the road and roadside − advising. Additionally.arrivealive. such as electronic stability control. through enforcement initiatives. speed and behaviour. and secondary safety features that reduce injury severity in a crash. Hence the importance given to ensuring the community becomes more aware of the risks associated with road travel. the Safe System approach will protect the wider community from the actions of a minority of road users who repeatedly put the community at risk with anti-social behaviour.

especially at the local level − maintaining strong public support for road safety initiatives − disseminating information quickly at the local level − ensuring the effective delivery of services − taking road safety messages to as wide an audience as possible.au . which act as effective advocates for road safety within local communities − opportunities for road users to contribute to the development of road safety strategies and initiatives. Substantial benefits can be achieved by involving the community in road safety activities as much as possible.vic. awareness and advertising campaigns − locally based programs that address specific local issues − the major role played by local government in delivering initiatives that directly affect road safety − the substantial contribution made by Victoria’s 24 RoadSafe Community Road Safety Councils. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 14 www.arrivealive. especially to groups within the community that are hard to reach − encouraging people to act as advocates for road safety. Greater levels of community participation in road safety have already been achieved in Victoria through: − ongoing strong partnerships between Victorian Government agencies and community organisations − highly effective public education. Community participation in road safety is essential for: − providing government and other decision makers with a clear and accurate understanding of the public’s priorities and needs.gov.inVolVing all Victorians Improving road safety requires a community effort - and all Victorian road users share a responsibility to help make our roads safer.

gov. health and education organisations and emergency services.au . The Victorian Government recognises that ongoing community engagement and consultation is essential to successfully implementing arrive alive 2008-2017.vic. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 15 www. research institutes. Consultation for the development of the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy has been undertaken across the Victorian community. and will continue to support community partnerships and consultation mechanisms to deliver positive and lasting changes in the attitudes and responses of Victorians to road safety. including representatives from local government.arrivealive.community consultation for arrive alive 2008-2017 The Government will continue consulting with Victorian road users about the most effective ways to improve road safety. road user groups.

1. and with the co-operation and support of Victorian road users. arrive alive 2008-2017 will significantly improve road safety across the state and substantially reduce the incidence of deaths and serious injuries on Victorian roads. The likelihood of Victorians being killed or seriously injured as a result of involvement in common types of crashes can be reduced through improved road infrastructure. Intersections that have been identified as a road safety concern by the community and others are eligible for treatments. 16 www. safer vehicles and safer road users. head-on crashes and rear-end crashes – account for around 72 per cent of all fatal crashes on Victoria’s roads each year. For example. over the last five years the most common crash types (run-off-road. By improving road and roadside VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 infrastructure. There will also be a focus on prevention through an expanded Greyspot program which is a proactive safety program targeting outer metropolitan and rural intersections. rear-end and head-on) account for 72 per cent of all fatal and serious injury crashes on Victoria’s roads each year. By adopting effective measures in each of these areas.vic.au . The most common crash types – side impact crashes. risk associated with run-off-road crashes can be reduced through the removal of roadside hazards and installation of safety barriers. side impact at intersection. arrive alive 2008-2017 addresses three critical elements: safer roads and roadsides. arrive alive 2008-2017 will make a major contribution towards reducing the number and severity of these common types of road crashes.gov. run-off-road crashes. safer roaDs anD roaDsiDes Within the Safe System approach. safer roaDs anD roaDsiDes Improving the safety of roads and roadsides will provide a much safer environment for all road users in Victoria.arrivealive.

• Increasing the enforcement of road rules at intersections. monitoring and improving existing roads to the safest levels practicable including skid resistance treatments.2 siDe impact intersection crashes A side impact crash is one in which the first point of impact is on the side of a vehicle where there is little vehicle protection for occupants. 1. by developing and using technology to deter vehicles from travelling too close to one another. shoulder sealing. • Setting speed limits according to the safety standards of roads and roadsides.arrivealive. • Streamline requirements to remove or trim native vegetation in order to maintain the safety and efficiency of the road. rumble lines. monitoring and improving existing roads to the safest levels practicable.vic. What the strategy will do arrive alive 2008-2017 will reduce the incidence and severity of run-off-road crashes through measures that include: • Designing new roads and roadsides. and removal/ relocation of roadside hazards and objects. • Reviewing speed limits at higher risk intersections.au . roadsides and intersections. What the strategy will do Measures to achieve the arrive alive 2008-2017 target for rear-end crashes will include: • Designing new roads and roadsides.1.1 rUn-off-roaD crashes A run-off-road crash occurs when a vehicle leaves the road and often collides with a roadside object such as a tree or a pole.gov. What the strategy will do Measures to reduce the incidence and severity of side impact crashes will include: • Designing new roads. monitoring and improving existing roads to the safest levels practicable through infrastructure treatments including safety barriers. 1.3 rear-enD crashes Rear-end crashes account for an average of nine deaths on Victoria’s roads each year. for example. Run-off-road crashes account for an average of 140 deaths on Victoria’s roads each year. • Setting speed limits according to the safety standards of roads and roadsides. This type of crash usually occurs at intersections. 17 www. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 Side impact crashes account for an average of 45 deaths on Victoria’s roads each year. • Increasing the strategic enforcement effort.

improVing roaD infrastrUctUre Targeted improvements to road infrastructure will help to save the lives of Victorians and reduce the severity of injuries in road crashes. 1. A combination of these barriers will be installed at places where there is a high risk of cars running off the road and hitting trees and other roadside objects. What the strategy will do Measures to reduce the incidence of these types of crashes will include: VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 18 www.4 heaD-on crashes Head-on crashes account for an average of 59 deaths on Victoria’s roads each year.vic. arrive alive 2008-2017 will deliver a combination of targeted infrastructure improvements across Victoria. safetY Barriers Steel guardrails and wire rope safety barriers are highly effective in absorbing the impact of vehicles travelling at high speeds.5 leVel crossing crashes While level crossing crashes between vehicles and trains are small in number they are generally very severe in terms of deaths and injuries and can have devastating effects on communities. What the strategy will do Measures taken under arrive alive 2008-2017 to reduce the incidence and severity of head-on crashes will include: • Designing new roads and roadsides. centreroad barriers. wire rope barriers can reduce fatal and serious injury crashes by up to 90 per cent.arrivealive. and improving existing roads to the safest levels practicable including overtaking lanes.safer roaDs anD roaDsiDes (continued) 1. duplication. and centre-line rumble lines. • Infrastructure programs to progressively upgrade safety at level crossings in Melbourne and provincial Victoria.au . Measures to improve rail level crossing safety will include automated advance warning signs at highway and high volume sites and placing rumble strips on the road to alert motorists that they are approaching rail level crossings.gov. • Setting speed limits according to the safety standards of roads and roadsides. In particular. • Streamline requirements to remove or trim native vegetation in order to maintain the safety and visibility of rail level crossings and their approaches.

