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Cambridge International Examinations

Cambridge International Advanced Level


* 1 9 0 6 7 1 1 5 3 4 *

PHYSICS 9702/41
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions May/June 2014
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units. 3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. 4
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or
part question. 5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Total

This document consists of 26 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (NF/CGW) 77049/3
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K 1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut +  at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential, =
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p =  V
<c >

simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )

Q
electric potential, V =
40r
capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W =  QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R 2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp( t )


0.693
decay constant, =
t 

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Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) Define gravitational potential at a point.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A stone of mass m has gravitational potential energy EP at a point X in a gravitational field.
The magnitude of the gravitational potential at X is .

State the relation between m, EP and .

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(c) An isolated spherical planet of radius R may be assumed to have all its mass concentrated at
its centre. The gravitational potential at the surface of the planet is 6.30 107 J kg1.

A stone of mass 1.30 kg is travelling towards the planet such that its distance from the centre
of the planet changes from 6R to 5R.

Calculate the change in gravitational potential energy of the stone.

change in energy = ..................................................... J [4]

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2 (a) Explain what is meant by the Avogadro constant.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Argon-40 ( 40
18Ar) may be assumed to be an ideal gas.
A mass of 3.2 g of argon-40 has a volume of 210 cm3 at a temperature of 37 C.

Determine, for this mass of argon-40 gas,

(i) the amount, in mol,

amount = ................................................. mol [1]

(ii) the pressure,

pressure = ................................................... Pa [2]

(iii) the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) speed of an argon atom.

r.m.s. speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

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3 The volume of 1.00 kg of water in the liquid state at 100 C is 1.00 103 m3. The volume of 1.00 kg
of water vapour at 100 C and atmospheric pressure 1.01 105 Pa is 1.69 m3.

(a) Show that the work done against the atmosphere when 1.00 kg of liquid water becomes water
vapour is 1.71 105 J.

[2]

(b) (i) The first law of thermodynamics may be given by the expression

U = + q + w

where U is the increase in internal energy of the system.

State what is meant by

1. + q,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

2. + w.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) The specific latent heat of vaporisation of water at 100 C is 2.26 106 J kg1.

A mass of 1.00 kg of liquid water becomes water vapour at 100 C.

Determine, using your answer in (a), the increase in internal energy of this mass of water
during vaporisation.

increase in internal energy = ..................................................... J [2]

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4 A student investigates the energy changes of a mass oscillating on a vertical spring, as shown in
Fig. 4.1.

spring

mass

Fig. 4.1

The student draws a graph of the variation with displacement x of energy E of the oscillation, as
shown in Fig. 4.2.

2.5

2.0

E / mJ

1.5

1.0

0.5

0
1.5 1.0 0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5
x / cm

Fig. 4.2

(a) State whether the energy E represents the total energy, the potential energy or the kinetic
energy of the oscillations.

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

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(b) The student repeats the investigation but with a smaller amplitude. The maximum value of E
is now found to be 1.8 mJ.

Use Fig. 4.2 to determine the change in the amplitude. Explain your working.

change in amplitude = .................................................. cm [3]

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5 An isolated solid metal sphere of radius r is given a positive charge. The distance from the centre
of the sphere is x.

(a) The electric potential at the surface of the sphere is V0.

On the axes of Fig. 5.1, sketch a graph to show the variation with distance x of the electric
potential due to the charged sphere, for values of x from x = 0 to x = 4r.

1.00 V0

0.75 V0

potential

0.50 V0

0.25 V0

0
0 r 2r 3r 4r
distance x

Fig. 5.1
[3]

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(b) The electric field strength at the surface of the sphere is E0.

On the axes of Fig. 5.2, sketch a graph to show the variation with distance x of the electric
field strength due to the charged sphere, for values of x from x = 0 to x = 4r.

1.00 E0

0.75 E0

field
strength
0.50 E0

0.25 E0

0
0 r 2r 3r 4r
distance x

Fig. 5.2
[3]

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6 An uncharged capacitor is connected in series with a battery, a switch and a resistor, as shown in
Fig. 6.1.

9.0 V

4700 +F

Fig. 6.1

The battery has e.m.f. 9.0 V and negligible internal resistance. The capacitance of the capacitor is
4700 F.
The switch is closed at time t = 0.
During the time interval t = 0 to t = 4.0 s, the charge passing through the resistor is 22 mC.

(a) (i) Calculate the energy transfer in the battery during the time interval t = 0 to t = 4.0 s.

energy transfer = ..................................................... J [2]

(ii) Determine, for the capacitor at time t = 4.0 s,

1. the potential difference V across the capacitor,

V = ..................................................... V [2]

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2. the energy stored in the capacitor.

energy = ..................................................... J [2]

(b) Suggest why your answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii) part 2 are different.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

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7 A solenoid is connected in series with a battery and a switch. A Hall probe is placed close to one
end of the solenoid, as illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

solenoid

Hall probe

Fig. 7.1

The current in the solenoid is switched on. The Hall probe is adjusted in position to give the
maximum reading. The current is then switched off.

