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Lokalisasi Taktil (ujung jari, telapak tangan, lengan awah, lengan atas, tengkuk) Kemampuan untuk menentukan tempat rangsang taktil (sebaran reseptor taktil)
CHEMICAL TRANSMISSION OF SYNAPTIC ACTIVITY
The fact that transmission at most synapses is chemical is of great physiologic and pharmacologic importance. Nerve endings have been called biological transducers that convert electrical energy into chemical energy. In broad terms, this conversion process involves the synthesis of the transmitter agents, their storage in synaptic vesicles, and their release by the nerve impulses into the synaptic cleft. The secreted transmitters then act on appropriate receptors on the membrane of the postsynaptic cell and are rapidly removed from the synaptic cleft by diffusion, metabolism, and, in many instances, reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. All these processes, plus the postreceptor events in the postsynaptic neuron, are regulated by many physiologic factors and at least in theory can be altered by drugs. Therefore, pharmacologists should be able to develop drugs that regulate not only somatic and visceral motor activity but also emotions, behavior, and all the other complex functions of the brain.
Chemistry of Transmitters
One suspects that a substance is a transmitter if it is unevenly distributed in the nervous system and its distribution parallels that of its receptors and synthesizing and catabolizing enzymes. Additional evidence includes demonstration that it is released from appropriate brain regions in vitro and that it produces effects on single target neurons when applied to their membranes by means of a micropipette (microiontophoresis). Many transmitters and enzymes involved in their synthesis and catabolism have been localized in nerve endings by immunocytochemistry, a technique in which antibodies to a given substance are labeled and applied to brain and other tissues. The antibodies bind to the substance, and the location of the substance is then determined by locating the label with the light microscope or electron microscope. In situ hybridization histochemistry, which permits localization of the mRNAs for particular synthesizing enzymes or receptors, has also been a valuable tool. Identified neurotransmitters can be divided into broad categories or families based on their chemical structure; some are amines, some are amino acids, and many are polypeptides. Some are purines, and NO and CO (see below) are gases. In addition, some derivatives of arachidonic acid may be transmitters. It is worth noting that most of these substances are not only released into synaptic clefts, where they produce highly localized effects. In other situations, they diffuse into the ECF
cerebral cortex. preganglionic autonomic endings. Hypothalamus. spinal cord. and muscle vasodilator endings. they are also released by neurons into the bloodstream as hormones. brain stem. spinal cord. retina. Cerebellum. Visual cortex. neurons mediating presynaptic inhibition. parts of neocortex. many parts of brain. Posterior pituitary. Hypothalamus. other tachykinins Vasopressin Endings of primary afferent neurons mediating nociception. retina. Gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) Polypeptides Substance P. cerebellum.around the synapse and exert effects at some distance from their site of release (paracrine communication. Hypothalamus. thalamus. retina. brain stem. brain stem. Norepinephrine Epinephrine Serotonin Histamine Excitatory amino acids Glutamate Aspartate Inhibitory amino acids Glycine Cerebral cortex. Amines Dopamine SIF cells in sympathetic ganglia. forebrain. limbic system. Table 4±1. spinal cord. see Chapter 1: The General & Cellular Basis of Medical Physiology).a Substance Acetylcholine Location Myoneural junction. In some cases. other parts of brain. endings of some interneurons in retina. striatum. postganglionic sympathetic sweat gland. endings of some amacrine cells in retina. retina. hypothalamus. and other parts of hypothalamus. Neurons mediating direct inhibition in spinal cord. limbic system. Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators in the Nervous System of Mammals. periaqueductal gray. cerebellum. median eminence. spinal cord. cerebral cortex. medulla. Most postganglionic sympathetic endings. A somewhat arbitrary compilation of most of the substances currently known or suspected to be synaptic mediators or neuromodulators is presented in Table 4±1. . many parts of brain.
hippocampus. Noradrenergic. rostroventral medulla. Hypothalamus. preganglionic autonomic endings.Oxytocin CRH TRH GRH Somatostatin Posterior pituitary. Substantia gelatinosa. many other parts of CNS. medulla. Hypothalamus. retina. retina. other parts of brain. Hypothalamus. Glucagon derivatives Calcitonin gene-related peptideNeuropeptide Y . retina. circumventricular organs. brain stem. thalamus. substantia gelatinosa. hypothalamus. periaqueductal gray. Posterior pituitary. cerebral cortex. retina. Hypothalamus. retina. hypothalamus. Median eminence of hypothalamus. Periaqueductal gray. olfactory bulb. spinal cord. Neurohypophysis. Cholecystokinin (CCK-4 and Cerebral cortex. Median eminence of hypothalamus. other derivatives of proopiomelanocortin Endomorphins Dynorphins Thalamus. CCK-8) Vasoactive intestinal peptide Neurotensin Gastrin-releasing peptide Gastrin Motilin Secretin Postganglionic cholinergic neurons. medulla oblongata. Hypothalamus. and other neurons in medulla. thalamus. other parts of brain. cerebral cortex. cerebellum. medial forebrain bundle. taste pathways. striatum. retina. Hypothalamus. some sensory neurons. hypothalamus. Median eminence of hypothalamus. hypothalamus. GnRH Endothelins Enkephalins -Endorphin. retina. substantia gelatinosa. striatum. Endings of primary afferent neurons. adrenergic. other parts of brain. autonomic nervous system. septum. cerebral cortex. retina. brain stem. Median eminence of hypothalamus. Median eminence of hypothalamus. sensory nerves. brain stem. retina.
Autonomic ganglia. CO Lipids Anandamide Brain stem.Activins Inhibins Angiotensin II FMRF amide Galanin Atrial natriuretic peptide Brain natriuretic peptide Other polypeptides Pyrimidine UTP Purines Adenosine ATP Gases NO. Hypothalamus. hippocampus. Especially hypothalamus. midbrain. Hippocampus. brain stem. a Transmitter functions have not been proved for some of the polypeptides. amygdala. CNS. brain stem. habenula. Hypothalamus. Hypothalamus. Hypothalamus. spinal cord. Hypothalamus. Brain stem. cerebellum. Autonomic nervous system. hippocampus. brain stem. spinal cord. olfactory cortex. . basal ganglia. brain stem. cerebellum. Neocortex.