the sequence of existing traffic lights will be altered to ease congestion and allow more time for difficult turns.au . improVeD signage anD roaD gUiDance Lack of awareness of road conditions can be a factor in run-off-road crashes. and warning and advisory speed signs at locations with high crash risks.vic. intersection improVements A number of infrastructure improvements will be made to reduce the risk and severity of intersection crashes. In some cases. including: • Roundabouts – which can reduce fatal and serious injury crashes by up to 85 per cent and are the most effective way to reduce serious injury crashes at intersections because they require motorists to significantly reduce their speed when approaching and travelling through an intersection. traffic islands and separate lanes for left and right turning vehicles. more stable surface at the road’s outer edge and minimise the chances of motorists losing control of their vehicles and running off the road. Improvements will include better lane marking.remoVal of hazarDs from the roaDsiDe Deaths and serious injuries in run-off-road crashes are strongly linked to collisions with trees and other objects on the roadside. ‘cats eyes’ reflective road markers. Traffic lights – which will be installed at intersections to control heavy volumes of traffic and complex traffic movements which would not be effectively managed with a roundabout treatment. In some locations. sealing of roaD shoUlDers Shoulder sealing will be used to provide a smoother. • • • VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 19 www.gov. Improvements that help drivers to become more aware of the road environment will include line marking. removing trees and other objects close to the roadside will give motorists a greater chance of survival if they run off the road. Rumble strips – will be installed at certain locations which will alert motorists that they are approaching intersections and rail level crossings. Traffic separation – which will improve safety at intersections by creating a better separation between traffic turning and travelling through the intersection.arrivealive.

With corporate safety initiatives in their infancy.gov. The take up of advanced safety features such as electronic stability control (ESC) is about 70 per cent in new vehicles sold in leading European countries. safer Vehicles Increasing the proportion of vehicles on Victoria’s roads with high standard safety features will substantially reduce risks for all road users – drivers. These take up rates are above the average take up rates for the rest of the nation. Vehicles with high standard safety features reduce not only the likelihood of crashes occurring. In Victoria. motorcyclists. pedestrians and cyclists.au . but also the severity of crash outcomes on all those involved.2.vic. To achieve these improvements. manufacturers. passengers. approximately 20 per cent of all new vehicles sold achieved the maximum safety rating of five stars. it is also important for companies – both public and private – to be encouraged and supported in introducing safe vehicle lease/purchase policies. less than 40 per cent of new vehicles sold have this lifesaving technology and only about a third have side curtain airbags. government agencies and consumers must work together to raise the standard of vehicle safety and to ensure that Victoria and Australia catch up with and match the best practice vehicle safety standards set in Europe and the United States. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 20 www. side curtain air bags and other head protecting technologies – will significantly reduce fatalities and serious injuries resulting from crashes. whether they are inside or outside the vehicle. road trauma would immediately drop by up to one-third. compared to some countries in Europe where 85 per cent of vehicles sold achieve the maximum rating. Australasian research indicates that if each motorist upgraded their vehicle to the safest in its class. In Victoria in 2006. Improving the average level of safety of vehicles on Victoria’s roads – as measured by crashworthiness ratings and the presence of electronic stability control.arrivealive. Next generation technologies such as intelligent speed assist (ISA) and fatigue monitoring devices must also be refined and demonstrated to develop a market for these products. About 85 per cent of new cars tested by the Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) in 2006 achieved a four or five star safety rating compared to only 69 per cent in 2001.

anti-lock braking. seatbelt reminders. • Assessing and demonstrating next generation safety technologies with a view to creating future markets for the most effective of these technologies. creating consumer and organisational demand for vehicle safety features including intelligent speed assist.What the strategy will do arrive alive 2008-2017 will improve vehicle safety in Victoria through the following measures: • Accelerating the introduction of vehicle safety features. • Raising awareness of and. in particular electronic stability control and head protecting technologies such as side curtain airbags.gov. • Directly supporting the conduct of crash testing and database analysis to ensure that contemporary and scientifically accurate information is available to the Victorian community about the safety performance of new and used cars.vic. in turn. electronic stability control. • Addressing OHS issues in co-operation with WorkSafe to ensure that helpful and accurate guidance is provided to fleet managers when choosing vehicles for employees. and frontal protection. air bags. • Working with vehicle manufacturers and the ANCAP Board to enable consumers to be aware of the safety ratings of cars at the time of purchase. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 21 www. • Encouraging customer take up of Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) and Used Car Safety Rating information when purchasing vehicles.au . • Exploring opportunities to provide incentives for consumers to purchase safer vehicles.arrivealive.

VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 22 www. across all vehicle types. electronic staBilitY control (esc) ESC helps drivers to avoid crashes by reducing the danger of skidding. which deploy from the roof-rail above the door. particularly in the event of a side impact crash. It uses computer control technology to apply individual brakes to bring the car safely back on track. It is vital that these results are communicated to consumers to help them to make safe choices when buying a car. vehicle builders and road designers to significantly improve the safety of vehicles on Victorian roads over the next 10 years. Research from the USA indicates that this technology can reduce the risk of death in a side impact crash by up to 40 per cent. aUstralasian neW car assessment program (ancap) / UseD car safetY ratings New and used car safety ratings provide an indication of a vehicle’s ability to protect its occupants and other road users in a crash. provide head and neck protection for front and rear seat passengers. or losing control as a result of oversteering. the crash risk can be reduced by over 50 per cent. For 4WD vehicles. These can be used to measure improvements in the average crash rating of vehicles on Victoria’s roads.au . New standards. without the danger of fishtailing. features and technologies are now available to consumers. Australian research indicates that ESC reduces the risk of single vehicle crashes.vic. by approximately 30 per cent. siDe cUrtain air Bags Side curtain air bags.arrivealive. The Government will play a vital leadership role by committing to purchase safer vehicles.safer Vehicles (continued) improVing Vehicle safetY Safer vehicles on our roads means fewer lives lost and fewer Victorians suffering serious injuries in road crashes.gov.

with a view to developing future markets for those which are most effective. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 23 www. The system then issues warnings if the vehicle exceeds this limit. Intelligent speed assist (ISA) for instance automatically warns a driver when they intentionally or inadvertently travel over the speed limit.au .arrivealive.vic. given that about one-half of new vehicles in Australia are purchased for commercial purposes and most of these enter the private vehicle market within two to three years.next generation technologies Next generation technologies such as intelligent speed assist (ISA). encouraging the purchase of fleet vehicles with high level safety features has the potential to significantly improve road safety. Most ISA systems establish the position of the vehicle on the road. lane departure warning systems and fatigue monitoring devices have the potential to reduce crashes and save lives. The flow-on benefits from safe fleet vehicles are considerable. and compares the current speed of the vehicle with the speed limit at that location. These technologies need to be assessed and demonstrated. The Government will play a vital leadership role by committing to purchase safer vehicles and mandating the use of electronic stability control (ESC) and head protecting technologies in its fleet.gov. fleet Vehicles With around one-quarter of road fatalities involving fleet vehicles.

. N.1 speeD anD speeDing Travel speed affects both the risk of a crash happening and the severity of injuries sustained when a crash does happen. Moore.gov. The Government is committed to providing a world leading traffic safety system that assists individual road users to travel safely and efficiently. 1997.* * Kloeden. Travelling Speed and the Risk of Crash Involvement.. road users will ensure that all Victorians benefit from public investment in road safety. as well as making a vital contribution to saving lives and reducing serious injuries on our roads. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 24 www. McLean. & Ponte. M. A.au . travelling at 65 km/h in a 60 km/h zone doubles the risk of a crash. such as following the road rules and driving safely. safer roaD Users While arrive alive 2008-2017 commits the Victorian Government to improving the state’s road system. By complying with the requirements of this system. Speeding and inappropriate travel speeds directly contribute to at least 30 per cent of deaths on Victoria’s roads each year. making it vital that speeds are managed to optimise road safety outcomes.arrivealive. Even small increases in vehicle speed significantly impact on road safety risks. 3. A safe road system is a partnership between government and road users. G.3. Canberra. Federal Office of Road Safety. V. page 391. and with consideration for other road users. C. J.vic. all Victorians share a responsibility to use the system safely and responsibly. Impact speeds are a crucial determinant of the severity in all crashes. the risk of a crash increases significantly even with small increases in speed.

