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COMPUTER BASICS

Introduction :-

Computers are now affecting every sphere of human activity and being about many changes in Industry, Government, Education, Medicine, Law, and Social Science even in arts like music and painting. It has many application:1) Design buildings, bridges and machine. 2) Control space vehicles. 3) Aid in preparing country perspective plan. 4) Play games like chess and video game. In fact any task can be done by using computer so it is essential to know about computer.

What is Computer?
Computer is an electronic device, which takes input in required form. Where Input is unprocessed facts. Process is command given to computer, Output is result given by computer. INPUT PROCESS

OUTPUT

“Computer is a term which is derived from word compute. To compute means to count or to calculate. Computer is a device which is used for complex calculation and now days it can be a multipurpose device. "

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Characteristic of Computer :1)

Accuracy :-

Computer work with very high accuracy. It gives very accurate results provided that information given to computer should be very correct. This principle of working of compute is called as GIGO (Garbage in Garbage Out.).

2)

Speed :-

Computer works with very high speed. Speed of computer depends on speeds on speed of microprocessor fixed in CPU (Central –Processing Unit.). The basic unit used to measure speed of computer is Hz (Hertz).

3)

Versatility :-

Computer is a versatile device. It can be adopted or used in any field like education , banking , railway reservation , entertainment. Its principle of working is same in any field.i.e. a) It takes input from user. b) Process on given data. c) Gives output in required form. 4) Deligency:Computer is a tired less device which works without any problem 24 hrs.in a day. 5) Automation:Computer works automatically without any supervision. 6) Storage:Computer can store large amount of data in its memory.

History and Generation of Computer :-

First computer developed for calculation purpose in Abacus then in 17th century by Napier Bone are used.

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PH:22820846 General purpose electronic computers using valves were developed in 1940. In 1823 Charles Babbage an English mathematician designed for automatic computing machine for automatic computing of mathematical tables. That machine is called as Differential Engine. First Computer developed is known as ENIAC ( Electronic Numeric Integrator and Calculator). 

Generation of Computer :-

The rapid growth and availability of improved electronic component have resulted in making computer smaller and enhanced their reliability and reduced their cost . High speed, large memory are special features in evolution of computer. 1)

1st Generation :-

The 1st electronic computer was completed in 1946 by a team lead by Prof.Eckert and Prof.Mauchly at university of Pennsylvania in U.S.A. This computer is called as ENIC ( Electronic Numeric Integrator and Calculator.) It uses high speed vacuum tubes. It has small memory. It took about 200 microsecond to add two digits and 2800 microsecond to multiply. A idea to store machine instruction in memory of computer along with data was introduced by John Von Neumann in 1946. The first computer using this principle was introduced a Cambridge university called as EDSAC ( Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator.). In 1951 UNIVAC I built by Univac Division of Remington Rand and delivered in 1951. It also uses vacuum tubes . They has limited life. During 1st generation computer programming was mainly done in machine language.

2)

2nd Generation :- ( 1955-1965)

A big revolution in electronic took place with invention of transistor in 1946. Transistors are made up of germanium semiconductor material were highly reliable compared to tube. They occupy less space so size of computer become less and speed of computer gets increased. In this generation magnetic cores are invented for storage. Memory capacity in second generation is about 100 KB. Magnetic disk are also invented. The highly reliability of computer led to development of high level language . Fortran, Cobol, Algol, SNOBOL were developed during this generation. New profession in computing such as System Analysis and Programmers emerged during second generation.

2)

3rd Generation :- (1965-1975)

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PH:22820846 It began in 1965 with germanium transistors being replaced silicon transistor i.e. IC ( Integrated Circuits) consisting of transistors and capacitors growing on single chip of silicon eliminating wired interconnection. From small scale integrated circuits technology developed to medium scale integrated circuit. This increases speed of CPU which carry out 1 million instruction per second. The size of main memory reached to 4 MB. Magnetic disk technology improved rapidly and storage capacity become feasible. Many important online system storage capacity become feasible. Many important online system become feasible. High level languages become improved e.g. Fortran IV, COBOL 68, PL/1. 3) 4
th

Generation :-

Medium scale integration circuits developed to large scale integration and very large scale integration. Magnetic core memories are replaced by semiconductor memories. Floppy disk provide a low cost, high capacity backup. Network of computer and distributed computer system have been developed. A significant development in software is development of concurrent programming language. There is development of time shared interactive system. The effective cost of computing has become down. e.g. Intel 8080, Intel 8088, Intel 80286, Pentium I, II, III.

4) 5

th

Generation :-

It is estimated from 1990. It is now possible to go specialized VLSI chips at low cost. Thus an architecture in technology and allows an easier and more natural algorithm. Functional languages are developed . In this generation there is development of artificial intelligence. Cost of computer become very less . Speed , Storage , Capacity become very high.

Types of Computer :Computer are classified on the base of CPU speed work length directly addressable memory capacity. Computer are classified in following four types.

1)

Micro Computer :-

Consist of microprocessor chip as CPU. It uses RAM, ROM for storing program, data, floppy disk, and hard disk for permanent storage. Early microprocessor has word length of 8 bit . But now it is 16,32,64 bits. Only one person can use it. It has limited capacity of input and output. They have wide range of application. They are used as parts of instrument, controller of plant and robots and as general purpose computer. They are used as personal computer and as home computer e.g. Desktop, Notebook, Personal Digital Assistant.

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2)

Mini Computers :-

Minicomputers are faster than microcomputer. The speed of CPU is more than 1 million instruction per second. They are emerged in 1960. They are also called as midrange computer. e.g. IBM system / 36 IBM system / 38 IBM AS400. They are generally used at medium scale industries.

3)

Mainframe Computers :-

They are also called as Host Computers. They have more processing speed than micro and mini computers. They are also called as Midi computers. They are also called as Midi computers. The minimum processing speed is 10 million instruction per second. They support large compilation intensive scientific and engineering problem and large scale commercial problem. They are capable of greed data storage. They are used in company like LIC, Banks etc. e.g. IBM 4300, IBM 4340, NEC ACOS mainframe. It is designed to support hundred and thousand of user. They have wide range of software and peripherals.

4)

Super Computers :-

It is most powerful type of computer. They are used by very large scale industries such as NASA.e.g. It performs numeric calculator for weather prediction, compiled molecular structural calculation. They need additional mainframe computer to prepare jobs and present them in right order. The above are types of computer according to processing speed and capacity of computer . According to purpose of computer they are of three types.

1)

Analog Computer :-

These computers are used for measuring purpose. e.g. Voltmeter used to measure voltage. Thermometer used to measure temperature. They do not perform any calculation but gives number result.

2)

Digital Computer :-

Theses are used for counting or accounting purpose. It always convey all input in machine language or i.e. in 0 and 1. There fore these computers are called as Digital Computer.e.g. Microcomputers, Personal Computers etc.

3)

Hybrid Computer :5

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PH:22820846 Hybrid computer are the computer which perform bot task i.e. measuring and counting or computing. They are mixture of analog and digital computers.

FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF COMPUTER

Organization of Computer :Typical computer is basically made up of four main units 1) Input Unit 2) Output Unit. 3) Process Unit. 4) Storage.

MEMORY CONTROL UNIT ALU

INPUT

OUTPUT

1)

Input Unit :-

To accept information /data from user Input unit . The device used to accept data from used are called as input device. The main function of input device is to represent user understandable data in machine understandable format. e.g. Keyboard, mouse, scanner.

2) Output

Unit : 6

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PH:22820846 This unit is used to produce information or result. The main function of output device is to represent result in machine understandable form into user understandable form. e.g. Monitor

CPU :CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. It is heart of Computer. Each and Every process is performed in CPU.
.3) a) b) c) d) e) It performs Arithmetic Operation i.e. Addition ,Subtraction, Multiply and Divide. It also performs Logical Operation i.e. Comparison where result is either true false. It controls Input output operation. It controls internal data movements. Data manipulation.

There are three main parts of CPU I.

Arithmetic and Logic Unit :-

This unit performs actual arithmetic and logical operation. It perform all addition, subtraction , multiplication, division and comparison operation like <,>,=,<=>,=,<> etc. II.

Control Unit :-

It coordinates operation of hardware. It also coordinate the flow and execution of data and instruction that are fed into memory. It fetches reads instruction and data from memory unit decode them and sent them to ALU. The output from ALU is fetched by control unit and send to various output devices and memory. III.

Memory Unit :-

Memory unit store data, instruction and result. Data and instruction are passed to ALU. The Control Unit and internal storage are linked together by a set of parallel electrical conduction lines a called as Buses. They carries data and address. The frequency with which the pro9cessor execute instruction is called as clock speed. The frequency or speed of computer is measured in Hz. or megahertz i.e.(MHz). 

Application of Computer :1) 2) 3) 4) 5) To store large data. For entertainment purpose. For communication purpose. To generate graphics and images e.g. cartoons. In any field like Banking , LIC, Railway reservation or in any business. 

Limitation of Computer :7

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PH:22820846 1) 2) 3) 4) Can not think their own. Do not learn from experience. It has not ability to understand. It can not handle combinatorial explosion.

Anatomy of Computer System :A computer system is made up of three major components. 1)

Computer Hardware :-

It includes all physical parts of computer which can be seen or touch. e.g. Keyboard, Mouse, CPU. 2)

Computer Software :-

Computer programs that instruct computer how to process data and generate required information is called as computer software.

3)

Computer Personnel :-

They are also called as user . They are the people who prepare data for computerized input and write computer programs or handles computer programs.

COMPUTER PERIPHERALS
Computer peripheral means input output devices that form essential link between user and computer system. 

Input Devices :-

Input devices are used to get raw data into the computer. 1)

Keyboard :-

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*. The alphanumeric keys comprises of alpha bates i. b) Special Keys. M.?.com 9 . a) Alphanumeric keys.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. The function keys are used to perform a set of operations by a key stroke . The shift key alter the meaning of character key which is depressed at same time. There are three type of keys on general keyboard. Caps lock etc. Delete key.:. c) Functional Keys. It can place cursor or point an item. The Esc key is used to escape the function .#.e.| etc. 2 Mouse :One of the most popular type or specialized input device is mouse. It enables the user to manipulate a pointer or arrow on a terminal or microprocessor.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This input resembles typewriters. F1 is used to display window help. It is used to enter text data into the computer. It is used as pointing device.g. Enter Key. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).i.”.e. The Ctrl and Alt key generate some function with some other key. The special keys perform specific task e. It help in pointing icon or tiny picture. (A-Z or a-z) and (0-9) and also contain some special keys i. Backspace Key.e. <.>.

It typically uses radio waves or infrared light waves to communicate with system unit. As we move the mouse the roller rotates and control the pointer on screen . It detect presence or absence of mark on a paper. With coded spacing and thickness. It can be used on any surface.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 It draw line picture on screen. 1) Mechanical Mouse :- It has rotating ball on the bottom and is attached with a Corel to the system. They are designed in shape of handles. Track Ball and touch surface are the pointing devices like mouse. It does not require periodic cleaning. Since the cursor follows the way the user hand movers the mouse. It emits and senses light to detect mouse movement. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 2) Optical Mouse :It has no moving parts. Data is coded in form of light and dark bars. 6) Character and mark recognitions devices :- These are devices which recognizes special character and marks. They read character printed with magnetic ink i. Touch Screen is with laptops. Like Mouse Roller Ball. M. a) MICR :- Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. on bottom of the check.com 10 . The mouse can be of three type.e. It uses light rays to detect character. 3) Cordless or Wire less Mouse :- It is a battery powered device. 5) Barcode Reader :- They are generally used in superstore. it reads unusual nos. These are called as barcodes which are commonly used to identify Items . 4) Joystick :It is a most popular device for computer games. the cursor has a sense of pointing something on screen.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. b) OMR :- Optical Mark Recognition.

graphs. The advantages of these monitor are low cost and excellent resolution.com 11 . Their advantages are that they are not bulky. After image is scanned it comes in memory of the computer then it gets stored permently or printed on paper. being keyed in is displayed on screed and monitor message and processed information is also displayed on screen.  Output Devices :- Output devices are the devices which are used to obtain output from computer. Printer and monitor are two output devices which are used to obtain output from computer . The four most common are Standard SVGA XGA SXGA UXGA Pixel 800 x 600 1024 x 768 1280 x 1024 1600 x 1200 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). One important input device is microphone which is used to record sound.e.output (I/O).e. The Scanner can be flatbed or Optical Scanner.. images pictures. To indicate monitor resolution capability several standards have evolved. It is measured in pixel.e. The monitors clarify is indicated by its resolution. M. the disadvantages are that they are expensive and require more power. They are also known as LCD i. 6) Scanning Device :- It reads data from source like text document .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Liquid Crystal Display Monitors. Monitor can be of two type. The combination of keyboard and VDU which is an input .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 c) OCR :Optical Character Recognition. The disadvantages are that they are large in size. a) CRT Monitor :- They uses Cathode Ray Tube that looks like a television picture tube. It detect special preprinted character . 1) Monitor :- It is also called VDU ( Visual Display Unit ) It is a device used for interactive processing i. data i. b) Flat panel Monitor :- These are portable monitors. Now a days there are so many input devices are sued like image capturing devices like camera or web cam.

Printers are classified by how they point. They are more expensive than all other printers.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Using monitor we can obtain softcopy of output. They are high color quality and expensive. They are used in scientific lab and costly. b) Laser Printer: - Laser Printer can print one page at a time . MEMORY Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). a) Ink Jet Printers :- Droplets of Ink are electrically charged after leaving a nozzle.d) Chain Printers. The printing quality of this printer is very high.:- They are expensive than DMP. They can be used in networks. plotter which is special type of printer.com 12 . They can produce high quality multicolor printing. Also There are many types of other output devices like head phone or speaker for audio output. In general they are used where height quantity of paper printing is required . It uses a laser beam for printing.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 2) Printers :- Printers are used to produce hard copy of the output. b) Thermal Printer: - These printer uses heat element to produce image on heat sensitive paper. There are so many printers are available in market. c) Dot Matrix Printer: - It is a versatile and low cost printer. M.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). we can read information RAM and also write data in RAM. 512MB. It is also called as Volatile Memory. It is read / writes memory i. to increase the speed of computer. Computer can store large amount of data in its memory temporary permanently. It is temporary memory. Now a days RAM of 128 MB.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Storage in one of the important characteristics of computer. Virtual Memory available in market which are used for different purpose i. It is fastest memory.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. a) RAM:- RAM stands for Random Access Memory. etc are available in market. When we switch off our PC all information in this memory get vanished. When we always work in primary memory. 256 MB. MEMORY PRIMARYY SECONDARY RAM ROM HARD DISK FLOPPY DISK COMPACT DISK (CD) PROM EPROM EEPROM  Primary Memory:- It is also called as internal memory. M.e. There are different types of RAM Cache Memory.e. There are two types of internal memory. . There are two types of memory as shown below.com 13 .

e.  Secondary Memory: - When we want to store data permanently on computers memory then secondary memory is used .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 b) ROM:ROM stands for Read only memory. That is it is supplied in blank form by the manufacturers. I) PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) :It used programmable memory.com 14 . It we switch off our PC then also content in this memory remain unchanged.(Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) In this memory we can change the content of memory using electronic field. We can not delete data from this memory.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. If we switch off our computer then data in this memory remain unchanged. The user writes the desired program into it once. To erase the content EPROM ultraviolet rays are used. iii) EEPROM: . It is made up of thin magnetic material enclosed in protection bracket. a) Floppy Disk :. It stores of data instruction permanently in it which is used Booting Process.This is portable disk which is used to store data. Following are type of ROM. We can not write any data in this memory. It is accessed as drive a or b In market there are two types of floppy disk available i. It uses some device or disk to store data. M. ii) EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) :The PROM has one defect that we can not change the content PROM if there is any mistake in programming . We can read data from this memory . It is developed by manufacturer. by a special process and then the content can not unchanged . a) FLOPPY DISK:- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).Then the solution EPROM Where we can erase the content in it. Following are the disks which are used for secondary storage.

44MB 1. Internal magnetic disk is deiced into logical circles called as track and these tracks are divided into sectors.2MB From Read Write Notch we can read content of Floppy. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 15 . M. There is Write Protect Notch present on floppy which protects writing on floppy but we can read data from floppy.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Size 3 ½” 5 ¼” Storage Capacity 1.

Hard Disk consist of one or more metallic platters sealed inside a container.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 b) Hard Disk: - Hard Disk can store large amount of data compare to floppy. They can store large amount of data compared to Hard disk and Floppy disk. It is fixed in CPU.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. and 80GB etc.com 16 . It can store 20GB. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). It is faster than floppy. In market different CDs with Different storage capacity are available. 40GB. data in it. It contains motor for rotating disk. c) Compact Disk: CD uses laser technology. There are three types of CD. They are silver coated so that light gets reflected from the surface of the disk. It is made up of aluminum material. It also contains an access arm and read write heads for writing data to and reading data from the disks.

Another type of Optical disk available in market is DVD.com 17 . III) CD-RW: On this CD we can write and read data many times. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We can read data from this disk but can not write.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 I) CD-ROM :- Stands for Compact Disk Read Only Memory.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. But we cannot modify or rewrite another data on this disk. M. II) CD-R:- On this CD we can write data only once.

0 and 1 . The base of this no. into Binary:To convert a no. from decimal to binary follows steps a) Divide decimal number by 2.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 NUMBER SYSTEM In daily work we use Decimal No. Multiply 10th place by 2 and so on increasing power of 2 on left side of binary no. bits.g. M. d) Report step 3 till we get quotient as 0. system. e) Write down all remainders in reverse order.7. We get equivalent binary now.4. Computer is an electronic device. system which uses only two digit i.  Working with Binary nos :- 1) Converting Decimal No.2. This uses 0.3. Here we are using 10 nos. 0 and 1 are called as binary digits and this number system is called as Binary No. system is 2 (Bi means 2) 0 and 1 are called as binary digits i.1. b) Find out remainder and quotient. c) Divide this quotient by 2 and again find reminder and quotient.8.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. It works on light so knows only two states on/off.e. Then all these trained multiplications as shown below.5.6.com 18 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). into Decimal :- Multiply unit place by 2. (245)10 = (?)2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 245 122 61 30 15 7 3 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1  Convert Binary No. So computer can understand only language of 0/1.e.9. Therefore basic of this system is 10. e.

They are 8. System 8 digits are used 0.7.g. e.6. As in decimal to binary conversion we divide decimal no 2.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. into octal no divide decimal no.5.4. (108)10= (?)8 8 8 8 108 13 1 0 4 5 1 (108)10 = (154)8 b) Octal to Decimal Conversions:(154)8 = (?)10 =4x8+5x8+1x8 =0+40+64 =108 c) Octal to Binary Conversion:- Octal 0 1 2 Decimal 0 1 2 Binary 000 001 010 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). by 8 and repeat the same procedure same as given in decimal to binary conversion.com 19 . system is 8. (110110)2 = (?) 10 = 0 x 2 + 1x2 +1x2 + 0x2 + 1x2 +1x2 = 0+2+4+0+16+32 =54  Octal No.g. M.1.3. a) Decimal to Octal conversion :To convert decimal no.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 e. Base of octal No. System :- In Octal No.2.

B.D.8. (175)8= (?)2 1 7 001 111 = (1111101)2 5 101 d) Binary to Octal Conversion :Make group of three digit from unit place.e.g. for each digit.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3 4 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 7 011 100 101 102 103 To convert octal no.7. by into Hexadecimal divide decimal 40 by 16 and find out reminder.i. 0.F.6.e. e.5. system:This number system uses no from 0 to F i.3.A.C. M.4. e.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.2.1. (11100101011001)2= (?)8 011 3 100 4 101 5 011 3 001 1 = (34531)8  Hexadecimal No. a) Decimal no.g.9.E. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 11 by B etc. Write equivalent octal no. Add 0 to left side if required to complete group of three digits. into Binary above given table and write equivalent binary no. to Hexadecimal conversion:To convert decimal no. 10 is by represented by A.com 20 .

Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 c) Conversion of Binary No.com 21 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 (110)10= (?)16 16 16 110 6 0 (110)10= (6E) 16 E (14) 6 b) Hexadecimal to decimal Conversion:e.g. M. into Hexadecimal:Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. (6E) 16= (?)10 =Ex16+6x16 =14+96 = (110)16 Consider following table.

(D5F8EC) 16= (?)2 D 1101 5 1010 F 1111 8 1000 E 1110 C 1100 = (1100101011111100011101100)2  BCD numbers:BCD stands for Binary Coded Decimal. Add 0 to right side of no.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 To convert a Binary No.g. into binary write down equivalent binary no for each digit in Hexadecimal no. To do addition refers following table.g. as shown below. if required. (111010101111110001010)2= (?)16 0001 1 = (1D5F8A) 16 1101 D 0101 5 1111 F 1000 8 1010 A d) Conversion of Hexadecimal no.com 22 . Here each decimal digit is represented by equivalent 4 digits binary no. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). (123)10 = (000100100011) BCD  Addition of two Binary nos:- To binary numbers can be added by addition of each corresponding digit from unit place. into Hexadecimal no.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. e. into Binary:To convert a Hexadecimal no. make group of digits from unit place of binary no. Write down equivalent Hexadecimal No. e.

g. no1 1 1 0 0 no2 1 0 1 0 Subtraction 0 1 0 0 Borrow --1 -- e. 111101010 + 100100 111 1000001110 Carry no2 1 0 1 0 addition 0 1 1 0 carry 1 -  Subtraction of two Binary nos. :For subtraction of binary now refer following no.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.g. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 no1 1 1 0 0 e.com 23 . 1110101001 11010001 11 1 1000001000 Borrow Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

b) e. win98 b) Multi-user Operating System. M. Operating system can be of following type. UNIX. There are four types of software. Multi-user operating system allows more than one user at a time..g.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. DOS. 1) Operating System. I) works as interface between user and computer Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). A set of instruction is called as program is called as Software.e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE  Hardware :All physical parts of computer system which we see and touch are called as Hardware . Windows NT Single user operating system allows only one user to work at a time.  Software :We know that computer works on instruction given by user . It is a program which coordinates and controls the operation of computer hardware and software resources such as processors.com 24 . Following are some important functions of operating system. mouse . It works as interface between compute hardware and user. It is used in networking. memory input output devices. keyboard . 2) Languages 3) Translators 4) Utilities 1) Operating System :An operating System is essential part of any computer. monitor etc. a) Single user Operating System.g.

C. e. File management. symbol to represent a instruction.e. Program written for one machine can not work on other machines.g.e. ADD instruction is used to add content of memory or registers. III) High level language :Programming in Assembly language and Machine language is very difficult. It is machine dependent languages. I) Machine Language :- This is machine understandable language. I/O Management. This is also a machine dependent language. i. Therefore speed to complier is faster than speed of interpreter. To convert Assembly language into machine language.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M. Pascal 3) Translators :Translators are the programs used for conversion of High Level Language into machine level language.com 25 . BASIC – Beginner All purpose Symbolic Instruction code. Assemblers are used. Complier convert program written in High level language into machine language whole programs at a time. Program can be written in o’s and 1’s. They are English like languages e. Interpreter convert program written in High level language into machine language one line at a time. Java . These languages can be of three type. 2) Languages :Using languages we can give instructions to the computer. Computer can understand only machine language therefore translators are used. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Memory management.g. II) Assembly Language :- This language uses mnemonics i. Translators can be of two type.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 II) III) IV) V) It keeps coordination between input and output devices. FORTRAN – Formula Translation COBOL – Common Business Oriented Language. There fore High level languages are developed.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Utilities :Utilities are the program which increases the processing speed of computer. ] d) File Compression Programs :These programs are used to compress file make more memory available on disk. M. They are special programs which makes computing easier. c) Uninstall Programs :These programs are used to uninstall installed software. b) Backup Programs :These programs are used to take backup of the important data for security purpose. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 26 . It removes all files installed with corresponding software. The most essential utilities are a) Antivirus Programs :These programs are used to take backup of the important data for security purpose.

1) Cold booting 2) Warm booting When we switch on our computer by switching power button is called as cold booting Memory is checked in cold booting When we switch on our computer by pressing restart button or ctrl A+Del then the booting process as warm booting. It is a single user single tasking operating system. i.  DOS :Dos stands for Disk Operating System .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.e. only one user can work on these operating system at a time and can do only one task at a time .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 DOS OPERATING SYSTEM We have seen that Operating System is very important part of any computer system because it works as interface between Computer and user. There are two types of DOS commands 1) Internal DOS commands Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).SYS There are two types of booting process.com b) MSDOS. Following are three main system files which gets loaded into RAM during booting process.SYS c) IO. When we are working is DOS we are diving all commands on C :\> called as DOS prompt or Command prompt. it uses command for interfacing . i. Without any operating system we can not work on computer or we can not run any application software. memory and input output devices attached to our computer.  Booting Process :- When we switch on the computer a process starts till we get desktop screen of operating system is called as booting process In this booting process operating system gets loaded into RAM it checks for all system file. Dos is also called is command line Operating system. a) Command.com 27 .e. To work with DOS we have to use commands. M.

09a Enter new time: c) Date:This command is used to display and change date of system. com file are called as internal commands. Syntax :.C:\> Date O\p Current date is Fri 09-30-2005 Enter new date (mm-dd-yy): Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 1) Internal DOS commands 2)External DOS commands 1) Internal DOS commands :- a) Time :This command is used to display and change time of system.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) External DOS commands There are come basic commands loaded during booting process which are in command .format Syntax :. M. The commands which are not loaded during booting process and require support of some disk based file for execution are called as External commands.mm.) format. They do not require support of hard disk based file for execution. The date is given is (mm-dd-yy.com 28 .C:\> Time o/p Current time is 4:21:20.ss.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. The time is displayed in hh.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 c) Cls : This command is used to clear the content of screen Syntax :.com 29 . date created and one created We can use following switches with Dir command switch Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. i.C:\>Vol o\p volume in drive C has no label volume serial Number is 1618-10D5 command is used to display volume label your f) Dir :This command used to see the list of all the contents on the drive or any director Syntax: .C:\> cls v) Ver :This command is used to display the version operating system loaded on your computer.C:\>ver Enter O\p Microsoft Windows Xp ( Version 5.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.1. Syntax :.2600) of e) Vol :This disk .e. file name file extension . Syntax :. file size.C:\>Dir O\p This command will display list of files and directories in five column .

txt then myself is primary file name and txt is extension primary name and extension is separated by dots (. Each file on disk is its unique name. if file name is myself. f) It optional part in file name a) b) c) d) • following are some valid file name :try 1. take pause after page break.) • Naming rules for file :A primary file name have maximum of 8 characters. In primary name spaces are not allowed.Displays list in alphabetical order  File handling Internal commands:• what is a file? File is a collection of data stored on disk .txt hellow. Extension. /o : .dat rudrani hrd .Displays all files with attribute. combination of (a-z) and (0-9) e) Extension is of maximum 3 character long.e.com 30 . Any file name has two pars a) primary name. No special character is allowed in primary name Fit may be alphanumeric i. rpt etc g)Copy con: Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).e. e. /w :Displays only name of files and directories in five column /d : .g. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Switch Meaning :/p :Displays list of files and directories page wise i.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This command is used to create new file Syntax :.C:\> Copy Con<file name> Crtl+z or F6 is used to to save file e. type copy con try 1 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.g.txt on dos prompt and press enter key types the contents of file where cursor is appeared. this command k) Delete:This command remove the existing given file from disk Syntax : C:\>Delete <file name> Delete try 1 txt enter delete the file try 1 txt Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Syntax : Coy <source file> <destination file> enter e.com 31 . save the file by processing Ctrl+z You find the a file name try1 txt is get created on disk.copy try1 ctry 1 tct ctry1. h) Type :This command is used to display the contents of existing file Syntax : C\> type< file name > enter e. .g.g.txt this copies the contents of try 1 txt to j) Rename :This command is used to change the name of existing file Syntax .C:\> Rename try 1 txt exp txt change these name of file try 1 txt to exp txt.:\< Type try 1 txt this will display contents of file i) Copy:This command is used to copy the contents of source file to destination file . M.

C:\>RD MBCT  Use of wild chard character Dos command :Wild chard character are the character which are used replace on two multiple character in dos command three to wild chard characters Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.g.com 32 . and CD\ is used to go to root directory 3)RD( Remove Directory):This command is used to remove blank directory. if we want to remove any directory the we must that directory blank by deleting files and subtracted in it Syntax :C\>RD<Directory Name> e.is used to go to parent directory of current directory.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.. Syntax:-C:\> CD< Directory name> e. 1) directory MD (Make Directory ) :This command is used to create directory or sub Syntax: C:\> MD<Directory Name> e. C:\>MD MBCT 2)CD (Change Directory) :This command is used to changes from one directory to another directory. .g.g.C:\> CD MBCT CD .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Directory handling commands Directory is collection of files .

There are six different menus. To open this editor give Edit command on DOS prompt as given below In this editor by default file name is untitled 1.g to open file menu press Alt+F 1) File menu :Creating a new file: a)Click on file menu b)click on option new c)type the contents of file Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).g. d) Del*. e. That means we can open that menu we can open that menu by pressing ALT key with highlighted character in menu name .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Each menu name contain a single white color character.* :. To modify the contents of existing file we have to used editor DOS contents a file Edit. Using this file we can create new text files and modify existing file in DOS .*d: \mydir :This command will copy all files on c:to \ mydir. a) c:\>dir A*.This command will delete all files in current director  Word processing in DOS :In Dos it is not possible to modify the contents of file after saving it.com 33 . they are ? and *? is used substitute single character and * used to substitute multiple characters . whose name is starting with alphabet b) C:\>copy*.* :This command will display list of files whose name is starting with character c and there are only two character after c and having any extension.dir c??.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 used in dos . M. Com.* :- Will display all files on c. e. c)c:\.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2)saving the file :a) click on file menu b) click on option save as to give new name to file to save modifications click on save c) A Save as dialog box will appear given file name d) Click on save button 3)Close the file:a) click on file menu b) click on close option 4) close the file a) click on file menu b)click on print option 2) Edit menu :To cut and paste text a) select the text which you want to cut b) click on edit menu c) click on cut option Place the cursor where you want to paste d) click on paste option from edit menu 2. M. To copy and paste text :a) Select the text which you want to copy b) click on edit menu c) click on copy option e) place the cursor where you want to paste f) click on paste option from edit menu 3) To delete the text :a) select the text which you want to delete. b) click on edit menu c)Click on delete option 4) Search menu :1. To find a particular text Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 34 .

We can make settings for printer ports and tab stop 1. Color : We can change the color of active window.Closes the current window 5) Tools Menu :Setting :.com 35 .Change the size of window 3.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M. Also specify the word with which you want replace the words and match case matches for the upper and small letters d) click on replace to find and replace one word at time and click on replace all to find and replace all words time 4 )View menu :1. close window : . in editor. text selected text etc. Size window :.Spilt the current window into two windows 2.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) click on edit menu b)click on find option c) Give the word which we want to find . 6.Match whole word matches the words and Match case matches for the upper the small letters d) click on ok to find the word To find and replace: a) click on edit menu b) click on replace option c) give the word which we want to find . Help Menu : This menu proved help for edit command and about editor  External DOS commands :- a) More :- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Split Window :.

e. It also find out memory occupied by hidden files.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. It will create new tracks and sectors on disk. It will display more at bottom to display next screen of file Syntax: C:\> command | More e.com 36 . Some sectors are not accessible to user that are reserved for FAT i. M. It display file system . C:\>dir| c:\>types<file name>| more This displays content of file page wise b) Tree:This commands-displays directories and subdirectories a tree structure as shown below Syntax : c:\> tree C)Deltree :This command is used to delete particular directory and its subdirectories Syntax : C:\> Deltree < directory name > d)Chkdsk :This command check for the disk and displays disk status. if there is problem in any file then / F option used with chkdsk which fixes the errors on disk. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). check for all files and folders free memory space on disk. File Allocation. storage capacity of disk. directories e) Format :This command deletes all files and directories on disk.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This command is used to display list of files and directories or contents of files one screen at time .g.

M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 37 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

after completion of booting process first screen appeared is called as ‘Desktop’. Windows provide a very easy interface which shows you all files and command on screen you have to select one of them . Windows NT etc are the operating system developed by Microsoft and supports GUI. Windows 2003. It contains so many things like icons shortcuts etc. Windows also support multitasking. Terminologies in Windows 1) Desktop :- When we switch on computer.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M. We can open to or more files at a time. That means we can here songs while working on computer.com 38 . Windows 98.as shown below Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We have to remember all command to do any job in DOS.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 WINDOWS(GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE) We have seen DOS operating system which provides command Line interface.