(a) The current in the solenoid is now switched on again. Several seconds later, it is switched off.
The Hall probe is not moved.

On the axes of Fig. 7.2, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the Hall voltage VH.

VH

0
t

current current
switched on switched off

Fig. 7.2
[3]

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(b) The Hall probe is now replaced by a small coil. The plane of the coil is parallel to the end of
the solenoid.

(i) State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) On the axes of Fig. 7.3, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the e.m.f. E
induced in the coil when the current in the solenoid is switched on and then switched off.

0
t

current current
switched on switched off

Fig. 7.3
[3]

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8 (a) State what is meant by quantisation of charge.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) A student carries out an experiment to determine the elementary charge.


A charged oil drop is positioned between two horizontal metal plates, as shown in Fig. 8.1.

+ 680 V

oil drop

7.0 mm

Fig. 8.1

The plates are separated by a distance of 7.0 mm. The lower plate is earthed.
The potential of the upper plate is gradually increased until the drop is held stationary. The
potential for the drop to be stationary is 680 V.
The weight of the oil drop, allowing for the upthrust of the air, is 4.8 1014 N.
Calculate the value for the charge on the oil drop.

charge = ..................................................... C [2]

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(c) The student repeats the experiment and determines the following values for the charge on oil
drops.

3.3 1019 C 4.9 1019 C 9.7 1019 C 3.4 1019 C

Use these values to suggest a value for the elementary charge. Explain your working.

elementary charge = ..................................................... C [2]

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9 For a particular metal surface, it is observed that there is a minimum frequency of light below
which photoelectric emission does not occur. This observation provides evidence for a particulate
nature of electromagnetic radiation.

(a) State three further observations from photoelectric emission that provide evidence for a
particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation.

1. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

3. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) Some data for the variation with frequency f of the maximum kinetic energy EMAX of electrons
emitted from a metal surface are shown in Fig. 9.1.

0.6

0.5
E MAX
/ eV
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5
f / 1014 Hz

Fig. 9.1

(i) Explain why emitted electrons may have kinetic energy less than the maximum at any
particular frequency.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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(ii) Use Fig. 9.1 to determine

1. the threshold frequency,

threshold frequency = ................................................... Hz [1]

2. the work function energy, in eV, of the metal surface.

work function energy = ................................................... eV [3]

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10 (a) Explain what is meant by the binding energy of a nucleus.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Data for the masses of some particles are given in Fig. 10.1.

mass / u

proton 1.00728
neutron 1.00867
tritium ( 31H) nucleus 3.01551
polonium ( 210 84Po) nucleus
209.93722

Fig. 10.1

The energy equivalent of 1.0 u is 930 MeV.

(i) Calculate the binding energy, in MeV, of a tritium ( 31H) nucleus.

binding energy = ................................................ MeV [3]

(ii) The total mass of the separate nucleons that make up a polonium-210 ( 210
84Po) nucleus is
211.70394 u.

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon of polonium-210.

binding energy per nucleon = ................................................ MeV [3]

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(c) One possible fission reaction is

235U + 1n 141Ba + 92Kr + 3 10n .


92 0 56 36

By reference to binding energy, explain, without any calculation, why this fission reaction is
energetically possible.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

11 (a) A circuit incorporating an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) is shown in Fig. 11.1.

P

+
V IN V OUT

Fig. 11.1

(i) State the name of this circuit.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Explain why the point P is referred to as a virtual earth.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(b) The circuit of Fig. 11.1 is modified, as shown in Fig. 11.2.

RC
C

RB
B

RA
A

1.0 k1

+
V IN V

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Fig. 11.2
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The voltmeter has infinite resistance and its full-scale deflection is 1.0 V.
The input potential to the circuit is VIN.
The switch position may be changed in order to have different values of resistance in the
circuit.

(i) The input potential VIN and the switch position are varied.
For each switch position, the reading of the voltmeter is 1.0 V.
Complete Fig. 11.3 for the switch positions shown.

switch position VIN / mV resistance

A 10 RA = ..............................................

B 100 RB = ..............................................

C ............................... RC = 1.0 k

Fig. 11.3
[3]

(ii) By reference to your answers in (i), suggest a use for the circuit of Fig. 11.2.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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12 (a) Outline briefly the principles of CT scanning.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [5]

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(b) In a model for CT scanning, a section is divided into four voxels. The pixel numbers P, Q, R
and S of the voxels are shown in Fig. 12.1.

D3
D2
D4

P Q
D1

S R

Fig. 12.1

The section is viewed from the four directions D1, D2, D3 and D4.
The detector readings for each direction are noted.

The detector readings are summed as shown in Fig. 12.2.

49 61

73 55

Fig. 12.2

The background reading is 34.