Increasing awareness of speed-related issues needs to address the common myths: that low level speeding is not a safety issue. What the strategy will do arrive alive 2008-2017 will take action to reduce the incidence of speeding and the number of fatalities and serious injuries caused by speeding through measures that include: • Setting speed limits according to the safety of roads and roadsides. Vehicle technology: Increasing the proportion of vehicles with top speed limiting devices and intelligent speed assist (ISA) will significantly reduce the incidence of speeding.Several issues are critical to managing travel speeds: Infrastructure: Setting speed limits according to the safety standards of roads and roadsides is an effective measure to reduce the incidence and severity of crashes. Measures can also be taken to prevent recidivist speed offenders who lose their licences from continuing to speed when they return to driving/riding. For higher risk sections of roads where infrastructure improvement is not economically feasible.au . • Promoting greater compliance with speed limits through: − − increasing motorist awareness of the speed/crash relationship increasing enforcement measures that target the small minority of motorists who put safe road users at risk with anti-social speeding behaviour improving signage to assist motorists to comply with speed limits increasing the proportion of vehicles with intelligent speed assist (ISA) and top speed limiting devices to assist motorists to comply with speed limits. Using appropriate intelligence. or would not reduce risk. that speed management measures do not reduce road trauma.gov. and that enforcement is designed to raise revenue. police can target speeding at high risk times and locations with on-road patrols and safety camera technology. speed limit reductions should be considered. Education: Educating drivers about the crash risks associated with speeding and the severe impacts on vulnerable road users such as pedestrians. cyclists and motorcyclists are important elements in reducing speeding.arrivealive.vic. − − VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 25 www. Enforcement: One highly effective way to reduce the incidence of speeding is through enforcement.

Recidivist drink drivers: Research shows that repeat drink drivers often have alcohol abuse problems. Vehicle impoundment can also be considered for offenders who abuse the alcohol interlock program or unlicensed drivers under the influence of alcohol. Several issues are important in delivering an effective response to drink driving in Victoria: Drink driving data: There are gaps in the current processes used to establish the blood alcohol concentration of drivers who are injured in crashes. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 26 www.safer roaD Users (continued) 3. motorists on country roads are more than twice as likely to be killed in drink driving crashes compared to motorists on melbourne roads. Alcohol interlock programs and rehabilitation programs aimed at addressing alcohol problems can be effective in modifying the behaviour of recidivist offenders who do not respond to mainstream deterrence and education programs.vic. Drink driving in rural areas: The high rate of drink driving in the country reflects both the difficulties in applying random breath testing effectively in rural areas and the lack of alternative transport options in many of these areas. While there is approximately an equal number of drink driving deaths in metropolitan Melbourne and country Victoria. but not killed. Specially targeted programs are an important element in tackling the drink driving problem on country roads.arrivealive.2 Drink DriVing Drink driving contributes up to 30 per cent of driver and rider deaths on Victoria’s roads each year. on a per head basis. when population is taken into account motorists on country roads are more than twice as likely to be killed in drink driving crashes compared to motorists on metropolitan roads.au .gov. These gaps compromise the development and effectiveness of drink driving countermeasures.

• Examining tougher sanctions for recidivist drink drivers. and strongly encouraging the voluntary take up of alcohol interlocks. • Undertaking specially targeted programs to tackle drink driving on country roads.vic. • Encouraging vehicle manufacturers to include alcohol interlocks in the design of new vehicles. including extension of vehicle immobilisation/impoundment provisions. ensuring the routine blood sampling of all drivers who are injured in crashes. targeting high risk locations and times for drink driving. • Encouraging responsible alcohol serving practices and workplace policies that reduce the likelihood of drink driving behaviour. • Following discussions with the emergency hospital sector.au .gov. • Developing and assessing mandatory rehabilitation programs for recidivist drink drivers as a condition of relicensing. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 27 www.arrivealive. • Extending the alcohol interlock program to young and inexperienced motorists.What the strategy will do Measures taken through arrive alive 2008-2017 to reduce the incidence of drink driving will include: • Increasing enforcement of drink driving laws. • Educating motorists to: - nderstand the drink driving/crash risk even at low levels of u consumption. particularly for younger drivers - be aware of police enforcement and likelihood of detection - lan alternatives to driving when intending to consume alcohol p - use public and approved personal breath testing devices.

au .gov. In the context of an ageing population. it is important that research continues into the impacts of prescription drugs on road user behaviour to develop effective road safety measures. These gaps compromise the development and effectiveness of drug driving countermeasures.arrivealive. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 28 www. Issues affecting Victoria’s response to drug driving include: Drug driving data: There are gaps in the current processes used to establish whether drugs are present in drivers who are injured in crashes. Random drug testing of drivers in Victoria shows that one driver in 48 tests positively to the presence of illicit drugs.3 DrUg DriVing Drug driving where one or more illicit drugs are present is found in approximately 40 per cent of driver deaths on Victoria’s roads each year.safer roaD Users (continued) 3.vic. Prescription medication: The impact of prescription medication on road user behaviour is currently unclear. but not killed.

and the high risk of detection. • Undertaking research to increase understanding of the role of both illicit and prescription drugs on road safety. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 29 www.What the strategy will do Measures to reduce the incidence of drug driving will include: • More targeted enforcement through roadside drug testing programs. ensuring the routine blood sampling of all drivers who are injured in crashes. similar to the alcohol interlock program. • Exploring the introduction of a drug interlock program to separate driving from drug use. but not killed. • Educating motorists to better understand the drug driving /crash risk relationship.arrivealive.gov.vic.au . • Following discussions with the emergency hospital sector.

the only effective cure for fatigue is sleep.gov. Enforcement: While it is difficult to deter fatigued driving in the passenger vehicle fleet through enforcement.vic. However. Vehicle technology: Research will continue into in-vehicle fatigue warning and detection devices.4 fatigUeD DriVing While the contribution of fatigue to road trauma is difficult to assess. This should be kept in mind when assessing in-vehicle devices to reduce fatigue related crashes.au . it is estimated that fatigue is a factor in 20 per cent of driver deaths on Victoria’s roads each year. the risk of being involved in a fatigue related crash is at least three times higher between 2 am and 4 am. heavy vehicle operators can be targeted using Chain of Responsibility laws.safer roaD Users (continued) 3. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 30 www. Public education: Public education is a key mechanism to address fatigued driving. compared to the safest time of midday to 2 pm. Specific countermeasures can help to address the higher risk on country roads.arrivealive. rather than enforcement. Several issues are critical to reducing the impact of fatigued driving: Fatigued driving in rural areas: Fatigue related crashes are significantly more prevalent on country roads compared to roads in metropolitan Melbourne. in the absence of fatigue detection devices or enforcement measures. Addressing fatigued driving among non-heavy vehicle operators in the future will require an emphasis on technological advancements.