4) Start Menu:- This menu contains all software available in your computer. It works as a container for different controls.Shows are opened task or windows.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Icons :Icon is graphical or pictorial representation of any file. Following are the main part of window. They are shortcut to pencils software. Folder :Folder is collection of files and subfolders is same name for directory in DOS. We can start any application from this menu . d) Close Button :This button close the active window Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 3) Shortcuts :These are icons with small arrows. b) Menu bar :This shows all menu or commands available in that software. M. c) Minimize Button :This button closes the active window.com 39 . a) Title bar :This shows the name of window or software. 5) Task bar :. 6) 7) Window :- Window is a very basic feature of any Graphic Operating System.

e) Maximize Button :This button maximize the active window. M.  Start Menu :When we click on start menu . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 40 . It will display all programs or application in our computer as shown below.

internet. 2) Run :This allows to run any file or program. 3) Help and Supports :This allows to search for particular topic operating system or displays all topics about which information is available on computer F1 is shortcut key to help. When we run command. M. 5) Settings :Allows to change system setting for different peripheral devices like printer. Stand by means your computer remain in low power state .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 4) Search :- Search allows searching of particular files or group of files on different drives on disk.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 shown below. fonts etc.com 41 . com DOS will get start. 7) Program :Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Turn off Closes all applications and shut down the computer and Restart closes all applications and restart computer again. network. 6) Documents :Shows list of all recently opened documents.g. e. We can take help in windows using index key or by searching topic or by selecting topic in display list. 1) Log off Administrator :This exists from current login and switch to new login.

To change wallpaper.com 42 . M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). To Change screen saver.  Display Properties of desktop :1) Wallpaper :- It is background pattern given to desk top called as wallpaper. 2) Screensaver :A moving pattern appeared on screen when here is no movement of mouse or keyboard is called as screen saver.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This shows list of all application software available on our PC. We can start any application by click on the name of that application. c) Click on Desktop tab and change the Background setting and click on apply to make changes permanent.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. b) Click on properties option in it. a) Press right button of mouse on desktop. A shortcut menu will get appeared.

b) Click on properties option in it. d) Group similar taskbar button :This will group similar taskbar windows in one window. e) Show quick launch :.This shows Quick Launch toolbar.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. We can set following properties of task bar a) Lock the taskbar : This will not allow movement of task bar. b) Auto hide taskbar : This will automatically hide the taskbar when it is not in use c) Keep the taskbar always on top :This keeps task bar on top even if any other application window is opened. c) Click on Screen Saver tab and change the screen saver setting and click on apply to make changes permanent  Task Bar Properties :To change taskbar properties 1) Place mouse pointer on taskbar 2) Press right button of mouse 3) Click on Properties option.com 43 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) Press right button of mouse on desktop. A shortcut menu with get appeared. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.

b) Click on new option. a) In this explorer window click on file menu. M. d) This will create new folder.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 f) Show the clock :Shows clock on right side on the task g) Hide inactive icons :This hides inactive icons on task. c) Click on folder option. A Shortcut menu will appeared Click on explore option. A start menu window will get appeared which explores each folder and subfolder on given path.com 44 .  Explorer :To open windows explore Press right button of mouse on start button. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Give new name to folder.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Dialog will get appeared on screen and then select file or give path of file and then click on next button give name to shortcut and click on finish button. To restore files from recycle bin click on file menu and click on "Restore" option. To create folder on desktop press right mouse button. Click on New-> Shortcut.  My Computer :The icon shown is always present on desktop. Click on new -> folder. Brows button. " Create Shortcut" Dialog will get appeared on screen. Then click on next button and give name to the shortcut and click on finish button. Then click on NEW-> Shortcut. A shortcut menu appeared . A shortcut menu appeared.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 If folder is already created then we can change the name of folder by pressing right button on folder and select option rename and change the name of folder. Give that filename with path or select that file suing .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. It will displays system configuration and all drives available out computer  Recycle Bin :When we delete any file in windows operating system in come in recycle Bin . To create Shortcut on desktop press right mouse button. "Create Shortcut" .  Calculator :To open Calculator Click Start-> Program -> Accessories-> Calculator Following calculator window will appear. This will ask ask for the file or program to which you want to create shortcut. To open that right click on it and select open option form shortcut menu or double click on the icon to open my computer. To delete files permanently from recycle bin click on file menu and click on "Empty Recycle Bin" Option. We can restore all deleted files from Recycle Bin.  Creating a shortcut :To create short cut Click on file menu in explorer. To delete folder click on delete option from same shortcut menu. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.com 45 .

 Notepad :Notepad is a simplest word processing software. Its window Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).e. M. Standard and scientific and we can operate in hexadecimal or octal or binary or decimal no.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Calculator is used for numeric calculation. system . Calculator has two view i.com 46 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Status Bar. c) Type the contents of file. txt" where . 2) Saving the file :a) Click on file menu. By default file name in notepad is "Untitled .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To open Notepad Click on Start->Program->Accessories>Notepad  File Menu :1) Creating a new file:a) Click on file menu . b) Click on option Save as to vive new name to file and to save modifications click on save c) A ' Save as' dialog box will appear.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 contains. Title bar. Menu bar. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Follow following window. give file name. M. d) Click on save button.com 47 . b) Click on option new.txt is extension indicates that it creates text file.

c) Click on copy again . M. b) Click on page setup . c) Click on cut option . 5)Print the file :a) Click on file menu . b) Click on edit menu .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Open existing file :a) Click on file menu. c) Select file name from appropriate path. e) Place the cursor where you want to paste . b) Click on print option . 4) To delete the text :Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).  Edit menu:1) Undo :.com 48 . b) Click on edit menu . d) Place the cursor where you want to paste.This option cancels unsaved action. margins and header footer and click ok button to apply the settings. e) Click on paste option form edit menu . orientation. 4) To Change the page setup :- a) Click on file menu .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 3) To copy and paste text :a) Select the text which you want to copy . 2) To cut and paste text :a) Select the text which you want to cut . c) Give the number of copies and select printer and click on print button . b) Click on open option. d) Click on open button. To exit from notepad click on "Exit" option in File menu. c) Set paper size. f) Click on paste option from edit menu . d) Place the cursor where you want to paste .

b) Click on find option c) Give the word which we want to fine . Match case matches the upper and small letters. M. 6) To find and replace :- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 5) To find a particular text :a) Click on Edit menu .com 49 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) Select the text which you want to delete . c) Click on delete option . b) Click on edit menu . d) Click on Find next to find the word.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

To insert date and time Press F5 or click on "Time/Date".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) Click on Edit menu b) Click on replace option c) Give the word which we want to find .  Format Menu :1) Word wrap :This enables to display text in multiple line or cursor comes automatically to next line end of first line is there. Match whole word matches the words and match case matches for the upper and small letters. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). font size .com 50 . Also specify the word with which you want replace current word. When it is inactive all text get typed on one line only. and font style.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 2) Font :We can change font . M. d) Click on replace to find and replace one word at a time and click on replace all to find and replace one word at a time and click on replace all to find and replace all words at a time. To select whole file Click on select All option or press "Ctrl+A".

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Help Menu :We can help about note pad from help menu.com 51 .

bmp files. That drawings can be black & white or color & can be saved as bitmap files (.com 52 . 1) Draw straight line 2) Fill area with color 3) Work with images from digital camera or scanner. How to start paint Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.bmp " is by default filename in paint brush. Following task are performed when you are using paint."Untitled.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 PAINT BRUSH Paint brush is a drawing Software used to create simple drawings.bmp is extension) Paint Brush is also used to work with perches such as jpg or.

Status bar gives status of file. 3) Click on 'accessories' menu. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 4) Fill with colour :This tool is used to fill color in given object 5) Pick up a colour :This tool is use to copy color bitmap File.  Tools in Paint Brush :1) Jig Jag cut tool :This tools is used to select random area in picture. M. 4) Click on 'paint'.com 53 .:There are 16 tools are available on tool box for painting.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.  Following paint screen get appear. 2) Click on 'programs' a menu will appear. 3) Eraser tool :This tools is use to select rectangle area in file. 6) Zoom Tool :To Magnify the Picture this tool is used. 2) Selection tool :This tools is used to select rectangle area in file.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) Click on 'start button'.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To draw exact square press shift key and then drag and draw rounded rectangle. To draw a curve line first draw a straight line using this tool and then curve effect on both side of line.com 54 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 7) Rectangle tool :This tool is used to draw a rectangle drag & method. We can change the shape of brush. 12) Brush tool :This tool is used to fill color . 8) Rounded Rectangle Tool :This tool is use to draw rectangle with rounded corners. In all rectangle and ellips tool we can change the format of tools from the format given below tool box. 10) Straight line :This tool is used to draw straight line in any direction. 13) Curve line :This tool is used to draw curve line. M. 9) Circle / Ellips :This tool is used to draw ellips. To draw exact square this tool is used with shift key & drag rectangle tool to get exact square. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We can change the size of air brush. We can also change the thickness of line from the thickness give below tool box. 11) Air Brush :This tool is used to spray color. If this tool is used with Shift key then straight line can drawn only in perpendicular direction. To draw exact ellips press shift key and then drag and draw circle.

b) Click on option new. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 14) Text :This tool is used to type text in picture 15) Polygone tool :This tool is used to draw polygone.  Open existing file :a) Click on file menu b) Click on open option c) Select file name from appropriate path d) Click on open button.  Print Preview :Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). d) Click on save button.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.  File Menu : a) Click on file menu.com 55 .  Creating a new file :- Saving the file :- a) Click on file menu. give file menu . b) Click on option Save as to give new name to file and to save modifications click on save c) a 'Save as ' dialog box will appear. 16) Pencil :This tool is used for free hand drawing.

orientation. a) Click on file menu.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. margins and header footer and click ok button to apply the settings in Page Setup Dialog Box. 'Next Page' and 'Previous Page' is used to switch between various pages.  Print the file :Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Print preview means view of picture before printing it. To close this view click on close button.  To change the page setup :a) Click on file menu b) Click on page setup c) Set paper size. M. b) Click on 'Print Preview' Option following dialog will appear Where Print is used to print the file 'One page'/ 'Two Page' are used to display one or two pages at time 'Zoom In' and 'Zoom Out' is used to view picture in magnified form.com 56 .

Set as Background (Tile/Center) : . c) Click on copy option d) Click on paste option form edit menu.com 57 .  To cut and paste text :a) Select the Picture which you want to cut. M. To exit from notepad click on "Exit" option in File menu.(Ctrl+C is shortcut key for copy) a) Select the picture or part of picture which you want to copy. c) Click on delete option Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) Click on file menu b) Click on print option c)Give the number of copies and select printer and click on print button. b) Click on edit menu.  Edit Menu :1) Undo :This option cancels recent unsaved action.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.  To delete the text (Del) :a) Select the picture which you want to delete.This will set the current opened There is a list of recently opened files in file menu. and exit is used to exit form paint brushes. b) Click on edit menu.(Ctrl+x is shortcut key for copy and Ctrl+v is shortcut key for paste)  To copy and paste text :. 2) Repeat :This repeat the action which is recently canceled. b) Click on edit menu c) Click on cut option d) Click on paste option form edit menu e) Cut Past is smae4 as moving a picture.

e. • Copy to:- To copy selected drawing or whole drawing to another new file this option is used. color box. d) Click on ok. M. Ctrl+T is shortcut key to activate tool box and Ctrl+L active color box. To inactive it do same View-> color box. a) Click on Edit-> Paste From.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Select All :Selects Whole Picture Ctrl+A is shortcut key for Select All. Paste From :To bring a drawing from another file to current file this option is  View Menu :- This menu is related with display of tool box.com 58 .g. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 1) Zoom in : This option is used to display picture in magnified form or large size and normal size. if color box is inactive to active it click on View-> Color box. b) Select existing file name in paste from dialog box c) Click on open.  used.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Text tool bar is active if Text tool is selected from tool box. A check mark indicates that it is active. status bar. We can active or inactive them from view menu by clicking on corresponding option. a) Select a part of drawing b) Click on Edit-> Copy to c) Give new file name in copy to dialog box. text tool bar on screen. It is used to change font . font size text.

M. 4) View Bitmap Shows picture on full screen.180. Flip Horizontal rotate take horizontal image and Flip vertical.270 degrees. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). It is inactive in normal form. 3) Show Thumbnail is also active in magnified form which shows picture in normal form when we are working in zoom in or magnified view.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Show grid :This option shows grid line so we can draw picture by taking measurement.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.  Image menu : Flip Rotate :- This option allows to rotate picture by 90. Ctrl+F is shortcut key.com 59 . This option is active only in magnified form.

 Invert Color ( Ctrl+A) :This invert the existing color. M. Skew horizontal and Skew vertical apply skew effect according to given degrees. Convet black into whit. Stretch horizontal changes width of picture and Stretch vertical changes height of picture according to given percentage.  Stretch and skew ( Ctrl+W) :- Select a part of picture. red into green etc.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 gives Vertical image. Click on ok to apply Ctrl+R is short cut key for flip and rotate effects. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 60 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Black and white shows black and white picture. M.com 61 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Attributes :- This changes the picture size Give width and height select unit for measurement i.  Color Menu :We can edit different colors in color box used Color-> option . Clear Image clear the whole image (Ctrl+Shift+N) is shortcut key for clear image. inches or cm or pixels.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.e.  Draw opaque: When this is active or having check mark picture is selected with White paper background and when it is inactive background is transparent. Edit colors Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To open word pad click on Start -> Program -> Accessories -> Word pad. M. WORD PAD Word Pad is advance software than Notepad.doc.  File menu :Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 62 . We can also create rich text document and Unicode documents in WordPad.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Help menu provides help about paint brush. Word Pad contains tool bars and Menu bar and ruler and status bar as shown above. A WordPad window appears on screen as shown below. In word pad by default file name is documet.

 Print Preview :Print preview means view of document before printing it. To close this view click on close button. a) Click on file menu b) Click on 'Print Preview' option following dialog will appear Where Print is used to print the file 'One Page'/'Two Page' are used to display one or two pages at a time 'Zoom In' and 'Zoom Out' is used to view picture in magnified form. File menu in word pad also contains list of four recently opened files.  To change the page setup :a) Click on file->page setup b) Set paper size .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  To create New file (Ctrl+N) :- 1) Click File-> New 2) New Dialog will appear 3) Select Text Document and click on ok  To Save New file (Ctrl+S) :1) Click file -> Save as to give new name to file. To save modification in already saved file use save option in file menu. To exit form WordPad click "Exit" option in File menu.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 'Next Page' and 'Previous Page' is used to switch between various pages.  To open existing file (Ctrl+O) :a) Click on file->Open b) Selected file name from appropriate path and Click on open button. margins and header footer and click ok button to apply the settings in Page Setup Dialog Box. 3) Select Text Document and click on ok. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).  Print the file :a) Click on file-> print option b) Give the number of copies and select printer and click on print button. orientation. M.com 63 . 2) In save as dialog box give file name and click on save button.

( Ctrl+c is shortcut key for copy) a) Select the text b) Click on Edit-> Copy and place the cursor where you want to paste the text c) Click on paste option form edit menu. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.  To cut and paste text :.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Edit Menu :1) Undo :The option cancels recent unsaved action.com 64 .  Select All :Selects Whole text.  To delete the text (Del) :a) Select the text which you want to delete. Crtl+V) a) Select the text which you want to cut b) Click on Edit->Cut option and place the where you want to paste the text c) Click on paste option from edit menu.  To copy and paste text :. M.  Paste Special :- This option is used to paste cut or copied text in special format.e. 2) Repeat :This repeat the action which is recently canceled. b) Click on Edit-> Clear option.i. in unformatted text or in picture format. Ctrl+A is shortcut key for Select All.(Ctrl+X.

 Formatting bar :- Using this bar we can one age formatting of text using font. Status bar and Ruler. Status bar gives of Num lock. b) Give the word which we want to find.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Also specify the word with which word you want replace current word. italic etc tools. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). F3 is shortcut key for find next.  To find and replace (Ctrl+H) :a) Click on Edit-> Replace option. c) Click on Find next to find the word . c) Click on replace to find and replace one word at a time and click on replace all to find and replace all words at a time. paste. Replace dialog same as in notepad will appear. save existing file. undo and date/time tools .g. Caps lock etc and status of file. We can active or inactive them form view menu by clicking on corresponding option. font size. if Tool bar is inactive then to active it click on View -> Tool bar. Match whole word matches matches the words and match case matches for the upper and small letters. Format bar. M. Print file to display previews also for cut. e. To inactive it do same view-> Tool bar.  Tool Bar :This bar also contains shortcut tools to create new file. A check mark indicates that it is active. b) Give the word which we want to find.com 65 . copy. Match case matches for the upper and small letters.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  To find particular text (Ctrl+F) :a) Click on Edit-> find option Find dialog box same as in Note pad will get appear. bold. open existing file.  View Menu:This menu is related with display of Tool bar.

Wrap to window means new line stat at end of window .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Ruler is used to change indents of paragraph.  Insert Menu :1) Date and time :using this option we can insert date and time in required format where the cursor is placed. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). right indent of paragraph.com 66 . status bar and ruler. M.  Options :- This is also used to activate or inactivate format bar.e.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. toolbar. and wrap to ruler means new line start at end of ruler i. also we make wrap setting and set measurement unit form options tab.

a) Click Insert -> Object b) Select software from which you want to insert object and click on ok button. M.  Bullet Style :67 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com . font size and color in font dialog box. font style . a) Click Format ->Font b) Set font font .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. font style . font size and color of selected text font is used.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Object :Using this option we can insert new object file from different software like Corel draw or paint brush etc.  Format Menu : Font :- To change font.

first line margin and alignment of selected paragraph. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 68 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This will apply bullets to each paragraph in selected text. right . right line margin and set alignment and click on ok apply settings.  Paragraph :- This is used to left . a) Click Format -> Paragraph following dialog appear b) set left .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

M.com 69 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. b) Give tab stop position 1 and click on set. In following dialog if you set tab and 1 position then if cursor will move to 1 tab position when tab key pressed on new line Help in Word pad is used to display help about WordPad. c) To apply tab settings click on ok button and to cancel tab settings click on Clear all.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) Click Format -> Tab following Tab dialog will appear. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

There are different versions of MS-Office i. Here we are referring Office 2000. The following window will appear. M. We can not insert page breaks very easily or user friendly.doc' where doc is extension specifies that this is document file. It is specially designed for word processing purpose.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 INTRODUCTION TO WORD  INTRODUCTION :We have seen Notepad and Word pad in windows. MS word is a word processing software which is used to create documents or process on the text by applying different effects available in it. By default file name in MS-Word is ' Document1. Menu Bar . Standard Toolbar. It is a part of MS-Office. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). It is part of on the text by applying different effects available in it.e. But there are some limitations. There is a slight difference between them. We know that they are word processor software. Formatting Toolbar.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. This window contains Title Bar. Drawing Toolbar and Status Bar.com 70 .  Starting MS-Word :To start MS-Word click on Start->Programs>MS-Word. we can not create different windows. It is part of MS-Office which is more advanced than Notepad and WordPad. We can not create table. MS Word is a software developed by Microsoft. Office 2000 or office 2003 etc.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Minimize . M. • Menu Bar :There are 9 different menus on menu bar contains submenus and options to complete the job. Maximize and close button. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 71 . We will see application of different menus later in this book . • Standard Toolbar :Standard tool bar contains tools for creation.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Title Bar :This bar contains title of document . printing and editing text documents as shown below . opening.

Opens new file. numbering.Displays text in specified zoom percentage.This cancels recent action.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Used to check spelling and 6) Spelling and Grammar :7) Cut :.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) New :. bulleting.This repeat recent cancelled action.To paste cut or copied text.Insert Part of excel worksheet.To cut selected text 8) Copy :. 4) Print :.This tool copies formatting of selected text and apply it to another text selection. • Formatting Tool Bar :Formatting tool bar contains different tool for formatting text like font. 5) Print Preview :.Used to display windows help.Print current file.Open existing file. font style. alignment.To Display grammatical. 10) Format Painter :.com 72 .Save file. preview of current document.To copy selected text. Insert table with specifies no columns and 14) Inset Excel Sheet :. 3) Save :. M. color etc. 1) Style :Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 9) Paste :. 2) Open :. 13) Insert table :rows. 15) Zoom :. These tools are as shown below. 12) Redo :. 16) Help :. 11) Undo :. font size.

7) Border :We can apply borders to table. line . 9) Font color :Apply selected color to selected text. 2) Font :We can apply different fonts to selected text. Heading1 . arrow . textbox . Italics and Underline effect to selected text. M. ellipse. Normal etc. 8) Highlight :Select color to highlight the text.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Heading2 . 5) Alignments :We can align text in paragraph to left. 3) Font size :We can apply different font size. rectangle . Underline :Applies Bold . 4) Bold . We will see this tool bar later in this book.g .e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 We can apply predefined styles to selected text. 6) Indents :We can increase or decrease indent of selected paragraph. and word art. right.com 73 . center or justify. Italics . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).. clipart etc. Drawing Tool Bar :Drawing tool bar contains different tools for drawing purpose like Auto shapes.

section no.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. line no. total no.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Status Bar :This bar displays status of the document.  WORKING WITH FILE MENU :1) Creating New Document :a) Click on File->New or press Ctrl+N keys from keyboard. This will create new file in MS-Word. Where is cursor is placed i.e. b) We can create different new files in word like template. M. In all these option click on 'New Blank Document' in General tab and click on OK button. current page no. letter or web file. Following New dialog will get displayed. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 74 . of pages.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Saving New File :a) Click on File->Save As or press Ctrl+S keys from keyboard. Following 'Save as' dialog will get displayed. 3) Version :We can save different versions of document using Versions option if File Menu. The name given by you will appear on Title bar.com 75 . M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. b) Select the path where you want to store the document and then give file name and click on button 'Save'. 4) Open Existing Document :a) Click on File->Open or Ctrl+O keys from keyboard. To save document as web page then click on 'Save as Web Page' from File Menu. If we to save modifications in file then click on Save option from File menu.

We can also set Header and Footer margin and mirror margin.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Following dialog will get displayed. Left. M. b) Select file name which you want to open from appropriate path and click on Open. Paper Size . 5) Page Setup :To change page setup click on 'File->Page Setup' There are four tabs in Page setup Margins.com 76 . Bottom.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Right and Gutter(Margin for binding purpose) margins of paper. Paper Source and Layout. In Margin Tab we can set Top. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

7) Send To :Using send to we can send the document to destination using fax. 8) Properties :This option displays general properties of file and we can set properties like read only. archive. M. we can also set paper size according to our requirement. Web page preview will display the document that how it will get displayed on web page.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 In Paper size tab we can set paper size. hidden or system file. In Layout tab we can set header footer and we can set border and line numbers. 6) Print Preview :This is used to display view of page before printing it. Orientation may be portrait or landscape . using mail etc. By viewing the preview of document we can change the page setup according to our requirement. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 77 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

When it is created.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 78 . It also displays how many paragraphs are there. when it is modified and when it is accessed. File menu also display recently opened file also display recently opened files and also Exit is used to close MS-Word. M. 1) Undo (Ctrl+Z) :This is used to cancel recently done action in current document.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 General properties displays where it is stored. in current file. Following are the submenus in edit menu. how many words are there and how many lines are there etc. 2) Redo (Ctrl+Y) :Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).  WORING WITH EDIT MENU :As we have studied earlier Edit menu is related with modifications and editing in document.

i. M. If we have not cancel or undo any action then Redo is inactive. unformatted text. d) Click on Edit-> Paste. c) Place the cursor where you want to paste it. You found that the test is moved from source to destination. 4) Copying Text :To copy text from one place to another place use Copy (Ctrl+C) and Paste (Ctrl+V) from Edit menu. c) Place the cursor where you want to copy it. or formatted text using paste special. One is at Source and on is at destination.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This is used to repeat the actions those are cancelled. picture. d) Click on Edit->Pate. a) Select the text which you want to copy.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.e.rich text. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 3) Moving text :To move text form one place to another use CUT (Cut+X) and Paste (Ctrl+V ) in edit menu.com 79 . You will get two copies of selection. 5) Paste Special :We can paste cut or copied text in some special format. b) Click on Edit->Copy. a) Select the text which you want to move. b) Click on Edit->Cut.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 6) Clear (Del) :This option is used to delete selected text.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 7) Select All (Ctrl+A) :This option is also used to Select whole document. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 80 .

M.. in whole document to up side of cursor or down to cursor. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). If search options are not visible then click on More button.com 81 . There are Five options.e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 8) Finding Text :We can find a word or text in current document using Edit->Find. a) Click Edit->Find Following dialog will appear. 2) Find Whole Words :Matches for whole word not the characters. b) Type the text which you want to find in 'Find What' text box.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 1) Match Case :This matches small and capital letter. Specify where you want to find i.

e.. 9) Finding and Replacing the Text :If we want to find a particular word and replace it with another word then. The cursor will get placed at the place where the match is found. Know and No are considered as same match if sounds like is checked. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Only the difference is that here we can replace the text found. with another word. b) Type text that you want to find in 'Find What' box and type the word by which you want to replace in 'Replace with' Text box. c) To make replacement at a time click on 'Replace' and to make all replacement at a time click on 'Replace All' Button.com 82 . The same dialog like fine will appear. a) Click Edit-> Replace. We can also specify the format of text which we want to lines then click on 'Find Next' Button. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Use Wild Cards :This is used to match part of word i. done by using wild card character*and ? 4) Sounds Like :This matches pronunciation of word.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. All search options and format are same as they are in find dialog.

line Footnote.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 10) Go to:This option is used to go to particular Page. .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 83 . M. Enter the page no. or Endnote. Section. Book mark.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 in 'Enter page number' box and click on 'Next' button the cursor will move to the specified page no.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. If+5 is given then cursor will move in forward direction and if sign is given then cursor will move in backward direction. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 84 . M.

com 85 . A single line gets displayed where page is braked.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. It will not display margins of page. 1) Changing View of Document :There are four different view available in word. a) Normal View:In this view document gets displayed in normal view. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Background given to document is not visible in Normal view. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 WORKING WITH VIEW MENU This menu is related with display of the screen. We can change the display of screen or document form 'View menu'. No separate page gets displayed like in Print Layout.

Generally we always work in Print Layout. Background is visible in this view. How it will appear when it gets published on Web. If there are different style are applied to different heading in document then to display heading with particular style outline view is used. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). This view gives idea about how .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 b) Web Layout :This view displays the document.com 86 . It is also called as "On line View". 1) Standard 2) Formatting 3) Auto text 4) Control tool box 5) Data base 6) Drawing 7) Forms 8) Outline 9) Picture 10) Reviewing 11) Table and Borders 12) Visual Basic 13) Web 14) Word Art 15) Custom & Customize etc. indents of paragraph. c) Print Layout :This view displays document with margins. Background is not visible in this view. Vertical Ruler is visible in this view. 2) Tool Bars :To activate or deactivate various tool bars this option is use. d) Outline View:This view is used to display outline of document. This view is help full in changing document setup or page setup. 'Outline' toolbar gets activated. M. There are different tool bars available in MS-Word as listed below.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.It will appear on page after printing. When we click on View->Outline.

Formatting and Drawing toolbars are active. There are different tools available on this toolbar. Footer is common part that appear below the bottom margin on every page of document. We can insert Page no. Author name etc. 3) Ruler :This option is used to activate or deactivate vertical and Horizontal Ruler in MS-Word. To activate Header area. Time using these tools as shown above. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Word jumps to the corresponding heading in the document. 5) Header and Footer :Header is the common part that appear above the top margin on every page in document. which will appear on every pave of document.com 87 . change format of page no Date. In MS . Also we can type an other text in header or footer are.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 A check mark will appear in front of name of tool bar which are active. 4) Document Map :The Document Map is a separate pane or area that displays a list of headings in the document. displays it at the top of the window. Document Map is used to navigate thought the document .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. b) Click on Close tool to deactivate header and footer area.Word by default Standard. file name. In Header and footer we can give page now. There is a switch tool on tool bar use for navigation or switching between header and footer area. A Header area gets activated and Header and Footer toolbar gets activated as shown below. M. When we click on a heading in the Document Map. a) Click on View-> Header and Footer. and highlights the heading in the Document Map.

com 88 . M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

M.e.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 89 . 7) Full Screen :This inactivate all too bars and display document on Full Screen. as shown.200%. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).i. 8) Zoom :This is used to display document in different magnified form.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 6) Foot Note and End Note :These option are used to display Footnote and Endnote which are inserted in document.300% etc.

Clip arts . Shapes .com 90 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Word arts. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 WORKING WITH INSERT MENU This menu is used to insert different Objects. Date and Time and Page Break etc. as shown below. M.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). There are three break types. M. Following window will get appear.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) Break :Break option is used to insert page break.com 91 . a) Click Insert-> Break.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. section break etc.

2) Page Numbers :This is used to insert page numbers in document with different format and at different locations. Center. break the column where cursor is placed. b) Click on Ok button to apply the settings. Even page.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Page break insert a page break where the cursor is placed.e. Text wrapping break end the current line where the cursor is placed and move cursor to next line. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Page Numbers can be aligned to Left. Odd page. in Footer area or Header Area. Right. Following Window will appear.com 92 . Continuous . Also there are four types of section break Next page.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. a) Click Insert-> Page Numbers. We can specify the position of Page Number i. M. Column Break.

b) Click on Ok Button to apply the setting. a) Click Insert-> Date and Time Following window will appear. We can select date and time format form window.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Inside or Outside. 3) Date and Time :This is used to insert Date and Time where the cursor is placed.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 4) Symbols :Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Preview shows the exact location of page number on page. M. When Update automatically is checked then date will get automatically updated when document is printed or accessed.com 93 .

com 94 . b) Click on Insert Button. time or different formulas. There are different categories of Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Select the symbol which you want to insert in document. 5) Fields :This option is used to insert different fields in document like date. Change the font to change different symbols.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This option is used to insert different symbols in document.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. a) Click Insert-> Symbols. Following window will appear. M.

respected sir etc. Auto text is text which you are using frequently in document.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). i. yours faithfully.e. e.com 95 . M. select category 'Date and Time' and field 'Date' as shown in following window and click on Ok it will insert current date in document.Auto Text offers a way to store and quickly insert text.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 fields like date and time formulas. We can select fields in specific category and click on Ok button to insert that field.g. 6) Auto text:This option is used to insert Auto text.

the inserted comments gets displayed at bottom of screen if 'Command' option from view menu is checked or activated. M. c) We can also change format of number given to note using ' Format Number'.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 8) Footnote :This is used to insert foot note or end note in document. a) Click Insert->Footnote. Then the corresponding table or text gets automatically inserted in document. tables. and other items that you use frequently. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Then Click on Insert->Auto text->Normal->Auto text name. When you want to insert this auto text in document. Footnote is the note which is inserted at the end of page in document. fields. 7) Comment :Used to insert comments in your document where the cursor is placed. b) Select Endnote to insert endnote and select Footnote to insert footnote. a) Select table. c) Give simple name for Auto text. This will create auto text with given name which appears in Normal auto text. End note is the note which is inserted at end of document. A comment number with yellow color will appear where the comment is placed.com 96 . bookmarks.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 graphics. b) Click Insert->Auto text->New. text or object for which you want to create Auto text. Following dialog will appear.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 97 . M.

Click on New Label to insert new Label. To automatically start the numbering for particular object like bitmap image. Select Label from options. clip art Auto Caption is used. tables inserted in document. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). a) Click Insert->Caption Following dialog will appear. M. We can change format of number using Numbering button. to apply settings click on Ok Button.com 98 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 9) Caption :This is used to give numbers to diagrams.

com 99 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Click on the category of the Clip on the category of the Clip Art and then insert button to insert Clip Art.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 10) Picture:There are six sub options in picture from Insert Menu. a) Clip Art :We can Insert different Clip arts from Microsoft Clip Gallery . This will display following Clip Art dialog box.com 100 . M. i) Click Insert->Picture->ClipArt. We can also Insert Clip Art from Drawing Tool Bar using tool Clip art .

com 101 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 b) From File :To insert a Picture from another file like paint brush file. Following Dialog will appear. Then select the file which you want to insert and then click on Insert Button. i) Click Insert->Picture-> From File . Corel draw file etc.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We can also insert auto shape from Drawing Tool bar. This will activate Auto shape toolbar. M. We can insert different Auto shape from this toolbar.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 102 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 c) Auto shapes:When we click on Insert->Picture->Auto shape.