Determine the pixel numbers P, Q, R and S as shown in Fig. 12.3.

P Q

S R

Fig. 12.3

P = ............................................................... Q = ...............................................................

S = ............................................................... R = ...............................................................
[4]

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13 The signal from a microphone is to be transmitted in digital form. A block diagram of part of the
transmission system is shown in Fig. 13.1.

parallel-to
ADC -serial
converter

Fig. 13.1

(a) Suggest two advantages of the transmission of a signal in digital form rather than in analogue
form.

1. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) State the function of the parallel-to-serial converter.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(c) In a particular telephone system, the sampling frequency is 8 kHz. In the manufacture of a
compact disc, the sampling frequency is approximately 44 kHz.

Suggest and explain why the sampling frequency is much higher for the compact disc.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

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14 (a) State what is meant by the attenuation of a signal.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) A transmission cable has a length of 30 km. The attenuation per unit length of the cable is
2.4 dB km1.

Calculate, for a signal being transmitted along the cable,

(i) the total attenuation, in dB,

attenuation = ................................................... dB [1]

(ii) the ratio

input power of signal


.
output power of signal

ratio = ......................................................... [3]

(c) By reference to your answers in (b), suggest why the attenuation of transmitted signals is
usually expressed in dB.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

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UCLES 2014 9702/41/M/J/14


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 6 1 0 6 2 1 0 2 9 2 *

PHYSICS 9702/42
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions May/June 2014
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or 4
part question.
5

10

11

12

Total

This document consists of 22 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (NF/CGW) 77047/2
UCLES 2014 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K 1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut +  at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential, =
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p =  V
<c >

simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )

Q
electric potential, V =
40r
capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W =  QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R 2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp( t )


0.693
decay constant, =
t 

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Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 The mass M of a spherical planet may be assumed to be a point mass at the centre of the planet.

(a) A stone, travelling at speed v, is in a circular orbit of radius r about the planet, as illustrated in
Fig. 1.1.

stone

planet

Fig. 1.1

Show that the speed v is given by the expression

v = GM
r

where G is the gravitational constant.


Explain your working.

[2]

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(b) A second stone, initially at rest at infinity, travels towards the planet, as illustrated in Fig. 1.2.

stone

V0

planet
x

Fig. 1.2 (not to scale)

The stone does not hit the surface of the planet.

(i) Determine, in terms of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the planet, the
speed V0 of the stone at a distance x from the centre of the planet. Explain your working.
You may assume that the gravitational attraction on the stone is due only to the planet.

[3]

(ii) Use your answer in (i) and the expression in (a) to explain whether this stone could enter
a circular orbit about the planet.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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2 A constant mass of an ideal gas has a volume of 3.49 103 cm3 at a temperature of 21.0 C.
When the gas is heated, 565 J of thermal energy causes it to expand to a volume of 3.87 103 cm3
at 53.0 C. This is illustrated in Fig. 2.1.

3.49 103 cm3 3.87 103 cm3


565 J
21.0 C 53.0 C

Fig. 2.1

(a) Show that the initial and final pressures of the gas are equal.

[2]

(b) The pressure of the gas is 4.20 105 Pa.

For this heating of the gas,

(i) calculate the work done by the gas,

work done = ..................................................... J [2]

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(ii) use the first law of thermodynamics and your answer in (i) to determine the change in
internal energy of the gas.

change in internal energy = ..................................................... J [2]

(c) Explain why the change in kinetic energy of the molecules of this ideal gas is equal to the
change in internal energy.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

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3 A microwave cooker uses electromagnetic waves of frequency 2450 MHz.


The microwaves warm the food in the cooker by causing water molecules in the food to oscillate
with a large amplitude at the frequency of the microwaves.

(a) State the name given to this phenomenon.

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) The effective microwave power of the cooker is 750 W.


The temperature of a mass of 280 g of water rises from 25 C to 98 C in a time of 2.0 minutes.

Calculate a value for the specific heat capacity of the water.

specific heat capacity = ....................................... J kg1 K1 [3]

(c) The value of the specific heat capacity determined from the data in (b) is greater than the
accepted value.
A student gives as the reason for this difference: heat lost to the surroundings.

Suggest, in more detail than that given by the student, a possible reason for the difference.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

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4 A helium nucleus contains two protons.

In a model of the helium nucleus, each proton is considered to be a charged point mass.
The separation of these point masses is assumed to be 2.0 1015 m.

(a) For the two protons in this model, calculate

(i) the electrostatic force,

electrostatic force = ..................................................... N [2]

(ii) the gravitational force.

gravitational force = ..................................................... N [2]

(b) Using your answers in (a), suggest why

(i) there must be some other force between the protons in the nucleus,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(ii) this additional force must have a short range.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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5 A Hall probe is placed a distance d from a long straight current-carrying wire, as illustrated in
Fig. 5.1.

current-carrying 4.0 A
wire
Hall probe

X Y

Fig. 5.1

The direct current in the wire is 4.0 A. Line XY is normal to the wire.