with fatigue estimated to contribute to more than half of all fatal head-on crashes. Similarly. centre-road rumble lines. Heavy vehicles: Heavy vehicles are estimated to be involved in twice as many fatigue related crashes as other vehicles. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 31 www. • Designing and modifying roads and roadsides to address head-on and run-off-road crashes through treatments such as road duplication.vic. What the strategy will do Measures taken through arrive alive 2008-2017 to reduce the incidence and severity of fatigue related crashes will include: • Increasing enforcement and enforceability of Chain of Responsibility laws. it does identify the heavy vehicle industry as a key audience for education about fatigue.Infrastructure: Engineering treatments designed to address head-on crashes are effective ways to address fatigue related crashes.arrivealive.gov. roadside and centre-road barriers. • Improving existing and providing additional rest stop facilities.au . • Developing a robust test for fatigue to strengthen enforcement. overtaking lanes and removing roadside hazards such as trees and poles. • Increasing motorist awareness of the fatigue/crash relationship. • Encouraging the development of new in-vehicle technologies that identify the onset of fatigue. While this does not necessarily mean that the truck driver is the fatigued person in these crashes. measures to reduce the crash severity of run-off-road crashes will also limit the impact of fatigue on trauma.

it is important to identify the extent to which this technology is being used. use and content of scrolling. Driver distraction data: Collecting comprehensive crash information is an important first step in addressing road safety risks related to driver distraction.gov. in liaison with vehicle designers and manufacturers. can also distract the driver. creating a distraction for drivers.vic. In the USA. and be used to develop effective means of addressing road safety risks. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 32 www. Ways of improving the safety of in-vehicle technology and its use requires ongoing investigation and development. This information should provide a better understanding of the prevalence of driver involvement in distracting activities. entertainment and driver assistance systems proliferate across the vehicle market. Using a mobile phone. Public education: Education campaigns have the potential to raise awareness of both the known risks related to distraction and driving.5 DriVer Distraction There is a growing body of evidence that driver distractions. are becoming an increasingly large cause of road trauma. CD and DVD players.arrivealive. Driver licensing processes are also effective channels through which road users can be educated about driver distraction risk. whether hand held or hands free.safer roaD Users (continued) 3. such as conversing with passengers and changing music. passengers are a greater source of distraction than mobile phones or other electronic devices. Out-of-vehicle distractions: Poorly considered roadside signage and advertising can generate visual clutter. In-vehicle driver distractions: Technology based in-vehicle driver distractions include mobile phones and entertainment systems such as radio. is estimated to increase crash risk by up to four times. it is estimated that approximately one-quarter of vehicle crashes results from the driver being inattentive or distracted. the associated road safety risks and any effective countermeasures. Vehicle technology/design: Vehicle design has a major impact on the potential distracting effects of new in-vehicle technologies. Other distractions. As wireless communication. and of the limits of and the optimal use of in-vehicle technologies to minimise distraction. Several issues are important in responding effectively to driver distraction: With growing consumer demand for potentially distracting in-vehicle technology. Research suggests that for some drivers. there are concerns that distractionrelated crashes may escalate.au . moving and video style advertising. both within vehicles and in the road environment. A more strategic approach is required regarding the installation.

arrivealive.gov.What the strategy will do Measures to reduce the incidence and severity of driver distraction related crashes will include: • Conducting research to ascertain the prevalence of mobile phone use. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 33 www.vic. • Engaging vehicle manufacturers in establishing appropriate design principles in relation to in-vehicle technology. • Including awareness of driver distraction in the driver licensing processes. size and content. • Engaging behavioural scientists to review guidelines for the regulation of all roadside signage and advertising.au . • Undertaking targeted public education campaigns to highlight the road safety dangers associated with distraction from electronic in-vehicle devices. • Trialling innovative enforcement techniques to detect illegal mobile phone use. and with everyday distractions such as conversing with passengers. including location. and other in-vehicle technologies by drivers in Victoria to quantify the problem and provide benchmarks for developing and evaluating countermeasures.

Lack of experience and increased risk taking. but only nine per cent of their total driving and seven per cent of their trips involve driving with two or more passengers. such as drink driving and speeding. Inexperience is the most significant factor in young driver crashes.safer roaD Users (continued) 3. in particular a group of alcohol affected peer passengers. Risk taking: Young novice drivers face high levels of risk when making the transition from supervised to solo driving. Multiple passengers. Several issues are important in reducing the involvement of young drivers in road crashes: Inexperience: Crash risk is highest in the first year of driving. Multiple passengers: Research shows that carrying multiple passengers significantly increases the risk of an inexperienced driver being involved in a fatal crash. Around 26 per cent of first year probationary drivers involved in fatal crashes are carrying two or more passengers. Approximately 44 young drivers are killed and 990 seriously injured on Victoria’s roads each year. The risk of a probationary driver being involved in a fatal crash increases four fold with two or more passengers. annual number of drivers in casualty crashes per 10. These drivers account for over one-quarter of driver fatalities. pose a dangerous distraction and can encourage risk taking for an inexperienced driver.au . contribute to increased crash rates for novice drivers.gov.arrivealive. yet represent only 13 per cent of all licensed drivers. a young driver in their first year of probationary driving is in the most vulnerable group of all road users.vic. probationary drivers are involved in casualty crashes at three times the rate of experienced drivers.6 YoUng DriVers Young drivers are defined as motorists aged 18 to 25 years.000 licences and learner permits (2002-2006) VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 34 www.

• Promoting responsible and safe practices by younger drivers. • Trialling a best practice post-licence driver development program. • Promoting the purchase of safer vehicles to young drivers. • A peer passenger restriction for P1 drivers. and a requirement for a good driving record to progress through licence stages to a full licence.gov. Vehicle safety: Young drivers are more likely to drive smaller. • Undertaking targeted initiatives to improve young driver safety in country Victoria. • Promoting voluntary take up of alcohol interlocks and intelligent speed assist (ISA) to reduce risks among young drivers. This places them and their passengers at greater risk of serious injury or death in the event of a crash. with more restrictions in the P1 period. the risk of a probationary driver being involved in a fatal crash increases four fold if they are carrying two or more passengers. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 35 www. who will be limited to driving with one peer passenger.arrivealive. • Examining further graduated licensing measures. Promoting vehicle safety features to drivers in the market to purchase their first vehicle is an important measure to improve young driver safety.au .vic. • Introducing a new P1 (one year) and P2 (three year) probationary licence system. older cars that are less crashworthy and have fewer safety features. What the strategy will do Measures taken through arrive alive 2008-2017 to improve young driver safety include the following: • Introducing a new graduated licensing system that will ease young drivers into the driving task and assist in ensuring that the issue of driver inexperience is addressed systematically.Drink driving: Alcohol is a contributing factor in some 20 per cent of deaths in drivers aged 18 to 20 years and some 50 per cent of deaths in drivers aged 21 to 25 years.

