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EAT102 | Mechanics and Materials Eng.

EXPERIMENT 1

EQUILIBRIUM OF BEAM
LEVEL 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Beams are structure members which offer resistance to bending due to applied loads.
Most beams are long prismatic bars, and the loads are usually applied normal to the axes
of the bars.

Beams are undoubtedly the most important of all structural members, so it is important to
understand the basic theory underlying their design. To analyze the load carrying
capacities of a beam we must first establish the equilibrium requirements of beam as a
whole and any portion of it considered separately.

For a beam on two supports as shown in Fig.1 there are two unknown reactions, hence
two equations of equilibrium must be set up. It is necessary to start by taking moments
about a convenient point to reduce the number of unknown forces. By considering
moment about any supporting point, there will be only one unknown force left. The
second reaction can then be found from the equation of vertical equilibrium.

Another type of beam which projects from a support into mid-air is called a cantilever.
Here the two unknown reactions are a fixed moment and a force which can be
calculated independently of each other.

Simply Supported Beam

Figure 1 : Beam AB with acting force

P, VA and VB are acting force on beam AB

Take moments about A

P.a - VB.L = 0 ( M = 0 )

VB = P.a/L

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EAT102 | Mechanics and Materials Eng.

For vertical equilibrium


VA - P + VB = 0 ( F = 0 )

VA = P - VB

For several loads

P1.a1 + P2.a2 + P3.a3 - VB.L = 0 ( M = 0 )

VA - P1 - P2 - P3 + VB = 0 ( F = 0 )

2.0 APPARATUS

HST1/4 - Equilibrium of a Beam

1. HST 3105 Newton Scale


2. HST 3101 Reaction Balance Assembly (5 kg scale)
3. HSA 108 Stirrup
4. HWH.2 Hanger 100mm x 0.5N
5. HST3102 Beam with scale.
6. HST104W Set of Weights 5N,10N, 20N
7. HAC12b Spring Balance Assembly (SBA)

3.0 PROCEDURE

1. Make sure the distance between Left and right SBA is 1000 mm
2. Place stirrup and load hanger at 50 cm at scale beam. Adjust the SBA to zero
reading.
3. Place 10 N load on the hanger (50 cm). Record and sketch your finding in Data
Sheet 1 , experiment row no. 1. Then remove the load.
4. Place 40 N load on the hanger (50 cm). Record and sketch your finding in Data
Sheet 1, experiment row no. 2. Then remove the load and stirrup.
5. Place stirrup and load hanger 20 cm from left SBA. Adjust the SBA to zero
reading.
6. Place 10 N load on the hanger (20 cm). Record and sketch your finding in Data
Sheet 1, experiment row no. 3. Then remove the load.
7. Place 40 N load on the hanger (20 cm). Record and sketch your finding in Data
Sheet 1, experiment row no. 4. Then remove the load and stirrup
8. Place stirrups and load hangers at 3 positions: Hanger 1 at 25 cm , hanger 2 at
60 cm and hanger 3 at 80 cm. Adjust the RBR to zero reading.
9. Place 20 N load on the hanger 1. Place 15 N at hanger 2. Place 30N at hanger
3. Record and sketch your finding in Data Sheet 1, experiment row no. 5. Then
remove the load and stirrup

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EAT102 | Mechanics and Materials Eng.

10. Calculate the SBA (L) and SBA (R ) in theory section for all 5 rows. Compare
these value to the experimental reading.

4.0 RESULTS

Test data to be recorded in the tables as given in Appendix (Data sheet 1)

5.0 DISCUSSION

1. Based on the data collected in Data Sheet 1, purpose the suitable way to plot
the graph for the experimental and theoretical case.

2. Compare experimental and theoretical results. Are experimental result same as


theoretical result? Comment and explain for each row.

2. Discuss the factors that could affect the experiment result.

3. Discuss conditions that will increase the moment in beam.

6.0 CONCLUSIONS

Comment on the objectives and the result of the experiment.

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