Click on Ok button to insert word art. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Select Font. Following dialog will appear. Word Art can also inserted form Drawing Tool bar using tool.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 103 . Size . M. Select the word art style and click on Ok Button the types the text in edit word art text dialog box. We can also apply Bole and Italic effect to text. a) Click Insert->Picture->Word Art.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 d) Word Art:We can insert different word art in document.

clip art.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 11) File :We can inset a document in another document. M. b) Insert file dialog will appear. If you want to insert existing file click on 'Create from file' tab. Select Object type. 12) Object:To insert object like pait object. Following dialog will appear. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). If 'Display as Icon' is active then object is inserted as icon. b) Click on Ok button to insert object. If you want to creat new object then click on 'Create New ' tab.com 104 . calendar.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. a) Click Insert->Object. select filename which you want to insert and click on Insert button. a) Click Insert-> File.

You can also go to selected bookmark using Edit->Go to>Bookmark.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 13) Bookmark :Bookmark is the mark inserted in document. select the bookmark and click on Delete button. To insert bookmark in document. c) To delete inserted book mark. d) If you want to go to selected bookmark the click on Go to Button. b) Click on Add button to insert in document.com 105 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. a) Click insert->Bookmark. Give name to bookmark. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. Following dialog will appear.

The text in format like Text will appear called as hypertext.com 106 . Following dialog will appear. a) Click Insert->Hyperlink. We can link two document in word using Insert->Hyperlink. b) Type web site address or file name with path that you want to link. Hypertext is the text on which link is created. c) Click on Ok button. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 14) Hyperlink :Hyperlink is the link between to document.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Mouse pointer will appear as when you point to hypertext.

Format contains following options. or a) Click Insert->Text Box. 1) Font:To change font.com 107 . Character spacing tab is used to change spacing between tow character i. font size. Type the text in text box. Font tab is sued to change font.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 15) Text Box:When you want to insert text in document which you can move any where in document that can insert be insert in text box. subscript. font style. font color. M. font size etc of text. 16) Cross Reference:If you want to give some details about the table or diagrams inserted in your document then cross reference is used. bullet style. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Following dialog will appear. raised or lowered. 17) Index and Table:This is used to create index in your document. WORKING WITH FORMAT MENU Format menu is related with Formatting of text. colors. font size. underline style. We can also make these changes from format tool bar. color of underline style and different effects like superscript. We can insert text box from drawing tool bar using text box tool. a) Select text and click on Format->Font. We can change scale and position of character on line i. We can change fort.e. emboss. expanded or condensed.e. There are three tabs available. shadow etc. number style and paragraph formatting form format menu. effects.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 108 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Text effect tab is used to apply different text effect like linking background. shimmer. We can see preview in preview window. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 109 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.

M. We can set left indent. Indents and spacing is used to align paragraph as left. That can also be set from Horizontal Ruler. center.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Paragraph:To change paragraph formatting a) Select the paragraph which you want to format. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Following dialog will appear. right indent. There are two tables in this dialog. b) Click Insert->Paragraph. justify. first line indent of paragraph. Second tab is 'Line and Page break' is used to keep paragraph continue on one page. To keep all lines together in a paragraph.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 110 . Spacing before and after paragraph can be set.

a) Click Format-> Bullets and numbering. We can also apply Bullets and Numbers from Formatting tool bar.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Bullets and Numbering :This tool is used to give bullet or numbers to selected paragraph in document. We can also change bulleted style by customizing bulleted. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We can apply different bullet styles from Bulleted tab. Following dialog will appear. Number tab is used to apply number in various formats like 1.com 111 . etc. b. 3 or a. c. M. 2.

com 112 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 4) Borders and Shading:This is used to apply borders to paragraph and page. width or line.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. All settings in page border are same as border tab. a) Click Insert-> Borders and shading. Page border tab is used to apply border to the page. There are three tabs. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Border tab is used to apply border to the selected paragraph. style of line. M. Click on Ok button to apply the settings. art type border. Only one addition type of border we can apply to the page i. Following dialog will appear. Set the border type. Shading tab is used to apply shading to the paragraph. color of line and then click on OK button to apply the settings. We can fill different colors or patterns to background or paragraph.e.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. of columns.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 5) Columns:This option is used to divide the page in columns like News paper. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). a) Click on Format->Columns . of columns and width of column. We can divide page different no. Click on OK to apply the settings.Following dialog will appear. M.com 113 . Line between option is used to apply line between to columns. the spacing between to column will get set automatically. We can adjust no.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 6) Change Case :This option is used to change the case or selected paragraph or text.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. There are five cases we can apply to the text. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Following dialog will appear. M.com 114 . 1) Sentence Case :In this case first character of each sentence become capital and all other in small letters. 4) Title Case:In this case first character of each word become Capital. 2) Lower Case :In this case all characters appear in small case. 5) Toggle Case:In this case all character in Capital form appears in Small letters and vise versa. 3) Upper Case :In this case all characters appear in capital letters. a) Click Format->Change case.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 115 .

a) Click Format-> Tab following Tab dialog will appear. Left tab align left.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Center tab align text to center. c) To apply tab settings click on ok button and to cancel tab settings click on Clear all.com 116 . M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Tight tab align text to right. again tab key is pressed then cursor will move to next tab position. In following dialog of you set tab at 1" position then if cursor will move to 1" tab position when tab key pressed on new line. It help in creation of structure like table without border.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 7) Tabs :This option is used to give space using tab key. In Ms-Word there are five types of tabs. Bar tab align text to bar And decimal tab align decimal point. b) Give tab stop position 1 and click on set.

M. Following dialog will appear.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. no. There are two types of drop cap position i. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Then set font.e. of lines to drop and distance from text and click on Ok button to apply settings. Dropped or In margin.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 8) Drop Cap :This option is used to make first character of sentence to big size. a) Click Format-> Drop cap.com 117 . Select on of them.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). gradient tab is used to fill different color with different shading style. Texture tab is used to fill different available texture to page. From following dialog box select the pattern and color of pattern you want to fill. Picture tab is used to apply picture from different software like paint brush etc.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 9) Background:To apply background to the document . A color box will appear select color for background. To view more click on more color option in background.com 118 . b) We can also fill more patterns using fill pattern option. Pattern tab is used to fill pattern. Texture are some predefined patterns that we can apply to background of document. There are four tabs.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.to background of the page. a) Click on Format->Background.

etc. bullets. To apply these theme. b) Select the theme from given list. a) Click on Format->Theme .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 10) Theme:Theme is collection of styles applied to hypertext. M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Following dialog will appear. Preview is shown there.com 119 . c) Click on Ok button to apply the settings. heading1. heading 2.

Following dialog will appear.com 120 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 11) Auto format:This is used to Auto format the document.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. a) Click on Format->Auto format . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). b) Select the format which you want to apply to document and click on Ok button to apply the settings. M.

com 121 . color. Styles have predefined formatting e. b) If you want to create new style click on New button. c) Click on Ok button to apply the setting You will found that the new style gets added in list of style. styles and tabs etc. To apply these styles.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.g. Give new name to style and to set formatting click on format button. font. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Select the style Preview of style is shown in preview window. Following dialog will appear. M. font size. a) Click Format-> Styles.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 12) Style:This option is used to apply different styles to the document. margin . Again a new dialog will appear.

When we click on. Click on Add button to add that word in dictionary e. There are suggestions given to correct the mistake.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 WORKING WITH TOOLS MENU 1) Spelling and Grammar:This tool is used to find spelling and grammatical corrections in document and correct it. Change all makes changes in Whole document where the mistake found. If check grammar is checked then only computer will search for grammatical mistake otherwise not . Spelling and Grammatical tool is also available on Standard toolbar. It shows spelling mistake in red color and grammatical mistake in green color. Select the correct one form suggestions and click on change button to make changes where the mistake found.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. This tool following dialog will appear. F7 is shortcut key for spelling and grammar.com 122 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Ignore button will ignore the mistake and continue. name of person or institution.g. M.

Total no. Total no.com 123 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Word Count:This displays the total characters with or without spaces. of lines in document. M. of paragraphs and word in document. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). If include Footnote and Endnote check box is checked then it include text in footnote and endnote in counting.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

3) New document can be created which contains summary of original.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Auto Summary:This option is used to summaries the document. 2) Executive summary is shown at the top to document.Following dialog will appear. It automatically takes the sentences relevant to subject in summary.com 124 . We can take summary in font types.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 4) Hide everything in document except summary. M. When we click on Tool->Autosummary. We can increase or decrease the percentage of summary. 1) Highlight Key point highlight key points in yellow color in the document itself. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

about gets replaced by about etc. b) If Capitalize first character of the sentence is checked there.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. e) Also corrects mistake in typing automatically e. d) If accidentally caps lock get on then it off caps lock automatically. c) It also capitalize name of days. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).g. It capitalizes first character of each new sentence automatically. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 4) Auto Correct:Auto correct makes some correction as you type the document as listed below. a) Correct two initial capitals corrects if two characters are typed in capital format.com 125 .

2) Make some modifications it it. 2) Thesaurus:We can find synonyms for particular word in document. Once you saved the document. Click on Tools->Track Changes->Highlight track changes.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 4) To compare click Tools->Track Changes->Compare documents and sleect the original file from list. 1) Create document and save it. c) Compare document compares the original document with edited document. To compare document. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 126 . 3) Hyphenation:This option hyphenates the document.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 5) Language:There are three sub options in language. 3) Highlight track changes from Tools->Track Changes->Highlight track changes. Activate the option to track the changes while editing. M. 1) Language:Sets the language which helps in spelling and grammar checking . 5) This automatically highlights the track changes or modification done in original document after saving it. When you edit the document the changes are highlighted in specific form or style and comment is shown about the changes. b) To accept the changes Click on Tools->Track Changes->Accept or Reject the changes. 6) Track Changes:a) This option is used to track the changes in document.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 7) Protect Document:This option is used to protect document from making changes. Click on Ok button . M.One can protect the document from inserting new text. deleting existing text and inserting password. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 127 . This makes track changes active. One can not accept or reject these changes without unprotect the document. Click on ok button and retype the password in next window. To protect the document click Tools->Protect document following dialog will appear. This highlight all changes made in document.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Password always appears in form of *. Select the option for which you want to protect the document .

After unprotect the document one can accept or reject all track changes. We can also change the order of field using arrows. Click on active window button. Click on Ok button and give name to data source to save it. Remove the fields which you don't want from list and add the fields which you want to add. a) Type the letter and save it.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Instead of creating multiple documents. Enter records in database. Following mail merge helper dialog will appear. There are three steps c) Click on Create->Form letters button. d) Click on Get data->Create data source window will appear. e) Click on Ok button. This will create a separate for each parent. Suppose we want to sent a letter to parents of students informing about parents teacher meeting. Then Mail merge tool bar gets activate.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 8) Unprotect Document:To unprotect the document click on tool->Unprotect and give the same password which is given to protect the document. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Then edit the data source to insert data into it. M.com 128 . It will ask for window. Type a common to letter and merge the database containing name and address of parent in it. b) Click Tools->Mail merge. 9) Mail-Merge:Some time we want to send same letter to different person.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.com 129 .

com 130 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

You will found a separate letter corresponding to each record. First or Last tool. Click on Merge button and give range of records which you want to merge and click on Merge button. 10) Envelops and Labels:Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We can change record using Next. to merge all records or selected records click on Mail merge helper tool. This will again display mail merge helper window. Insert the data fields at appropriate place. Previous.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Insert Merge field contains all fields in data source. View merged data tool shows current merged record. In same way.com 131 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. using Mail merge we can create labels and envelops using data source. M.

This will display following window. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Using options we can change envelop size and position of address of on envelop . Letter wizard helps in creating a letter. We can Omit return address. We can add delivery address and return address from address book.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This is used to create envelops and labels. To create Label tab. 11) Letter Wizard:Wizard is a step by step procedure. We can print same label on whole page or we can print a single label. Using option in Label tab we can change label size.com 132 . of labels on a single page. Click on Print button to print the envelop and click on 'Add to document' to add envelop in current document. To create envelop click on Envelop tab. M. Click on Tools->Envelops and Labels. distance between two labels and no.

Now only type the matter in the letter. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. Letter format sets the design of letter i. Following letter wizard dialog will appear. Date. Recipient Info tab sets information of the recipient. There are four tabs.e. Recipient address. informal or business. senders information.com 133 . Other element tab sets the attention line mailing instruction. Click on Ok button to apply the settings.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) Click Tools->Letter wizard. Name and type of letter that whether the letter is formal. whether using letter head for printing or not. reference line and subject. Sender tab contains the information about the sender. job title etc. I.e. I. Line. This will create a letter with specified format.

com 134 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Now the recording gets started. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Then stop the recording of macro and save macro. Following dialog will appear. When you want to execute same instruction the instead of going to all instructions Run only the macro from Tool>Macro->Macros.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 12) Macro:Macro is a collection of instruction. To create a new macro click Tools->macro->Record new macro. With some name. M. Execute all the instruction which you want to copy in macro. Select the macro name from list and Run the macro to execute all instruction recorded in macro.com 135 .

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Give No. rows. Following dialog will appear.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 WORKING WITH TABLE MENU 1) Draw Table:This is used to draw table in document. Table and Borders toolbar gets activated. As shown below. When we click on Table>Draw table. of columns and rows. width. 2) Insert:This is used to insert tables. no. When we click Table->Insert->Table. a) Table: This option is used to insert table with required no.com 136 . There are five sub menus. of rows and behavior of the table and click on Ok button to insert the table. color and draw the table. columns etc. M. We can select the line style. of columns.

c) Columns to right insert columns to right side of the columns where the cursor is placed.com 137 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. d) Similarly we can insert rows to above and blow of the row where the cursor is placed. M. Click Table->Insert->Cells shows following dialog. e) Cells:We can insert cells in table. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Specify where to shift current cell and click on Ok button to insert the cell. for that we have to insert whole row or column or we have to shift current cell to below or right of the current cell.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 b) Columns to left insert columns to left side of column where the cursor is placed.

5) Split Cell:To convert single cell into multiple cells split cell is used.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Delete:This option is used to delete specified no. Specify where to shift cells and click on Ok button to delete the cell.com 138 . Click Table -> Split cell following dialog will appear. row.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 4) Select:This is used to select table. 6) Merge Cells:- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). of columns and rows to split the cell and click on ok button. or selected rows or columns or cell. When we delete the cell it will ask for where to shift cell either on up or left as shown below. Give no. columns or cells. M. We can also delete the whole tables.

com 139 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 7) Spilt Cell:To convert single cell into multiple cells spilt cell is used. of columns and rows to split the cell and click on ok button. Give no.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To merge cell Select multiple cell and click Table->Merge cell. All cells get merged and you found only single cell.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 To convert multiple cells into single cell Merge cells option is used. Click Table->Spilt cell following dialog will appear. M.

b) Click->Table->Auto format c) Select format. d) Click on Ok button to apply formatting.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 8) Auto Format:There are some predefined formats which we can apply to the table using Auto format. M. a) Auto fit to content:Adjust width of column according to contents of column. c) Fixed column width:Fixes width of column. e) Distribute column evenly:Makes width of each column to same size. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Specify formatting which you want to apply and where you want to apply. d) Distribute rows evenly:Make height of each row to same size. To apply formatting to table. 9) Auto fit:This option is used to adjust width of column and table. a) Select the table.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 140 . b) Auto fit to window:Adjust width of table according to size of window.

com 141 . M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Following dialog will appear. Specify the how to separate the text in each column. M. Click on Ok button you found that the table gets converted in text separated by given character or specification. a) To convert table to text Click Table->Convert->Table to text.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 10) Convert: We can convert text to table and table and table to text.com 142 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

Click on Ok button to convert text in to table.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Specify no. Table->Convert->Text to table following dialog will appear.com 143 . M. of columns and how the text is separated and how to adjust column width in table.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 b) To convert text to column click. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 11) Sort:Sorting means arrangement records on a particular order i.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.e. Select the field according to which you want to sort the table e.no.sr. Following dialog will appear. Click Table ->Sort. This sort the table. Give second field for sorting.com 144 . Specify the order of sorting.g. ascending or descending order. If some contents are same in sort by field then it will get sort by then by field specified next. Select the table. To sort the table. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We can sort table according to order to primary key or any field in table.or name and specify the order.

Number format and specify from which side you want sum or value of formula. To insert formula in cell Click Table->Formula following dialog will appear.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 12) Formula:This is used to insert formula in table. above or down of the current cell. Select the function from Paste function. To display these gridlines click Table->Show Gridlines.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To hide gridlines Click Table->Hide Gridlines. Click on Ok button to insert formula. right. 14) Table Properties:Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We can find sum. We can perform some numeric or logical operation on contents of table.com 145 . M. When border is not applied to table then the lines in gray color appear on screen but not appear on appear while printing are called as gridlines. 13) Hide Gridline:We can apply border to the table. maximum or minimum between cells to left.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). height of row. M. Click Table->Table properties. Row tab sets height of row. Table tabs sets alignment and wrapping effect of table.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Column tab specify width of column and cell tab specify position of text in cell. width of column we have to set table properties.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 To specify position of text in cell. Following dialog will appear. There are four tabs.com 146 .

Formatting tool bar is related with formatting text i. This window contains 'Title Bar' which contains name of file. Standard tool bar is used to work with file like create. open.  Starting MS-Excel:To start excel Click on Start->Programs->Ms-Excel. In excel by default file name is 'Book1. Following excel window will appear. mark sheet etc.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.g. save undo etc. Only some changes are there that we will see. salary sheet. One new bar i. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). This contains address of cell and displays contains of cell. Formula bar is displayed on this screen as shown above. font style etc.e.xls is extension. This is used to create sheets where numeric calculations are required e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 INTRODUCTION TO MS-EXCEL Ms-Excel is spread sheet software. Menu bar contains different menus.e. It is a part of MS-Office. M. All menus are almost same as we have seen in MSWord.com 147 . font.xls' where book1 is file name and .

A cell may contain numeric or string value of formula. M. A1: C5 is range include cell from A1 to A5.. A1 is address of first cell. 2.. Address of range is given by address of first cell and address of last cell.com 148 . A. 1. A cell address is combination of name of row Intersection of one row and one column is called as cell. 3. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). . 655536 are name given to row Intersection of one row and one column is called as cell.. IV are the name given to column. There are 65536 rows and 256 columns on on sheet. A sheet contains rows and columns. We can insert 256 sheets in a file. B1 to B5 and C1 to C5.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) Sheets:There are three sheets in a book. C . Each cell has address shown on formula bar.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Each cell has address shown on formula bar. Group of more than one cell is called as range. B.. A cell address is combination of name of row and column.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 4) Giving Values in a Cell:A cell may contain numeric. alphabetic value or formula. Select workbook and click on 'Ok'button to open new workbook. We can save workbook.is used for subtraction and / is used for division. If you want to fill same value as a next item in list then type the initial value in cell it show and complete the same data present in list automatically as shown. It will automatically fill name of days in sequence as shown below.com 149 . This formula always start with = sign. Numeric value is always right aligned and Alphabetic value is always left aligned. 2) Open Existing Workbook:Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). A formula can be given in cell. Ctrl+N is shortcut key to create new workbook. Ctrl+S is shortcut key to save work book. Place mouse pointer on fill handle and drag it. * is used for multiplication . • Creating New File:To create new book in excel click File->New . closing . To save modifications in work book click File->Save.+ is used for addition . When we put mouse point on this fill handle it appear as +.saving file etc. Mar etc. Each file in excel is called as workbook. . To save the workbook as webpage click File->Save as webpage. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Auto Complete:Suppose a list is present in column. We can save workbook from save tool on standard toolbar. We can also copy the formula from above cell to below cell by dragging fill handle as shown above. 3) Auto Fill:In excel type Sunday or any day name in a cell. Feb . In same way we can also fill series of Jan . Working With File Menu:As we know file menu always related with opening. 1) Saving New Workbook:We know that to save work book with new name click on File->Save as.

We will see this in next chapter. Bottom and Header and Footer margin of the page.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 To open existing work book click File->Open. b) Click File->Save as workspace and give name to workspace. 5) Setting Page:To set paper size. There are font tabs. When you open this work space from File->open all the workbooks in the workspace get open.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Header and Footer tab is used to set header and footer or the page. Page tab is used to set orientation of page. M.com 150 . a) Open multiple workbooks. Left. 3) Close:Click File->Close to close workbook. Margin tab is used to set Top. paper size. Ctrl+O is shortcut key to open Workbook. Then we save that workbooks as workspace. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 4) Save as Workspace:Some times we want to open number of workspaces at a time. margin header and footer click File->Page setup. and Right. zooming percentage and printing quality. Select the name of workbook from appropriate path and click on 'Open' button to open it. Sheet tab is used to set print area page order and printing options. Following dialog will appear.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.com 151 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

Set the printer. of copies to print and click on 'Pint ' button to print the page. M.e. selection. Specify no. Click File -> Clear print area. sheet or entire workbook.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 7) Print Preview:We can see the page before printing called as print preview. Select multiple cell or range click File->Print area.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 6) Setting Print Area:- To print a particular range of cells or area on sheet set it as print area . Ctrl+P is shortcut key for print. 8) Printing Sheet:To print the pages or sheet click File->Print. To clear print area. Following dialog will appear. ranges and specify what you want to print i.com 152 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). cut. 2) Redo (Ctrl+Y):This is used to repeat the action. 1) Undo (Ctrl+Z):This is used to cancel the action.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 153 . undo. M. paste are same as we have seen in word.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 WORKING WITH MENU IN EXCEL  Edit Menu:- EDIT AND VIEW As we have seen in word edit menu is related with editing modifying workbook. copy.

com 154 . To fill the contents to left or right side then select the cell containing the value and select the row toward left or right side and click Edit->Fill->Left or Right. 5) Filling Contents:We can fill the contents of cell in row or column.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Click Edit>Cut and place the cursor where you want to move the text. Click File>Paste.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Cut (Ctrl+X) Paste (Ctrl+V):When we want to move cells select the cells. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). If the cell contains formula then formula get copied. To fill the contents to down side then select the cell containing the value and select the column in down or up direction and click Edit->Fill->Down or UP. Click Edit->Paste. 4) Copy Cells:When we want to copy cells the select the cells click edit>Copy and select the cell where you want to paste. M.

Select rows or column where you want to fill the series. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 6) Filling Series:To fill series select the cell containing starting value and then click Edit->Fill->Series. M.com 155 . Following dialog will appear. There are four types of series.

d) Comments:This clears comments but content and formatting remain as it is. Following dialog will appear. etc.4/2/04. c) Date Series:In date series step value gets added in day . 8) Delete:To delete cell or range of cell click Edit->Delete.g.6. Click on Ok button fill the series.. e.4. a) All:This clears all i.12. if starting date is 2/2/04.g. setup value is 2 and stop value is 14 then series gets filled is 2. step value is 2 date unit is month then series gets filled is 2/2/04.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) Linear Series:In this series step value gets added in starting value or previous values.14. e. contents and comments.12.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. e.formating.. Shift cells left means shift the contents from right side cells to left. b) Formats:This clears formatting of cell but content and comments remains as it is.. 7) Clear:There are four options. Stop value specifies the ending value.g.com 156 .8. if starting values is 3. M. c) Contents:This clears content of cell but formatting and comments remains remains it is. year or month of date as per your selection .6/2/04.e. if starting values is 2.10.6. step value is 2 and stop value is 14 then series gets filled is 3.. b) Growth Series:In this series starting or previous value gets multiplied by step values. Shift cells to up means shift the contents of cells to Up Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 means shift the contents of cells from down to up. Select one of the option and click on Ok button to apply. M.com 157 . 9) Delete Sheet:To delete current sheet Click Edit->Delete sheet. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Delete entire row or column.

and before sheet where you want to move the current sheet.com 158 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 10) Move or Copy Sheet:To move or copy current sheet Click Edit->Move or Copy sheet.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Specify the location i.e. file. Click on Create a copy to create copy of current sheet. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Following dialog will appear. M. And Click on Ok button to apply the settings.

To replace the text with another Click Edit->Replace and specify old and new word and Click 'Replace' button to replace old text with new. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 11) Finding and Replacing Text:To find particular text click Edit->Find and specify the word which you want to find as we have seen in MS-Word. M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.Following dialog will appear. 12) Go to:To locate the particular cell Click Edit->Goto.com 159 . Specify the reference or cell address that you want to locate and click on 'Ok' button.

To show or hide Formula bar Click View->Formula bar. 5) Full screen:To display book on full screen Click View->Full screen. 1) Views in Excel:- There are two different views available in excel. Do same for customize Footer of page. To show or hide status bar Click View->Status bar. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Status bar:To show or hide toolbars use View->Toolbar. total no. In Page break preview different pages are shown on sheet. 3) Header and Footer:To set header and footer Click View->Header and Footer. Insert text. To customize header Click on 'Customize header' button again following dialog will appear. Formula bar. page no. 2) Tool bar. Date and time. 4) Comments:To display comments on screen Click View->Comments.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  View Menu :This menu is related with view or display of screen. Make the settings for header in left right and center section. M. In that Click Header and footer tab.com 160 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. sheet name and book name. In Normal view no different pages are shown on sheet. . Let us see options in View menu. Click on 'Ok' button to apply the settings. Following page setup dialog will appear. of pages.

com 161 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Following dialog will appear.com 162 . Click on 'Add' button to create new view. Give name to view. Click on 'Show' button to display book in customized view.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 6) Custom views:To create different views in excel Click View->Custom views.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 1) Inserting Cells:Click Insert->Cells to insert new cell where the cursor is placed. Click on Ok button this will insert new blank cell instead of current cell. rows. charts and functions in book.com 163 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 WORKING WITH INSERT MENU Insert menu is related with inserting cells. M. columns. Specify whether to insert new row or column or to shift current cell to right or down side.

3) Inserting Columns:To insert multiple columns or single column select multiple or single column and click Insert->Column. You found that the new sheet get inserted into book before the current sheet. Select multiple or single row and Click Insert->row.com 164 . 1 2 3 4 5 Name Pradhyana Vasanti Madhuri Rasika Gavari Sub1 78 56 34 25 65 Sub2 77 55 44 35 65 Total 155 111 78 60 130 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 4) Inserting Sheet:To insert sheet in book Click Insert->Worksheet. a) Create following table in excel. M. To insert chart follow give steps. 5) Inserting Chart:We can insert chart or represent table in graphical format.No.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Sr.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Inserting Rows:To insert multiple rows or single row.

com 165 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.

Select name column and press Ctrl button and select Total Column Click on Next button. Following window will appear. Position of legend.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 b) Click Next button.com 166 . select table or specific column. give data range i. Give Title to chart. information about axe. Click on Finish button to Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Following window will appear.e. M. table and label.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Complete and finish the chart.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Following chart will get inserted in table.com 167 . M.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 168 . M.

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10) gives 50 c) Max ( ):This function returns maximum value in give range or values . 23) returns 23 e) Count ( ):This function returns no. = sum (A1:E5) : Adds contents of cells from A1 to E5 = sum (45.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. =Average (90. = Min (78. 10) gives result 100 b) Average ( ):This function is used find out average of given values or cell contents. e. Each function must start with = sign a) Sum ( ):This function is used to add contents of given cell address of given values.g. 45. of cells containing number values in given range. f)Counta ( ):Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. 34.com 170 . We can directly type the function in a cell. = Max (A1:A5) d) Min ( ):This function returns minimum value in given range or values. Following are some common functions used.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 6) Inserting Fountain in Cell:Using Insert->Function we can insert different functions in formula in a cell.

g.g. = If (E5>35. = Char (36) returns $ h) Len ( ):This function returns length of given string."Fail") Here if contents of E5 is greater than 35 then Pass will appear else Fail will appear."C"."Pass". M. e. =If (E5<35. we can also using nested if as given below. True. of cells containing any values except blank cells in given range. e. e. = Lower ("Pallavi") will return "pallavi". If (E5<50.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.g. k) If (Condition. = Len ("Rudrani") returns 7 i) Upper ( ):This function returns length of given string. This condition should be logical condition returns True or False. False):This function is used to check given condition and display result according to value of condition.com 171 .If Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). g) Char ( ):This function returns character represented by given number. = Upper ( "Pallavi") will return "PALLAVI" j) Lower ( ):This functions returns given string in lower letters.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This function return no."Fail".

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY®
PH:22820846 E5<65,"B".If (E5<75,"A","Dist")))) If within another if is called a nested if. Above given function satisfies all following conditions. If Per<35 then Grade is Fail If Per>=35 and Per<50 then Grade is C If Per>=50 and Per<65 then Grade is B If Per>=65 and Per<75 then Grade is A If Per>=75 Grade is Dist

 Logical conditions:We want to check multiple conditions at a time then this logical function are used.

1) And ( ):This function returns value "True' When all given conditions are true. All conditions are separated by Comma (,). =And (A1<35, B1<35, C1<35)

2) Or ( ):This function returns value "False' When all given conditions are false. =Or (A1>35, B1>35, C1>35)

3) Not ( ):This function returns value 'True" if given condition is false and vice versa. =Not (A1=35) Condition 1 Or Condition 2 And

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7) Working with Names:We can give name to specific range or spefic formula. Name a cell or range. Select the cell where the formula is given Click Insert->Name and give name to formula. To paste the formula in another cell give = sing and name given to formula. Name given to range always appear at name box when same range get selected. We can use cell name in formula instead of cell address.

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WORKING WITH FORMAT MENU
Format menu is related with formatting of cells, column, rows, sheets etc.

1) Formatting Cell:To format cell or cells select range or cell. Click Format>Cells. Following dialog will appear. There are total six tabs. Number tab specifies alignment of text in a cell. Font tab is used to specify font, font size, font style color of text. Border tab is used to set border of cell or selected range. Pattern tab is used to fill different patterns in cells.

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2) Formatting Rows:We can change height of row using Format->Row>Height. We can hide or unhide rows.

3) Formatting Columns:We can change width of column using Format->Column>Width. We can hide or unhide columns.

4) Formatting Sheet:We can change name of sheet using Format->Sheet>Rename. We can hide or unhide sheet in a book. We can apply background to sheet using Format->sheet->Background.

5) Auto Format:Select table. We can apply different predefined formats to table using Format->Auto format. Following window will be appear. Select any format according to your choice and click on Ok button and apply it to selected table.

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6) Conditional Formatting:We can change formatting of cell or contents in cell according to condition. To do this click Format->Conditional formatting. Following dialog will appear. Give the condition that what should be the value of cell. or what should be the formula in cell. Click on Format button and Set the formatting to apply when condition gets satisfied and click on Ok button to apply conditional formatting. To add another condition click on Add button and to delete the condition click on Delete button.

7) Applying Styles to Cell:To apply new styles to cell select cell or range of cell. Click Format->Style. Following dialog will appear. To apply existing style select style name from given list and click on Ok button. To create new style give new style name and click on Add button and click on Modify button to make changes in new style.

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WORKING WITH TOOLS AND DATA MENU

Tools Menu:-

1) Protecting Workbook and Sheet:To protect sheet click Tools->Protect->Sheet. Following dialog will appear. Specify protect worksheet for contents objects and scenarios. Give password. Click on Ok button. Retype password and click on Ok button to protect the worksheet.

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To protect workbook click Tools->Protect->Protect Workbook. Following dialog will appear. Specify protect workbook for structure and window. Give password. Click on Ok button and retype the password and click on Ok button to protect the workbook.. To unprotect the workbook and sheet again click Tools->Protect->Unprotect sheet and workbook and type the correct password previously given.

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Select the cell containing formula.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Give the value in To value box (i. Click Tools->Goal seek.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Goal Seek:This option is used to set value of cell to particular value by changing the value of another cell whose reference is given in formula. M. Click on Ok button. give the reference of cell containing formula in Set Cell.com 180 .e. Following dialog will appear. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Target value) Give reference of cell that contains the value that you want to adjust.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Click on show button in Scenario Manager Dialog to show the scenario.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Creating Scenarios:Click Tools->Scenario. Following dialog will appear. Again Edit Scenario dialog will appear Give name to scenario and reference of cell that you want to change. Enter values for changing cell.com 181 . Click on Add button. Click on Ok button. M. Click on Ok button.

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com 183 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 4) Auditing in Excel:Auditing means locating cells that proved values to formula.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 6) Circle invalid data:This option is used to circle invalid data in given range. Following toolbar will appear. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). It will shows the cells that depends on current cell. It will shows possible cells responsible for error. Click Tools->Auditing->Error.com 184 . M. Click Tools->Auditing->Trace precedents.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) Select the cell containing formula. 2) Select the cell click Tools->Auditing->Trace Dependents. 4) Click Tool->Auditing->Show Auditing Toolbar. 5) Remove all arrows hides all auditing arrows. 3) Select the cell containing error value. It will shows the cells on which current cell is depend.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.com 185 .

com 186 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Specify the column name and order. Following dialog will appear. A-Z is ascending and Z-A is descending.Then by box and order and click on Ok button. To sort table according to two columns specify second column name in .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Data Menu:1) Sort:This option is used to sort table in ascending or descending order. This will arrange contents of column or table according to specified column in ascending or descending order. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. Click Data->Sort. Click on Header row to display heading of row in sort by.