encouraging older drivers to avoid driving in conditions in which they feel threatened or uncomfortable. Drivers aged 75 years and over represent approximately four per cent of Victoria’s population and account for five per cent of fatalities and three per cent of serious injuries.safer roaD Users (continued) 3. health professionals and community organisations to assist in a person’s transition from driver to non-driver. Older occupant safety can be improved by the correct wearing of seatbelts and by the purchase of vehicles with a high occupant protection rating.vic. This can be facilitated through the promotion of self-regulation. Encouraging the purchase of safe vehicles that offer high levels of occupant protection is an important measure to improve safety for older drivers and their passengers. their families. and assisting older drivers.gov. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 36 www.7 olDer DriVers Older drivers are defined as those aged 75 years and above. Mobility: It is important that older people maintain their mobility for as long as possible.au .arrivealive. older road user safety will continue to be a key concern for an increasingly large percentage of the Victorian community. encouraging older drivers to become familiar with alternative means of travel before they need to stop driving. In the context of an ageing population. Mobility for older persons can also be facilitated by expanding alternative local transport services. A number of issues are important in improving road safety for older Victorians: Vehicle safety: The physical fragility of older road users means that they are at a particularly high risk of serious injury or death from crashes. Encouraging drivers to prepare for the effects of ageing on their mobility will be critical to addressing risks for older drivers.

particularly among older road users. Older drivers can experience difficulties interacting with the road environment as current road design practices do not always take into account their specific needs. Improved detection of visual and cognitive problems will enable better targeted countermeasures to be introduced to reduce the injury risk to older road users. fast moving traffic present challenges for older drivers. multi-lane roads and busy. is an important element in developing effective road safety measures. Infrastructure: Complex traffic situations such as intersections. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 37 www. It is important for traffic engineers to take into account the changed capabilities of older drivers and avoid standard assumptions about driver capabilities in the design and upgrade of roads and roadsides.vic.gov.arrivealive. older road users are at extremely high risk of severe injury because of their greater frailty compared to younger people.au .Prescription medication: Some medical conditions are more prevalent with age. and the medications prescribed to deal with these can have an adverse effect on safe driving. Increased physical frailty: Once involved in a crash. Investigating the effects of prescription medication on driving.

• Developing and piloting local transport services for older Victorians. yet motorcycles make up only three per cent of all registered vehicles in Victoria.vic. This reflects the increasing popularity of motorcycling among older riders. Based on age. to include cognitive and improved eyesight screening for older drivers considered to be at risk.8 motorcYclists Approximately 46 motorcyclists (including pillion passengers) are killed on Victoria’s roads each year. • Encouraging and educating older drivers to self-regulate driving ability. • Providing assistance for older drivers to use alternative transport modes. • Developing educational programs which raise awareness of the eventual need to stop driving and how to plan for this. • Conducting research to increase understanding of the crash risks for older road users associated with visual and/or cognitive impairment. many of whom return to motorcycling after a long break during which riding skills may deteriorate. and the effects of medical conditions and medications. • Developing education strategies to address older driver safety issues for drivers. • Encouraging older drivers to purchase vehicles with high level crashworthiness ratings. Motorcyclists are approximately 30 times more likely to sustain fatal or serious injury per kilometre travelled than other vehicle occupants. family. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 38 www.au . motorcyclists are more likely to be killed or seriously injured when they are between 21 and 36 years old. Motorcyclists and pillion passengers account for approximately 14 per cent of the road toll. Trends in motorcycle and pillion fatalities since 2002 have been encouraging with an average 20 per cent reduction in Victoria compared to a 15 per cent increase in fatalities for the rest of Australia. friends and caregivers.safer roaD Users (continued) What the strategy will do Measures to improve older driver safety will include: • Improving road design and signage. 3. and amending land use planning guidelines to accommodate the needs of older drivers. • Improving driver licensing processes.arrivealive. health professionals. rather than between 18 and 25 for drivers.gov. • Encouraging older drivers to learn to use alternative forms of transport.

Infrastructure: Head-on. Protective wear: The severity of personal injury sustained by a motorcyclist in the event of a crash is significantly reduced if the motorcyclist is wearing high standard protective wear. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 39 www.e killed or seriously injured) age range for motorcyclists is 21 to 36.gov.au .vic.A number of issues need to be considered in improving safety for motorcyclists: the most vulnerable (i. including intersections.arrivealive. Older motorcycle riders: A demographic shift has seen the popularity of motorcycling significantly increase among older age groups. Improvements to roads and roadsides. will significantly increase motorcyclist safety by reducing the incidence of these crashes. run-off-road and side impact crashes account for around 75 per cent of all motorcyclist fatalities. this compares to the age range of 18 to 25 for drivers. This means that road safety programs will need to have an increased focus on older riders.

Intoxicated pedestrians: Intoxicated pedestrians are at a particularly high risk of being killed in a crash. 3.9 peDestrians Each year on average 51 pedestrians are killed on Victoria’s roads. • Educating drivers to be aware of motorcyclists on the road and their safety requirements.arrivealive. A pedestrian struck by a vehicle travelling at 40km/h or more is unlikely to survive. • Increasing targeted enforcement to reduce the incidence of unlicensed riding. + VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 40 www.au .vic. Preliminary analysis of the motorcycle Blackspot program has found a 38 per cent reduction in motorcycle casualty crashes at treated locations. Several issues are critical to improving road safety for pedestrians: Speed limits: Lower speed limits significantly improve safety for pedestrians.safer roaD Users (continued) What the strategy will do arrive alive 2008-2017 will take measures to improve motorcyclist safety that include: • Improving road and roadside design to the safest levels practicable for motorcyclists including motorcycle Blackspot treatments and Blacklength treatments on popular motorcycle routes. alcohol is a significant issue in fatalities involving pedestrians aged between 21 and 49. These include motorcycle airbags and integrated braking systems. • Promoting the use of high standard protective wear by motorcyclists. Pedestrians with a BAC of .05 or greater represent more than half of all deaths of pedestrians aged 16 to 49 years. • Encouraging motorcycle manufacturers to develop new technologies that will help prevent motorcycle crashes and protect riders.gov. • Introducing improved training programs and licensing systems for riders to enhance the defensive riding skills of inexperienced riders.

Improving safety for older pedestrians is particularly important given that older people are more likely to rely on walking for transportation. a pedestrian struck by a van or four wheel drive with a high bumper is much more likely to incur serious head injuries than when struck by a bonnet type passenger car. Vehicle safety: The design of vehicles contributes significantly to the severity of injuries sustained by a pedestrian in a collision. In addition. with risks increasing significantly for children when they begin school.gov. they feature in 32 per cent of pedestrian deaths. For instance. Children: Children aged 16 years and younger account for 14 per cent of all pedestrian fatalities. Clear guidelines need to be developed for the use of these devices. Similarly. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 41 www.vic. and in the context of an ageing population. the increasing numbers of children being driven to school highlights the need for parental education on road safety around schools.au . Infrastructure: Providing vehicle-free paths and facilities for pedestrians is an extremely effective way of improving their safety. Motorised mobility devices: Motorised mobility devices are included in the definition of pedestrians. As speed is a key contributor to pedestrian road trauma.Older pedestrians: Although people aged 65 and older represent less than 14 per cent of the population. barrier fencing and guardrails on road edges and medians also effectively reduces risks for pedestrians. traffic calming measures such as speed humps and roundabouts that reduce the speed of vehicles in local streets also reduce road safety risks.arrivealive.

