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Prof.Dr. Aynur ERAY


Geothermal Power and
Geothermal Energy
Ceren Sources
21023691 GENALOLU Geothermal Occurrence
Geothermal Regions of
The World
Geothermal Electric
Power Generation


Geothermal Power and Geothermal Energy Sources

Geothermal Occurrence

Geothermal Regions of The World

Geothermal Electric Power Generation

Geothermal Power Plants in Turkey

Geothermal in the Worlds

Geotermal in the Future

Energy concept and continuity of energy sources has been one of the world's most
important issues and problems. When we use unconsciously of nonrenewable energy
resources, these resources causes pollution of environment and atmosphere.
Therefor people have begun to use renewable energy.One of the renewable energy
sources is geothermal energy.

Geothermal Power
The word geothermal comes from Greek words geo (earth) and thermal (heat)
meaning heat derived from the earth.It is the thermal energy contained in the fluids of
rocks that is filled in the fractures and pore spaces within the upper crust. Heat is
transferred by fluids and is stored in reservoirs. The heat energy is obtained from hot
water, steam, dry steam and hot dry rocks.

Properties of geothermal energy resources

Its a renewable forms of energy

Its a clean source of power

It can be easily determined

Easily produced

Low cost production

Less environmentally harmful

Geothermal Power Resources

Magma carries heat from the center of the earth. Heat is transferred to underground
reservoirs in hot water, steam and gases. Reservoirs close to the surface can be
drilled into. Hot water, steam and gases leak out from these cracks.
Geothermal energy sources; normal heat gradient areas, radiogenic area, high heat
flow regions, geothermal fields under pressure, point heat sources can be classified.

Geothermal Occurrence
The heat is provided by that hot magma mass and due to geological changes, molten
rocks formed in the deeper hot magma of the earth's crust are pushed upward and
trapped in certain regions called hot spots. When the underground water comes in
the contact with hotstop, steam is generated. These waters are rich in
minerals.Heated water rises and water is removed out of the cracks in the vapor

Schematic representation of an ideal geothermal system

The steam trapped in rocks is routed through a pipe to a turbine and use to generate
Geothermal Electric Power Generation Systems
Dry Steam Power Plant

This is the oldest and simple type of geothermal power plant. These plants are mainly
used to areas located in saturated and hot geothermal steam. Dry Steam Plants use
hydrothermal fluids that have to be dry steam. The dry steam will be directed to a
turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the
need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine. For dry steam resources either
atmospheric exhaust turbines or condensing steam turbines are used.

Atmospheric exhaust steam turbines are the simplest and, in capital cost, the
cheapest of all geothermal cycles.

Condensing exhaust conventional steam turbine plants are a thermodynamic

improvement on the atmospheric exhaust design as, instead of discharging steam
from the turbine to atmosphere, it is discharged to a condensing chamber that is
maintained at a very low absolute pressure, typically 0.12 bar. Due to the greater
pressure drop across a condensing turbine much more power is generated from a
given steam flow, at typical inlet conditions, compared with an atmospheric exhaust
with condenser and without condenser

Geysers is the worlds largest single source of geothermal power. These plants emit
only excess steam and very minor amounts of non condensable gases.

Single and Double Flash Steam Power Plant

This is the most common type of geothermal power plant.Hydrothermal fluids above
182C can be used in flash plants to make electricity. The steam, once it has been
separated from the water, is piped to the powerhouse where it is used to drive the
steam turbine. The steam is condensed after leaving the turbine, creating a partial
vacuum and thereby maximizing the power generated by the turbine-generator. The
steam is usually condensed either in a direct contact condenser, or a heat exchanger
type condenser. In a direct contact condenser the cooling water from the cooling
tower is sprayed onto and mixes with the steam. The condensed steam then forms
part of the cooling water circuit, and a substantial portion is subsequently evaporated
and is dispersed into the atmosphere through the cooling tower. Excess cooling
water called blow down is often disposed of in shallow injection wells.
Binary Cycle Power Plant

Most geothermal areas contain moderate-temperature water (below 400F). Energy

is extracted from these fluids in binary-cycle power plants.

A binary cycle power plant is a type of geothermal power plant that allows cooler
geothermal reservoirs to be used. Pumps are used to pump hot water from a
geothermal well, through a heat exchanger and the cooled water is returned to the
underground reservoir. A second working or binary fluid with a low boiling point is
pumped at high pressure through the heat exchanger, where it is vaporized and then
directed through a turbine.

The vapor exiting yhe turbine is then condensed by cold air radiators or cold water
and cycled back through the heat exchanger.
Combine Single Flash Binary Cycle Power Plant

Combined Cycle power plants are a combination of conventional steam turbine

technology and binary cycle technology. By combining both technologies, higher
overall utilization efficiencies can be gained, as the conventional steam turbine is
more efficient at generation of power from high temperature steam, and the binary
cycle from the lower temperature separated water. In addition, by replacing the
condenser-cooling tower cooling system in a conventional plant by a binary plant, the
heat available from condensing the spent steam after it has left the steam turbine can
be utilized to produce more power.

Power Generation Plants

Denizli-Kzldere Geothermal Plant

Dora-1 Geothermal Power Plant

Bereket Geothermal Power Plant

Germencik-merbeyli Geothermal Power Plant

Dora-2 Geothermal Power Plant

Kleki . Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynaklar Arasnda Jeotermal Enerjinin Yeri
ve Trkiye Asndan nemi, Anakara niversitesi Ziraat Fakltesi Peyzaj
Mimarl Blm

Iksoluu M.,Kurban M., Dokur E. Jeotermal Enerji Santrallerinin Trkiye

Asndan Deerlendirilmesi, ELECO2012 Elektrik-Elektronik ve Bilgisayar
Mhendislii Sempozyumu, 29 Kasm-01 Aralk 2012, Bursa

Kl, F.., Kl,M.K. 2013 Jeotermal Enerji ve Trkiye, Mhendis ve

Makine, cilt 54, say639, s.45-46

nal E., Yarbay R. Z. Trkiyede Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynaklar Potansiyeli

Ve Gelecei, 2010

Kaymakolu F., Kayaba A. Elektrik retiminde Jeotermal Enerjinin

Kullanm Ve leriye Dnk Perspektifler