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INTRODUCTION

Genes are the building blocks of heredity. They are passed from parent to child.

They hold DNA, the instructions for making proteins. Proteins do most of the work in the

cells. Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through

asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. Through heredity, variations between

individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection. The

complete set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called

phenotype. Moreover, phenotype is the physical appearance or distinctive trait of an

organism that is visible to the naked eye, Johnsen (1927). The study of the genes,

genetic variation, heredity in living organisms, and generally considered a field of

biology is called genetics.

Sometimes there is a mutation, a change in a gene or genes. The mutation

changes the genes instructions for making a protein, so the protein does not work

properly or is missing entirely. This can cause a medical condition called a genetic

disorder. And one of the common genetic disorders that experiencing nowadays is the

Down syndrome. In every cell in the human body there is nucleus, where genetic

material is stored in genes. Genes carry the codes responsible for all of the inherited

traits of human body and are grouped along rod-like structures called chromosomes.

Typically, the nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of which are

inherited from each parent. Down syndrome occurs when an individual has a full or

partial extra copy of chromosomes 21. Furthermore, down syndrome is a chromosomal

condition that is associated with intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance,

and weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy.

however. Mosaicism or “mosaic down syndrome” is diagnosed when there is a mixture of two types of cells. this case study will provide extent and understandable meaning. About half of all affected children are born with a heart defect. And the other one is translocation. Furthermore. There are different types of down syndrome. Treatment are based on each individual’s physical and intellectual need as well as the personal strengths and limitations. as the embryo develops. It is for one’s information to develop understanding and consideration to the affected people. however. It is understood that people or a child with down syndrome will need to receive proper care physically and socially while living at home and community. . usually chromosome fourteen(14). Thus. It touches on the importance of being aware of down syndrome symptoms. some containing the usual forty-six (46) chromosomes and some containing forty-seven. The purpose of the study is to explain how down syndrome occurs and what is the cause of having it. down syndrome is cannot be cured since it is a natural genetic abnormality of genes. an additional full or partial copy of chromosome twenty-one (21) attaches to another chromosome. Digestive abnormalities. treatment can help many people with down syndrome to live productive lives well to adulthood. such as blockage of the intestine are less common. Down syndrome is usually caused by an error in cell division called “nondisjunction”. the extra chromosomes is replicated in every cell of the body. which accounts for about four percent (4%) of cases of down syndrome. It also provides internal definition of down syndrome. People with down syndrome may have variety of birth defects.

1978. de Leon Elementary School in 1985. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE Rowena G. especially the beginners and still not have any idea about the case of down syndrome. Vida was born on September 2. parents and readers because of the information that the researchers will give. . And she accomplished her college degree at Our Lady of Lourdes College in 1992.Valenzuela City. de Leon High School in 1992. De Leon. She finished her elementary level at Gen T. It gives useful information to be more open-minded and be considerate of the natural happenings in surroundings.Santolan Road. For parents. an explicit and useful information can be collected in this study in answering one’s mind questions regarding to the case that has been focused. her secondary level at Gen T. She live in #4455 Kap.Gen. it can gives better understanding and clear insights about the possible outcome that may lead into one’s mind awareness and can be prepared if it may happen. In addition. She is now 39 years old. II. It can help people in becoming well-knowledgeable about the situation of the affected people. T. To the readers. It can help in students. it is hoped that this study will be the beginning of an ongoing body of the particular case into the issue of being aware about down syndrome. The findings of this study will redound to the benefit of society considering that down syndrome is one of the most common known genetic abnormalities of human being. The significance of the study is to provide the informative insight into the issue.Rado St.

there are studies that had been report the high incidence of a sleep disturbance to the adolescence and children who have a down syndrome. People with down syndrome also experience of hearing loss that lead to difficulties of developing speech and language. Also Sleep problems can lead to behavior problems and impair learning. fifty percent (50%) of babies born with down syndrome are also born with a congenital heart defect. Infections are prone among people with down syndrome especially during the five years of life. another kind of health problems is vision. She was married with Mr. There are different kind of health problems that being experience by the people who have down syndrome like dementia. Currently. she is working as a SPED teacher at Gen T. people with down syndrome are delays in developing of their effective focusing. people who have a down syndrome are more likely engage to vision disorder such as astigmatism that prevents from seeing clearly. When a baby was born with down syndrome. ADVERSARIES Health problems are common to the people who have a down syndrome than the general population. Ronielo Vida.She finished in BSE-History and MaEd Sped. due to the anatomical differences and also complication by the weaker immune system. III. it is prone to the higher risk of certain health problems. de Leon Elementary School. dementia is the common problem of the people who have down syndrome the inability to thinks clearly or to understand what is real or not. mild or moderate hearing loss affects the children for . depth perception and sharpness of vision. a high school teacher and blessed with four kids. hearing is extremely important for mental development and learning.

long patience and determination are the qualities of a person they needed to be with them. . people are living in the world of discrimination. There are many health problems that being faces by the people who have down syndrome until now our medical advances their studies to increase the life expectancy of people with down syndrome. Down syndrome people are very sensitive. Adjustment. Most important. They are usually have a slow cognitive processing. Everyone must be treated fairly and not accordingly. they are not active in academic performance. they deserve to be treated in a special manner because they are jewels that need to be protected and secured. and physically poor due to the health defection such as heart.learning new words. IV. They are more likely to consider as a kid. Abnormalities do not matter at all. If one is being discriminated then the other person is the discriminator. But truly sometimes. they are the type of sweet-loving people and surely one’s might carried away. Basically. Otherwise. Nowadays. there are some cases that cannot be prevented because of the judgemental people that surrounds. INSIGHTS People are often judgemental. They used to judge other’s disabilities without even knowing the behind story of such person. They were blessings from above. People should not only see the physical aspects but also the one that is within.

V.  What are the good things or benefits in taking a person with down syndrome (Trisonomy 21)? She answered. Vida was asked this way:  What are the problems that you experience when you take care of a person with a Down Syndrome (Trisonomy 21)? She answered. And they are more likely close to my heart”. Since they have slow cognitive processing mind. As well as being long patience. Moreover. Rowena G. They are not physically active but they excel in some ways.  How does having down syndrome (Trisonomy 21) affect you in your daily life? She answered. it is hard for us to give instructions to them. adjustment is one of the factor you may consider to invest. Mrs. they are sensitive people but a sweet-loving kind of person. “In taking care of DS people. like being generous and helpful”. and determined to help or teach them. their health especially heart. So if they are sweet to you. “Like what I’ve said. you might carried away”. APPENDICES Our group provided few questions for the interview.  What are the adjustments made when dealing with the problems in taking care of a person with Down Syndrome (Trisonomy 21)? . They are more likely babies that need extra care because they are very sensitive. “There are lot of problems to encounter when it comes to taking care of DS people.

I enjoyed working and helping them as their second mother”. they don’t want to be shouted by others. Lastly. being long patience. They must be treated special and of course talk them sensitively. Patience is really important when dealing with them. Then. . But most of all. their being sweet and I was really carried away. “Since they are very sensitive.She answered. you must be the one to adjust for them.