including those with rigid bull bars. safety fence and barrier treatments. • Increasing off-road walking paths and facilities that separate pedestrians from motorised traffic. • Reviewing Australian Design Rules to ensure that pedestrian safety standards are addressed by vehicle designers. • Setting speed limits according to the safety standards of locations with high pedestrian activity. • Influencing town planning and residential layout to facilitate safe travel for pedestrians. • Conducting consumer awareness raising campaigns to discourage purchase of large.arrivealive.au .safer roaD Users (continued) 3.gov. • Conducting targeted public education campaigns to encourage safe walking practices.9 peDestrians (continued) What the strategy will do Measures taken to improve pedestrian safety under arrive alive 2008-2017 will include: • Designing new roads and roadsides. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 42 www. and improved crossing facilities. aggressive vehicles. • Improving compliance with road rules by all motorised and non motorised road users using enforcement and education. and improving existing roads to the safest levels practicable for pedestrians including traffic calming measures. and to increase take up of vehicles with features that do less harm to pedestrians.vic. • Reviewing the penalties for illegal pedestrian behaviour and accompanying police enforcement to ensure that penalties reflect the seriousness of the offence and the road safety impact.

and to increase take up of vehicles with features that do less harm to cyclists.au . • nfluencing town planning and residential layout to facilitate safe travel for cyclists. traffic calming measures such as speed humps and roundabouts that reduce the speed of vehicles in local streets also reduce road safety risks. a cyclist struck by a van or four wheel drive with a high bumper is much more likely to incur serious head injuries than when struck by a bonnet type passenger car. • eview the existing legislation to ensure that cyclists can be charged with R serious traffic offences similar to those applied to drivers.arrivealive. • etting speed limits according to the safety standards of locations with S high cyclist activity. Vehicle safety: The design of vehicles contributes significantly to the severity of injuries sustained by a cyclist in a collision. safety fence and barrier treatments.gov. eight cyclists are killed on Victoria’s roads each year. • onducting consumer awareness raising campaigns to discourage C purchase of large. including those with rigid bull bars.10 cYclists On average. and improved crossing facilities. A cyclist struck by a vehicle travelling at 40km/h or more is unlikely to survive. and improving existing roads to the D safest levels practicable for cyclists including traffic calming measures. As speed is a key contributor to cyclist road trauma. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 43 www. I Speed limits: Lower speed limits significantly improve safety for cyclists. • onducting targeted public education campaigns to encourage safe C cycling practices. Several issues are critical to improving road safety for cyclists: What the strategy will do Measures taken to improve cyclist safety under arrive alive 2008-2017 will include: • esigning new roads and roadsides. • ncreasing off-road cycling paths and facilities that separate cyclists from I motorised traffic. aggressive vehicles. Infrastructure: Providing vehicle-free paths and facilities for cyclists is an extremely effective way of improving their safety.3. • mproving compliance with road rules by all motorised and non-motorised I road users using enforcement and education. For instance.vic.

Education programs.gov. around 25 per cent of serious casualties involving a heavy vehicle could be prevented. Well developed and targeted education campaigns play an important part in making all road users aware of how to interact safely with heavy vehicles. Heavy vehicle crash responsibility: Research shows that heavy vehicle drivers are responsible. Increase in the freight task: An efficient road freight industry is vital to Victoria’s economy. Seatbelt use: A significant contributor to heavy vehicle driver deaths and serious injuries is the low seatbelt wearing rates of these drivers.vic. for only 30 per cent of fatal crashes involving trucks. It is estimated that if heavy vehicle speeding was completely eliminated. Speed management: Around seven per cent of heavy vehicle drivers exceed the posted speed limit on country roads.arrivealive.11 heaVY Vehicle DriVers Approximately 12 heavy vehicle drivers and 59 other road users are killed each year on Victoria’s roads from crashes involving heavy vehicles. The provision of strategically located rest stops for heavy vehicles is a key initiative to reduce fatigue risks for heavy vehicle drivers.safer roaD Users (continued) 3. targeted enforcement and OHS regulations that require employers to ensure safe operations for workers are important measures to reduce risks to heavy vehicle drivers from non-seatbelt use. data indicates that there are many non-compliant heavy vehicles on the road. A number of issues are relevant to reducing the incidence of road crashes involving heavy vehicles: be prevented if seatbelt use rates were similar to those achieved in passenger vehicles. Targeted enforcement of heavy vehicles for speed limit compliance is a key element in improving safety for all road users. It is estimated that 40 per cent to 50 per cent of heavy vehicle driver deaths could Safer roads: Ongoing improvements to road and roadside infrastructure will help to support the anticipated growth in heavy vehicle traffic without increases in truck crash casualties. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 44 www.au . The Government is also committed to developing strategies aimed at increasing the amount of freight transported by rail. While there is a requirement for heavy vehicles to be fitted with speed limiters. The challenge and task ahead is to develop and implement strategies which more than offset the impact of this growth. Forecasts by the Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics (BTRE) predict the freight task in Australia will double by 2020 with road transport being the dominant mode. or partly responsible.

arrivealive. rear and side underrun protection. What the strategy will do Measures taken under the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy to improve the safety of heavy vehicle drivers and all road users will include: • Improving road and roadside infrastructure to better accommodate heavy vehicles and the forecast increase in the freight task. • Targeting enforcement of speed. and front.au . not just the driver. Further.Driver impairment: Surveys indicate that fatigued driving is a regular part of the work experience of many heavy vehicle drivers. The Chain of Responsibility means that anybody. Chain of Responsibility and OHS laws. improved cabin strength and better underrun protection have the potential to improve safety for all road users. there is a close relationship between fatigue and illicit drug use. • Encouraging the fitting of intelligent seatbelt reminder systems. • Targeting enforcement of drug/drink driving within the heavy vehicle industry. Improving the management of the heavy vehicle industry through the enforcement of legislation such as that related to Chain of Responsibility and OHS will improve working conditions and reduce the incidence of impaired driving by heavy vehicle drivers.gov. who has control in a transport operation can be held responsible for breaches of road laws and may be made legally liable.vic. • Undertaking education campaigns to increase awareness of risks for heavy vehicle drivers and all road users who interact with heavy vehicles. Safer heavy vehicles: Heavy vehicles with improved seatbelt systems. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 45 www. seatbelt. • Investigating changes to Australian Design Rules to improve the safety of heavy vehicles. These improvements could be achieved through the introduction of Australian Design Rules for heavy vehicle cabin strength. with some heavy vehicle drivers using illicit stimulant drugs to manage the impact of fatigue.

compared to only 4. often caused by a sudden braking of a tram when other road vehicles encroach on to tram tracks. the safety of passengers boarding and alighting trams represents a challenge which must not be understated.4 were killed in a road crash. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 46 www. What the strategy will do Measures to improve road based public transport safety will include: • Introduce a network of roads where trams and buses have traffic priority which will improve the safety of public transport users.1 for every 100.safer roaD Users (continued) 3. 12.au . these achievements were not matched in country Victoria.000 road users in country Victoria.gov. Also.12 pUBlic transport Users Increasing public transport use has the potential to deliver road safety benefits. • Undertaking education programs.vic. in 2007. While the number of fatalities and serious injuries resulting from crashes involving trains. to protect people boarding and alighting from buses and trams. 3. supported by enforcement. However. there are some major safety risks from public transport use that may increase as patronage increases. crashes involving trains typically result in fatalities. Falls inside trams are also common.000 in metropolitan melbourne.arrivealive. for every 100. Country road casualties remain disproportionately more numerous per population than in Melbourne.13 coUntrY roaD Users While significant gains were made under arrive alive! 2002-2007 in reducing road trauma in metropolitan areas. trams and buses is low.