List data satisfying criteria gets displayed. Click on this down arrow or filter and specify the criteria.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Filter:Filter means way to find data quickly and easily.i. Filtered list contains the data that matches given criteria. A filter gets attached to each column in table.e.com 187 . Select the list. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Click Data->Filter->Auto filter. M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

deleted. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) Form:Select the table click Data->Form.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. A form containing all fields in table gets displayed as shown below.com 188 . We can add. find records using this form in table. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

i.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. separately. Then sort the table according to comp name then Click Data->Subtotal. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. Select the field that you want to sum and click on Ok button to find subtotal.in following example we want to find total sale of each COM. You will get total of sale according to company name. Specify column name to find subtotal. Following dialog will appear. You will get total of sale according to company name.e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 4) Subtotal:Subtotal is used to find sum according to another value. Select the field that you want to sum and click on Ok button to find subtotal. Name to find subtotal.com 189 .

Following dialog will appear. If invalid data is entered then error message get displayed. Click on Ok button to apply. Select the range where you want to Apply validation criteria. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Input message get always appeared on cell where validation is applied. Click Data->Validation. M. In setting. In Input Message give input massage and Give error message in Error Alert box.com 190 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. There are three tabs.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 5) Validation:This is used to apply some condition to check entered data is valid or invalid. Give the condition that you want to check while validating criteria.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 6) Text to Column:Suppose Field name are given in cell and you want to make it separate as shown below. Click Data->Text to column.com 191 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Following dialog will appear. M. Click on Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

M.com 192 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Delimited and click on Next button. Again next screen appear. Specify delimiter click on next button and then on Finish button you find the text get separated in different column. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 7) Consolidate:Consolidate is used to add values in corresponding cell from different references on different sheet. Select range of cell as First reference and add it. Following dialog will appear.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Then select second reference and add it and click on ok button to find sum of corresponding cell values in references at destination. Click Data->Consolidate.com 193 . M.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.com 194 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name of Company Bajaj Bajaj Dial Dial Bajaj Rucha Rucha Dial Bajaj Bajaj District Pune Pune A'bad Pune A'bad A'bad Pune A'bad A'bad A'bad Location Chakan Chakan Waluj Kothrud Waluj Cthana Chakan Waluj Waluj Waluj Sale 2000 3000 4000 1000 2000 4500 6500 3400 2900 3000 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Consider following table.No. Sr.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 8) Pivot table:Pivot table is gives all summary reports or reports according to our choice.

Select Data range and click on Next button. Name of comp button at page. Location at Row. Click on Layout button and set layout of table as shown below Drag and drop.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Click Data->Pivot table Click Microsoft Excel list and Pivot table. M. Step 3 dialog will appear. location and sale and total sale.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. District at column and sum of sale at data and click on Ok Button. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). You found a pivot table as shown below on sheet. Click on next button. Again step 2 dialogs will appear. We can see reports according to company name area.com 195 .

Help menu is excel provides help about excel. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Freeze Pane:Freeze Pane freeze left and up area of selected cell.com 196 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

It is very important software in Ms-Office.com 197 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 INTRODUCTION TO MS-POWERPOINT Ms-PowerPoint is presentation software. There are three options give to create presentation. We can create presentation for seminars. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). There are so many facilities give which are used to make your presentation very powerful and attractive.  How to Start Power Point:To start PowerPoint click Start->Ms-PowerPoint. meetings etc in Ms-PowerPoint. M. Following window will appear.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

This presentation give s clue points which we can add in presentation. and give presentation title and footer of style.com 198 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Again click on Next button and select how you want output. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) Auto Content Wizard:When we select Auto Content Wizard to. There are five steps in auto content wizard. When we create presentation using auto content wizard a presentation gets created. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Click on Next button and select the presentation type that you want to create. create presentation. Again click on next button. Again click on next button and the to create presentation click on Finish button. The wizard can Also be activated by click File->New->Auto content wizard. Following window will appear. Or explain the points which are given on slide.

Select the slide layout. This can be also done from File->Open and select the presentation that you want to open.com 199 . There are 24 layouts available. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. A presentation is collection of no. of slides. A Following dialog will appear which ask for slide layout. Click on Ok button to insert the slide and presentation. Select the path of file which you want to open and then click on open button to open existing presentation. 3) Open Existing Presentation:This option is used to open existing or already created presentation. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Design Template:If we want to apply a template to blank presentation the select design Template option from above window or click on File->New>Select Design template tab from new window. 4) Blank Presentation:This option is used to create presentation according to your own.

M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 200 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Give name to presentation. b) Save:To save modification in PowerPoint Click File->Save.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Saving Presentation:a) Save as:As we have seen in Ms-Word to save a new presentation with new name Click on File->Save As. By default in PowerPoint presentation name is 'Presentation1.  Setting and Printing presentation:- a) To see the preview of presentation Click on File->Webpage preview.ppt is extension. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). c) Save as Web Page:To save the presentation as web page Click File->Save as web page. Following dialog will appear. Set the slide size. This will show preview of slide in Internet Explore.ppt' where . b) To set width and orientation of slide click on File->Page Setup.com 201 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. orientation and orientation in Notes and hand out. M.

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No. Print range. Gray scale.com 203 . What you want to print i.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 c) To print the presentation Click File->Print. handouts or notes pages. Following dialog will appear. Pure black and white etc. No. of copies. of slide on one handout. PowerPoint window also contains Standard toolbars. M. formatting toolbar drawing toolbar same as we have seen in Ms-Word. and click on Ok to print. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).e.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Select the printer.

1) Cancel and Repeat the Action:a) To cancel the current action in presentation Click Edit->Undo or use shortcut key Ctrl+Z b) To repeat the canceled action in presentation Click Edit->Redo or use shortcut key Ctrl+Y 2) Move or Copy Object or Slide:a) To Move this slide or object on slide select the object or slide. 3) Deleting and Selecting Slide:To select all slides click on Edit->Select all. b) To copy the object or slide select the object or slide Click Edit->Copy and place the cursor where you want to paste or copy the slide or object and click Edit->Paste. There are some option like undo. M. redo some as in Ms Word. 4) Duplicate Slide:To make duplicate slide of current slide Click Edit->Duplicate.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 EDITING AND VIEWING PRESENTATION  Editing Presentation:To edit or modify Edit Menu is used.com 204 . Click Edit->Cut and place the cursor where you want to paste or move the slide or object and click Edit->Paste. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). To delete the slide select the slide and then click Edit->Delete or press Del key from keyboard.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

If you want to replace that word with another then type that word in 'Replace with' and click on 'Replace' button. Following dialog will appear.' Find whole words only' Check for whole word. 'Match case ' matches lower and upper case.com 205 . Give the word which you want to find in 'Find What' and click on 'Find Next' button. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 5) Find and Replace:To find particular word Click Edit->Find. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Click View->Slide Sorter View to display presentation in slide sorter view. c) Notes Page View:In this view slide gets appear on screen with notes page. Slide pane and Notes pane. Slide pane shows how the contents of slide appear in slide show and Notes pane contains the notes of r speaker. 1) Views in PowerPoint:There are font views available in PowerPoint a) Normal:In Normal View three areas gets appeared on screen.e. So that you can change the order so Slide in presentation. Outline pane. They are called as pane i.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Viewing Presentation:View menu contains all the options which allows to display presentation in different formats. b) Slide Sorter View:In this view all slides in presentation gets appeared at a time on screen as shown below. By default any view Click View->Normal or press Normal view tool given at down left corner of screen . We can see transition effects on screen. We can add notes for speaker on this notes page. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. Click on View->Notes page to .com 206 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.display presentation in Notes page view. Outline pane shows outline view of slides or all text on slide. d) Slide Show:This is used to show slides on full screen.

Also we can set format of title on style and objects on slide. of slides on one page) Click View->Master->Handout. Following master slide appear on the screen. Following Master handout will appear on screen. Set header area.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Setting Master Slides:If we want to apply some effects to all slides then set that effect to master slides. Set Header area. a) Slide Master:Click View->Master->Slide Master. c) Notes Page Master :To set setting on master notes page click view->Master->Note page. Also Handout Master toolbar will on screen. Footer and Slide Number on slide. Here we can set Date. The settings of Master slides get automatically applied to all slides in presentation. M. Following Master notes page gets appear on screen.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. b) Handout Master :To set settings for handout (no. All settings will applied to all notes pages in presentation. Date Area Footer and Number area. date Area. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Footer area and Numbers area. Also set numbers of slides on handout from handout master tool bar. the object or background given to slide master will get automatically applied to all slides in presentation.com 207 .

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 208 . M.

This option is active only in Notes page view. Date and time include date and time footer area. Click->View ->Slide Miniature. 4) Header and Footer:To set header and footer to slide. Slide number include slide in footer area.] 3) Toolbars. 2) Slide Miniature:This displays slide miniature window as shown below on screen. M. and Rulers:To activate and deactivate different toolbars click View>Toolbars.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Other Options in View Menu:1) Black and White:To display presentation in black and white format Click View->Black and White.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To display guidelines on screen click View->Guides.com 209 . To display horizontal and vertical ruler click View->Ruler. Update automatically means update date according to current date. Notes page an Hand out Click View->Header and Footer. First tab 'Slide' is used to set header and footer to slide and second tab 'Notes and Handout's used to set header and footer to notes page and handout. Guides. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 210 .

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 5) Comment:This is used to show comments on screen.com 211 . 6) Zoom:This is used to show presentation in maximize or minimize view. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Following 'Slide Finder' dialog will appear on screen. word art. text box. Select slide layout and click on Ok button to insert slide. click Insert->Slide from files. auto shape. Click on 'Browse' button to select the file from which you want to insert slides. click Insert>Duplicate slide.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. a) Click Insert-> New slide. Slides from that file will get appeared. inserting cliparts. 1) Inserting New Slide:To insert new slide in presentation. symbols. Many options in this menu are same as we have seen in Ms-Word i. 5) Inserting Organization Chart:Organization chart shows structure of organization.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 INSERT AND FORMAT IN POWERPOINT  Insert Menu:Insert menu is related with insertion of different objects in PowerPoint. 2) Insert Duplicate Slide:Select the slide whose duplicate you want. object etc. 3) Comment:To insert comment on slide click Insert->Comment. Another way to insert organization chart on slide in insert slide having layout 'Organization chart' from Insert->New slide and double click on organization chart to insert organization chart. comments. To insert this chart click Insert->Picture->Organization chart. 4) Slide from Files:We can insert slide form other presentation in current presentation. b) A dialog asking for slide layout gets appeared. 6) Insert Table:Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.e. Following window will appear.com 212 . To insert all slides click on 'Insert All' button. Select the slide and click on 'Insert' button.

com 213 . Following dialog will appear. Another method to insert table in Insert->New slide and select slide layout 'Table'. M. Give no. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Double click on table to insert table on slide.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 To insert table on slide click Insert->Table. of columns and rows and click on 'Ok' button to insert table.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

emboss. a) Select the text.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Formatting objects and slide:1) Font:As we have seen in Ms-Word we can change font.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Make the settings and click on Ok to apply the settings. font style of text on slide. underline. M. superscript. subscript and color. 2) Bullets and Numbering:Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 214 . We can apply effect like shadow. click Format->Font Font dialog will appear.

Select 'Bulleted' tab to apply bullets or 'Numbered' to apply numbers.com 215 . M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 3) Alignment:Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 To apply bullets or number to paragraph on slide click Format>Bullets and number following dialog will appear.

M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 'Click on Ok' button to apply the settings.com 216 . right using Format->align.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 We can align the text to center. spacing before paragraph and after paragraph Click Format->Line Spacing Following dialog will appear. left. 4) Line Spacing:To change spacing between two lines of paragraph.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 6) Replace Font:This is used to replace selected font with another font. Click 'Replace' button to apply changes. Click Format->Replace Font. Select with which font you want to replace existing font. Sentence.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 5) Change Case:We can convert selected text in Title. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 217 . and Upper. Following dialog will appear. Lower or Toggal case using Format -> Change. M.

Following dialog will appear. M. Select layout and click 'Reply' button to apply new slide layout.com 218 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 7) Slide Layout:To change layout of exiting slide select the slide Click Format>Slide Layout. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Click on 'Ok' button to apply the settings. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 'Pattern' tab is used to apply different pattern and 'Picture' tab is used to apply picture to background of slide. To change color of back ground click on combo box and select color from 'More color' and to fill different pattern Click 'Fill pattern' Following dialog will appear. 9) Background:To change background of slide click Format->Background. 'Gradient' tab is used to apply shading of two or more colors. Select the color scheme.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 219 . click on 'Apply' to apply settings to current slide and 'Apply All' to apply settings to all slides. To apply these color scheme click Format->Slide color scheme. M. There are four tabs. To change color click on custom and make changes to predefined color for background. Following dialog will appear. 'Texture' tab is used to apply different textures. Following dialog will appear.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 8) Slide Color Scheme:There are some predefined color schemes. bullets etc.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.com 220 .

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 221 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 10) Design Template:To apply different design template to slide click Format->Design Template.com 222 . Select the template from design available and click on 'Apply' button to apply the settings. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Following dialog will appear.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

To change format of line and arrows e. color etc. 'Colors and Lines' tab is used to fill different colors in object. If word art is selected the dialog with 'Format Word art ' dialog will appear on screen as shown below. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). When we select clip art the dialog with name 'Format Object' will appear.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 11) Colors and Lines:To format clip art or word art or any object inserted in power point Format->Colors and Lines is used. 'Position' tab is used to change horizontal and vertical position of object. height and rotation of object. M. 'Size' tab is used to change width. line style.g.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 223 .

M. From order and timing specify time settings for object and order of object. WORKING WITH SLIDE SHOW MENU PowerPoint is presentation software.  Giving Animation Effect to Objects:Any moving effects are called as animation effects. Specify how to introduce text. Line style can be apply.. Form 'Effect' tab select animation effect i.com 224 . Click on this window to display preview of animation. This tool bar is used to format picture. fly from left etc and apply sound effect. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Insert picture is used to insert picture on slide. Using image control we can display picture in gray scale.e. Following window gets appear on screen.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. That effect can be given using 'Slide Show' menu. To cut part of object crop is used. This tool bar is also available in Ms-Word. Black and white and water mark.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 12) Picture Tool Bar:To activate this tool bar click View->Toolbar->Picture. We can change the color and format object using this toolbar. To apply these animation effects select the object on slide and click Slide Show>Custom animation. Following dialog will appear Select the object. To display the preview animation click 'Slide Show'->Animation Preview. These animation effects can also be given using 'Slide Show'>Preset animation. To make our presentation attractive and more effective we can apply animation effects in power point. We can increase or decrease contrast and brightness.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 225 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.

M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 226 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Set timings for occurrence of each slide and click on 'Apply' button to apply changes to current slide 'Apply to All' to apply changes to all slides. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Giving Slide Transition Effect:Moving effects given to slide are called as transition effect. To apply these effect click Slide Show->slide transition. Select effect and speed of animation. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Following dialog will appear.com 227 .

2) View Show:To display presentation on full screen Click Slide show->View show. It shows time required by current slide in presentation and total time required by presentation.com 228 . F5 is shortcut key to display presentation on full screen. 3) Rehearsal Timings:Click slide show->Rehearsal Timings following tool bar will appear while presentation. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Other Option in Slide Show Menu:1) Hide Slide:To hide a particular slide in presentation select the slide and click Slide Show->Hide slide. M.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. We can change show type pen color and range of slide to show in presentation. Following dialog will appear on screen. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 4) Set up Shows:Click Slide Show->Setup show. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 229 .

com 230 . Following dialog will appear. Click on 'New' button to create new show.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 5) Custom Shows:We can select slides from presentation can create different shows in power point Click Slide show->Custom shows. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

M. Click 'Ok' button to apply the settings. Give to show and add the slide from original presentation that you want in show.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Following dialog will appear. Click on Show button to display presentation according customize show.com 231 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

Following action settings dialog will appear. Click on this button to go to last slide slide during presentation show. and last slide. first slide. There are nine actions button given to go to next slide back slide. Drag and drop action button on slide as shown below. Help menu provide assistant and help about selected topic as we have seen in Ms-Word. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Select the hyper link to which slide and click on Ok button to apply the settings.com 232 . We can introduce new presentation in existing presentation using this action button. Click Slide Show->Action buttons.  Window and Help Menu:Window menu is related with creation of new windows and arrange it. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 7) Action Button:To navigate through the presentation action buttons are used.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 INTRODUCTION  Language:The language is the way of communication between two persons. In this way it has to covert the code from English to Binary and again from Binary to English.It is very easy to learn and easy to implement.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. There are three types of Languages of follows.BASIC. 2) Low Level Language:It is the language which gives better machine efficiency i. M. faster program execution.com . COBOL. FORTRAN etc. The code is written in Binary i. PASCLE. • Advantage: . Hence it is directly understood by computer.:.g. faster program development. in the form of 0 and 1.e.The execution speed of High level Language is slow due to the conversion factor from English to Binary and again Binary to English.e. • Advantage: . Therefore the execution speed is very fast in low level language.The execution speed is fast. and then this output will be again converted into English. Hernce it will convert the code from English to binary language and then it will process the code. • Disadvantage: . 1) High Level Language:It is the language which gives better programming efficiency i. Hence the output will be in Binary form. The code is written in English.e. e. • C-Language:It gives the bas for communication between user and computer or the user and programmer. 233 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

• Advantage:1) It is very easy to learn and easy to implement.1) Machine language 2) Assembly language.:. faster program development and also it gives better machine efficiency i.It is very difficult to learn and to implement. 2) The execution speed is fast.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.e. In this way it shows the qualities of High Level and Low Level and hence it is known as Middle Level Language. faster program execution. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).g. M. e.C Language.e.com 234 . e.g.:. 3) Middle Level Language:It is the language which gives better programming efficiency i.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Disadvantage: .

 Importance of C:The increasing popularity of C is probable due to its many desirable qualities. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).Richards Ken Thompson Dennis Ritchie Remarks Too general and abstract Hard to learn and implement For specific problem only For specific problem only Lost generality of BCPL and B. Therefore an international committee was set to develop such a language Table. almost each for a specific purpose e.g.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. C is often called a middle level language. people started thinking the instead of suing different language which can program all possible application. Another important feature of C is its ability to extend itself. C is highly portable. M. restored.com 235 . It was designed and written by Dennis Ritchie.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  History of 'C':By 1960 a crowd of computer has come into existence. Shorts the various stages in evolution of language. A C program is basically collection of functions that are supported by the C library. At this stage. Programs written in C are efficient & fast .  Introduction to 'C':C is programming language developed at AT & T's Bell Laboratories of USA in 1972. COBOL has being used for commercial application. We can continuously add out functions to C. FORTAN for engineering application. The C compiler combines the capabilities of an assembly language with the features of a high level language & therefore it is well suited for writing both system software & business package and so it is called as a middle level language. It is a robust language whose rich set of built in functions & operations can be used to write any complex program. Year 1960 1963 1967 1970 1972 Language ALGOL CPL BCPL B C Developed by International committee Cambridge University M.

• • • A constant is a quantity that does not change. This quantity can be considered. numbers and special when properly combined from constants. A keyword is a special word. which has some meaning in C. stored at locations in the memory of the computer.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Features of 'C' language:• • • • • • It is highly portable. M. Variety of data types and powerful operators.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 'C' is a well suited for structured programming. A variable can be considered as a name given to the location in memory where this constant is stored. 'C' program is basically a collection of function supported by the 'C' library.  Types of Constants:C Constants can be divided into two major categories. There are 32 keywords and its strength lies in its built in function. This modular structure makes program testing & debugging very easy. 2) Secondary Constants. This means that C programs written for one computer can be run on another with little or no modification. 1) Primary Constants.com 236 . C is well suited for structured programming.  Constants. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). variables and keywords. Keywords:- Variable and The alphabets.

Fractional form and Exponential form. 4) It no sign precedes an integer constant it is assumed to be positive. 6) The allowable range for Integer constants is. 2) It must have a decimal point. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 5) No commas or blanks are allowed within an integer constant.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.32768 to + 032767.  Rules for constructing Integer constants:1) An integer constant must have at least one digit.com 237 . 3) It could either positive or negative. 2) It must not have a decimal point. Uninon. etc. 1) A real constant must have at least one digit. M. 3) It could be either positive or negative. The real constants could be written in two forms. 4) Default sign is positive.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Constants Primary Constant Secondary Constant Array. Integer Real Character Constant constant constant enum. 5) No commas or blanks are allowed within a real constant.  Rules for constructing Real constants or Floating Point constants:Real constants are often called Floating point constants. Pointer Structure.

4) No special symbol other than underscore (as in gross _Sal) can be used in a variable name.com 238 . Variables are names given to the location in the memory of computer where different constants are stored. For that we define this constant.14) . M. Here PI and MARKS are macros.Si_int M_hra Por_e_sg. The location can contain Integer.  Rules for constructing variable Names:1) A variable name should be a combination of alphabets.# define PI 3.Ex. 5) Variables defined in upper and lower case are considered as different. A constant is defined as follows # defines symbolic name value of constant / expression.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. • Define Symbolic Constants (Macro):We often use certain unique constants in program. 2) The first character in the variable name must be an alphabet. a single digit or a single special symbol enclosed within single inverted commas. PI (3. These constants may appear repeatedly in a number of places in a program .  Types of C variables:In 'C' a quantity which may vary during program execution is called a variable.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Rules for constructing Character constants:1) A character constant is a single alphabet.14 # define MARKS 50 They are also called as macro. Example: . Some compilers allow variable names whose length could be up to 40 characters. 3) No commas or blanks are allowed within a variable name. 6) C Keywords can not be used as a variable name. Still it would be safer to stick to the rule of 8 characters. 2) Maximize length of a character constant is 1 character. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). real or character constants. Example: . digit or underscores.

 C Keywords:Keywords are the words whose coning has already beer explained to the C complier (or in a broad sense to the computer). float and char are the data types. M. where Int. Int si.  Type Declaration Instructions:To declare the type of variable used in a 'C' program. 2) Input / Output Instructions. c.com 239 . which is not allowed by the computer. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float far for go to if int long near register return short signed static struct switch typedef union unsigned void while  C Instructions:There are basically four types of Instructions in 'C'. 4) Control instructions. 3) Arithmetic Instructions. The keywords are also as "Reserved Words". The keyword cannot be used as variable names because if we do so we are trying to assign a new meaning to the keyword. m_hra. Char code. There are 32 keywords available in 'C'. Float b.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 1) Type Declarations Instructions.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Following are the examples of variable declaration statements.

the respective header file should be included in the program.[Extension.  Structure of 'C' programming:A 'C' program should be written in a specific sequence which includes following steps. • • • • • • • • • Linking. H] Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Output statement. Constant declaration. To use a particular function. Local variable declaration. Input statement.com 240 .  Arithmetic Instructions:To perform arithmetic operations between constants and variables.  Header files: . • Control Instructions:To control the sequence of execution of various statements in a 'C' program.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Input / Output Instructions:To perform the function of supplying data to a program and obtaining the result from it. User defined functions. Global variable declaration.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.  Linking:C uses various built in functions to perform the operations. Main ( ) function. When the program is executed. They are also known as standard library function which are defined in different header files. the file gets linked to the program. Calculation or processing.

g. abs ( ) 4) String. scanf ( ) 2) Conio .e. They are also called as preprocessor directives. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).e.h>  Constant Declaration:If require constant can be declared in the program above the main ( ) function. E. outside all the functions.  Global Variable Declaration:Sometimes it is required to use some variables anywhere in the program i.h:Mathematical functions.sqrt ( ).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.h:defined In stdio. Global variables are declared same as the local variables. Example: .h> # include <math.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) Stdio. For this the variable must be made accessible to all the functions by declaring it as global i. M. getch ( ) 3) Math.h:String functions. by any function in the program.clrscr ( ). Example: .# include <header filename> Example: . It is defined using # define statement.14) can be declared as a constant to calculate the area of circle as its value does not change.# include <stdio.  Main ( ) function:- After linking and declaration statements you can start your program with main ( ) function. their scope is global.com 241 .h header file. PI (3. all the standard input/output functions are Example: .strcpy ( ). Example: .printf ( ). strlen ( ) To include the header file in the program # include statement is used as:- Syntax: .h:Consol input output Functions.

 Calculation / Processing Statements:It includes the general data processing statements like mathematical calculations or string manipulation statements.  Data types:While declaring the variable we must have to specify the data type of the variable. input statement can be given to input or accept the data from user. data conversion statements etc. They must be defined outside any function and can be called anywhere in the program.  User Defined Functions:Unlike the built functions.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. They can be included as per the program requirement. There are two types of data types: Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). we can define our own functions in the program whenever required.  Input Statement:- After local variable declaration. One of the features of C is that C has variety of data types.  Output Statements:Finally result will be displayed on screen using the output statement (function): printf ( ). The data type determines the type of value the variable is going to hold like numeric.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Local Variable Declaration:Local variables are the one that are declared inside a function. for this C provides standard input function: scanf ( ). They are accessible to the function in which they are defined.com 242 . M. They are called as user defined functions. All the above steps are not compulsory in every program. Every program must contain a main ( ) function. character etc.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a) Built in data types.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. The standard built in data types * Integer/Int (Numeric) * Float(Real) * Char (Character) User Defined Data types * Arrays *Structures *Unions Built in data types are given divided into following subtypes.) -Float Float Double -- These data types varies according to their storage size and the range of value they can hold . M.7 +E 308 Unsigned 0 to 255 0 to 255 0to 65535 0to429496729 ----- PROGRAMMING IN C Instruction In a Program is written as a separate statement Therefore a complete C program will emprise of a series of statements . Integer Integer Short integer Long integer Character Single Character String (Sequence of Char. The range and bit size of each data types is given below. Data types Character Short-int Int Long Int Float Double bit size 8bit 8bit 16bit 32bit 32bit 64bit Rang for Signed -128 to +127 -128 to +127 -32768 to +32767 -214748367to+214748367 -38 to 34+E38 1. These statements must appear in the same order in which we wish them be executed However big programs. following rules are applicable to all statements. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). c) User defines data types / Derived data types.com 243 .

Chas no specific rules for position at which statements are to be written. 3. M.For Input and Output operations Diamond:-To give decision making (conditional) Statements.  Flowchart: - The graphical representation of the program is known as flowchart. Program  Algorithm:Thinking in our own language and writing it in simple English language is called as algorithm. Blank spaces may be inserted between two words to improve the readability of the statements. Connector:-To continue the flowchart on next page. That is why it is often called a free-form language.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1. Usually all statements are entered in small case letters. It can be represented using various flowchart symbol Oval:-To Start or End the program.com 244 . Flowchart 3. Algorithm 2. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 4.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. constant or keyword 2. no blank spaces are allowed within a variable. Rectangle: . However. There are no special symbols and commands used in it.For Variable Declaration and Processing Statement Parallelogram: . Flow Lines:-To specify the flow of the program. ') Any program has three parts: 1. Every individual statement is program always ends with a semicolon ('.

M. 2) Declare the variables to store two numbers and the addition of the numbers. • Flowchart:- Start int a. 3) Accept two numbers. • Algorithm:1) Include the required header files in the program. Algorithm and Flowchart simplifies the program logic.Addition of two numbers. 5) Display the result.  The first 'C' program:Example: . 4) Perform the addition.c Accept two numbers a & b c = a+b Display the addition End Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 245 . First write the algorithm and flowchart and from it write a program. b.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Using these symbols we can draw a flowchart for the program.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

The program starts with main ( ) function followed by a '{'. screen */ printf ("Enter two numbers"). a and b */ printf ("\n Addition = %d".b will hold the two numbers and will hold their addition. clrscr ( ). } The above program performs the addition of any provided two numbers. /* Displays the result */ } Comment about the program should be enclosed within /* */ .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Program:/* Addition of two numbers */ # include<stdio. Statement 2. /* performs addition of /* To clear the Next step is accepting two numbers: . Scanf ("%d%d". & a . The program does not require any constant declaration or any global variable declaration so these steps are skipped.c statement declares three integer variables.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. b and c. Any variable used in the program must be declared before using. including the header file. c).h> main ( ) { int a. The numbers will be stored into the memory at a and b locations. The first step of the program is linking i. Main ( ) is one such function. Empty parentheses after main is necessary. main ( ) { Statement 1. '%d' is a conversion operator used for integer data type. a. Any C program is nothing but a combination of functions. M. The main requirement in above program is providing two numbers for addition.b. In scanf ( )function '&' operator is used to get the address ( location number ) of the variable.c. & b ). a.com 246 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).b. The set of statements belonging to a function are enclosed with in a pair of braces i.e. /* accept 2 numbers */ c = a+b.printf ( ) function will print the message as "enter two numbers:" and scanf ( ) function will accept the data from user into a and b . To store these numbers a variable is required int a.e.

All the executable statements must be given in the main ( ) function because execution starts with main ( ).Alt+F5 Next step is the calculation:- Every time to display output we have to press Alt+F5 key. M. c file two more files gets created: 1) . Clrscr ( ) function is used to clear the screen before executing the program. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 2) . The program can be executed from DOS prompt.h):• Main ( ):This function is used as a starting point of the program. In fact it is a standard library function used to display the output on the screen.  Predefined Functions (Stdio. With every c program i.'\t'.com 247 . Finally it will print the result on screen using printf ( ) function. • Printf ( ) :- Printf ( ) is one of the most versatile function in C. The program is ending with '}'.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. It is void function i.obj file gets created at the time of compilation. it does not have any parameter and it does not return any value. %3d etc.Ctrl+F9 :.Alt+F9 :. We can format the output using various formatting options like '\n'. To avoid this getch () function can be included at the end of the program. list of variable).e. It tells the compiler that the programs is started from the point or statement. Syntax:Printf (" Format string ".exe file gets created at execution time. Save this program with valid filename and extension as c by pressing F2 key or select File .e. To run a c program following key combination is used : • • • Compile Execute Output :.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 addition will be performed and it will be stored into third variable c.Save option.

Operator'&' is used before the variable to get the address of the variable. & variable name). For printing single character For Long integer. M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. For printing integer values. name ): with a single scanf ( ) statement. int a=10 .com 248 . r).Calculation of simple interest Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).a). OR To print the value of a variable . We can accept multiple values Examples 1:. p.To display any message on screen: printf ("Welcome to MCED") . p. Printf (" Principle amount = %d \n Rate = %f ". Example:Scan ( "%d %d". For unsigned integer. &p. n). si).It is called new line and it takes the cursor to the next line • Scanf ( ) :Scanf ( ) is used to accept data through keyboard (from user) Syntax: Scan (" format specifier ". sp). Printf (" % 3d % 3d ". "\n":. "%d" is a format specifies used to print the value of the variable on screen .For each data type a format specifies is provided %f %d %c %Id %u %If : : : : : : For printing real (float) values. Printf ("Simple interest = %f".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example: . For Double values Examples:Printf (" % 2f". printf ("\n%d". It takes the location number where variable is defined '&' is not required when we are using '%s' operator for string values.&n.

Scant (" %d%d%f'. getch ( ). per). rno). 2f". printf ( "n\t\t English \t\t Math"). printf ("\n\t\t %d \t\t %d". printf ( "\n\t\t STUDENTS MARKLIST"). sub1. printf ("\n Enter rollno:"). si: Printf (" Enter value of p. sub1 . printf ( "\n\t\t -------------------------------").TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 # include < stdio. # include<stdio. scanf("%d". total = sub1+ sub2 per = total / 2. } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). &r). printf ("\n\t Total = %d".com 249 . float per. total). n. printf ("\n\t -----------------------------"). sub2 . Float r.h > Main ( ) { Int p. total. sub2). printf ( "\n\n\n\t Roll No. p. printf ("\n\t Percentage = %2f". } Example 2:display student Program to accept student's information and Mark list. &p.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. printf ("\n\t -----------------------------------"). &n. Printf (" simple interest is = %. si). Si= p*n* r/100.& rno). M. = %d".h> main ( ) { int rno. r ").

Null Character. M. they are known as escape sequences. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 250 . = 1 English 70 Total Percentage = 140 = Math 70 70.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Output is :STUDENTS MARKLIST Roll No. Horizontal Tab.00 The program contains formatting character like '\n' . '\t' etc. Following are the escape sequences : Escape Sequence '\n' '\t' '\b' '\' '\\' '\O' Character Format New Line character. Backslash character.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Quotation mark. Back Space. Escape sequences always begins with '\' followed by a character.