The Hall probe is rotated about the line XY to the position where the reading VH of the Hall probe
is maximum.

(a) The Hall probe is now moved away from the wire, along the line XY.
On the axes of Fig. 5.2, sketch a graph to show the variation of the Hall voltage VH with
distance x of the probe from the wire. Numerical values are not required on your sketch.

VH

0
0 d x

Fig. 5.2
[2]

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(b) The Hall probe is now returned to its original position, a distance d from the wire.
At this point, the magnetic flux density due to the current in the wire is proportional to the
current.

For a direct current of 4.0 A in the wire, the reading of the Hall probe is 3.5 mV.
The direct current is now replaced by an alternating current of root-mean-square (r.m.s.)
value 4.0 A. The period of this alternating current is T.

On the axes of Fig. 5.3, sketch the variation with time t of the reading of the Hall voltage VH for
two cycles of the alternating current. Give numerical values for VH, where appropriate.

6
VH / mV
4

0
0 T 2T t
2

Fig. 5.3
[3]

(c) A student suggests that the Hall probe in (a) is replaced with a small coil connected in series
with a millivoltmeter. The constant current in the wire is 4.0 A.
In order to obtain data to plot a graph showing the variation with distance x of the magnetic
flux density, the student suggests that readings of the millivoltmeter are taken when the coil is
held in position at different values of x.

Comment on this suggestion.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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6 (a) Explain the use of a uniform electric field and a uniform magnetic field for the selection of the
velocity of a charged particle. You may draw a diagram if you wish.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) Ions, all of the same isotope, are travelling in a vacuum with a speed of 9.6 104 m s1.
The ions are incident normally on a uniform magnetic field of flux density 640 mT. The ions
follow semicircular paths A and B before reaching a detector, as shown in Fig. 6.1.

detector

A B vacuum

uniform magnetic
field, flux density
640 mT

Fig. 6.1

Data for the diameters of the paths are shown in Fig. 6.2.

path diameter / cm

A 6.2
B 12.4

Fig. 6.2

The ions in path B each have charge +1.6 1019 C.

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(i) Determine the mass, in u, of the ions in path B.

mass = ..................................................... u [4]

(ii) Suggest and explain quantitatively a reason for the difference in radii of the paths A and
B of the ions.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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7 (a) Define the radian.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A telescope gives a clear view of a distant object when the angular displacement between the
edges of the object is at least 9.7 106 rad.

(i) The Moon is approximately 3.8 105 km from Earth.


Estimate the minimum diameter of a circular crater on the Moons surface that can be
seen using the telescope.

diameter = .................................................. km [2]

(ii) Suggest why craters of the same diameter as that calculated in (i) but on the surface of
Mars are not visible using this telescope.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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8 Light of wavelength 590 nm is incident normally on a surface, as illustrated in Fig. 8.1.

light surface
wavelength 590 nm

Fig. 8.1

The power of the light is 3.2 mW. The light is completely absorbed by the surface.

(a) Calculate the number of photons incident on the surface in 1.0 s.

number = ......................................................... [3]

(b) Use your answer in (a) to determine

(i) the total momentum of the photons arriving at the surface in 1.0 s,

momentum = ........................................... kg m s1 [3]

(ii) the force exerted on the surface by the light.

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force = ..................................................... N [1]
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9 Some water becomes contaminated with radioactive iodine-131 ( 131 53I).


The activity of the iodine-131 in 1.0 kg of this water is 460 Bq.
The half-life of iodine-131 is 8.1 days.

(a) Define radioactive half-life.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) (i) Calculate the number of iodine-131 atoms in 1.0 kg of this water.

number = ......................................................... [3]

(ii) An amount of 1.0 mol of water has a mass of 18 g.

Calculate the ratio

number of molecules of water in 1.0 kg of water


.
number of atoms of iodine-131 in 1.0 kg of contaminated water

ratio = ......................................................... [2]

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(c) An acceptable limit for the activity of iodine-131 in water has been set as 170 Bq kg1.

Calculate the time, in days, for the activity of the contaminated water to be reduced to this
acceptable level.

time = ................................................ days [3]

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Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

10 (a) State the function of a comparator circuit incorporating an operational amplifier (op-amp).

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) An ideal op-amp is incorporated into the circuit of Fig. 10.1.

+1.5 V

1.2 k1 +5 V


+
G
V IN 5 V
2.4 k1
R

Fig. 10.1

(i) On Fig. 10.1, draw a circle around the part of the circuit that is being used as an output
device. [1]
(ii) Show that the potential at the non-inverting input of the op-amp is 1.0 V.

[1]

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(iii) The variation with time t of the potential VIN at the inverting input of the op-amp is shown
in Fig. 10.2.

