Chapter 4 Chesapeake An inlet of the Atlantic Ocean separating the Delmarva Peninsula from mainland Maryland and Virginia

. Explored and charted by John Smith in 1608, it is an important link in the Intercostals Waterway. Indentured Servants A laborer under contract of an employer for some period of time, usually three to seven years, in exchange for transportation there, food, drink, clothing, and other necessities. Over half of all white immigrants to the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries consisted of indentured servants. Bacon A wealthy colonist of the Virginia Colony, famous as the instigator of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676, which collapsed when Bacon himself died. Governor Berkeley He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. As proprietor of Green Spring Plantation in James City County, he experimented with activities such as growing silkworms as part of his efforts to expand the tobacco-based economy of the colony of Virginia. Royal African Company The Royal African Company was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in the English Restoration of 1660. Middle Passage A passage of African people from Africa to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for African markets with commercial goods, which were in turn traded for kidnapped Africans who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the enslaved Africans were then sold or traded as commodities for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the triangular trade. Ring shout Dance ritual, first practiced by African slaves in the West Indies and the United States, in which worshippers move in a circle while shuffling their feet and clapping their hands.

who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. were arrested and jailed. Salem Witch Trials A series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court of trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex. between February 1692 and May 1693. leading to a greater measure of personal liberty and democracy in Britain. contains a description of that religious feeling which certainly exists in some exceptional portions of the New-England of to-day. in which militia captain Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691 in the midst of Britain's "Glorious Revolution". Nathaniel Hawthorne His writing centers on New England. Harvard Harvard was founded in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. William and Mary To end the Glorious Revolution. explaining the working of a girl's mind.1712 NYC Slave Revolt An uprising in New York City of 23 enslaved Africans who killed nine whites and injured another six. and began a new co-operation between the Parliament and the monarchs. New England Conscience Nearly 200 pages. Halfway Covenant A form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662 by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard. Leisler’s Rebellions An uprising in late 17th century colonial New York. . More than three times that number of blacks. Suffolk. and Middlesex counties of colonial Massachusetts. many works featuring moral allegories with a Puritan inspiration. 70. William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights.

Africans evolved a language with elements of English and African dialect called Gullah. They started mixing the cultures in elements of speech. They accepted no unordinary behavior. was the nature of the capitalist economic system itself. or participate in political life. and its expansion in North America. the Yankees built an international trade. Most of the people around there were Quakers. New England Yankees originally followed the Puritan tradition. and stayed in the kitchen primarily. a dance Africans performed in Africa. were brought from the slaves and contributed to the development of jazz. Providence and New London. The ring shout. an English woman lost her maiden name and personal identity. and other labor-intensive agricultural products sold on the North American and European markets. as expressed in Congregational churches 7. Native-born African Americans contributed to the growing slave culture. 4. meaning she could not own property. 3. so they just believed what they heard. Much of the merchant profits were reinvested in the textile and machine tools industries. and folkways. file lawsuits. and if something unusual happened they blamed someone with no proof. religion. Slaves were paid very low wages to ensure the slave owners made unusually high profits from the cultivation of cotton. Salem. In the south there was a lack of education and church and life expectancy was short. In religion. One of the underlying causes of slavery. stretching to China by 1800. There were more families and longer lives lived. Women taught basic reading and writing skills. When married. From New England seaports such as Boston. whereas in New England it was the opposite. 6. even when widowed.2. Other contributions to the American culture by the Africans were the banjo and bongo drums. . The role of wives was to raise and nurture healthy children and support their husbands. tobacco. 5. Off the islands of South Carolina’s coast.

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