'%' ( modulus operator) etc. • Mathematical Operators :'+'. = = . The condition can be given using operators. • Logical Operators :&& (and) . ! (not) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. | | (or) . It can be used to provide the condition in the program. The expression x==y x!=y x<y x>y x <= y x >= y is true if x is equal to y x is not equal to y x is less than y x is greater than y x is less than or equal to y x is greater than or equal to y • Note :• • = is used for assignment operator.'-'. C supports following operators.com 251 . = . • Relational Operator :>. <=.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 DECISION MAKING  The Decision Control Structure :Sometimes it is required that some statements in the program should be executed depending on some condition. The decision control structure allows us to do this. This is known as conditional programming. >=.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. != etc. comparison etc. = = is used for comparison of two quantities.  Operator in C :Operators are use to perform various operations like addition.'\'.'*'.< .

*= . <=. / . scanf ( "%d". } Example :. The hierarchy (priority) of commonly used operators is shown in fig Highest ( ). & num ). if (num <= 10) printf ( "\n What an obedient servant you are:"). Switch statement.h> main ( ) { int num. 5 < . *.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. printf ( "\n Enter a number less than 10"). | | . >= ==.!= &&. -> !.  The If statement :C uses keyword 'if' to implement the decision control instruction. --.|| ?: Lowest = . + = .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Hierarchy of Operators :The operators are evaluated in order of their priority. /=  Chas two major decision making structures :• • If statement.demonstration of if statement # include <stdio. M. ++. -. ~. The general form of 'if' statement likes : Syntax :If (condition) { execute statements.com 252 . & *. >. -= . } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

com 253 .1500/. Here the if statement will not have a '.then HRA = 500 and DA=98% . If there are multiple statements given in if block then if block then enclose it in { }. Else part is optional. M.In a company an employee is paid as under : If his basic salary is less than Rs. If you type a number less than or equal to 10. write a program to calculate HRA . you get a message on the screen through print ( ) as "What an obedient servant you are :".else statement ) :Simple if statement can be used when there is only one condition. The if statement has three forms : • • • Simple If Multiple If Nested If • The Simple if (If .1500/.' as the scope of the statement continues further.then HRA-10% of basic salary and DA =90% of basic salary. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 On execution of this program.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Example :. If you type some other number no output will printed. Syntax :If (condition) { group of statement 1. } If the condition given with if statement is true then statement 1 will be executed otherwise else part will executed. } else { group of statement 2. If his salary is either equal to or above Rs. DA and Gross Salary.

printf ("Enter the basic salary").da). getch ( ).Program to find greater number between two numbers entered. } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). # include <stdio. if (basic <1500) { hra = (float) basic*10/100. printf ("\n\n\t Gross Salary = %2f ".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 # include <stdio.b. scanf ("%d". da. hra.com 254 . if (a>b) printf ("\n A is greater "). } gross = basic + hra + da . clrscr ( ).h> main ( ) { int a. printf ("\n Enter two numbers :"). else printf ("\n B is greater ").com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. hra. scanf ("%d %d ". // Typecasting basic to float da = (folat) basic*90/100. & a . & b). } Example :. gross ). } else { hra = 500 da = basic*98/100.h> main ( ) { int basic. & basic). M. float gross. printf ('\n HRA = %2f\t\t DA = %2f ".

if (condition 2) /* Inner If */ Group of statements 2 . else if (b>c) printf ("\n B is greater ").else if) :- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). & a .To find greater number between three numbers entered.com 255 . if (a>b) if (a>c) printf ("\n A is greater "). M. else { Group of statements 3. else printf ("\n C is greater ").c.h> main ( ) { int a. scanf ("%d %d %d". The if condition will be checked only when the outer if condition is satisfying. Example :. & c ). } In this case the second if statement is known as inner if and main if statement is known as outer if. This is called Nesting' of ifs. else printf ("\n C is greater ").com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. }  Multiple if (if . } } else { Group of statement 4. printf ("Enter three numbers"). # include <stdio. & b . if (condition 1) /* Outer if */ { Group of statements 1. getch ( ). b.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Nested If :Nested if is perfectly all right if we write an entire 'if-else' construct within another if block or else block.

M. Syntax :if (condition) statement 1.. Conditions will be checked one by one. else if (condition 3) statement 3. : : else if (condition N) statement N. Among all the given condition any one will be satisfied at a time. Example :. else statement X. If conditional 1 is satisfying statement 1 will be executed and control will be transferred to the end of if statement. If all of the given conditions are false then final else bock will be executed.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Multiple if statement can be sued when we want to perform multiple operation depending on different conditional .Program to display the grade of the student based on following Criteria: Per Between 50-59 Between 60-75 Above 75 Below 50 Grade 'C' 'B' 'A' ' Fail' Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Like this we can give N number of conditions and we can execute different statements.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 256 . if it is false then only condition 2 will be checked. else if (condition 2) statement 2.

h> main ( ) { Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). printf ("Enter rno and percentage for a student"). per =65 then grade = 'B'. getch ( ). &rno. if (per>=50 && per<60) printf ("\n Grade = C"). M.  Conditional operator :Another conditional construct used as an alternative for simple if statement is conditional operator. The conditional operator ? and : are sometimes called ternary operators since it takes three arguments.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. &per).com 257 . else printf ("\n student is Fail"). scanf ("%d %f ". else if ( per>=75) printf ("\n Grade = A"). then the value returned will be expression 2 otherwise the value returned will be expression. e. Syntax :expression 1 ? expression 2 : expression 3 if expression 1 is true. if per = 45 then 'student is Fail' message will be displayed. Example :# include <stdio.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 # include <stdio. else if (per>= 60 && per<75) printf ("\n Grade = B").g. float per. } In above example it will accept the percentage and grade will be displayed by checking the condition.h> main ( ) { int rno.

y ). M. y .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 int x. &a). int y . printf ("\n Enter number:"). printf ("%d".y).com 258 . printf ("\n Enter any character:"). A-Z then if will return 1 otherwise it will return 0.e.h> main ( ) { char a. printf ("%d". Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). &x). y = (x > 5 ? 3:4).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. scanf ("%c". Example :# include <stdio. } Here if character a is between 65 to 90 i. } This statement will store 3 in y if x is greater than 5 otherwise it will store 4 in y. scanf ("%d". y = (a>=65 && a<=90 ? 1:0).

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 ITERATION CONSTRUCT  The loop control structure :The computer's ability is to perform a set of instruction repeatedly.com 259 . This respective operation is done using loop control structure.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. There are three methods by way of which we can repeat a part of a program. This involves repeating some portion of the program either a specified number of times or until a particular condition is being satisfied. M. They are : • • • using While loop using For loop using Do-While loop  The While loop :The operation of While loop is given below START initialise Test condition True Body of loop STOP Increment While Loop Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

• • • Operators :i = i+1 i++ : It is a increment operation which increments the value of i by one. } getch ( ). Statements should enclose within pair of braces ( { } ). i + = 1 : is a compound assignment operator. i). i will be incremented by 1 use any of them. Program to display first 10 numbers (1 to 10) in # include <stdio. The condition being tested may use relational or logical operators.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Syntax :Initialize loop counter while (condition) { group of statements. We the condition become false. they will give the same result i. increment. The above three statements are same.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. } Note the following points about while. / / initialization. i++. the control passes to the first statement follows the body of the while loop. M. • The statement within the while loops would keen on getting executed till the condition being remains true. Increment loop counter. It is increment the value by 1.com 260 . Example :ascending order. while (i<=10) / / condition { printf ( "\n %d ".e. } / / Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). The statements within the loop may be a single line or a block of statements.h> main ( ) { int i=1.

I will be incremented by 1 and again control will be transfer condition. • The For loop :The operation of For loop is given in Fig. true and value of i will be printed as 1. at the starting of loop. Testing the loop counter to determine whether its value has reached the number of repetition desired. Initializing a loop counter.1. } Initialization part will be executed only once i.com 261 .For loop can be used when there is fixed number of iterations. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). All the three parts must be separated by a '.e. Increasing the value of loop counter each time the program segment within the loop has been executed. If it is true then statements will be executed and then increment/decrement part will be executed. Variable i is initialized to 1.condition will be checked ..com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Syntax :for (initialization :condition: increment/decrement) { Group of statements. The For Loop allows us to specify three things in a single line . M. 1 to 10 numbers.'. Then condition will check.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 The above program will print. Once condition is false loop be terminated. Same procedure will be performed till the condition is satisfying. Again condition will be checked and same procedure will performed.

. Syntax :do { group of statements.com 262 . While loop :Do. while loop is same as while loop. } while (condition) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 START initialise Test condition True Body of loop False STOP Increment For Loop  The Do... M... loop counter variable..com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia..

But in do.... M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.while loop statements will be executed first and condition will be checked at the end of loop as it is condition is false. While loop Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). START Initialise Body of Loop Increment True Test Condition False STOP Do.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 The difference is that in while loop condition will be checked first and then statements will be executed.'. Here while statement should end with a '..com 263 ..

.Program to display 1 to 10 numbers in ascending order using do.h> main ( ) { int n=1. do { printf ("\n %d".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example1 :.h> main ( ) { int i. M. } In for loop we can initialize more than one variable also. n).com 264 . n++. } while (n<=10).while loop.To display 1 to 10 numbers in ascending order. getch ( ). / / initialization.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. i<=10 . # include <stdio. } getch ( ).. i). Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). # include <stdio. } / / condition / / Example 2:. for ( i=1 . i++) { printf ("\n %d". increment.

n & r"). n . & n . } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). si. } getch ( ). %2f". j--) { printf ("\n %d". float r . count. printf ("\n Simple interest = Rs.h> main ( ) { int p . for (count = 1. Both i & j is initialized. } getch ( ).h> main ( ) { int b. scanf ("%d %d %f ". j =10 . I will be incremented and j will be decremented. i ).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 3 :variable Program that demonstrates for loop with multiple initialization.n and r using For loop.c. count = count+1) { printf ("\n Enter values of p. i <= j . i++. count <=3. M. & r). # include <stdio.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Example 4 :.com 265 . } The above program will print 1 to 5 numbers only . si = p*n*r/100. & p . for ( i = 1 .Calculation of simple interest for 3 set of p. # include <stdio. si).

while ( another = = 'y' or another = = 'Y') { printf ("\n Enter a number"). # include <stdio. scanf ("%d". & another ). ).h> main ( ) { char another = 'y' int num. printf ("Another number flush (stdin). } } num*num (y/n) ? "). scanf ("%c". flush (stdin) is used to remove any data remained in the buffer. In this program the while loop would keep getting executed till the user continues to answer Y. the loop terminates. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). & num). printf ( "square of %d is %d". num . The argument stdin means buffer related with standard input device. In such case we can use infinite loop. Example1 :. The moment he answers n .com 266 . However in real life programming one may come across a situation that it is not known beforehand how many times the statement in the loop are to be executed. since the condition (another = = 'y') fails.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  The infinite Loop :The loop that we have used so far executed the statement within them a finite number of times.Program to display square of given number.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  The Infinite for loop :Infinite for loop can be used to perform certain operation infinitely like displaying a time . Example1 :.h> main ( ) { int i = 1. # include <stdio. for ( .Program that demonstrates infinite for loop. M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Number will be printed one by one with some time duration delay ( ). changing color or rectangle etc.h> # include <process.com 267 . kbhit ( ).) { printf ("\n %d". It takes the argument (time) in milliseconds. } } The above program will be executed until user hits a key.h.h> # include <dos. if (kbhit ( )) { exit (0). delay (1000). The loop should be given without any condition. exit (0) are the built in functions. • Kbhit ( ):kbhit ( ) function checks whether a key is hit or not. Defined in dos. Defined in conio. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). • delay (int milliseconds) :Delay ( ) function is used to set time limit to perform the operation. It returns true if any key is hit from keyboard otherwise returns false.h. i). -. } i++.

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• Exit (int) :It is used to terminate the program execution. It takes integer argument as 0 or 1.

 Nested loop :A loop within a loop is known as Nested loop.

Example :- To print a character in following format.
* ** *** **** ***** # include <stdio.h. main ( ) { int i , j ; for ( i=1 ; j<=1 ; j++) { printf ("*"); } printf ("\n"); } getch ( ); } Here inner loop will be executed for 5 times till outer if condition is satisfying. First a single '*' will be printed and inner loop will be closed then cursor will be set to next line using "\n". i will be incremented and again inner loop will be executed, now it will print two stars. Outer loop value remains constant for complete inner loop.

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 The Break Statement :We often come across situation where we want to jump out of a loop instantly without waiting to get back to the conditional test. The keyword 'break' allow us to do this. When 'break' is encountered inside any c loop, control automatically passes to the first statement after the loop. A break is usually associated with an 'if' statement . If it is used in a nested loop, break will terminate only that loop in which it is given.

Example :prime or not.

Write a program to determine whether a number is # include <stdio.h> main ( ) { int num , i , prime =1; printf ("\n Enter a number"); scanf ("%d", & num); i = 2; while (i < num) { if (num %1 = = 0) { prime = 0; break; } else { prime =1; } i++; } if ( prime = =1) printf ("Number is Prime

"); else printf ("\n Number is not prime"); getch ( ); } In above example prime is used as flag variable, if remainder of the division (num%i) is 0 then prime will set to 0. If condition is false then prime will set to 1 and loop will be terminated with the break statement as there is no need to check further. After the loop message will be printed as per the value of prime.

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 The Continue Statement :In some cases we want to take the control to the beginning of the loop, by ignoring the statement inside the loop which has not yet been executed. The 'continue' statement allows us to do this. When continue is encountered inside any loop, control automatically passes to the beginning of the loop. A 'continue' is usually associated with an 'if '. Following program illustrates the use of continue statement.

Example :- To print the values of

i and j.

# include <stdio.h> main ( ) { int i , j ; for (i =1; i<=2; i++) { for ( j =1; j<=2; j++) { if (i = = j) continue; printf ("\n %d %d \n ", i , j); } } } The output of above program would be 1 2 2 1 Note that when the value of i equals that of j , the continue statement takes control to the starting of inner for loop by ignoring rest of the statements pending for execution in the inner for loop.

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 Decision making using Switch :In real life we are often face with situation where we require to make a choice form a number of alternatives rather than one or two. The control statement, which allows us to make a decision form the number of choices, is called 'switch' or more correctly a switch-case-default, since these three keywords go together to make up the control statement.

Syntax :Switch (integer expression) { case constant 1; group of statement 1; break; case constant 2; group of statement 2; break; : default : default statement ; } • The expression following switch keyword is any 'c' expression that yields an integer value. (a) It could be an integer constant like 1,2,3---------------(b) A variable that evaluates to an integer or char. • An integer or a character constant follows the keyword case in the condition. • Each constant in each case must be different from all the others. • The group of statements in the above form of switch represents any valid 'c' statements. • The integer expression. following the keyword switch is evaluated. • The value is gives is then checked one by one against the constant value that follows the case statement. • When a match is found the program executes the statement following that case condition. • The break statement used in a switch takes the control outside the switch once the condition is satisfied. • If no match is found with any of the case statements, then only the default statement will be executed. • There are multiple statement to be executed in each "case" there is no need to enclose them within a pair of braces. Unlike if and else. • The switch statement is very while menu derive programs.

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• The operation of switch :START

Yes Case1 No Yes Case2 No Yes

Statement 1

Statement 2

Case3

No Yes

Statement 3

No

Case4

Statement 4

Switch STOP

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Example 1 :structure.

Program to display message using Switch .. Case # include <stdio.h> main ( ) { int i = 2; switch (i) { case 1 : printf ("\n I am in case 1"); break; case 2 : printf ("\n I am in case 2"); break; case 3 : printf ("\n I am in case 3"); break; default : printf (" I am default "); } getch ( ); }

In above program value of i is 2. i is passed to the switch block. Case conditions will be checked one by one . Case 1 is false so it will check next case. Case 2 is true and it will print message as : 'I am in case 2'. the immediate Break statement will terminate the switch block.

Example 2 :value.

Program to illustrate Switch Structure with character # include <stdio.h> main ( ) { char c = 'x ' ; switch (c) { case ' v ' : printf ("\n I am in case

v"); break; case ' a ' : printf ("\n I am case a "); break; default : printf ("\n I am in case default"); } getch ( ); } The output of this program is : ' I am in case default '.

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Example 3 :- To display menu as below and perform the operation
as per given choice using switch structure. MENU ----------------------1. Circle . 2. Square . 3. Exit . -----------------------# include <stdio.h> # include <process.h> # define PI 3.14 main ( ) { int r , ch ; float a; clrscr ( ); printf ("\n\t MENU"); printf ("\n\t ------------------"); printf ( "\n\t 1. Circle."); printf ("\n\t 2. Square. "); printf ("\n\t 3. Exit . " ); printf ("\n\t -----------------------")' printf (\n\t Enter your choice :"); scanf ("%d", & ch); switch (ch) { case 1 : printf ("\n Enter radius :"); scanf ("%d", & r); a = PI*r*r; printf ("\n Area or Circle = %.2f", a); break; case 2 : printf ("\n Enter side:"); scanf ("%d", & r); a = r*r ; printf ("\n Area or Square = %.2f", a); break; case 3 : exit (0); default : printf ("\n you have entered wrong choice!"); } getch ( ); }

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ARRAYS
It is the set of homogeneous data items which can be referred by the common name. Array is a finite ordered set of similar data elements. It is the list of items which are bound together in common relationship. Arrays are called as subscripted variable because array uses the subscript i.e. [ ] and the arrays are called as indexed variable because the array elements can be accessed by using index number. Arrays are divided into following types. There are two types of arrays: 1) One dimensional. 2) Two or multi dimensional. For one dimensional array we have to specify only one dimension i.e. number of elements. For two or multi dimensional array we have to specify more than one dimension. Two dimensional arrays are also known as matrix. int a [5]; char str [10]; int num [3] [3]; char name [5] [10]; In above example a and str are one dimensional arrays while num and name are two dimensional array, a is integer array with five elements, num is a two dimensional array having 3*3 - 9 elements. It is also known as a 3 by 3 matrix with 3 rows and 3 columns. Character Array have some differences, str is one dimensional character array which can hold 10 characters i.e. one word. While name is a two dimensional character array in which first dimension is the number c elements and second dimension is the width of each element i.e. name array can hold five names each of having 10 characters length. We can not store multiple strings in a single dimensional array. When an Array is declared it gets defined in a consecutive memory locations and each location is considered as an element of the array. If we have array like int num [6]; Then the computer reserves five continuous storage location i.e.

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Or Int num[5]=[10]. Remaining elements will be initialized to zero.com 276 . Or Int num[5]= {1.because integer value takes two bytes.20.2. num [1]= 40. Following are the different ways for initializing numeric array. All the elements are initialized to zero.  Initialization of Array:An array can be initialized in different ways.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. num [0]= 35.40. Declaring an array. The size or array will be taken as per numbers given. int num [5]. Or int num [5]. Numbers will be stored one by one .45.. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.55}. Or Int num[ ] = {10.40}.. Memory location are given as 6002.30. 6004.50.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Memory location Number Element number 6002 0 6004 1 6006 2 6008 3 6010 4 6012 5 Num Array Name Storage Locations in Array. Or int num [5] = {35..3}. Element can be initialized separately. Array will hold garbage value.

where as a array of integers & floats is called simply array.char name [8] = {'W'. Declares a character array Or char name[5]= {'A'. • Note :All the elements of any array must be of the same type i.'D'}.'Y'}.com Name 277 .'R'.'B'. Declares name as character array (string) that hold maximum of 7 character string "WELCOME".'O'. Initializes the elements with five character Or char name[5]={'A'. M. W E L C O M E \O Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).'E'}.'E'. Stores three character to the array elements and remaining elements contains blanks. integer variables like p . or all characters etc.e.'C'}.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Now the array will look like :- 35 40 45 50 Initialization of Array 0 1 2 3 55 4 num The subscript of an array can be integer constants. Takes the size of array according to the the characters stored. Example :. Each character of the string is treated as an element of array name and stored in the memory as follows. Or Char name[ ] = {'M'.'A'.'M'.'C'. we cannot have an array of 10 numbers of which 5 are integers and 5 are floats. or expression that yield integers.'L'. * Initialization of character array :- Character array can be initialized in following ways :char name[10].com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.'E'.'C'. usually the array of characters is called a "string".'R'.

It tells that where the string ends. arrays we must always allow one extra elements space for the null terminator.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. When the compiler sees a character string it terminates it with an additional null character.e.com 278 . for (i = 0 . } getch ( ). Arrays can be manipulated using a loop. The string without '\O' is not a string but just a collection of characters. i<5. a[i]). } The program will print five numbers stored in the array.60}.20. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). int i. Example :. Thus the element name[8] holds the null character.Write a program to store five numbers in the array and display it on screen. Using this we do not have to rely upon the length of the string. clrscr ( ). When declaring character.h> main ( ) { int a[5] = {35. M.50.40. # include <stdio. Elements can be varied using a variable i i.while (name[i] !='\O') { ------------------------} Following program illustrates how array are declared and manipulated :- Example 1 :. i++) { printf("\n %d".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Character Array Each character in the array occupies one byte of memory and the last character is always '\O' (null character).

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To repeat the same procedure a loop is used. to print the numbers entered through keyboard scan ( ) function should be used.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 a[i] will refer to each element. M. But here every time it will print the same five numbers.com 279 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

%s considers the whole string at a time as: Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). } Though str is a character array. i++) { printf ("\n %c". M. } printf ("\n Five numbers entered").TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 2 :. for (i = 0. & a [i] ). for ( i = 0 . Example 3 :. a[i]). its elements are referred by integer value so i should be of integer type. } getch ( ). } getch ( ).h. It also be used with scan ( ) to accept a string. i<5 .Program to accept 5 numbers in the array using scan ( ) function # include <stdio. # include <stdio. 'c' operator takes a single character.h> main ( ) { int a[5].com 280 . int i . i<5.Program to print 5 characters stored in array. i++) { scanf ("%d".'Y'}. clrscr ( ).'R'. int i. i++) { printf ("\n %d". The complete string (array) can be printed using '%s' operator. printf ("\n the array is"). i<5.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. for ( i = 0. clrscr ( ). a[i]). printf ("\n Enter five numbers:").'R'. Character arrays are manipulated in the same way as integer array. main ( ) { char str[5] = { 'A'. } Here every time it will accept new numbers and print it.

Program to accept a string in array with %s operator using scanf ( ) function. :. str). If the string is entered as "Happy Diwali" then only the word "Happy" will gets stored in the array and it will not terminate the string by \O. :. To this function we have to pass the array name. Another way to access the array elements is using pointer. scanf ( ) is not capable of receiving multi-word strings.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 4 :. It prints the whole string at a time screen. sentences or space between characters. Similarly puts ( ) function works.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. • Syntax : . It also automatically stores '\O' to end the string. # include <stdio. } Here for loop is not required and we have to specify the array name only in the printf ( ) and scanf ( ) statement.gets (name).com 281 . printf ("\n Enter a string :"). • Syntax : . • Example Following program illustrates the use of gets ( ) and puts ( ) functions. printf ("\n the array is : %s".  The gets ( ) and puts ( ) functions :In above example scanf ( ) is used to accept a string. To overcome this limitation gets ( ) function can be used.e.puts (name). Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).i. getch ( ). scanf ("%s".gets (array name). clrscr ( ).h> main ( ) { char str[25]. str).puts (array name). gets ( ) function can accept blank spaces and it into the array. where name is a character • Example array. M. which we will see later.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. getch ( ).h> main ( ) { char str [25].32 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). C allows us to define such a table of items by using two dimensional arrays. } printf ("\n String in upper case :"). It is also called as matrix. int i = 0.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 5 :.com 282 . while (str[i] != ' \ O' ) { if (str[i] >=97 && str[i] <123) { str[i] = str[i] . puts (str). A two dimensional array requires two dimensions. M. Here V denotes the entire matrix and Vij refers to the value in the ith row and j th column.Program to accept a string and convert it into upper case. } i++. we represent a particular value in a matrix by using two subscripts such as Vij. In mathematics. }  Two Dimensional Arrays :The arrays can have more than one dimension also. printf ( "\n Enter a string:"). gets (str). # include <stdio.

int n [2][2]. M. char name [5][10].com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Or char name [3][10] = { "Parag". Syntax :Data type array name [row size][column size] Example :int V [4][3]. "Ram". • Character array can be initialized as :char name [3][10].com 283 ."Ram"."Akshay"}. Name array can hole 3 names with maximum of 10 characters length. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Two dimensional Array Declaration :Declaration of two dimensional arrays is same as one dimensional array only we have to specify two dimensions. 10 Creates a 4 by 3 matrix. Or char name [3][10] = {"Parag". "Akshay" }. Declares a character array with 5 elements and characters width for each element. Creates a 2 by 2 matrix.

com 284 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • The array will be stored in memory as :- n [0][0] 10 20 n [0][1] n[1][10] 30 n[1][1] 40 Array stored in memory • The character array will look like :- name [0] name [1] name [2] P R A a a k r m s a \0 h g \0 y \0 Character Array Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

i<3. for (i = O. j<3. %3d is a formatted operator which will set the width as 3 for each element. } getch ( ). j++) { for ( j = O . j++) { printf ("%3d". Individual element can be referred as n [ i ] [ j ]. for (i = O . i<3 .com 285 . } printf ("\n). } } printf ("\n the numbers are : \n").com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Character '\n' is given outside the inner loop as the line changes for each row only.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example :- Program to display the number stored in two dimensional arrays in a matrix form. j++) { scanf ("%d". Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. int i .h> main ( ) { int n[3][3]. i++) { for (j = O . } It the numbers entered as 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 then they are printed in following format 1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9 The program contains a two dimensional array of 3 rows and 3 columns. # include <stdio. j<3. To vary the elements i and j counter variables are used. n [i ] [ j ]). A nested for loop is used to accept and display numbers in each element. j. printf ( "\n Enter the numbers for a 3 by 3 array :"). & n [ i ] [ j ]).

} printf ("\n"). m3 [ i ] [ j ] ).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This mechanism can be used for matrix operations like matrix addition. matrix. printf ("\n Enter matrix 1 :"). k++) { m3 [ i ] [ j ] + = ( m1 [ i ] [ k ] * m2 [ k ] [ j ] ). } } for (i = O. Example :. multiplication etc. for (i = O. j<2. k<2. m3 [ i ] [ j ]. M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. m3[2][2]. m2[2][2]. } getch ( ). j<2. & m1[ i ] [ j ] ). i<2. i++) { for ( j = O. j . for (i = O. } } printf ("\n Enter matrix 2 :"). The current multiplication will be added to the previous multiplication and it will be stored in the resultant matrix i. i++) { for ( j = O. } In above example three for loops are used. In matrix multiplication one row of first matrix is multiplied with each column value of second matrix and final addition will be stored in the resultant matrix. k.h> main ( ) { int m1[2][2].com 286 . i<2. j++) { m3 [ i ] [ j ] = O. int i .e. # include <stdio. Third for loop is for k . To repeat the multiplication and to perform their addition k loop is used. i<2. j<2. for (k = O. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). & m2 [ i ] [ j ] ). } printf ("%3d". i++) { for ( j = O.Program to perform matrix multiplication. j++) { scanf ("%d". j++) { scanf ("%d".

Life :. iv) Life of a variable. c) Static Storage Class. M.e. the storage class determines these locations. Scope :.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 STORAGE CLASSES Variable declaration is the important step of any program. To store different values we need a variable. all the variables always have some default storage class. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).Is accessible to the block only in which it is defined. • Automatic Storage class :It is the default storage class for any variable if not specified. in which function the variable is available. ii) What will be the default initial value of the variable if not specified. The variable should be declared using Auto keyword. These Storage classes tells us i) Where the variable would be stored.e. d) External Storage Class. b) Register Storage Class.Remain in existence till the control is within the block.com 287 .A garbage value or unpredictable value.  There are four storage classes in C :a) Automatic Storage Class. It gets stored in memory.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. iii) Scope of the variable i. When a variable is defined it gets stored at particular location in computer. There are mainly two types of locations where values can be stored : 1) Memory 2) CPU registers.Memory Default Initial Value :. Its characteristics are :Storage :. While declaring the variable we have to specify its 'data type' as well as its 'storage class' i.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example: .Local to the block in which it is defined. :. Its scope and life is restricted for the procedure in which it is defined.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.e. :. i . # include <stdio. # include <stdio. Only the thing to remember is that CPU registers are limited. Loop counter variables can be stored in the register as its values changes many times in the program. When any variable is occurring multiple times in the program.h. printf ("\n %d %d".Program to illustrate Auto storage class.CPU Register. • Register Storage Class:Register storage class is having following features:Storage Default initial value Scope Life block.com 288 . 1211 are the garbage values of i and j. } The above program will print any two values as 2765 1211 Where 2765.Till the control remains within the Values stored in the CPU register can be accessed faster than the values stored in memory.If the variable doesn't get stored into register because of unavailability of space then the variable will be considered as auto.Garbage value. :.h> main ( ) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). . M. j). its storage class should be register. j. Example: .g. main ( ) { auto int i . :. We can not use register storage class for all types of variables. These variables are not accessible by any other function in the program.Program that demonstrates register storage class.

} } Here variable i is stored in register so it gets accessed faster in the loop.Memory Default initial Value :. # include <stdio. i++) { printf ("\n %d". Static Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). for (i = 1. printf ("\n %d".com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. } Here the variable i is defined as static in the function increment ( ) and the function is called three times in the main ( ) function.Program that illustrates static storage class.h> void increment ( ). The value of static variable remains alive through the whole program.Value of the variable remains static between different function calls.Zero Scope :.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 { register int i . i=i+1. The value of i will be printed as : 1 2 3 Here variable gets initialized only once. M. Life :. i). i). main ( ) { increment ( ). For other function calls. Example :. increment ( ). increment ( ). That is the variable gets initialized only once. } void increment ( ) { static int i = 1. i<=20.Local to the block in which it is defined. the value remains as it is. • Static Storage Class :- Following are features of static storage class :Storage :.com 289 . So the output is in incremented form.

Program for extern storage class. i). # include <stdio.1.Memory :. printf ("\n %d ". decrement ( ). M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 variables are also local to the block in which it is defined. main ( ) { printf ("\n %d". i = i-1. printf ("\n %d ".com 290 . void decrement ( ). i ). i ). extern int i =1. i). increment ( ). / / again changed in main ( ) function.h> void increment ( ). } The output of the program is 1 2 1 0 / / initial value of i / / changed by increment ( ) function.2. / / changed by decrement ( ) function. If the variable is defined auto every time the value of i will be printed as 1 1 1 External Storage Class :The feature of External storage class is :Storage Default initial value :.Zero Example: . Then it will be Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). } void decrement ( ) { i = i .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. This shows that the variable is accessible by all the functions in the program and its values also remain as it is. printf ("\n %d". } void increment ( ) { i = i + 1. Initial value of i is 1 it gets incremented by the increment ( ) function i.e.

com 291 .e. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. again 1 and finally it gets decremented by the main ( ) function.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 decremented by decrement ( ) function i. so the final value of i is 0.

character or fractional values. main ( ) { int i = 20. To avoid this C provides the new data type 'Structure'. employee information. which maintains employee information. show ( ). i ). Then it is calling show ( ) function which will print the value of i as 10 it access the global i variable .g. All the values of structure can be handled using a single variable name known as structure variable. clrscr ( ). The variable defined inside main ( ) is local variable and variable above main ( ) is global which is accessible by any function in the program.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example: . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). a system. name is character type. Structure is also known as derived data type or user defined data type. name. These data types may or may not be of the same types". book information etc. e. e. STRUCTURES In real world application we have to deal with different type of data like numbers. # include <stdio. salary.com 292 . student information. The output is :20 10 The i variable is defined two times. may have the information like empno.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. void show ( ). So print ( ) statement in main ( ) will print the value of i as 20 .Program to illustration extern storage class. print ("\n %d". M. To handle all these values with different variable name is difficult task. "A structure contains a number of data types grouped together.h> int i = 10. The states that "in any function the local variable gets preference over the global variable".g. It can collect different type of data items that comprise a given entity. Where empno is integer type. } void show ( ) { print ("\n %d ". join_date. i). job etc.

structure member 3. structure member 2. For example the variables b1.. . int pages... float price...com 293 . b3..b2 . b3. b3. b2.. b2. This statement defines a new data types called struct book.. M.... OR it can be defined in the main function like: main ( ) { struct book { char name[15].. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).. } b1.. Example:struct book { char name [15].... ... float price. Each variable of this data type will consist of character variable name a float variable called price and integer variable pages.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. int pages.. Once the new structure data type is defined one or more variables can be declared to be that type.... }... }.. float price. can be declared to be of type struct book as struct book { char name [15]..TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Declaring a Structure:The general form of a structure declaration is:Struct <structure name / tag name > { structure member 1. struct book b1. . }. int pages .