6
potential
/V 4
VIN
2
+1.0
0
t1 t2 time t
2

Fig. 10.2

1. On the axes of Fig. 10.2, draw the variation with time t of the output potential of the
op-amp. [3]

2. State whether each diode is emitting light or is not emitting light at time t1 and at
time t2.

At time t1, diode R will ................................. and diode G will ................................. .

At time t2, diode R will ................................. and diode G will ................................. .


[2]

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11 (a) Distinguish between an X-ray image of a body structure and a CT scan.

X-ray image: ..............................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

CT scan: ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[5]

(b) Data for the linear absorption (attenuation) coefficient of X-ray radiation of energy 80 keV
are given in Fig. 11.1.

metal / mm1

aluminium 0.46
copper 0.69

Fig. 11.1

A parallel X-ray beam is incident on a copper filter, as shown in Fig. 11.2.

copper
filter

incident beam emergent


intensity I0 beam

Fig. 11.2

The intensity of the incident beam is I0.

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(i) Calculate the thickness of copper required to reduce the intensity of the emergent beam
to 0.25 I0.

thickness = ................................................. mm [2]

(ii) An aluminium filter of thickness 2.4 mm is now placed in the X-ray beam, together with
the copper filter in (i).

Calculate the fraction of the incident intensity that emerges after passing through the two
filters.

fraction = ......................................................... [2]

(iii) Express your answer in (ii) as a gain in decibels (dB).

gain = ................................................... dB [3]

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12 Two people, living in different regions of the Earth, communicate either using a link provided by a
geostationary satellite or using optic fibres.

(a) (i) Explain what is meant by a geostationary satellite.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(ii) The uplink frequency for communication with the satellite is 6 GHz and the downlink has
a frequency of 4 GHz.

Explain why the frequencies are different.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) Comment on the time delays experienced by the two people when communicating either
using geostationary satellites or using optic fibres. Explain your answer.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

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BLANK PAGE

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BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

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Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2014 9702/42/M/J/14


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 1 5 5 1 1 0 1 2 5 0 *

PHYSICS 9702/43
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions May/June 2014
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units. 3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. 4
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or
part question. 5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Total

This document consists of 26 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (LK/CGW) 90046
UCLES 2014 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K 1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut +  at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential, =
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p =  V
<c >

simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )

Q
electric potential, V =
40r
capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W =  QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R 2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp( t )


0.693
decay constant, =
t 

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Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) Define gravitational potential at a point.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A stone of mass m has gravitational potential energy EP at a point X in a gravitational field.
The magnitude of the gravitational potential at X is .

State the relation between m, EP and .

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(c) An isolated spherical planet of radius R may be assumed to have all its mass concentrated at
its centre. The gravitational potential at the surface of the planet is 6.30 107 J kg1.

A stone of mass 1.30 kg is travelling towards the planet such that its distance from the centre
of the planet changes from 6R to 5R.

Calculate the change in gravitational potential energy of the stone.

change in energy = ..................................................... J [4]

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2 (a) Explain what is meant by the Avogadro constant.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Argon-40 ( 40
18Ar) may be assumed to be an ideal gas.
A mass of 3.2 g of argon-40 has a volume of 210 cm3 at a temperature of 37 C.

Determine, for this mass of argon-40 gas,

(i) the amount, in mol,

amount = ................................................. mol [1]

(ii) the pressure,

pressure = ................................................... Pa [2]

(iii) the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) speed of an argon atom.

r.m.s. speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

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BLANK PAGE

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3 The volume of 1.00 kg of water in the liquid state at 100 C is 1.00 103 m3. The volume of 1.00 kg
of water vapour at 100 C and atmospheric pressure 1.01 105 Pa is 1.69 m3.

(a) Show that the work done against the atmosphere when 1.00 kg of liquid water becomes water
vapour is 1.71 105 J.

[2]

(b) (i) The first law of thermodynamics may be given by the expression

U = + q + w

where U is the increase in internal energy of the system.

State what is meant by

1. + q,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

2. + w.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) The specific latent heat of vaporisation of water at 100 C is 2.26 106 J kg1.

A mass of 1.00 kg of liquid water becomes water vapour at 100 C.

Determine, using your answer in (a), the increase in internal energy of this mass of water
during vaporisation.

increase in internal energy = ..................................................... J [2]

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4 A student investigates the energy changes of a mass oscillating on a vertical spring, as shown in
Fig. 4.1.

spring

mass

Fig. 4.1

The student draws a graph of the variation with displacement x of energy E of the oscillation, as
shown in Fig. 4.2.

2.5

2.0

E / mJ

1.5

1.0

0.5

0
1.5 1.0 0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5
x / cm

Fig. 4.2

(a) State whether the energy E represents the total energy, the potential energy or the kinetic
energy of the oscillations.

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

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(b) The student repeats the investigation but with a smaller amplitude. The maximum value of E
is now found to be 1.8 mJ.