Drink and drug driving: Factoring in population. Similarly drug driving is a growing problem particularly among high risk groups such as young and heavy vehicle drivers. reducing the road safety risks for heavy vehicles. alcohol is around twice as likely to be a contributing factor in fatal crashes on country roads. including those related to fatigue and speed. country Victoria has a greater number of level crossings without boom gates or flashing lights. Infrastructure improvements designed specifically to address these types of crash risks on country roads and roadsides can significantly reduce risks for country road users. Measures such as infrastructure improvements and targeted education initiatives are essential in order to reduce the involvement of fatigue in crashes.gov. Level crossing safety: Compared to metropolitan Melbourne. will have a positive effect for all country road users. Reducing the incidence of drink driving is a key challenge to improving the road safety for country road users. but have ‘STOP’ or ‘GIVE WAY’ signs. Fatigue: Fatigue related crashes are far more prevalent in regional areas compared to metropolitan Melbourne.Country crash types: Country road users are more at risk of a fatal crash as a result of a run-off-road or head-on crash.vic. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 47 www.arrivealive. Improving level crossing safety will have significant safety benefits for country road users. Heavy vehicles: With most fatalities involving heavy vehicles occurring on country roads.au .

• Rumble lines along the centre-line of roads and overtaking lanes are proven measures that reduce the chances of head-on crashes occurring by warning drivers they are crossing on to the wrong side of the road. rumble lines along the shoulder alert motorists that they are travelling too close to the edge of the road. Steel guardrails and wire rope safety barriers are highly effective in absorbing the impact of vehicles travelling at high speeds. • Carrying out a major program of level crossing safety improvements.safer roaD Users (continued) What the strategy will do Measures to reduce the risks for country road users will include: • Undertaking improvements to country roads and roadsides to reduce major crash risks. high road speed rural rail level crossings.arrivealive. vehicle activated signs and conversion of Y intersections to safer T intersections. • Infrastructure improvements will be made to reduce the risk and severity of country intersection crashes. These will include removing roadside hazards and installing roadside barriers to address run-off-road crashes. tougher penalties for level crossing infringements and enforcement programs. lighting improvements. • Shoulder sealing will be used to provide a smoother. These infrastructure improvements will be supported by targeted education. more stable surface at the road’s outer edge and minimise the chances of motorists losing control of their vehicles and running off the road.gov.au . including roundabouts – which can reduce fatal and serious injury crashes by up to 85 per cent – and other safety improvements such as skid resistance treatments. Reduction of speed limits will also occur at high risk.vic. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 48 www. Additionally. including the installation of flashing warning signs at level crossings on regional Victorian highways and rumble strips. which are raised road strips that alert motorists that a level crossing is ahead.

including ongoing improvements to road and roadside infrastructure and improving the driving practices of other road users sharing the road with heavy vehicles. and infrastructure improvements to reduce run-off-road crashes and head-on crashes on country roads.au . improvements to country rest stop facilities. • Targeted enforcement of drink driving will be carried out using existing specialised booze buses for operations in country Victoria and targeted enforcement of drug driving in country Victoria will also be undertaken. This will involve working closely with licensed premises and sporting clubs. and compliance with Chain of Responsibility laws which means that anybody.• Reducing the incidence of drink and drug driving through targeted initiatives that focus on the issues associated with drink and drug driving. Initiatives including education campaigns will be delivered to improve driver safety in country Victoria. • Heavy vehicle safety will be improved by implementing a range of actions to reduce the risks associated with heavy vehicles.gov. not just the driver.arrivealive.vic. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 49 www. who has control in a transport operation can be held responsible for breaches of road laws. • Priorities to reduce the incidence and severity of fatigue related crashes will be through new public awareness campaigns. • Improved enforcement of heavy vehicle speeds will be done by ensuring the compliance and integrity of heavy vehicle speed limiters which restrict the vehicle’s top speed to 100km/h.

The time frame of the strategy allows programs requiring an ongoing sustained effort to realise road safety benefits to be properly planned and delivered. For example. action plans To ensure that the effectiveness of the strategy is sustained across its 10 year time frame. RoadSafe Community Road Safety Councils. These measures will enable progress to be assessed and emerging issues to be identified and addressed. technology. The action plans will ensure that the strategy remains relevant. improving the safety features in vehicles – a key element in the strategy – requires an ongoing public education campaign to first increase consumer awareness and demand for safer vehicles. three shorter term action plans will be developed to deliver the strategy. The Victorian Government will involve local government.making the strategY Work hoW the strategY Will Work Shorter term action plans and performance measures will be used to ensure the effectiveness and responsiveness of the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy across its 10 year time frame. The benefits through reductions in the severity of crash outcomes will be measured by those hospitalised for more than 14 days compared to those hospitalised for more than one day. Each action plan will deliver a comprehensive range of activities in line with the strategy’s broad directions and initiatives across eight areas of action: public education. time frame The arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy sets the direction for road safety initiatives in Victoria for the 10 years 2008 to 2017. Measures of injury severity will be monitored using hospital casualty data. overall and specific measures will be used to monitor performance. Development of the arrive alive 2008-2017 action plans will be informed by ongoing community consultation and evaluation of the progress of the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 50 www. effective and on-track to meet the Victorian Government’s new targets for road safety. thereby prompting vehicle manufacturers to respond to consumer led demand.vic.au . licensing.gov. the Commonwealth Government. infrastructure. measUring performance Monitoring and evaluating the performance of the strategy – and specific road safety initiatives detailed in the arrive alive 2008-2017 action plans – are essential to achieving the strategy’s targets. enforcement. These validated measures will determine trends over time in the severity of injuries.arrivealive. other key road safety organisations and the general public in developing the action plans. To ensure these targets are achieved. occupational health and safety. and research and data. legislation.

au . arrive alive 2008-2017 recognises that education and information sharing must occur on a two-way basis. community education and awareness Road users require current. enforcement and deterrence Research shows that the most effective way to improve road user behaviour is through a combination of education and enforcement of the road rules. working in collaboration with RoadSafe Community Road Safety Councils.gov. this information will be provided through a combination of mass media and targeted education campaigns together with the Government’s road safety partners. similarly. Enforcement of the road rules has been a key factor in reducing Victoria’s road toll to date. Road users need information to be responsible road users. will have an important role in improving safety on local roads through targeted campaigns that address local road safety issues. To achieve this important dialogue. and will continue to be a focus under arrive alive 2008-2017. police and road authorities need information about the community’s road safety expectations. In addition to traditional media channels. arrive alive 2008-2017 will focus on strategies designed to deliver a two-way information sharing process between the road user community and road safety decision making organisations. road safety decision making organisations such as the government. Campaigns. These targets will ensure the progressive reduction of fatal and serious injury crashes over the life of the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy.The success of road safety initiatives set out in each action plan will be measured against clear performance targets. Enforcement seeks to ensure that the majority of road users who behave responsibly are protected from a minority who put the safety of others in jeopardy through anti-social behaviour such as drink driving and speeding. projects and investments will be delivered across eight areas of action. and schools and clubs. Under arrive alive 2008-2017. Local government. ‘new’ communications media will be harnessed. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 51 www. accurate road safety information to play their part in a Safe System of behaving responsibly and in accordance with the road rules. the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development.arrivealive. areas of action The arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy and action plans will apply the Safe System approach to designing and introducing programs that link the various components of the strategy to deliver greater cumulative safety benefits.vic. giving maximum effect to Victoria’s efforts to save lives and reduce the number of people being seriously injured on our roads. including RoadSafe Community Road Safety Councils.