Like primary variables and arrays. M. e. float price. structure variables can also be initialized when they are declared. 900}. iii) Usually the structure should be declared above the main ( ) function. it just defines a form of a structure. Example :struct book { char name[10]. 500}.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.price 130. }. b1. Unlike arrays structures are also defined in consecutive memory locations.00 b1.') operator with the structure variable. int pages . 80.name Basic b1. It can also be declared in a separate header file.00. structure member Note that before the dot there must always be a structure variable and after the doe there must always be a structure element (member).price etc. Note the following points while declaring a structure type :i) The structure declaration statement must end with a semicolon ( '. Structure uses a different scheme. 130. iv) To access the structure members a structure variable is required.pages. struct book b1 = {"Basic".pages 550 1001 1002 1006 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). to refer to individual member of the structure we have to give b1.  Accessing Structure member :In arrays we can access individual elements of an array using a subscript. ii) The structure declaration statement does not tell the compiler to reserve any space in memory.g.com 294 . b2. struct book b2 = {"Physics".' ). The general form for this is :structure variable . They use a dot ( '.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 } Generally structure should be declared outside any function and still structure variable can be declared in main ( ) or any other function.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Memory Map of Structure Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.com 295 .

printf ("\n \t %d %s %d %d %d %d %.m2. s1. printf ("\n Enter name. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). int m1. float per.name.2f". s1. Name Sub1 Sub 2 Total Percentage"). printf ("\n \t Roll No. } In above example the information is directly given in the program and it is printed one by one.price.rno. prices & no of pages for 3 books").price. }.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 1:of To accept student's information like rno. int price. main ( ) { struct student s1 = { 1. clrscr ( ). 70. pages. & b1. marks subjects etc. char name [20].rno. tot. s1. name. 140.com 296 . b2. s1.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. and store it in the structure defined.tot.pages "). "Ram".h> struct student { int rno.per ").m1 etc. 70.name. s1. b3. # include <stdio.h> main ( ) { struct book { char name [15]. b2. }. 70}.name . b1. # include <stdio. M. getch ( ).pages"). struct book b1. The members are referred as s1. printf ("\n \t ------------------------------------------------").To store information for three books in the structure. s1. Following example illustrates how data can be accepted in multiple structure variables. m2. s1. & b2.m1. Example 2 :. & b2. printf ("\n \t The student information"). scanf ("%s %d %d". & b1. scanf ("%s %d %d ".

b3name. Similarly printf ( ) and scanf ( ) statements are given three times which increases the length of program. b1.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. b[i].pages). The structure variable can be declared as array to store data for multiple books. which is not very convenient.pages"). A better approach would be to use an array of structures. } } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). printf ("\n %s %d %d ". } for ( i = O. scanf ("%s %d %d".name.price. b[i]. b2.b3. }. Example :structures. b1. b[i]. price & pages "). printf ("\n %s b2.pages).name. int pages. i++) { printf ("\n Enter the name.pages).h> main ( ) { struct book { char name[15].pages). It is manipulated in the same way as the normal array is.name. & b[i].price. b1. b[i].com 297 . b2. for (i = O.  Array of structure :In above program to store data for 100 books we have to define different structure variables from b1 to b100. i++) { printf ("%s %d %d".name. i < = 99.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 printf ("\n The data you entered is "). printf ("\n %s %d b3.price. %d %d". int price. & b[i]. M.price.price. Program to store multiple records in the array of # include <stdio. i< = 99. } %d". struct book b[100].

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Nested Structure :One structure can be defined within another structure.com 298 . # include<stdio. M.a. Using this facility complex data types can be created.a.h> main ( ) { struct address { char phone [15].h> main ( ) { Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). e. the value of a structure variable can be assigned to another structure variable of the same type using the assignment operator. struct emp { char name [20]. }.city. # include<stdio. struct emp e = {"Bharti"."358649". Example :. }.Program that copies one structure variable to another. 431005}.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.name.phone). e. char city [25]. This is known as nesting of structures.Program that demonstrates nested structure.a. printf ("\n City = %s \t Pin = %d".pin). printf ("\n Name = %s \t Phone = %s". int pin."A'bad".e. } In the same way the whole structure can be declared within another. Example :.e. struct address a.

e2. struct employee e2.80000}. " A function is set of instructions used to do a specific task".age = e1.name.name. float salary: }.2f". int age.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 struct employee { char name [10]. To overcome this function concept is used.com 299 . This increases the program length and reduces the program efficiency. FUNCTIONS Sometimes it is required to execute a group of statement in a program multiple times at different situation. • User Defined Function. OR all elements at one go as e3 = e2.2f".age.age. 29.g. One feature of c is that "C is a collection of functions". struct employee e1 = {"Shrishti". printf ("\n %s %d %. e1.  Library functions:- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).age. Every C program is a collection of such functions.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. if we need to perform the addition of two numbers multiple times in the program.salary").salary").e3. e3.salary = e1. e3. e2.name.2f". e3. e2. e1. M.salary. for this we have to write the same code for numbers of times in the program. e2. printf ("\n %s %d %. C functions can be classified into two categories. strepy (e2. printf ("\n %s %d %. e2.name).E.salary").e1. namely • Library Function (Built In functions).age. } The above program will set and print same data for the entire three variables.name. e1.

They are predefined functions and can be called anywhere. printf ( ). M. iv) int random (num) :. ii) int sqrt (number) :.h Functions Header File : i) int abs (number) :.Returns the Square Root of a given number. strlen ( ) etc. iii) int pow (m.com 300 .Generates random number between 1 to ( num . E. sqrt ( ).h Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).Returns the Absolute Value of given number.n) :. Following are some Library Functions given category wise • Mathematical math.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Library Functions are the commonly required functions grouped together and stored in a library. defined in stdlib. scanf ( ).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.Returns the nth power of number m.g.1).

printf ("\n Enter number for square root :").h :- Header file : i) strlen (string exp ) :. random (50). string 2) :. n . iv) strrev (string1) :.Copies the string 2 into string 1.2f = %. iii) stcvmp (string 1. string 2) :.h> main ( ) { int n=5. abs (a)). m=3.h> # include<math. } • String Functions string.Compares two strings & returns the integer difference. printf ("\n Enter number for Absolute Value:").Program to implement the above functions. sqrt (x)). float x. printf ("\n Square Root of %.com 301 . scanf ("%f". &x). v) strcat (string 1.Reverse the given string provided as argument. scanf ("%d". M. b. ii) strcpy (string1.Returns the length of the given string. a. string 2) :.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example: .2f". pow (n. printf("\n Absolute value of %d = %d". x . random (50). m. &a). Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). a. printf ("\n The %dth power of %d = %d". random 950).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. # include<stdio. printf ("\n Random number = %d %d %d ".Concatenate (appends string 2 with string 1.h> # include<stdlib. m)).

strlen (str1)). int a. printf ("\n Enter String1:"). strcat (str1. printf ("\n String1 after concatenation = %s". else printf ("\n Strings are equal"). a = strcmp (str1. # include<stdio. str2[25].h> # include<string. printf ("\n Enter String1:"). printf ("\n Enter String2:"). str2[25]. str3). printf ("\n String3 after reversing = %s". str3). # include<stdio.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 1 :.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M. b. str1). else if (a<0) printf ("\n Strings are in alphabetical order").com 302 . str2). strcpy (str3. gets (str2). if ( a>0) printf ("\n Strings are in reverse alphabetical order").h> # include<string. printf ("\n Enter String 2:").%s". } Example 2:. str2). gets (str2).Program that demonstrates strcmp ( ) function. } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).h> main ( ) { char str1[25]. str2). gets (str1). int a.Program to implement the above functions.h> main ( ) { char str1[30]. strrev (str3). printf ("\n Length of String1 = %d". gets (str1). printf ("\n String3 -. str[25].

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. ii) tolower (char exp.h i) toupper (char exp.h> main ( ) { char str[20]. } } ("%c". Example 3 :. toupper (str[i]) ). M.) uppercase iv) islower (char exp. else printf (str[i]) ). addnum ( ).h> # include<ctype. for (i = 0. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). printf ("\n Enter a string:"). E. :. # include<stdio. int i.Checks whether the given character is in or not. iii ) isupper (char exp. show ( ) print line ( ) etc. i++) { if (str[i] > =97 && str[i] < 123) printf ("%c".Converts a single character into :.) uppercase.g. tolower  User Defined Functions :User defined functions are the functions defined by the user to do a specific task.com 303 .h> # include<string.) lowercase.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Character functions :- Header file : ctype.Converts a single character into :.Program that demonstrates toupper ( ) and tolower ( ) functions.) lowercase :. i<strlen (str).Checks whether the given character is in or not. gets (str). The main difference between these two categories is that library function are not required to be written by user where as a user defined function has to be developed by the in the program itself.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. it can be treated as "BLACK BOX" that takes some data from the main program and returns a value. All that the program knows about a function is : What goes in and what comes out . If a program is divided into functional parts ( subprograms). • Using function it becomes easier to write the programs and to keep the track of what they are doing. This function can be used in a program as follows:- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). • It is east to locate and isolate a faulty function for further investigations. Once a function has been designed and packed. Example :printline ( ) { int i.Function Program :- A function is a self contained block of code that performs a particular task. for (i = 1. testing and maintaining becomes difficult. i< 30. While it is possible to code any program utilizing only main function. debut and test. i++) printf ("-").TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Need for user defined function :Every program must have a main function to indicate where the program has to begin its execution. it leads to a number of problems. The program may become too large and complex and as a result the task of debugging. • Advantage of User Defined Function :• Using functions at appropriate places we can reduce the length of source program. then each part may be independently coded and later combined into a single unit. These subprograms are called as 'Function' and they are much easier to understand. } The above set of statements defines a function called printline ( ) which could print a line of 30-character length. • Many other programs may use the same function.com 304 . •A Multi . This factor is particularly critical with microcomputers where memory space is limited. M. Every C program can be designed as collection of these black boxes.

After executing the printf ( ) function the control is again transferred to the printline ( ) and the line gets printed once more.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. for (i=1. As this point. } Output: . M. printf ("\n This program says c function \n"). i++) { printf ("-"). * The Form of C Functions:All function has the form: return type function name (argument list) { group of statements. During execution of the main. } printline ( ) { int i.com 305 . the first statement encountered is printline ( ). i<40. return (expression). the program execution always begins with the main function. A function gets called when the function name is followed by a semicolon.A line of 30 characters will be printed. Here printline ( ) is a called function and main ( ) is a calling function. } printf ("\n"). This Program says c function. the program control gets transferred to the function printline ( ). The control is transferred back to the main. now the execution continues with the statement next to printline. which indicates that the function is to be executed. } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 main ( ) { printline ( ). printline ( ). After executing the function a line of 30 characters length will gets printed. The above program contains one user-defined function: printline ( ) As you know.

e. the argument list and its associated argument declaration part is optional. the main does not required any local variables. parameter type of the function etc. * Function call:- It is a statement using which the function gets executed. It tells the compiler what type of function it is i. Writing a function in the program includes three steps. 3) Function Definition. 1) Function Prototype. The general form of the prototype statement is : Return type function name (parameter type): Example: - void printline ( ) void states that function is not returning any value. In the example discussed in the previous section. It is not given.e. this is known as 'Recursion'.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 All parts are not essential.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. A function can also be called into itself. For example. We can call the same function for number of times Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). A function that does nothing may not include any executed statement at all. while the printline ( ) function used one local variables i. 2) Function Call. A function can have any number of executable statements. It should be given above the main ( ) function and it should have a semicolon. The return statement is the mechanism for returning a value of the calling function. The function definition must be outside any function or it can be in the other program also. After executing the function statements it returns to the main program and execute the statement next to the function call. Or char find ( ) char states that fine ( ) function is returning character value. This is also an optional statement. return type. We can call the function anywhere in any function or program. • Function Definition:In the function definition we have to write the code for that function. When a function call gets encountered control jumps from main program to the function definition block. M. int) int states that the function is taking two int values and it is returning int value.com 306 . Or int add (int. • Function Prototype:It is the declaration statement of the function. it indicates tat no value is being returned by the function. The declaration of local variable is required only when any local variable are used in the function.

Function with arguments and with returning values. 3. may belong to one of the following categories. M. • Category of functions:A function depending on whether arguments are present or not and whether a value is returned or not. the calling function does not receive any data from the called function. In fact there is no data transfer between the calling and the called function.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 307 . The function definition statement should match with the function prototype statement. • Void function:When a function has no arguments and it doesn't return anything then is called as void function.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 in the program. Function with argument and no returning values. 1. The complete procedure is performed by the function itself. It does not receive any data from the calling function. Function 1 ( ) { ------------Function 2 ( ) ------------------------} No Input Function 2 ( ) { ------------------------------No Output ---------------} Void Function No data communication between functions. Prototype main ( ) > Function Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). We can call or define more than one function in a single program in a random sequence. Similarly when it does not return a value. Example 1:# include <stdio. Function with no argument and no returning values [void function] 2.h> void add ( ).

int i. i++) { if (str[i] >=97 && str[i] < 123) { str[i] = str[i] . main ( ) { clrscr ( ). add ( ). c). Void add ( ): is the prototype statement of the function. c = a + b.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. } } print ("\n String in upper case : %s". getch ( ). } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). & b). # include<stdio. printf ("\n Enter two numbers:"). getch ( ). It is a void function. b. for (i=O. M.32. which does not take or return any value.h> void upper ( ). > Function Call > Function Example 2:uppercase using Program to accept a string and to convert it into upper ( ) UDF. i<strlen (str). printf ("\n Addition = %d".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 { clrscr ( ). c. printf ("\n Enter a string :"). str).com 308 . } Void add ( ) Definition { int a. & a. } Here add ( ) is a user defined function that will perform the addition of two numbers. upper ( ). gets (str). getch ( ). It is called in the main ( ) function and it is defined below the main function It can be called anywhere in the program. } void upper ( ) { char str[50]. scanf ("%d %d".

M. When a function call is made only a copy of the values of actual arguments is passed into the called function. Any mismatch in data types will give error.g. They should match in their data type and order. the actual arguments may be variable names. While the formal arguments may be variables names. the extra actual arguments are discarded on the other hand. • Arguments matching between calling function and the called function:- We should ensure that the function call has matching arguments. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). What occurs inside the function will have no effect on the variables used in the actual arguments list.This approach seems to be because the calling functions can check for the validity of data if necessary before it is handed over to the called function. Function1 ( ) { One way ---------------. Incase the actual arguments are amore than the formal arguments (m >n). expression or constants.com 309 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Function with Arguments but no return values:We could make the calling function to read data from the user and pass it on to the called function . if the actual argument are less than the formal argument the unmatched formal arguments are initialized to some garbage values. The variable used in actual arguments must be assigned values before the Function call is made. a in above example and format arguments are the one that are given in the called function to store the value passed from function.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.data Function 2 (a) ----------------} arguments 2 (b) Function { ---------------------------------------------------} Communication Values Function with arguments but no return values There are actual and format arguments. Actual arguments are the one that are passed to the called function e.

} void add ( int x . The second method will be used with pointer concept further. Example: . Examples based on first method are discussed here. getch ( ). M. In this method the original value will gets changed by the function. int).Program to create a UDF add ( ) by passing parameter to the function. & b). printf ("Addition of %d and %d is = %d". c). b).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Parameter Passing:We can pass the value of parameter to the function using two methods. 1) Call by value. & a. add (a. printf ("Enter two numbers:"). In this method a copy of the original arguments gets created in the function and value in the actual variable will remain same. x . scanf ("%d %d".h> void add (int. } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). int y ) { int c. # include<stdio. • Call by value:In this method we have to pass the value to the function by directly specifying the variable name with the function call.com 310 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. c = x+y. y . main ( ) { int a. The variable inside the function should be of pointer type. 2) Call by reference. • Call by reference:In this method the value should be passed by passing the address (reference) of variable. b.

• Function with Return Values :Unlike passing values to a function. Similarly we can pass float or character values to the function. A function that receive a predefined form of input and again returns desired values.com 311 . -------------Var = Function 2 (a) ----------------} Result Value of Arguments. Fig: . y are the formal arguments. Function 2 (b) { --------------------------------return (value). The result will be printed if a = 10 and b = 20 as Addition of 10 and 20 is = 30. Such function will have two way data communication.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Here a . Function can return a single value at a time. function can return a value also. Two numbers are accepted into a and b and they will be passed to the function when it is called. The value a will be passed into x and value of b will be passed to y. Function ( ) { Var. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). } Functions with Return Values.Two way data communication between functions. The name of the actual arguments and formal arguments can be same as they are considered as local variables. b are the actual arguments and x .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.

c.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example: . # include <stdio. main ( ) { int a. c = add (a . It can be passed element by element. c = a+b.e. int). Entire array can not be passed directly to the function. OR return (a + b). Function with Arrays :Like the values of simple variable it is also possible to pass the value of an array to a function. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). scanf ("%d %d".b).b. b). M.h> int add (int .The above add ( ) function with returning values. &a . } Here the add ( ) function is returning an integer value i. return c.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. &b).com 312 . } int add (int x .c). the addition of number passed which gets stored into c in main ( ) function and then it is printed. add (a. OR printf ("Addition = %d". getch ( ). int y) { int c. printf ("Addition = %d".

main ( ) { int n[5] = { 10 . the array name and the size of the array to specify the number of element in the array. } getch ( ). We can pass an entire array to a called function at a time.h> void show (int). 20. 30. The largest ( ) function header might look like: float largest (float array [ ]. i++) { show (n [i]). M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Following example illustrates this # include<stdio. It is sufficient to list the name of the array. For example. Another way to pass an entire array to the called function at a time is using pointer. for (i = O. without any subscript. i<5. It is not necessary to specify the size of the array here. int i.com 313 . the call largest (a. 40.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 50}.h> # include<conio. The declaration of the normal argument array is made as follows: float array [ ]. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). n) will pass all the elements contained in the array 'a' of size 'n' the called function expecting this call must be appropriately defined. This avoids multiple function calls. int size) { } The function largest is defined with two arguments. and the size of the array as arguments. } void show (int k) { printf ("\n %d". The pair of brackets informs the compiler that the argument array is an array of number . } Here the array is passed element by element to the function so the function should be called multiple times in the loop. k).

4. the entire array is passed by specifying the array name (i. for (i=0. i< n. printf ("\n Largest number is = %. 13. i++) { if (a[i] > max ) max = a[i].TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example :. } float largest (float a[ ]. function can take argument of structure type.h> float largest (float [ ].4.  Passing structure data to function :Unlike arrays structure data can also be passed to the function.com 314 .2f". Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). . # include<stdio. Function returns the largest value to main ( ) function.75. } return (max). largest (num. M.e.67. int). num) and second argument is the size of the array (i. The function takes two arguments. In the largest function the size (dimension) of the array is not specified. float max = 0. main ( ) { float num [4] = {2.4)). int n) { int i.Program to find largest stored in the array by defining a function. To pass the whole structure to the function specify the structure variable in the function call i.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.20 }.e. } In above example largest ( ) function finds the largest number present in the array passed as an argument. We can entire structure at a time to the function or individual members can also be passed. 4) .e. 5. Structure contains different type of data.

per).com 315 . Name Sub1 Sub2 Total Percentage ").tot / 2.tot. s1. printf ("\n Enter rno.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. s2.m1. float per.m2.tot = s1. s2.m2). getch ( ). } void display (struct stud s2) { printf ("\n Roll no. s2. tot. name and marks of two subjects:"). printf ("\n -------------------------------------------------------------------").name. main ( ) { struct stud s1.Program to display structure data through function.per = s1. void display ( struct stud). char name [15]. s2. printf ("\n %d %s %d %d %d %. s2. &s1. }. display (s1). # include<stdio.m1.m2. m2. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).2f". m1.rno. M. &s1. scanf (" %d %s %d %d ". s1. %d".rno.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example :. We can also pass individual members to the function as per the requirement.name.m1 + s1.h> struct stud { int rno. } Here the complete structure variable s1 is passed to the function to access all the members. s2. s1. &s1.

scanf ("%d %d %d %d". printf ("\n %d %s %d %d". s1.m1. Name Sub1 Sub2 Total Percentage"). printf (" %d %.2f".m1. float per. t .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example :. s1. p). tot. &s1. t=a+b. M. printf ("\n ---------------------------------------------").com 316 . char name [15]. &s1. # include<stdio. int) main ( ) { struct stud s1. calc (s1.name. s1. In above example the structure members m1 and m2 are passed to the function to calculate total and percentage. name and marks of two subjects for one student :"). getch ( ).rno.h> struct stud { int rno.m2). printf ("\n \n STUDENTS INFORMATION "). int b) { int t. printf ("\n\n Roll no.m2).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). printf ("\n Enter rno.m1. float p.rno. } void calc ( int a. m1. printf ("\n ------------------------------------------------------------------"). void calc (int. }. p = t / 2.name.Program to pass individual members to the function. &s1. s1. s1.m2.m2). s1.

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POINTERS
Consider the declaration int i = 3;

When a variable is defined , three attributes gets associated with it : 1) Location number (Address). 2) value at location (variable). 3) Location name. We may represent location in memory by the following memory.

Number Location Name

6485 3 I

Location Value Location at

Memory Map of a variable See that computer has selected memory location 6485 as the place to store the value 3 & it is i's address in a memory. In general programs whenever a variable is used in any statement, to access its value we have to search the memory by the variable name. This requires lot of time when there is large amount of data to be accessed like structure, arrays etc. Every time the variable is encountered it has to be searched in the memory. To reduce this time Pointers can be used. " A pointer is a kind of variable that holds the address of another variable".

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 Declaration of pointers :To declare a pointer '*' operator is used. The pointer name statement must precede with '*' operator. Pointer name can be any valid name.

Syntax :Datatype *pointername;

Example :int *p; char *str; Here 'p' is an integer pointer and 'str' is a character pointer. The datatype of the pointer should be same as the datatype of that variable whose address is stored in the pointer. Using Pointers the value can be accessed by its address i.e. 6485 in above example. We can print this address through the following program.

Example 1 :- Program that demonstrates pointer concept.
# include<stdio.h> main ( ) { int i = 3; printf ("\n Address of i = %u", & i); printf ("\n Value of i = %d", i); } The output of program :Address of i = 6485 Value of i = 3 Here "&" used in this statement is 'address of operator' which takes the address (location number) of the variable i i.e. 6485. We have seen the use of '&' operator in scanf ( ) function to get address of variable. %u is used as unsigned integer to print this address. The location number is a long type of value and it may exceed the integer range 32767 and the address may get printed negative using '%d' operator. To print the correct address '%u' is used.

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PH:22820846 Pointers are manipulated using two operators. '&' '*' ::'Address of' operator 'Value at address' operator.

'&' is used to take the address of variable and '*' is used to get the value stored at a particular address. The value at address operator is also called "indirection" operator. Following program illustrates the use of pointers to access the value.

Example: - Program to print the value of a variable using pointer.
# include<stdio.h> main ( ) { int i =3; int *p; printf ("\n Address of i = %u", & i); printf ("\n Address of i = %u", p); printf ("\n Value of i = %d", i); printf ("\n Value of i = %d", * (& i)); printf ("\n Value of i = %d", *p); getch ( ); }

Output:Address of i = 6485. Address of i = 6485. Value of i = 3 Value of i = 3 Value of i = 3 Note that printing the values of "*(&i)" is same as printing the value of "i" as '*' refers to the value at the address given using '&i'. Here we have declared a pointer as *p. The address of the variable must be assigned to the pointer before accessing.

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Example:p = & i; Now the memory map is

6485 3 I 6530 6485 P

Memory map As you can see, i's value is 3 and p's value is address of i.

Example: - Program for addition of two numbers using pointers.
# include<stdio.h> main ( ) { int a= 10, b=20, c; int *p,*q,*r; p = & a; q = & b; r = & c; *r = *p +*q; printf ("Addition of two no. is = %d", *r); }

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 Pointer to function:Arguments can be passed to the function using two methods. 1) Call by value. / / As discussed in Function concept. 2) Call by reference. In the call by value method the value of each argument in the calling function is copied to the corresponding formal arguments of the called function. With this method the changes made to the format arguments in the called function will not affect to the values of actual arguments in the calling function. That is in this method original values will not be updated by the function. In call by reference method the address of the actual arguments in the calling function are copied to the format arguments of the called function. That is using these address the actual arguments (values) are accessible by the called function. Whatever the changes made by the function will be affected to the actual arguments (values).

Example: - To interchange the value of two variables using call by
reference method. # include<stdio.h> main ( ) { int a = 10, b =20; printf ("\n A = %d B = %d", a,b); swap (&a,&b); printf ("\n A = %d B = %d", a,b); } swap (int *p, int*q) { int t; t = *p; *p = *q; *q = t; printf ("\n A = %d B = %d", *p, *q); } The output of above program is A = 20 B = 10 The swap ( ) function interchanges the values of a and b using their addresses stored in p and q. & a and & b will copy the address of a and b into the p and q in the called function.

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 Pointer to structures:Unlike a simple variable we can access the structure members using pointer. The pointer pointing to a structure is known as 'Structure Pointer'. Structure members are accessed through the structure variable using '.' operator. In pointer mechanism it is substituted by '-->' (arrow) operator to access those members using pointers.

Syntax:Structure pointer -> structure member

 Pointer to function:Arguments can be passed to the function using two 1) Call by value. / / As discussed. 2) Call by reference.

Example: - Displaying the numbers stored in array using function
and pointer. # include<stdio.h> void display (int *. int); main ( ) { int n[5] = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50}; display (& n[0], 5); } display (int *p, int k) { int i; for (i=0; i<k; i++) { printf ("\n %d", *p); p++; /* Pointer pointing to next memory location*/ } } Here the address of 0th element is passed to the display ( ) function. Thus passing the base address of an array to a function is same as passing in entire array. It is also necessary to pass the total number of elements in the array.

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PH:22820846 On specifying the name of the array we can get its base address i.e. address of 0th element. An array name itself refers to its base address. Thus following &n[0] and n will refer to the same element i.e. 0th element. Thus by saying *n we would be able to access the 0th element of the array. That means an array name itself acts as a pointer and it can also be used to access the array elements using pointer. Similarly by saying *(n+1) we can refer to the first element of the array and so on. That is n[i] is same as *(n+i). This concept can be used to handle strings (character arrays or two dimensional arrays easily.

Example :pointer.

To display the characters stored in the array using

# include<stdio.h> # include<string.h> main ( ) { char str[25]; int i; printf ("\n Enter a string:"); gets(str); for (i=0; i<strlen (str); i++) { printf ("%c", * (str +i)); } }

Example :pointers.

Program to convert given string into uppercase using

# include<stdio.h> # include<string.h> main ( ) { char str[30]; int i; printf ("\n Enter any string :"); gets (str); for (i=0; i<strlen(str); i++) { if (*(str +i) >= 97 && *(str + i) <123) printf ("%c", *(str +i) - 32); else printf ("%c", *(str + i)); } }

FILE MANAGEMENT
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PH:22820846 The function such as scanf ( ) and printf ( ) are used to read and write data. These are the console input / output functions used to perform input / output operations, which always use the terminal keyboard and screen as the target place. This works line by line as the data is small. However many real-life problems involve large volumes of data and in such situations, the console oriented I/O operations cause two major problems. (1) It becomes cumbersome and time consuming to handle large volumes of data through terminals. (2) The entire data is lost when either the program is terminated or the computer is turned off. The data provided to the program is stored temporarily in the memory. It is therefore necessary to have a more flexible approach where data can be stored on the disks and read whenever necessary. This method implies the concept of files to store data. The Disk input/output operations are performed on entities called file. "A file is a place on the disk where group of related data is stored". "C" supports a number of functions that have the ability to perform basic file operation. They are divided into two categories : High level files I/O functions. Low level files I/O functions. High level I/O functions are more commonly used in C programs for file operations because they do their own buffer management. Following is a list of operations that can be performed on a file. • Naming a file. • Opening a file. • Reading data from a file. • Writing data to a file. • Closing a file.

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In Sequential File Handling data gets accessed in sequential manner i. When operating system opens the file. it must be opened.h. creates a new file or open an existing file for use.e. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Example:FILE *fp. Syntax:FILE pointer name.  Declaring a File Pointer:Before reading or writing the information to the file. : reads an integer from a file. from 0 positions to the end of file position. reads of data values from file. sets the pointer to a desired position in the file. a pointer to this FILE structure is returned. M. : writes a set of data values to file. : sets the position to the beginning of the File handling can be done in two ways (1) Sequential file handling.com 325 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Following are the High Level File I/O functions :• fopen ( ) : • fclose ( ) : • getc ( ) • putc ( ) • fprintf ( ) • fscanf ( ): • getw ( ) • putw ( ) : • fseek ( ) : • ftell ( ) terms of bytes • rewind ( ) file. So a pointer is used to access any file. : writes a character from a file. (2) Random file handling. In Random File Handling data can be accessed randomly from any position in the file. The first step of file manipulation is declaring a pointer to access a file This pointer should of FILE type and known as 'File pointer'. : reads a character from a file. writes an integer from a file. : gives the current position in the file (in from the start). Opening a file establishes a link between the program and the operating system about the file.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. This link is a structure called FILE that is defined in the header file stdio. closes a file which has been opened for use.

Read mode is used to read the data from the file specification used is "r". In above example fp is a file pointer which contains the address of the file data. a new file is created. previous data will not be lost. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). fp = fopen ("student". Append Mode. M. If file doesn't exist.  Opening a File:To open a file fopen ( ) function is used. Example:FILE *fp. Read Mode.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Each file will have its own FILE structure.com 326 . "r"). Append mode allows to append new data to the end of file i. its contents get overwritten. "r"). its location in memory. Syntax:Fopen ("filename". fopen ( ) will open the file "data" in read mode. Write mode allows to write the data to the file. e. Specification is "a". Note: . The fopen ( ) function searches the file in the current hard disk location.1) name of the file to be opened. It contains a character pointer which points to a location in file. if the file exists. Further this pointer is used to open access or close the file.e. fp = fopen ("data". It tells the compiler in which mode the file should be opened." mode of opening"). it loads it into the memory otherwise it returns NULL. 2) mode of opening. They should be enclosed in double quotation marks. For "w" mode. The FILE structure contains information about the file being used like its current size. If a file is opened in "w' mode.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. The function takes two arguments. File can be opened in following different modes:"w" "r" "a" :::Write Mode. it doesn't allow to read the data. the specification used is "w".g. If it is present.Here both the filename and mode are specified as string.

:fclose (fp). It can be a variable or a constant character.g. e. The first two simple functions to read or write data to the file are :getc ( ) and putc ( ). e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Closing a file:A file must be closed as soon as all operation on it has been completed. its contents are stored into the memory and a pointer is set to the first character of the file. M. where fp is filepointer.:char ch = 'A'. It takes two arguments: 1) a character expression that has to be written to the file.com 327 .  Reading and writing data to a file:Once the file is opened.fp). file pointer).g. 2) A file pointer which refers to the required file.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Syntax:putc (char expression. putc(ch. This ensures that all outstanding information associated with the file is flushed out from the buffers and all links to the file are broken. putc ( ) function writes a single character to the file specified by the file pointer. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Syntax:fclose (file pointer).. It takes the following form. These functions are used to read or write character information to the file.

ch = getc (fp). To check whether the characters are stored in the file.com 328 .h> main ( ) { FILE *fp. M. The file gets stored permanently on the hard disk. you can display the contents of file from DOS prompt using the DOS :. getch ( ). fp and returns it to the variable ch. Syntax :getc (file pointer). char str[30]. "w"). # include<stdio.The program to write a string stored in an array to the new file. "Happy Diwali").type command or you can write another program to read the contents of file. It returns the character from the current file pointers. getc ( ) function reads a single character from the file. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). } fclose (fp). strepy (str. int i=0.e. Example :char ch. i++.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. getc ( ) will read one character from the file specified by the pointer i.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example: .h> # include<string. } Here fopen ( ) will open the file "text" in write mode and set the file pointer fp to its zero position. while (i< strlen (str) ) { pute (str[i]. putc ( ) function writes the array characters element by element to the file. Finally the file will be closed. fp). fp = fopen ( "text".

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example1: . So there is no need to increment the pointer as i++ is given in the previous example. getc (fp) reads a single character at a time from the file.h> main ( ) { FILE *fp. M. OR } fclose (fp).e. The program contains one new statement i. "r"). fp = fopen ("text". } putchar(ch). while ( (ch = getc (fp)) ! = EOF) { printf ("%c". • Note :when getc ( ) reads the character from the file. char ch. The last position in the file is known as end of file (EOF) position.com 329 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. ch). Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). the pointer will be automatically advanced (incremented to next position. The file will be closed using fclose ( ). Similarly C provides two more functions fgetc ( ) and fputc ( ) to read and write character data to the file. The characters will be taken up to end of file.To read the contents of file character by character. EOF keyword. # include<stdio. getch ( ).