Use Fig. 4.2 to determine the change in the amplitude. Explain your working.

change in amplitude = .................................................. cm [3]

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5 An isolated solid metal sphere of radius r is given a positive charge. The distance from the centre
of the sphere is x.

(a) The electric potential at the surface of the sphere is V0.

On the axes of Fig. 5.1, sketch a graph to show the variation with distance x of the electric
potential due to the charged sphere, for values of x from x = 0 to x = 4r.

1.00 V0

0.75 V0

potential

0.50 V0

0.25 V0

0
0 r 2r 3r 4r
distance x

Fig. 5.1
[3]

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(b) The electric field strength at the surface of the sphere is E0.

On the axes of Fig. 5.2, sketch a graph to show the variation with distance x of the electric
field strength due to the charged sphere, for values of x from x = 0 to x = 4r.

1.00 E0

0.75 E0

field
strength
0.50 E0

0.25 E0

0
0 r 2r 3r 4r
distance x

Fig. 5.2
[3]

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6 An uncharged capacitor is connected in series with a battery, a switch and a resistor, as shown in
Fig. 6.1.

9.0 V

4700 +F

Fig. 6.1

The battery has e.m.f. 9.0 V and negligible internal resistance. The capacitance of the capacitor is
4700 F.
The switch is closed at time t = 0.
During the time interval t = 0 to t = 4.0 s, the charge passing through the resistor is 22 mC.

(a) (i) Calculate the energy transfer in the battery during the time interval t = 0 to t = 4.0 s.

energy transfer = ..................................................... J [2]

(ii) Determine, for the capacitor at time t = 4.0 s,

1. the potential difference V across the capacitor,

V = ..................................................... V [2]

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2. the energy stored in the capacitor.

energy = ..................................................... J [2]

(b) Suggest why your answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii) part 2 are different.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

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7 A solenoid is connected in series with a battery and a switch. A Hall probe is placed close to one
end of the solenoid, as illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

solenoid

Hall probe

Fig. 7.1

The current in the solenoid is switched on. The Hall probe is adjusted in position to give the
maximum reading. The current is then switched off.

(a) The current in the solenoid is now switched on again. Several seconds later, it is switched off.
The Hall probe is not moved.

On the axes of Fig. 7.2, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the Hall voltage VH.

VH

0
t

current current
switched on switched off

Fig. 7.2
[3]

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(b) The Hall probe is now replaced by a small coil. The plane of the coil is parallel to the end of
the solenoid.

(i) State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) On the axes of Fig. 7.3, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the e.m.f. E
induced in the coil when the current in the solenoid is switched on and then switched off.

0
t

current current
switched on switched off

Fig. 7.3
[3]

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8 (a) State what is meant by quantisation of charge.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) A student carries out an experiment to determine the elementary charge.


A charged oil drop is positioned between two horizontal metal plates, as shown in Fig. 8.1.

+ 680 V

oil drop

7.0 mm

Fig. 8.1

The plates are separated by a distance of 7.0 mm. The lower plate is earthed.
The potential of the upper plate is gradually increased until the drop is held stationary. The
potential for the drop to be stationary is 680 V.
The weight of the oil drop, allowing for the upthrust of the air, is 4.8 1014 N.
Calculate the value for the charge on the oil drop.

charge = ..................................................... C [2]

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(c) The student repeats the experiment and determines the following values for the charge on oil
drops.

3.3 1019 C 4.9 1019 C 9.7 1019 C 3.4 1019 C

Use these values to suggest a value for the elementary charge. Explain your working.

elementary charge = ..................................................... C [2]

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9 For a particular metal surface, it is observed that there is a minimum frequency of light below
which photoelectric emission does not occur. This observation provides evidence for a particulate
nature of electromagnetic radiation.

(a) State three further observations from photoelectric emission that provide evidence for a
particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation.

1. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

3. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) Some data for the variation with frequency f of the maximum kinetic energy EMAX of electrons
emitted from a metal surface are shown in Fig. 9.1.

0.6

0.5
E MAX
/ eV
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5
f / 1014 Hz

Fig. 9.1

(i) Explain why emitted electrons may have kinetic energy less than the maximum at any
particular frequency.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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(ii) Use Fig. 9.1 to determine

1. the threshold frequency,

threshold frequency = ................................................... Hz [1]

2. the work function energy, in eV, of the metal surface.

work function energy = ................................................... eV [3]

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10 (a) Explain what is meant by the binding energy of a nucleus.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Data for the masses of some particles are given in Fig. 10.1.

mass / u

proton 1.00728
neutron 1.00867
tritium ( 31H) nucleus 3.01551
polonium ( 210 84Po) nucleus
209.93722

Fig. 10.1

The energy equivalent of 1.0 u is 930 MeV.

(i) Calculate the binding energy, in MeV, of a tritium ( 31H) nucleus.

binding energy = ................................................ MeV [3]

(ii) The total mass of the separate nucleons that make up a polonium-210 ( 210
84Po) nucleus is
211.70394 u.