Road and roadside technology: Vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure road safety related technology. amend or introduce new legislation to respond to emerging road safety trends.arrivealive. alcohol and fatigue) and restraint use. are considerable and the Victorian Government will take an active and leading approach to their introduction and promotion.au . It is estimated that about 40 road deaths could be prevented in Victoria each year if electronic stability control was fitted in all cars. including speed advisory systems. While the take up of some technologies will be consumer driven. One of the most promising measures to decrease the incidence of single vehicle run-off-road crashes is electronic stability control in which sensors detect loss of control and take corrective action. impaired driving (drugs. and enforcement devices will reduce the likelihood of crashes occurring and the severity of outcomes when they do occur. developing and introducing a range of the most effective road safety technologies: Vehicle technology: Increased consumer take up of vehicles with safety features such as electronic stability control and intelligent speed assist has the potential to significantly reduce the likelihood of crashes occurring and the severity of injuries when crashes do occur. An ongoing priority for arrive alive 2008-2017 and the strategy’s supporting action plans will be to examine existing legislation and. have the potential to significantly improve safety. in particular. Victoria will continue to lead the way in identifying. such as speeding. fleet purchasing policies and encouraging vehicle manufacturers to introduce safety features available in many overseas vehicles. road engineering systems. road safety technology Maximising technological developments in the areas of vehicle safety. where appropriate. Under arrive alive 2008-2017. Opportunities exist to stimulate the adoption of safer vehicle technology by raising awareness through publicity.gov. the potential benefits offered by vehicle-based technologies. legislation The enforcement effort can only be effective if underpinned by appropriate legislation.vic. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 52 www.hoW the strategY Will Work (continued) The enforcement effort will target key contributing factors to road trauma in Victoria.

older drivers will be encouraged to self-regulate their driving. In addition. Under arrive alive 2008-2017 opportunities to reduce this risk will be investigated. Enforcement technology: Increasing the use of available technology will improve efficiency in enforcing Victoria’s road rules.Researching.gov. the use of conditional licences for medically impaired drivers will be explored. in-car video systems. To maintain safe mobility. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 53 www. and particularly the most vulnerable users. licensing Improving the licensing requirements for Victorian motorists will increase safety for all road users. A key aspect in delivering the Safe System is to match more effectively the speed of vehicles with the inherent safety of our roads and roadsides. These infrastructure projects will be carefully selected to address the most frequent and severe crash types. a variety of speed monitoring equipment including speed camera technology (such as point-to-point and digital cameras). The introduction of a new graduated licensing system. and roadside drug and alcohol testing devices.vic.au . Treatments will include a mix of proven road safety countermeasures and will be complemented by the introduction of innovative treatments flowing from the strategy’s research and development program. will reduce risk for young drivers. such as novice drivers and older drivers. Novice drivers are over represented in crashes by a ratio of three to one compared to experienced drivers and are at particular risk in the first few months of driving.arrivealive. These technologies include automatic number plate recognition (ANPR). Extensive infrastructure based safety improvements will be implemented under arrive alive 2008-2017 to reduce fatalities and serious injuries from the most common crash types on Victoria’s roads. requiring a minimum number of hours of driving practice. Older drivers are at increased risk of serious injury and death due to the fragility associated with the ageing process. trialling and implementing these technologies are a priority for action under arrive alive 2008-2017. infrastructure Improving the safety of roads and roadsides is one of the single most effective measures to reduce the incidence and severity of crashes.

required use of seatbelts. creating a repository of rich information to understand high risk road user behaviours. crashes and their outcomes. A consequence of road trauma can often be the need for a donation of life saving organs. research and data Victoria will remain at the forefront of road safety research through continual interaction with global experts. discouraging any mobile phone use while the vehicle is in motion. These partnerships will provide a better understanding of why crashes happen and how deaths and injuries can be avoided. The opportunity will be made for all Victorian drivers at the time of licence renewal to indicate they are willing to make an organ donation. OHS policies should emphasise safe driving behaviour required of employees. It is important that the collection and analysis of crash related data is continually improved to ensure the ongoing development of innovative and effective road safety countermeasures.au . occupational health and safety (oHs) policies The development of OHS policies used by the Victorian Government and the private sector that address duty of care issues for employees whose work involves driving vehicles has the potential to significantly improve road safety.gov. The selection of safe vehicles by fleet purchasers will be a key means to influence safety on our road system. organ or tissue transplantation could mean a second chance at life.vic.arrivealive. responsible alcohol policies and a zero drug requirement. arrive alive 2008-2017 will establish better data sets and linkages between different agencies. the Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) and other research specialists. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 54 www. A significant step in research will be the establishment of a specific program with MUARC to develop solutions for activities central to achieving strategy goals and ensuring targets are achieved. including travel within speed limits and at an appropriate speed.hoW the strategY Will Work (continued) For people with serious or life threatening injuries or illnesses.

The Ministers will provide leadership in the implementation of arrive alive 2008-2017 and development of future action plans and road safety initiatives.gov. VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 55 www. VicRoads. implementing local programs and drawing attention to road safety issues important to their communities. its agencies and the wider community. the Transport Accident Commission and the Department of Justice. and by continuing to contribute to the development of road safety initiatives.managing the strategY arrive alive 2008-2017 will be managed in partnership with community organisations and through a road safety management structure that includes the Premier and government ministers. with major roles in advocacy. Community members will continue to play a central role in reducing Victoria’s road toll by accepting their responsibilities as law abiding road users. Victoria Police and the Department of Justice are responsible for delivering the key initiatives under the strategy.au . increasing the understanding of road safety issues in their communities. and senior officers of Victoria Police.arrivealive. led by the three ministers responsible for road safety in Victoria - the Minister for Roads and Ports. organisations and individuals throughout Victoria. Successfully implementing the arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy will depend upon the support and efforts of state and local government. communities. TAC. The support of Victoria’s Members of Parliament is an important element in the success of road safety initiatives. The Government will continue its co-ordinated approach to road safety. The Victorian Government will continue to support the work of the Road Safety Committee and continue to encourage all-party support for Victoria’s arrive alive 2008-2017 strategy. VicRoads. and will rely heavily on maintaining and building stakeholder and community involvement. the Minister for Police and Emergency Services and the Minister responsible for the Transport Accident Commission (TAC). Local government and RoadSafe Community Road Safety Councils will continue to be important road safety partners at the local level. A key feature of Victoria’s road safety framework is the Parliamentary Road Safety Committee. comprising Members of Parliament from all political parties. Partnerships Victoria’s road safety achievements have been delivered through strong and co-ordinated partnerships between government.vic.

arrivealive.roaD safetY management strUctUre managing anD co-orDinating the strategY VICTORIA’S ROAD SAFETY STRATEGY: ARRIVE ALIVE 2008-2017 56 www.au .gov.vic.

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