"w"). while ( (c = getc(f1)) ! = EOF) { printf ("%c". Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). # include<stdio. write it to a file called INPUT. "w"). f1).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. p1 = fopen ("student". getch ( ).com 330 . } fclose (f1). printf ("Enter some characters:"). } fclsose (f1). f1 = fopen ("Input". while ((c = getchar ( ) ) ! = EOF) { putc (c.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 2 :- Write a program to read data from the keyboard. *p2. f1 = fopen ("Input".c). "r"). Here p1 and p2 are the file pointers used to handle two files at a time. char c. printf ("\n Data stored in the file : \n"). Student file will be opened in read mode with p1 and decimal file will be opened in write mode with p2. and display it on the screen. "r"). M. again read the same data from INPUT file. } Output :Data stored in the file : Happy Diwali  Multiple file handling :Consider the following statement FILE *p1.h> main ( ) { FILE *f1. p2 = fopen ("decimal".

number. They are similar to the getc ( ) and putc ( ) functions and are used to read & write numeric data.com 331 . n++) { putw (n. fp). } A file named 'Data' contains a series of integer numbers. To handle different type of values like character. To avoid this C provides another set of functions which reads or writes multiple values at a time to the file: fprintf ( ) and fscanf ( ). getw (fp). int n. Example :.The program that writes 1 to 10 numbers to the file and read it from file. fp)."w").h> # include<conio. float using these function is a time consuming task.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. code a program to read these numbers and then write all odd no to a file called ODD and all even numbers to a file to be called EVEN. for (n=1. # include<stdio. M..h> main ( ) { FILE *fp. The general forms of getw ( ) & putw ( ) are : putw (numeric exp. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). n<=10. getch ( ). fp = fopen ("num". } fclose (fp).  fprintf ( ) and fscanf ( ) functions :In previous programs we have seen how to read or write character or numeric information from the file using different functions.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  getw ( ) and putw ( ) function :The getw ( ) & putw ( ) are number oriented functions.

&rno. Or fprintf (stdout. Example: . name.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. ii) format strings like %d %f etc. &per). iii) Variable list in which data will be stored from the file. &per). " %d %s %d %f". filepointer (fp) that refers to the file. stdin that refers to the standard input device . Here we have to give '&' operator with the variable name to get is address. " %d %s %d %f". -. name.e. Syntax:fprintf (output stream. "format string". data will be written to the file.e.Writes data to file. tot.e. &rno.com 332 . It takes three arguments :i) input streams from which data should be taken. name."format strings". per). rno.To read data from file into variables. a) Standard input stream i. b) File stream i. ii) format strings like %d %f etc. Example :. rno. stdout that refers to the standard output device -screen.per). variable list).keyboard.Writes data to screen. It takes three arguments:i) output streams to which data should be written. iii) Variable list through which data will be provided to the file. Or fscanf (stdin. There are two input streams that can be provided. & variable list). If filepointer is given. Syntax:fscanf (input stream. &tot. tot. filepointer (fp) that refers to the file. fprintf ( fp. -. If stdout is given data will be written to screen. " %d %s %d %f".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 fprintf ( ) functions writes multiple data items to the specified stream. fscanf (fp. "%d %s %d %f". name. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). &tot. M. a) Standard Output stream i.e.To write student data to file or screen. There are two output streams that can be provided. b) File stream i.

FILE *fp. fclose (fp). "%d %s %d". salary). salary. name and salary for one employee :"). & salary). C provides various functions to manipulate the file pointer. printf ("\n %d %s %d". salary). char name[20]. M. # include<stdio. fprintf (stdout. printf ("\n The employee information:"). "a").TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example :. Then file will be opened into read mode and fscanf ( ) function will read the data from file. name."r").com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Following are some pointer manipulation functions :i) fseek ( ) ii) ftell ( ) iii) feof ( ) iv) rewind ( ) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). name. fp = fopen ("emp". fprintf (fp.h> main ( ) { int eno. rno.Program to write employee data to the file. & salary for the employee". } In above program the first fprintf ( ) function will write the data to screen as "Enter eno. "Enter empno. eno. getch ( ).  Random File Accessing :In random file handling data can be accessed randomly from the file. We can move file pointer to any position in the file to access the data. name . name .com 333 ."%d %s %d". &eno. fp = fopen ("emp". fclose (fp). fscanf (fp. fscanf ( ) will read the data through keyboard and then it will be written to the file using next fprintf ( ) function.

Current position in file. 1) :. -41.Moves pointer three positions ahead from beginning of file. The offset value can be negative also to move the pointer in back direction. fseek (fp. fseek (fp.Moves the pointer four positions back from end of file. ii) offset :It is the number by which the pointer should be moved iii) position :It is the position from which the pointer should be moved. position) i) filepointer: . There are three fixed positions in the file which can be specified as a third argument for fseek ( ) function. -21.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Fseek ( ) :fseek ( ) function moves the file pointer to the specified position in the file. 2) :.Moves pointer two positions back from current position. 2) :. These positions are:0 1 2 :::Beginning of file. Position in the file is a long type of value so we have to specify the T as long specification with the offset value. offset. Example:fseek (fp. moves the pointer five positions ahead. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).Moves pointer three positions ahead from current position.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 334 . End of file. Example:21 -51moves the pointer two positions ahead. 0) :. It takes three arguments :- Syntax :fseek (file pointer. M.Specifies the file that is to be accessed. fseek (fp. 31. 31.

It takes one argument i.e.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.file pointer Syntax:rewind (filepointer). Syntax:feof (filepointer).:rewind (fp). the file pointer. e.com 335 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). It returns true if pointer is at end of file position otherwise it returns false. Example:feof (fp). • rewind ( ):rewind ( ) sets the file pointer back to the beginning of file from any position.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • feof ( ):To check whether the end of file is encountered or not feof ( ) function is used. It takes one argument . M.g.

Once it reaches to the EOF. / / moves the file pointer two positions ahead. fell(fp) ). fseek ( ) function moves the file pointer two positions ahead for every iteration. } fclose (fp)."w"). while (!feof (fp)) { printf ("\n %c is at %d position ".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example: function.h> # include<conio. / / Sets the value is 0. fseek (fp.2.com 336 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). } The above program will accept data from user using getchar ( )function. fp). while ( (ch = getchar ( )) ! = EOF) { putc (ch. n. To stop accepting data press F6 key this is recognized by EOF keyword.'1' is the long datatype specification. char ch.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. n = 01.n | 2|. M. / / Incrementing the value of n by 2."r"). Program for random file accessing using fseek ( ) # include<stdio. fp = fopen ("text". n--. getc(fp). the loop will be terminated. 0). long n. } fclose (fp). Position the file is a long type of value so 'I' for long specification is used. getch ( ). clrscr ( ). fp = fopen ("text".4 etc. Then it will print the characters from the alternate positions as 0.h> main ( ) { FILE *fp.

M. These arguments are argc and argv. First argument is the integer argc which holds the count of the arguments i. the program can be executed as a command.e. The program name will be the first argument which goes in argv[0]. These arguments will be used in the program. Using this we can create commands like dos copy con command or dos copy command etc. total no. Second argument is an array of pointer to strings which holds the actual arguments one by one in the element. compile it and then execute it through the C editor. 2)We can provide data to the program through command prompt. The program will be executed based on the arguments passed from command prompt known as command line arguments.com 337 . char *argv [ ] ) The name of the arguments can be changed. of arguments passed.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. It is the exe file or command file that is run on command prompt. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).i. The program should be executable form command prompt. To improve this procedure following steps can be taken: 1) There should be no need to compile the program every time. the arguments has to be passed to the main ( ) function. Syntax :main (int arge. As the program execution starts from main ( ) function.e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Command line arguments :To execute any application in C first we have to write a program. The strings at the command line are stored in the memory and their address will be stored in each element of argv [ ].

exit (0). fclose (fp). if (argc ! =2) { printf ("\n Invalid arguments !"). c:\tc> create mced <press enter> number of Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis)..TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example :. compile and execute it ones to generate its ."w"). fp = fopen (argv[1].com 338 . getch ( ). char *argv [ ]) { FILE *fp.h> # include<stdlib. M.The program to write a "create" command that operates like a dos "copy con" command.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. char ch. } Save above program by the name 'create' .exe file and give following command at the command prompt to create a new file which will be stored on the hard disk. printf ("\n One file is copied !"). fp). } while ( (ch = getchar ( ) ) ! = EOF) { putc (ch .h> main (int argc. # include<stdio.

M. exist (0). fp = fopen (argv[1]. if (argc ! =3) { printf ("\n Invalid no.h> main (int argc.h> # include <stdlib. char ch. printf ("\n One file is copied !")."r"). } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 339 ."w"). *fp1. of arguments!").com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. getch ( ). fp1).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 2 :contents of one To create a "copy" command which will copy file to another. } while (ch = getc (fp)) ! = EOF) { putc (ch. char *argv [ ]) { FILE *fp. } fclose all ( ). # include<stdio. fp1 = fopen (argv[2].

h> # include<graphich.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. We can see images. These functions are defined in the header file Graphics.150.Character User Interface and ii) GUI : . M. shapes etc.Graphical User Interface. It contains the definitions of all the graphics functions. radius) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). y position.h> main ( ) { int gdriver = DETECT. higher is the resolution.com 340 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 GRAPHICS Computer Graphics is one of the most powerful and interesting feature of computer. gmode. &gmode. The image resolution depends upon the adapter and monitor installed on the computer. closegraph ( ). 50). Windows is a good example of GUI in which everything is performed in graphical form. animation. There are two modes in computer. Before starting the graphics application first let's learn something about the graphics mode. colors. 150 position. # include<stdio. Syntax:Circle (x position. circle (100. } The above program contains circle ( ) function that draws a circle of radius 50 at 100." "). Consider the following program that draws a circle on screen. initgraph (&gdriver. multimedia works using computer graphics. The number of dots or picture elements (pixels) available to us on the screen in the graphics mode is known as resolution. It allows you to draw something. The screen coordinates are measured in pixels for graphics mode. setcolor (RED). Greater number of dots. This chapter describes how these things are achieved in C. C provides various in built standard library graphics functions that can be used to perform different operations. i) CUI :. All video games.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Initgraph ( ) function is used. Ones the graphics is initialized. The variable gd refers to the graphics driver. Graphics drivers are set of device drivers and are applicable only in the graphics mode. one of these drivers gets selected by the DETECT statement. It takes three arguments i) graphics driver ii) graphics mode and iii) Path for the file. Third argument is the path for the driver file.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 First two arguments are the x .bgi. You can use a variable as a argument. Depending on what adapter is used. They are the files with extension . M. gd. Device drivers are the small programs which directly communicate with the hardware. Turbo C provides certain graphics drivers. The gm number tells us which monitor we are using. To run any graphics program first the graphics (mode) should be initialized. 300. the cursor disappears and the screen coordinates changes to pixels and we can draw any shape on screen using the graphic functions. Third argument is the radius fro the circle. First two arguments passed are gd and gm. y coordinates from where the circle will be drawn on screen. The initgraph ( ) function figures out the best resolution and stores the number corresponding to that mode in the variable gm. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). gm is two integer variables. setcolor ( ) function will set the background color as RED. Example:a = 20 circle (200. To set the graphics mode that provides high resolution. a). They execute the task assigned to them.com 341 . DETECT is macro that selects the driver installed on the computer.

• • :Draws a Draws a and (x2. M. pattern. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. • • • • ::::- Gets Gets Sets Displays the the the a view port(screen) • :position. y1. y1. x2. x2. Setbkcolor (color) background color. thickness):-Sets different styles for the line. string) string at specified :and radius rad. • Circle (xc. yc. y1) Setcolor (color) for the graphics Get color ( ) current drawing color. y2) rectangle with (x1. "path") :Initializes the graphics mode from graphics operations. :Draws a line from • y2) where x1. Line (x1. y2) as corners.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Following are some graphics functions and their use:• Initgraph (&gd. y1. y2 are integer variable that represents the screen Coordinates. :Set the color drawn. x2. • Displays a Setline style (type. y2) (x1.com 342 . y2) to (x2. Getbkcolor ( ) current background color. rad) circle with center xc. y. &gm. Out text (string) string in the Outtextxy (x. yc Rectangle (x1.

M. y screen coordinates.e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Getmaxx ( ) and getmax ( ) :Gets the maximum x. screen. • :deallocates Close the the Clears the • memory Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. :i.com 343 . Clearviewport ( ) current view port Closegraph ( ) graphics system and allocated by the graphics system.

gmode. 5. 360. 295.h> # include<graphics. 245. setbkcolor (CYAN). 10. 13). 8. 270.com 344 . } / / Initialises graphics. 10. 9). line (300. initgraph (&gdriver. 5. 303. 280. 8. ellipse (275. 60). M. clearviewport ( ). 270).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Some examples using above graphics functions:- Example 1:. 13). 360. getch ( ). line (295. / / Clears the / / Closes(deinitialises) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). setcolor (BLUE). # include<stdio. 9). &gmode. graphics screen. 240. closegraph ( ). 1.h> main ( ) { int gdriver = DETECT. fillellipse (325.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 240. 260. circle (300. ellipse (325. 245." "). 240. 269). 20). 182. fillellipse (275. graphics screen.Program which will print a face on screen. arc (300.

com 345 . 2. 104. 151. line (279. 279. outtextxy (270. outtextxy (275. ellipse (280. 291. 355. 2). clearviewport ( ). 240. fillellipse (199. 2).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 291. closegraph ( ). 2. "6"). 330. fillellipse (279. 2). 240). 2. 120). 9). fillellipse (225. 95. getch ( ). 235. 280. 2. 240). 240.h> main ( ) { int gdriver = DETECT. 2). 2. 2). 236. 5). fillellipse (360. 2). 178. &gmode. 239. outtextxy (365.h> # include<conio. fillellipse (280. "3"). 2). fillellipse (337. setfillstyle (SOLIE_FILL. fillellipse (223. 332. 270). 2. 350. 135. setcolor (1). The C++ language consist of same Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). outtextxy( 190. 190. 1. } PROGRAMMING IN C++ LANGUAGE  Looping Structure in C++:In C++ language is a object oriented language it is developed in bell laboratories by Bjarne startup.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Example 2 :. fillellipse (338.Program to Draw a clock screen. "9"). fillellipse (360. M. 199. 151. 240. 2). 125. 130). gmode. line (240. fillellipse (199. # include<graphics." ").5. 2. line (279. 2. initgraph (&gdriver. 360. "12").

 Object oriented programming (OOPS):The fundamental ideas define the object oriented language is to combine into a single a program in to birth data and functions. For display of data or a function that checks or correct input is important but it cannot be check. 2) The data makes up the inventory is probebbaly read from a list into memory it treated as global variable.com 346 . Such a single program is called as object.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. An object P is called member function in C++ difficulty it provide the main the access it's data if we want to read data item of and object. We can call a member function in the object. The data and its function are enclosed input a single entity known as Encapsulation. M. so it is safe from accidental alteration. The C++ language removes.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 special feature rather than C programming in C++ language is the next version of C programming language due to some disadvantages of C language there is development of C++ language. Data We can't access data directly Membership Member fan Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). It will read the item and return the value to gives you can not access the data directly the data is hidden. The limitations of programming languages are as follows :1) The main thing is it is difficult to read the keyboard. invert the vector.

one below the other. In structure only data is placed whereas in a class data and functions both are placed together. Writing debugging and maintain the program. a class resembles the structure of C.com 347 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). The data and functions together from a capsule and the capsule so formed is called as a "class".com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 1) Class:A class is that block of Object Oriented Program where data and functions are placed together. A C++ program consists of a number of object that communicates with each other by calling one another's member functions. In other words.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 If we want to modify the data in an object we know exactly that function interface with a no other function can we access the data this simplifies. M. Therefore a class of C++ is considered as an extension of structure of C. a class is a template of data and function. The member functions in C++ are called as methods.  Features of Object Oriented Programming Language:The C++ programming language is an object programming language it is more useful and easy for programming. In other words. We can handle data of C++ programming language due to it's characteristics of programming there are some major features of object oriented programming language are as follows:1) Class 2) Object 3) Inheritance 4) Reusability 5) Facility of creating new data type 6) Polymorphism and overloading.

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2) Object:In c. Consider the following segment of Object Oriented Program. } void show_fees (void) { cout<<"college fees is". a variable of class type can also be declared. an object is nothing but a variable of class type. The above segment of Object Oriented Program shows the definition of a class named "vivek" that has encapsulated the data member "fees" and the functions named "accept_fees ( )" and "show_fees ( )". class vivek nis. the structure variables are declared. after defining the template of structure. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). depending upon their memory requirements. In a similar manner. memory gets allocated to all the members of structure.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Consider the following declarative statement. As soon as a structure variable is declared. } }. : : class vivek { private: int fees. As a variable of structure type can be declared. cin>> fees. M.com 348 . public: void accept_fees (void) { cout<<"Enter fees". <<fees<<endl. Now recall the declaration of a structure variable in C.

4) Reusability:The concept of inheritance leads to the concept of reusability of existing codes. ob3. M. Thus a group of objects can also be considered as a class. the baby has her own features too. 3) Inheritance:A newly born baby usually inherits some features of father and some features of mother. To do this. this class works fine and we do not want to change it but want to add the capability to make same menu entries flash on and off. Consider a class that creates a menu. Using "vivek" a variable "nis" is declared in the above declarative statement. ob2. Consider the following diagram that illustrates the concept of inheritance in OOP. ob7 Here all the objects ob1 to ob7 belongs to the same class "vivek" and so we can also say that all these objects together are making a class named "vivek".e. ob6. In addition to this inheritance. Consider the following declarative statement. we can simply create a new class that inherits all the capabilities of the existing one but adds flashing menu entries. a variable of vivek). This variable "nis" of class "vivek" type is called an object of "vivek" (i. In the same manner a class of OOP can inherit the features of another existing class. Class vivek ob1. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. ob5. We can declare as many objects as we want. ob4. say intelligence of father and beauty of mother.com 349 . By virtue of inheritance.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 In the above example "vivek" is the template name of a class. the member functions that are defined in one class can be called for execution by the objects of derived classes. The object "nis" gets its own private memory to place its data member "fees" and member functions"accept_fees ( )". This is nothing but the reusability of the existing software. All these objects enjoy their own private memories to place their own data members and member functions.As we have declared one object "nis" of class "vivek".

M. then such functions are called as overloaded function. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). C has the concept of "structure" and "union" that lets the programmer create a new user defined data type using the built in data types of the language. More than one functions. 6) Polymorphism and Overloading:Polymorphism / overloading is a new concept that is given by Object Oriented Programming. In C++ the class name is used as an abstract data type for defining objects. if are given the same name. But if we make the + operator to add two objects together when the operator is called an overloaded operator. A+ (plus) operator can add two isolated values together. One of the benefits of objects is that they give the programmer a convenient way to construct new data types.com 350 .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. This new concept can be implemented either on the functions or on the operators. C++ has implemented the same but in an advanced and sophisticated manner. Similarly the operators can also be overloaded.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 5) Facility of Creating New Data Types:The facility of creating new data types is not a new concept in OOP.

avg = M1+M2+ M3/3. cout << “ You Average marks are”<<avg. It is word as like scanf function in C programming language. The syntax of cin is as follows. The c out & c in is used in the C++ program. The identifier C is it is also as object predefined in C++ it is related with standard input stream. cin >> std. The operator << is called us insertion or to operator it is used for display of statement. M3. cin >> M1+M2+ M3. cout << “Enter your name. Consider once statement of program. avg. It represents data coming from the keyboard the >> is extraction or get operated. cout << “Your name is”<<std.”. cout << “Enter marks of three subjects”. Syntax:cin >> M1>>M2>>M3. Syntax:cout << “Enter your name”. The program is stared with # include files the file form the library can be used with help off # include structure . # include <iostream. The syntax of c out is a s follows.  Void Pointer:The word void can be used to define a pointer.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 C++ IDE (Integrated development environment) structure of C++ program.com 351 . The C++ handles the assignment of void pointer with main keyword. }  The identifier c out:The c out is actually then object it is predefined to the standard out put stream a stream is on abstraction that refers to a flow of data it is used for screen display.h> void main ( ) { char str[40] int M1. M2.

A while loop ask to user to enter a character. 1) While loop. There are three type of looping structure C & C++ which helps programmer to execute the program and expected type of circulation or cycles the looping structure help us or repetitive work & save our time & length of program. } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) Comment :. 2) C++ supports the // notation. // calculate avg  Looping Structure of C++ : Loops :The loop is a program which checks how many types to cycle around the programming for true & false results.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. cin >> ch. Loops make decision on values that can be either true or false. 2) For loop. 3) Do loop. avg = M1+M2+M3/3. For e. It continues the cycle until the user enters the characters . 1) While Loop:A while loop help us to show the conditional statement.com 352 . Syntax :Body of loop While (Char !=x) { cout << “Enter any character”. M.as like C C++ supports two types comment the comment like with in the /*--*/ structure is ignored by the compiler. /* calculate avg*/ avg = M1+M2+M3/3.g. The loops are as follows.

2) Do Loop :The do loop is also called as do while loop. The body of loop is enclosed by curley bracket { }. do { cout << “Enter any character”. (braces) False Go back to while loop revaluate Condition Exit True Execute statement while looping Statement. cout << L-nd/n. This loop is used when we always want to do one time the syntax for do while loop is as follows.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 The while consists of the keyword while following by a condition enclosed in parenthesis ( ).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. } while (ch !=x) Execute Statement Loop False Exist while loop Go back to revaluate Condition Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 353 . cin >> ch. M.

i<10. int k . The parenthesis followed by the keyword . } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). i<20. The variable inside the loop is known as loop variable expressions of for loop are 1) The instillation which usually to initialize value of loop variable. increment & decrement the value of loop variable for e. For contains three different parts of for loop separated by a semicolon. the condition that terminate the loop arises continuously inside the loop if can't be happened in case of for loop. for (i=1. ++i) cout << "*". ++i) { total = total + i . 2) The text expression. 3) For Loop :In while & do loops we don't know how many time the loop will be executed. for (i=0. The Do loop is only loop that is end with semicolon the semicolon is necessary because of the condition follows the loop a body so the closing brace of the loop can not act end line for the entire loop.g. total = 0.g. i<=20. for e. M.com 354 . cout = total . which usually checks the value of loop variable to see whether the cycle again or exit from the loop.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. The for loop will be executed usually started at the beginning of loop. 2) Test expression. for (i=0. i++) 1) Initialization expression.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Do-While looping Statement. 3) Increment / Decrement expression . 3) The increment or decrement expression which usually.

else cout << "Result = Fail". else If (Hindi>35) cout << "Pass". else { If (Phy>35) cout << "Pass".com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  Decision Loop :i) If Statement :The simple way make a decision in C & C++ is the if statement. else { cout << "Result = Fail ". M. { If (Door = "open") cout << "Enter in class". If (marks>35) { cout << "Result = Pass". } iii) Nested if -----else statement :We can use if else statement more than one time as per our requirement If (Marathi>35) { cout << "Result = Pass". The if Statement helps us to execute out desired statement automatically the syntax of if Statement is as follows .else statement helps us to show the statement when it is true & simultaneously it also shows false statement the syntax. } } Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). For if else statement is as follows.com 355 . } ii) If------else statement :The If----.

2) Shell:It is the command interpreter it is the command operating system it accepts command from user the $ prompt any lise these commands the shell short exciting the exactable feel & ten request to kernal to carry Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). is easy to use. The system calls are the basic building blocks upon which UNIX commands are based.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. due to its features the UNIX operating system is developed at 'A & T bell' laborites.  Components of Unix Operating System:UNIX operating system is classified into following components depending on its function of consist of 1) Kernal 2) Shell 3) Unix tools & application. The kernal interface with the help of system call is call to an operating system operating this cell can be made in C or assembly language program. In 1971 by Stive Barned. 1) Kernal:The Kernal is a care or operating system program it performs all the low level jobs which is necessary to control al the task & hardware devices all operating system have a kernal which is carried by kernal for flash operating of the system.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 } UNIX  UNIX COMMAND:UNIX is operating system software used for oxidation of application software the UNIX operating system.com 356 . M. The UNIX operating system is a multi-user operating system it can be access or Run by the new user also system. The kernal is used for operating of Utility or application on software tools.

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M. Act as middle man between kernal & User operating system. Type of C prompt. Result in command to get their are some general commands used in UNIX. The all users who are currently logged on the system.  General Commands used in UNIX:The appearance of a $ prompt display command in UNIX command.com 357 . System: .$ who am I 4) Echo:- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).$ Who 3) $ Who am I:This command used to get inforation about the user who is setting or currently logged on the system Syntax: .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 out the data transfer which finally gives output hence the shell. 2) $ Who:This command gives information about.$ who am I e. 1) $ Date:This command tells Unix system to print system date & time every Unix command must be ended with Return the inform system that user has finish typing $who. :. 3) Unix tools & application:The outer most layer of Unix operating system is it's tools & applications some versions of UNIX are having more than four hundred tools these tools can be involved from the command line & helps to perform complex task of te system tools consist many applications programs which may be purses speciously such as electronic spread sheet sophisticated word processing package.g.

$ MKDIR DIR name $ MKDIR ABC 8) RMDIR :.(Remove directory name) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Report is as line this P/D 2345 2378 TTY 12 12 Time 2:15 6:01 Command SW DS The first column process identification number each time kernal assign a unique p1 the sh is shell oph is processed status or other input device which we are using & time command displays time which is used for processing.(Print working directory):The command PWD tells us what directory we are $ PWD. 6) $ Clear:This command will clear the screen & view make true of command press of word & tress new known name trace of the command directory commands. Syntax: . M. within which there is another directory it is known as user. PWD :.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Syntax:.com 358 .$ echo I am student of COPA I am student of COPA 5) $ ps (prace ss status) :The ps command makes process status Report the process. 7) MKDIR :. Syntax:. This command returns the path of currents directly within the root directory their is a sub directory known as USR .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This is very simple & straight forward command it displays on the screen.$ ps.(Create directory name) To create a directory UNIX provides a mkdir command. What ever the type after the command echo. Status Report is as line this.

(Change directory name) When a users create a directory we would like to change the directory .g.g. M.:.g.$ LS The LS command is used with same parameters. Syntax: .Optional first line.$ Cat > First file name I am student Comp.$ Rm ABC Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 The command is used to remove the directory at the shell prompt type the command.sci Ctrl + D In this Ctrl + D is used to store the file. The command LS with no argument list the contents of ever current directory. Syntax: .$ Rmdir e.(Create File):This command creates file on the system.D: .$ Rmdir ABC 9) CD :.( list the file) The command is list the file in the directory. Syntax: . 3) Rm (Remove file):This command is used to delete or remove the file on system.com 359 .$ LS Example: .I: . Syntax: .$ Rm file name e.Ordinary 2) Cat :.Directory.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. LS . LS --:.:.:.$ CD Dir name e. LS .$ CD ABC  Basic File Command:1) LS :. The syntax or this is Syntax: .

CP ABC XYZ 5) MV :.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 4) CP (Copy):The command is used to make a copy the file in this first argument file copied into second argument.$ my first file name (second file) e. Syntax: .(Change mode of access) This command changes made of indicated file & directory.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.(Method Vehicle) The command is used to change the name of file the first name is ole name & second name is new name after the command prompt.:. M.:.g. The file made is read write & executed permission separately for the each class of user tat is user Syntax: .com 360 .$ chmod 777 ABC Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).$ my XYZ CBZ 6) Chmod :. Syntax : .$ CP (Source-target) e.g.

1) Write:The easy way to communicate with other user who are logged in the syntax of write command is as following type. M. i) Vi . The VI editor can be access in three ways this are shown below.it edits & empty editing buffer.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.$ mesg x 3) News:It permits the user to read massages published by the system administrator the important new is saved as a file in the news directory so that file in the news directory so that file in the news directory so that it may be available to all user.it is stand for visual & c Ed . Te two text editor are vied. ii) Viname . Syntax: .$ news Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Syntax: .it opens file with a specified name and goes third line idefine iv) vi+/bye name: . VI .it is stands for simple editor.it edits & file with specified file name iii) Vi+3 name: .$ Write used (TTV) 2) Mesg Command:It is used to sent receive massage from other user te syntax of mesg command is Syntax: .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  UNIX EDITOR:The UNIX editor is an important part of the system it helps to create & modify to user files & data there are two text editors available under the UNIX operating system.it searches for the first occurrence of bye in the file commands used with other users.com 361 .

Count line.$ paste [option] [file name] Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Syntax: . The pq command display a prompt that pauses for the user to strike the dental key to continue scrolling at the end of file it displays.$ Cut .(option) (filename) Option I . The syntax of cut command is below. W. stored & redirected to file 3 7) Cut:This command is used to cut out selected fields from a file & display.com 362 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 4) WX:This commands counts line words & character the syntax is Syntax: . M. 6) Sort:The sort command sorts the more mud file. 5) Pq ( paiqinator) :These command arrows to view on screen full of a time.Count word.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.Count Char. C.[option] [file name] • Paste:- The paste merges the contains of multiple file & display them and screen this fielder is used to generate output in column format the syntax is Syntax: .$ sort file / file 2 > file3 The contains of file / & file 2 are merge.WX . Syntax: .

TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Tar Command:- The Tar stand for take achieved the Tar command is used for making a back up copy of entired directory it takes as its argument a command a directory to be achived on a tape or other tape Syntax: .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.(global regular expression printer) This command is used to search & print to specified pattern from a file or standard input Syntax :.g.$ GREP [patton] [file name] e.[Write to all] This command is used to display a message to all user on the system # wall Tar Hello friends I have joined now Ctrl + D • Path:- This command is used to display path of your directory when we logging our path variable is set to some difficult value.$ Echo $path • GREP :. Syntax: . M.$ Cut data $ GRED in data.$ Tar ABC Wall: . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 363 . :.

3) System Portability. 2) Multi user:The multi-user operating system permits several users to use te same computer to carryout there job the serval terminals are connected to server computer other computer can access files & print document at the same time te multi-user environment gives complete coordination & competitive & saves amount of time. 2) System it acts as command interpreter. 5) Process on communicate through pipe. UNIX & print one document. 3) It provides a programming language with powerful syntax.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 • Characteristics of Shell:- The shell is important & useful path of UNIX operating system due to this characteristic it is more useful some of these characteristic are as follows 1) It acts as interface to UNIX operating. 4) Communication:5) System security:1) Multitasking:This capability permits the operating system to perform several takes at a time. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 2) Multi-user.com 364 . edit mother & sort list of file at the same time the multiple task can be carry down by placing other task in the back ground. 4) The Standard input output can be redirected to files.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. • Characteristics of Unix Operating System :Or • Features of UNIX Operating System:1) The Unix Operating system is mainly silence feature some of this important Feature is as follows:1) Multi tasking. M.

execute is unsigned by the owner of the file this is level of security allows the users to in script data files on this so that the data remains secure. write.com 365 . a) Communication between different terminals connected to the same computer.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. The standard log in procedure secured user data.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 3) System portability:The UNIX operating system can install software without any major changes this ability of UNIX operating systems makes UNIX popular UNIX run on more brands of computer 4) Communication:The UNIX supports two major type of communication. 5) System Security:The user data is highly secure in there are several level of security in UNIX the first level is i) System security. b) Communication between users of is computer as specific location to the users or another type or size of computer. The next level of security is the permission to access the files are read. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.

The software of data base management systems are as follows which is used by people 1) FoxPro 2) Oracle 3) Ms-Access Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). The data & information are used i9nterchange the data are Row material resources that are processed into information products information product can be defined as data has been converted into meaningful & useful form for the end user information is processed data placed in a way that gives value for specific and user.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  Database Environment:Information is very important in any business or organization it is required to manage this information it is required to manage this information as per our requirement the information is useful when it is accurate & available as on when required by the user.  Information:The data which is converted into useful & meaningful form is known as information. M. This can be occur only if an organization organizes & manages it's data properly data base is shared collection of logically related data & designed to fulfill the information needs of an organization data is the Row material from which useful information is required.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 366 .  Data:Data is the Row material from which use full information is received data is commonly used in both similar & plural form it is defined as row facts of organization on fact or observation typical phenomenal.

M.com 367 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). 1) Application software.  SOFTWARE:The collection of program which are used between the user and the computer is called as software.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 FOXPRO  INTROEDUCTION TO FOXPRO: PROGRAM:The set of instructions provided to computer to accomplish a particular task is called as program.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 2) System software. There are two main classes of software.