Calculate the binding energy per nucleon of polonium-210.

binding energy per nucleon = ................................................ MeV [3]

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(c) One possible fission reaction is

235U + 1n 141Ba + 92Kr + 3 10n .


92 0 56 36

By reference to binding energy, explain, without any calculation, why this fission reaction is
energetically possible.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

11 (a) A circuit incorporating an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) is shown in Fig. 11.1.

P

+
V IN V OUT

Fig. 11.1

(i) State the name of this circuit.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Explain why the point P is referred to as a virtual earth.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(b) The circuit of Fig. 11.1 is modified, as shown in Fig. 11.2.

RC
C

RB
B

RA
A

1.0 k1

+
V IN V

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Fig. 11.2
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The voltmeter has infinite resistance and its full-scale deflection is 1.0 V.
The input potential to the circuit is VIN.
The switch position may be changed in order to have different values of resistance in the
circuit.

(i) The input potential VIN and the switch position are varied.
For each switch position, the reading of the voltmeter is 1.0 V.
Complete Fig. 11.3 for the switch positions shown.

switch position VIN / mV resistance

A 10 RA = ..............................................

B 100 RB = ..............................................

C ............................... RC = 1.0 k

Fig. 11.3
[3]

(ii) By reference to your answers in (i), suggest a use for the circuit of Fig. 11.2.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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12 (a) Outline briefly the principles of CT scanning.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [5]

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(b) In a model for CT scanning, a section is divided into four voxels. The pixel numbers P, Q, R
and S of the voxels are shown in Fig. 12.1.

D3
D2
D4

P Q
D1

S R

Fig. 12.1

The section is viewed from the four directions D1, D2, D3 and D4.
The detector readings for each direction are noted.

The detector readings are summed as shown in Fig. 12.2.

49 61

73 55

Fig. 12.2

The background reading is 34.

Determine the pixel numbers P, Q, R and S as shown in Fig. 12.3.

P Q

S R

Fig. 12.3

P = ............................................................... Q = ...............................................................

S = ............................................................... R = ...............................................................
[4]

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13 The signal from a microphone is to be transmitted in digital form. A block diagram of part of the
transmission system is shown in Fig. 13.1.

parallel-to
ADC -serial
converter

Fig. 13.1

(a) Suggest two advantages of the transmission of a signal in digital form rather than in analogue
form.

1. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) State the function of the parallel-to-serial converter.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(c) In a particular telephone system, the sampling frequency is 8 kHz. In the manufacture of a
compact disc, the sampling frequency is approximately 44 kHz.

Suggest and explain why the sampling frequency is much higher for the compact disc.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

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UCLES 2014 9702/43/M/J/14
27

14 (a) State what is meant by the attenuation of a signal.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) A transmission cable has a length of 30 km. The attenuation per unit length of the cable is
2.4 dB km1.

Calculate, for a signal being transmitted along the cable,

(i) the total attenuation, in dB,

attenuation = ................................................... dB [1]

(ii) the ratio

input power of signal


.
output power of signal

ratio = ......................................................... [3]

(c) By reference to your answers in (b), suggest why the attenuation of transmitted signals is
usually expressed in dB.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

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Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2014 9702/43/M/J/14


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 8 6 2 6 2 9 8 0 4 7 *

PHYSICS 9702/41
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions October/November 2014
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
4
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or
part question. 5

10

11

12

13

Total

This document consists of 25 printed pages and 3 blank pages.

DC (NF/SW) 77820/2
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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UCLES 2014 9702/41/O/N/14
3

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 12 at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = pV

gravitational potential, = Gm
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p= 3 <c >
V
simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

Q
electric potential, V=
40r

capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W = 12 QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp(t)

decay constant, = 0.693


t 1
2

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4

Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 An isolated spherical planet has a diameter of 6.8 106 m. Its mass of 6.4 1023 kg may be
assumed to be a point mass at the centre of the planet.

(a) Show that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the planet is 3.7 N kg1.

[2]

(b) A stone of mass 2.4 kg is raised from the surface of the planet through a vertical height of
1800 m.
Use the value of field strength given in (a) to determine the change in gravitational potential
energy of the stone.
Explain your working.

change in energy = ..................................................... J [3]

(c) A rock, initially at rest at infinity, moves towards the planet. At point P, its height above the
surface of the planet is 3.5 D, where D is the diameter of the planet, as shown in Fig. 1.1.

D 3.5 D

path of
P rock
planet

Fig. 1.1

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Calculate the speed of the rock at point P, assuming that the change in gravitational potential
energy is all transferred to kinetic energy.

speed = ............................................... m s1 [4]

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2 A large bowl is made from part of a hollow sphere.