Basic .g.  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FIELDS AND RECORDS:RECORD Record is a collection of related fields Collection of records constitute e. account package. Serial No.g. Name. E. 2) Library system. fees are the separate fields.g..g. Roll-no. fees is a record of single student FIELD Individual entity in the database is called as fields Collection of fields constitutes a record Name. LANGUAGE It is a system software It is used for communication purpose It is faster e.com 368 .  DATA RECORD:The collection of related fields is called as data record. package  DATA BASE:The collection of information which is arranged in structured and table manner is called as data base. FoxPro . Name. Course. Roll-no. Word-star.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PACKAGE AND LANGAUAGE:PACKAGE It is application software Here a limited set of instruction used It is slower compared to language e. Lotus. e. Pascal Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Cobol .g. D.T.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Fortran . Salary etc.  DATA FIELD:Individual entity in the database is called as data field.P. M. 1) A telephone directory. C . Course.

DATA BASE RECORD NUMBER 1 2 3  TYPES OF FILES:The most commonly used files in FoxPro are as follows. M. record no. A database could be a address book database because each rows or records contains information about a different person or entity. Each file type has a unique extension to indicate its type.1 for SUNIL contains in the column or fields identified as name.G. LBX 7). In the following table. SCX &. IDX 5). 1) . and city.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.PRG 4). FRX 6).ROAD CAMP FIELD3 (CITY) A'BAD PUNE PUNE Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). DATA BASE FILE MEMO file PROGRAM file INDEX file REPORT file LABEL file SCREEN file FIELD1 (NAME) SUMIL ANIL VIJAY FIELD2 (ADDRESS) GULMANDI M.com 369 . DBT 3) . SPR  FIELDS & DATA TYPES:There are 6 types of fields available in FoxPro. address.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  STRUCTURE OF DATABASE FILE:The structure of a database is like a table which contains the no.DBF 2).of records of different information related subject.

Yes or no then logical field is used. But there is no limitation of alphabets.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 1) Character Field:Here you can use alphabets and also numbers.com 370 . 6) Float Field:Here you can include decimal Points. The numeric type data is stored in this field. use this field to store data type information. Maximum allow able range is 255 characters. 2) Numeric Field:It is used for numerical operation. 3) Date Field:When you use data in your file.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. true or False. 4) Memo Field:It is also same type as character. No limitation of character. Maximum range 20 digit. 5) Logical field:When there is a condition e.g. M. Maximum range is 1. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Maximum range is 20 digits. One database can have only one memo field.

in the field name.s Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Remaining 9 characters may be alphabets or digits.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  RULES FOR NAMING DATA FIELDS:1) Field name can be up to 10 characters. This is the faster DBMS. the record can be sorted. M. "-"  WHAT IS FOXPRO? FoxPro is database management system.com 371 . 3) There should not have blank space. 4) Screen generation facility is available which is more powerful compared to other DBMS. 6) The report facility is available which is very useful. 4) Special characters are not allowed in field name except underscore i.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. 7) Memo field has unlimited capacity which depends on memory space. 2) Field name must have to begin with alphabets. paste and copy etc. 3) Programming facility is available with FoxPro. 2) We can generate mailing labels.e. correct or delete records in database file. 8) The records can be arranged order i.  ADVANTAGES OF FOXPRO:1) We can add. 5) The editor of FoxPro is more powerful which provide cut.e. or indexed. It is developed by fox software incorporation.

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PH:22820846 ELEMENTS OF FOXPRO SCREEN  MODES OF OPERATION:You can operate the FoxPro in 3 different modes. 1) Command line mode 2) Programming mode 3) Assist mode 1) Command Line mode:After starting FoxPro we get a window through which we can give the commands. This is command line window. 2) Programming Mode:We can write the program in this made. These programs can be used repeatedly. 3) Assist Mode:It is a menu driven mode from which you can select the options.  INSTRUCTION SET:The instruction set consists of command, function and statement. 1) Command:Commands are used to have some specific work. 2) Functions:This is a ready-made program and can do the specific work. 3) Statement:It is a set of commands and can be used in programs.

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PH:22820846  FOXPRO SCREEN:Fox Pro screen consist of 3 parts. 1) Command Window 2) Menu mode 3) Status line 1) Command Window:By default the cursor is in command window and you can give the command directly. You can change the size of the command window by pressing ^F8 and move the window by pressing ^F7 from one place to another. The command mode is faster than menu mode. 2) Menu Mode:All the menus are displayed at the top of the screen and a single character is high lighted to switch over to menu mode, use Alt and highlighted character. Then it displays the commands available in the menu. To execute any command from the menu, move the cursor to that option and then press enter. 3) Status Line:At the bottom of the screen, there is a white strip which is called as status line. The status line gives as following information. a) The current drive e.g. C: b) The DBF name which is in use. c) The total no. of records in the DBF and the position of record pointer. d) Status of special keys like insert, num lock, caps lock etc.

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PH:22820846  OPERATORS IN FOXPRO:In FoxPro mainly there are three types of operators. 1) Mathematical Operators:These are +, -, *, / 2) Relational Operators:These show the relation between the two quantities. These are =, >, <, < =, > =, # 3) Logical Operators:There are AND, OR, NOT. The logical operators must be enclosed in dots. e.g.:- .And . . . . Or. .Not.

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COMMANDS IN FOXPRO
 CREATE:This command is used to create a new database (DBF). Syntax: - CREATE <File name > After this command, we will get the screen where you have to provide information about the field of DBF. Structure of Database File (DBF). In structure we have to provide field name, field type, field width and decimal places. (Only for numeric fields) The DBF created by CREATE command will have the extension .DBF E.g. CREATE STUDENT E.g. CREATE EM PLOYEE After pressing enter key, you have to create database structure by specifying the required fields & their types. After creating the structure it will ask you a question Input data record now? < Yes > < no > Type "y" or select yes to input the data records in a file. Then enter the record in the file and use 'Ctrl +W' key to save the file.

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PH:22820846  LIST:This command is used to see the contents of DBF. Syntax: - LIST We can also we the list command with condition. In this case for clause is used. Syntax: - with condition List for < condition > E.g. List for name = "A" This will display the list which contains the name starting from A. List for salary = 1000 OR List for salary > 1000 .AND. name = "A" This will display the list which contain the record having salary >1000 .AND. Name = "A" List for salary > 1000. OR. Name = "A" This will display the list which contains the record having salary, 1000 or name starting with "A".  USE:This command is used to close the opened DBF or to open the DBF, which is already created. Syntax: - USE <File name > e.g.:- USE ACTIVE This will open a file ACTIVE Syntax: - USE This will close the opened DBF.

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PH:22820846  QUIT:This command is used to exit from the FoxPro & returns to the operating system. Syntax: - QUIT  CLEAR:This command is used to close the entire file, which are opened. We can close any type of FoxPro file using this command. Syntax: - CLOSE ALL.  APPEND:This command is used to add records at the end of the currently opened file. Syntax: - APPENED.  APPENED BALNK:This command is used to add one blank record at the ened of the currently opened file. Syntax: - APPEND BLANDK.  RECORD POINTER:This is a pointer which indicates record no.in a DBF which is in operation currently.  GO TO:This command is used to move the record pointer at the specific record. Syntax: - GOTO < NUMBER> e.g.:- Go To 5

 GO TO TOP:This command is used to move the record pointer to the first record of the DBF in use.

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PH:22820846 Syntax: - GO TO TOP  GO TO BOTTOM:This command is used to move the record pointer to the last record of DBF in use. Syntax: - GO TO BOTTOM.  SKIP:This command is used to skip the record that is to move the record pointer to the next record. Syntax: - SKIP < RECORD NUMBER > E.g. :- First of all record pointer is in third position, that is give command as skip 2, after skip the record pointer is on the 5th position. This is called as forward skipping. If record pointer is on rec 5 & if we issue command skip-2, then it will shift that printer 2 records back, i.e. on rec.no3. This is called as backward skipping.  EDIT:This command is used to modify the record in a database. Syntax: - EDIT Syntax: - EDIT < RECORD NUMBER> E .g. EDIT 5

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PH:22820846  BROWSE:This command is used to edit the records in a database file. This command opens a browse window & display records in a table format you can move from record to record. In browse window records can be edited, added or marked for deletion. Using different options. Syntax: - Browse e.g.:- Use Student Browse. To add records in a browse windows press Ctrl+N key. It will add one blank record at the end of records. To mark the records for deletion in brose windows press Ctrl+T. To save the changes made in brose windows press Ctrl+W, & to discard changes press Ctrl+Q.  DISPLAY:This command is used to display the single record at a time. The record on which the record pointer is present that will be displayed. Syntax: - DISPLAY. Syntax: - DISPLAY RECORD <RECORD NO> E.g.:- DISPLAY RECORDS. To display set of record use command as bellow. Suppose record printer at first record i.e I and you want to display only 4 records from current position i.e. from 1 to 4. Then give command a bellow. e.g.:- DISPLAY NEXT4

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we can change width of field etc.  MODIFY STRUCTURE:This command is used to modify structure of existing file.DISPLAY STRUCTURE.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To add new field use Alt+I To delete old field use Alt+D. This will show the field names. their types and field widths along with the total width.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  DISPLAY STRUCTURE:This command is used to display the structure of currently opend DBF. we can delete old field. M. Syntax: .com 380 . we can add new field. Using this command. we can delete old field. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

DELETE RECORD <NO > The specified record is deleted logically from the DBF. Syntax: . delete record 4  PACK:This command is used to delete the logically deleted record permanently. E.  Physical deletion:In this deletion the record is permanently deleted from the DBF. For this purpose the PACK Command is used.  DELETE:This command is used to delete a record logically or temporally from the DBF. Syntax: . M. You can undelete the logically deleted records.com 381 .DELETE.g.PACK Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). The record on which the record pointer is present is deleted logically using this command. This one additional column is used for the star.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 DELETION & RECALLING OF RECORDS  DELETION:In FoxPro deletion of record is of two types.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Syntax: .  Logical deletion:In this deletion record is temporarily deleted and it is mark with (star). In the structure of a file the total width of a field is greater by 1.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).  RECALL OF LOGICALLY DELETED RECORDS:This command is used to undelete a logically deleted record. Syntax: . Syntax: .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  ZAP:This Command is used to delete all the record permanently from DBF.com 382 .ZAP The structure of the fill will remain same only the record will deleted. M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.Recall RECORD <NO> :OR: RECALL ALL This command is used to undelete the all logically deleted record at one time.RECALL: OR: Syntax: .

It will select all records whose address are "A'bad" & add their salaries.To find the average salary belonging to same city. Average salary for CITY = "A'bad" to S3.g.SUM <FIELD NAME> The result of this command can be store into some variable by giving command as sum <field name> to memvar e.com 383 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 COMMAND USED FOR CALCULATIONS  SUM:This command is used to find total of numeric fields.:.g.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.Sum Salary to S1.g.Count for (Condition) to memvar.:. Syntax: . e.  CALCULATE:This command is used with some other fun? Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).:. The result is stored into memory variable S2.Count for Upper (Address) = "A'BAD" To S2 It will count all the records whose address is "A'BAD" & result is stored in S2. Sum Salary for CITY = "A'bad". M. to S2. of records satisfying certain condition & result is stored in memvar.  COUNT:To count the no.AVERAGE <Field name > To < Memvar> e. Syntax: .  AVERAGE:To find average value of numeric field Syntax: .

If you want to search the next rec.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. LOCATE must have FOR . & read it sequentially until it finds the matching record. If there are more than one record that matches with the condition mentioned in locate command then this command will move the pointer to next matching command. This command is used to search and unindexed single record. enter the logical expectation you will be using as the criterion for the search LOCATE FOR will begin it's search with the first rec.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 SEARCHING TECHNIQUES Following techniques are used to search particular record satisfying certain condition from the DBF. It moves the record pointer to that record. 1) Locate 2) Seek 3) Filter LOCATE FOR CITY = "A'BAD" It returns you the rec.CONTINUE Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. that matches the criterion then give CONTINUE command after LOCATE command.com 384 .no. having city "A'BAD" i. The basic way of using the LOCATE dialogue box is by checking the FOR check box & then in the expression builder.e. Syntax: .Clause.  CONTINUE:The search for locate command can be continue using continue command. it will search for that field.

100 or formula i. "ACCOUNT".g.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.e.g.:Replace All Netsal with (Basic + Da + Hra . M. SUB1+SUB2+SUB3 etc. Syntax: . INDEX ON City to CC SEEK "A'bad" DISPLAY INDEX ON Salary to S SEEK 5000 DISPLAY  FILTER:It extracts the records satisfying condition fro the DBF. use the seek command. e.REPLACE ALL <Field Name> WITH <new expressions> e. Expression may be any name i.Lic -Pf) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  SEEK:To search for a single record based on controlling index. value i.e.SET FILTER to <exp> E.:Replace All Salary With 1500 e.e.1) Replace City with "Bombay" 2) Replace Salary with 1500 3) Replace Salary with (400+800)  REPLACE ALL:It will replace all the record in the specified feld with the new expression in a entire DBF.com 385 .g. Syntax: .:Set Filter to City = "PUNE"  REPLACE:This command is used for change the contents of one field or more fields. We can change data of one record or all records.:.g.

:.com 386 . Syntax: . M.DBF The file to be deleted must be closed.g.COPY STRUCTURE TO <New File Name> e.COPY TO <New File Name> e.COPY FILE <File Name with Extension > To <Target File Name with Extension> e.g. Syntax: .:.DELETE FILE <File Name> e. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).g.:Copy File ABC.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.DBF  COPY FILE:This command is used to copy the contents of any file into a new file.  COPY STRUCTURE:This command is used to copy the structure only of currently opened DBF file to new file. Syntax: . This is similar with copy command in DOS.Copy Structure to PRAKASH The new file will have the extension .Prg To XYZ.g. Syntax: .Delete File ABC.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 FILE HANDLING COMMANDS  DELETE FILE:This command is used to delete a file from the disk.Copy To ABC This command is used only with DBF the new file will have the extension DBF.:.Prg  RENAME:This command is used to change the name of any file.  COPY TO:This command is used to copy the contents of currently opened dbf in a new file.

Syntax 2:SORT ON <Field Name 1.com 387 .DBF to ACTIVE. The sort command will sort the data which was randomly entered.e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Syntax: RENAME <Old File Name with Extension> To <New File Name with Extension> e.g.g.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.g. Field Name 2> To <New File Name> e. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).:.:.SORT ON <FIELD NAME> to <NEW FILE NAME> e. name to emp12 In this case the first field is primary field. To see those records. Syntax: .:.Sort on salary. We can sort the data in ascending or descending order in case of numeric field and alphabetically ascending or descending in case of character field.DBF This is similar command to ren command in the DOS.Rename ABC.SORT ON NAME TO STUDENT New file created is a database file. Here the sorted record will be in file student. you will have to use that file i. student and then give LIST command. You can sort the file on multiple fields also. You can open the sorted field files using "Use" command.  SORT:To arrange the data in proper physical order is called as Sorting. M.

You can specify also whether the SORT should be in ascending or descending order. It gives the ability of copy records & structure of a database to another database file arranged in alphabetical. Here Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). An INDEX is one way of organizing a database in order to retrieve relevant information. We should open sorted file.com 388 . For example. This is a logical arrangement of data. You can sort the file on multiple fields also. When entries in the first KEY field are same then second key field determines the order. The SORT is done on one or more fields within the active database. CITY. BROWSE. Database can be organized efficiently. To sort the dbf that database file should be opened first. : OR: LIST INTRODUCTION TO INDEX One of the main advantages of having computerized database is that the data can be retrieved & processed very quickly. Indexing means arranging the records into ascending or descending order. M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. city to city Single filed sorting Multiple field sorting Here name is primary & city is secondary KEY Field for sorting the database file TRIAL. if you want names of employess in alphabetical order. To see the Sorted records. USE CITY.DBF gets created. the file can be indexed on the field which contains the employee name. numerical or alphanumerical orders. Database file can be INDEXED on particular key fields to organize the data. Original dbf is not affected after indexing.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 SORTING & INDEXING  SORTING:This command allows you to sort entered data in alphanumeric order. USE Trial Sort on name to sortum Sort on name.

com 389 . In simple index file. the FoxPro creates a separate index file for each KEY Field. 1) Simple Index. Any addition or modification to the data in DBF would also be updated in the index file However.IDX. M. 2) Compound Index. The index file will contain information about the KEY fields & the location of data in the database.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 the field containing the name of the employee would be called the KEY field. When the database file is opened using the USE command. the corresponding index file will also have to be opened. if the index file is not explicitly opened.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. This index file will have the extension . the updation will not take place in the index file. FoxPro supports two types of Index. To open a dbf along with index file command is USE EMPDATA INDEX EMP <Enter> Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). Let us use the file EMPDATA & we want to index that file using EMPNAME AS key field. USE EMPDATA <enter> 2) To index EMPDATA. By default the file is indexed in ASCENDINNG order. then give command. 3) Select index file radio button.INDEX ON <Field exp> To <COMPACT file name> [FOR <exp>] [ASCENDING/ DESCENDING] [UNIQUE] The Options for the INDEX ON Command are as follows:The for clause make the index include only records for which the logical expression is true. This dialog box allows you to create the index file.DBF We select file menu & select NEW from the sub-options.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. The ASCENDING & DECENDING options allow you to tell FoxPro whether the file has to be indexed in ascending or descending order of the KEY. The INDEX command can be entered through the COMMAND WINDOW Syntax: .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  STEPS IN CREATING SIMPLE INDEX FILE:1) Before creating an index file. 6) Now select [ok] push-button to create the index file. The COMPACT option creates a COMPACT file which requires less memory space. The INDEX dialog box appears. Another way of indexing a file is to use the INDEX command. The file can be indexed in ASCENDING or DESCENDING order of the key fields.com 390 . M. Indexes can also be UNIQUE. 5) Choose the type of index file a compound or a single index file. the database file has to be in USE. 4) You can select field (s) to be used as the key field from the FIEED list box. which means no two records in the database file will have the same value. The new dialog box will displayed. For Ex. As the fields are selected they appear in the INDEX KEY list on the right.

otherwise the index file will not be updated. The command for which is as follows: INDEX ON UPPER (EMPNAME) TO EMP<enter> This command will force the index command to convert all the employee names into upper case before indexing the file. the following command can be entered from command window.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. then the index file must also be opened. if a file contains more than one record having the same KEY values then only the first record will be indexed. BROWSE It will show an indexed record list on to the screen.IDX & whenever the database is opened. i. we can use the function UPPER () to force the INDEX command to convert the data in the key field into upper case before indexing. For example.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 The UNIQUE option makes the index include only records with unique values of the key field. To open index file along with the database file.  EXPRESSIONS IN INDEXES:An expression can also be used in the index command. INDEX ON EMPNAME TO EMP <enter> Note the EMP in the to clause will have extension. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M.e. E. if we index the file on the KEY field EMPNAME.com 391 . especially if the data within the field is in both upper & lower cases. it may be possible that the index is not always in alphabetical order. USE EMPDATA INDEX EMP <enter> Now display the data using BROWSE Command. To make sure that the index takes place in the correct order.g.

INDEX ON EMPNAME TAG CITY <enter> Compound index on field EMPNAME which is stored under tag name NAME.CDX) under different tag names. sometimes this may not get done. Set Order to NAME <ENTER> This will activate index tag NAME Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 392 . all indexes of different fields are stored in the same index file with extension (. This command is not necessary if the index file is already updated  COMPOUND INDEXING:Simple indexing is used for indexing on the single field. & using second command. if the changes made in the data file have to be updated in the index file. we made compound index on field EMPCITY which is stored under a tag name CITY. This would result in a mismatch between the data in the index file& the data file. Note that both the data file as well as the index file has to be opened USE EMPDATA INDEX EMP<enter> REINDEX<ENTER> The file is now reindeer & the index file is updated.g. FoxPro itself gives same name as that of database file with extension. You can create multiple index files (. M. INDEX ON EMPNAME TAG NAME<enter> . However.IDX) using simple indexing. Under different tag name INDEX ON<field name> TAG<Tag name> or <File Name> e.g. However this can be corrected by using the REINDEX command.CDX. Both indexes are stored in a single file EMPDATA. The REINDEX command reindeers the file on the same key as specified during the creation of the INDEX file . Which are crated on different fields? In compound indexing. CDX to the indexed file.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  REINDEX A FILE:We have seen that s single index file must always be opened along with the data file. Means single index file with same name as database file gets created which store multiple indexes.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. To activate particular index save under certain tag name. Command is Set Order to<tag name> E. But for multiple indexes in compound indexing is used.

FoxPro itself gives the same name with the extension.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Sorted file requires same memory  ADVANTAGES OF INDEX :1. IDX or .com 393 . • • • • • • • • SORING Organize records physically. unchanged.CDX Allow random search also. Created file for sorted records. This saves memory space Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). The added data in a DBF will not be sorted automatically 2. 3. Create index file. M. Each time it will create a new sorted file which will have extension DBF and so their is a wastage of space in the memory. Allow sequential search only. Changes original record no. as that of dbf to name the index file In this case. CDX File gets likened with DBF when dbf is opened  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INDEXING & SORTING:• • • • • • • • INDEXING Organize records logically Remain record no. Require less time to retrieve any record. This is slow compared to index command.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SIMPLE INDEX & COMPO0UND INDENX:SIMPLE INDEX • • • • • This is used for indexing on the single field The file is created with extension .IDX One index is stored in single index file User should give the new file name for index file. The file is created with extension. Required more time to retrieve any recode. Allow to open index file with dbf file Any changes in dbf will be automatically updated in index file Index file requires less memory  DISADVANTAGES OF SORT:1. CDX. Index file should be opened by the user for further use COMPOUND INDEX • • • • • This is used for multiple field indexing. CDX All indexes on different fields are stored in the same file under different tags. Cannot open sorted file with db file Have to resort if any changes made in dbf file.

Seek 3000 This command is used with both Numeric and character type of data. M. E.  FIND:This command is used to search a record in indexed DBF. Find PRAKASH This command is used to search only character types of data so it is not necessary to enclose the charter type of data is quotation mark is command. Syntax: SEEK< Expression> E.FIND<Character String> E. Index command is fast compared to sort you can use the index file along with DBF using following syntax Syntax Use<DDF File Name > Index<Index File Name> exg.g.g.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 2. Seek "PRAKASH" Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 394 .g. USE STUDENT INDEX STD 1 Here STUDEND is name of database file and STD1 is name of index file. Syntax: . The database file and index file name may be same. If you will add the record in the original DBF then it will get sorted automatically 3.  SEEK:This command is used to search a record in an index DBF.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Here the character types of data must be enclosed in quotes.

 SET CONFIRMATION ON/OFF:This command is used to set the confirmation ON /OFF.MM. When it is ON it will not show the logically deleted records in the list. By default it is OFF.com 395 . When you are entering the data using APPEND command and other commands then after the selected field width is complete the cursor will lcome to next field automatcially if it is off When you will set the confirm ON the cursor will not come to next line until you press ENTER.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 SET COMMANDS These Commands are used to change the environment settings of FoxPro. When it is OFF then only it will show the logically deleted records in the list . Set date French : DD/MM/YY 4. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).DD  SET DELETED ON/OFF:This command is used to set the deleted On/Off. Other wise the last character in the Field will be upgraded by default it is OFF. Set date British : DD/MM/YY 3. M. Set date This command is used to set the Date Format 1.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.  SET STATUS ON/OFF:This command is used to set the status line on/off . Set date ANSI : YY. Set date Italian : DD-MMY-YY 5. Set date American : MM/DD/YY 2.By default status line is on. Set date Japan : YY/MM/DD 6.

g.g. bad.g. Gresham etc. List for name=" Geeta ". O/P will be 125. display etc. If you will set the exact ON then you will have to provide the Exact name in the command e.g.set c. set bell to 1000. E. When it is on you will see clock on right top corner of screen  SET CLOCK TO <ROW. set default toC:/Foxpro To change logged drive or directory set default to command is used. M. of decimal place.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. This command will show the name like Geeta.10 To adjust the frequency 7 duration of hipping sound when set bell is ON.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846  SET EXACT ON/OFF:It you are using the commands like list. List For Name= "G ".g.00000  SET BELL TO FRERQUENCY.  SET FILTER TO <CONDITION>:This command is used to filter records from. set decimal to 5.g. By default it is OFF SET DEFULT TO (DRIVA/DIRECTORY) E.COLUMN>:This command is used to set the clock at particular row & column e. The frequency is in between 19 to 10. By default the exact is OFF.7  SET DECIMAL TO<VALUE>:This command is used to control is used to control the no.  SET CLOCK ON/OFF :By default is it OFF.pcl tp 15. Which are displayed on the screen? E.com 396 . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). set century ON.000 Hz. Default value is 512 Hz duration in is 2 sec  SET CENTURY ON/OFF:To see the date with century. Set filter to city = A.g.e.dbf which satisfies certain condition . DURATION:E. It will show the records depending on the tentative character.

M.Set index to<File name> E. The effect will be seen in printed output.By default left margin is 0. Syntax: .com 397 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Brow. browse command this command is used by default.To open simple index file. it is ON  SET INDEX TO:It is used with compound index . Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.g.  SET SAFETY ON/OFF:The warning messages are displayed if it is set to ON.  SET ORDER TO:To choose master index this command is used. Set index to Name<enter>  SET MARGING TO<expn>:To set merging while executing the command .> By this command all records with city is "A' bad" are displayed Set filter to By this command all records in the dbf will be displayed  SET HEADING ON/OFF :To set field heading ON or off in list.

Abs (-78) O/P: 78 2) Int ( ):This function gives integer value of Numeric expression Syntax: . Syntax: .Int (< Numeric Expression>) e.Log (<Numeric Value>) e. 1. 1.Abs (<Numeric Value>) e. Database Functions. Environment Functions 4.g. :1) Abs ( ):This function gives the absolute value of number Syntax: .Max (<Numeric expl> <Numeric exp 2> .g.65) O/P 78 3) Log ( ):This function gives Logarithmic value of given numeric expression Syntax: .----) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). M. Numeric Functions 2.? Int :( 78. 3.95 This will give the log value for base e 4) Max ( ):This function gives maximum value from given list of values.com 398 . String Functions  NUMERIC FUNCTIONS.? Log (7) O/P.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 FUNCTIONS Functions means the set of program which is designed for some specific purpose In FOXPRO mainly there are 5 types of functions.g.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Date Functions 5.

Sqrt (9) O/P: 3 7) Mod ( ):This function gives remainder of division of two numbers. M."fail") O/P: fail If condition is true then first value will be considered otherwise second value will be considered.> Mod (10. -----) e.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 e. store 50 to marks ? IIF (marks >35.com 399 .56) O/P:25 6) Sqrt ( ) :This function gives square root of the given no.? Max (25.Min (<Numeric expl>. expression one end exp two should be of same type E. <exp2>.g."pass". <exp2> e.g Min925.Sqrt (." pass". Numeric Value>).78.56) O/P :78 5) Min ( ) :This function gives maximum value from given list of values Syntax: .45. Syntax:-Mod (< Numeric expl>.g. <Numer exp2.g. 3) O/P: 1 on whether logical condition is true or false. <exp2> In this function.g.78. Syntax: . Syntax: . arls ?IIF (marks<35.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.45.  DATABASE FUNCTIONS:8) Round ( ):- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis)." fail") O/P: Pass Stpre 33 tp. E.IIf (< Logical exp>.

Deleted ( ) E.3 then give command as Below /deleted ( ) O/P: F.? Field (4) O/P: City It means in address dbf fourth field is city.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This function gives rounded value of given number to specified no.8 ? round (68. 3) Recounts ( ):This function gives total number of record in opened database file Syntax: .g.g.57 9) IIF ( ):This function is used to extract one out of two values depending 1) Deleted ( ):This function gives true value if record is logically deleted Syntax: . (false) It means that the third record is not logically deleted./ reccount ( ) O/P: 6 4) Recno ( ):- Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis). suppose at present you are on record no. Now delete the record by DELETE command Then Give command as below ? Deleted ( ) O/P: T (true) 2) Field ( ) :This function gives name of the field in opened database file Use Address Syntax: .com 400 .2) O/P :68.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. <number of Decimal Places>) O/P: 65.Recounts ( ) e. M.of decimal places Syntax: .Round (< Numer exp>.567.

g.? Recsize () O/P: 72 6) EOF ( ) (end of file):This function gives true value if record point is after the last record at the end of file i.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.? Recno ( ) O/P: 5) Recsize ( ):This function gives total width of the record.com 401 .)?Dow (date ( )) O/P:7 Note: Sunday is first day.g. M. Syntax: .g.Dow (date exp.Date ( ) e.  DATE FUNCTIONS:1) DATE ( ):This function gives us current date Syntax: . 3) CDOW ( ):This function is used to give character day of week Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).:.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 This function gives the current record number Syntax: . it gives true or false states about the end of file.Recsize ( ) e.? Date ( ) O/p: 25/10/98 2) DOW ( ):This function gives numeric day of the week Syntax: .e.? Reccount ( ) e.

( ) ? Year (date ( )) O/P: 1998 8) CTOD ( ):This function is used to convert the character type date to date format.Year ((date exp.C Month (date exp.)) ? Cmont (date ( )) O/P: January 6) Day ( ):This function gives day number of month Syntax: .Day ((Day ex.Dow (Date exp) ? Cdow (date ( )) O/P: Saturday 4) MONTH ( ):This function gives numeric month from given date Syntax: .) ? Months (date ( )) O/P: 1 5) CMONTH ( ):This function gives character months of date or name of month Syntax: Cmonts (date exp. Syntax: .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Syntax: .com 402 . Syntax: . ( ) ?day (Date ( )) O/P: 25 7) Year ( ):This function gives us the year is four digits. M.CTOD (<character type date in quotation mark>) Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.

Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).01/01/97  ENVIRONMENT FUNCTIONS:- 1) DISKSPACE ( ):This function gives us the total number of bytes available on the disk. It returns True OR False result.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 ? Ctod ("01/01/98) O/P: .com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 403 . Syntax: .  STRING FUNCTIONS:1) AT ( ):This function gives position of a character in given string.Disk space ( ) 2) FILE ( ):This function is used to check whether the specified file is present on the disk or not.? File ("file name with extension") 3) OS ( ):This function gives name of operating system with version.DTOC (<Date in date format>) ? DTOC ((date ( )) O/P: . M.01/01/98 9) DTOC ( ):This function is used to convert date type data to character format. Syntax: . Syntax: .

RIGHT (<Character expression>.g. <character expression>) e.<Numeric expression>) e.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.g.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Syntax: . ? "ABC"+" XYZ" O/P: ABC XYZ Now use Ltrim on XYZ to remove blank spaces. 4) If such command is given then output will be UTER.com 404 . ACTIVE") Then output wills be2 2) LEFT ( ):This function gives specified number of characters from left side of character string. ? "ABC" + LTRIM ("XYZ") The output is as below. O/P: . Syntax: . 4) LTRIM ( ):This function removes blank spaces to the left of the character string. Syntax: . M. Syntax: . ? AT ("C".? RIGHT ("COMPUTER". Syntax: .RTRIM (<Character string>) ? ABC "+ XYZ" O/P: .ABC XYZ ? RTRIM (" ABC ") + "XYZ" Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).Ltrim (<Character expression>) e. 5) RTRIM ( ):This function is used to remove blank spaces to the Right of the character string.? LEFT ("ACTIVE") After giving this command.ABCXYZ.g. 3) RIGHT ( ):This function gives specified no. <Numeric expression>) e. of characters form the right side of given string. output will be ACT.? LEFT (<Character expression>.AT (<character expression>).g.

Store space (20) to name It will store 20 blank spaces to name.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. Syntax: .g. M.>) e.SUBSTR ("PRAKASH". 6) REPLACE ( ):The function is used to repeat the specified character for specifed number of times.? SUBSTR (< String>.com 405 . Syntax: . 2) O/P: . E. Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).g.<Numeric exp. no2) It will give character from no1 up to no2. Ex: . 3.>. no1.********* Here the star is printed 10 times. 10) O/P: .ABCXYZ. 7) SUBSTR ( ):This function extracts the specified no of characters from specific position to specified position from given string.AK 8) SPACE ( ):This function is used to store blank space to some character variable.REPLACE (<Character exp. 7 REPLICATE ("*".TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 O/P: .

M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 406 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia. M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com 407 .

M.TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 408 .

M.com) : Mobile:9212528831 Email:mukesh4in2001@tasaindia.com 409 .TAX RETURN PLANNER EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY® PH:22820846 Mukesh verma (PGDBA(symbiosis).

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