A small spherical ball is placed inside the bowl and is given a horizontal speed. The ball follows a
horizontal circular path of constant radius, as shown in Fig. 2.1.

ball

14 cm

Fig. 2.1

The forces acting on the ball are its weight W and the normal reaction force R of the bowl on the
ball, as shown in Fig. 2.2.

wall of R
ball
bowl

Fig. 2.2

The normal reaction force R is at an angle to the horizontal.

(a) (i) By resolving the reaction force R into two perpendicular components, show that the
resultant force F acting on the ball is given by the expression

W = F tan .

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UCLES 2014 9702/41/O/N/14
7

(ii) State the significance of the force F for the motion of the ball in the bowl.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) The ball moves in a circular path of radius 14 cm. For this radius, the angle is 28.

Calculate the speed of the ball.

speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

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BLANK PAGE

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3 (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) A storage cylinder for an ideal gas has a volume of 3.0 104 m3. The gas is at a temperature
of 23 C and a pressure of 5.0 107 Pa.

(i) Show that the amount of gas in the cylinder is 6.1 mol.

[2]

(ii) The gas leaks slowly from the cylinder so that, after a time of 35 days, the pressure has
reduced by 0.40%. The temperature remains constant.
Calculate the average rate, in atoms per second, at which gas atoms escape from the
cylinder.

rate = .................................................. s1 [4]

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4 (a) State what is meant by simple harmonic motion.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A small ball rests at point P on a curved track of radius r, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

curved track,
radius r x

Fig. 4.1

The ball is moved a small distance to one side and is then released. The horizontal
displacement x of the ball is related to its acceleration a towards P by the expression

gx
a =
r

where g is the acceleration of free fall.

(i) Show that the ball undergoes simple harmonic motion.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) The radius r of curvature of the track is 28 cm.

Determine the time interval between the ball passing point P and then returning to
point P.

= ..................................................... s [3]

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(c) The variation with time t of the displacement x of the ball in (b) is shown in Fig. 4.2.

0
0 t
o 2ot 3ot 4 ot

Fig. 4.2

Some moisture now forms on the track, causing the ball to come to rest after approximately
15 oscillations.

On the axes of Fig. 4.2, sketch the variation with time t of the displacement x of the ball for
the first two periods after the moisture has formed. Assume the moisture forms at time t = 0.
[3]

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5 (a) Define electric potential at a point.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) An isolated solid metal sphere is positively charged.

The variation of the potential V with distance x from the centre of the sphere is shown in
Fig. 5.1.

200

160

V/V

120

80

40

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
x / cm

Fig. 5.1

Use Fig. 5.1 to suggest

(i) why the radius of the sphere cannot be greater than 1.0 cm,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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UCLES 2014 9702/41/O/N/14
13

(ii) that the charge on the sphere behaves as if it were a point charge.

[3]

(c) Assuming that the charge on the sphere does behave as a point charge, use data from
Fig. 5.1 to determine the charge on the sphere.

charge = ..................................................... C [2]

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BLANK PAGE

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15

6 A stiff straight copper wire XY is held fixed in a uniform magnetic field of flux density 2.6 103 T,
as shown in Fig. 6.1.

stiff wire

uniform magnetic field


34 flux density 2.6 103 T

4.7 cm 34

Fig. 6.1

The wire XY has length 4.7 cm and makes an angle of 34 with the magnetic field.

(a) Calculate the force on the wire due to a constant current of 5.4 A in the wire.

force = ..................................................... N [2]

(b) The current in the wire is now changed to an alternating current of r.m.s. value 1.7 A.

Determine the total variation in the force on the wire due to the alternating current.

variation in force = ..................................................... N [3]

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7 (a) The mean value of an alternating current is zero.

Explain

(i) why an alternating current gives rise to a heating effect in a resistor,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) by reference to heating effect, what is meant by the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of
an alternating current.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) A simple iron-cored transformer is illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

primary secondary
coil coil

iron core

Fig. 7.1

(i) State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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UCLES 2014 9702/41/O/N/14
17

(ii) Use Faradays law to explain why the current in the primary coil is not in phase with the
e.m.f. induced in the secondary coil.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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18

8 White light is incident on a cloud of cool hydrogen gas, as illustrated in Fig. 8.1.

cool
hydrogen gas
incident emergent
white light light

Fig. 8.1

The spectrum of the light emerging from the gas cloud is found to contain a number of dark lines.

(a) Explain why these dark lines occur.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) Some electron energy levels in a hydrogen atom are illustrated in Fig. 8.2.

0.38
0.55
0.85

1.51
energy
/ eV

3.41

Fig. 8.2

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One dark line is observed at a wavelength of 435 nm.

(i) Calculate the energy, in eV, of a photon of light of wavelength 435 nm.

energy = ................................................... eV [4]

(ii) On Fig. 8.2, draw an arrow to indicate the energy change that gives rise to this dark line.
[1]

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20

9 One likely means by which nuclear fusion may be achieved on a practical scale is the D-T reaction.

(a) State what is meant by nuclear fusion.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) In the D-T reaction, a deuterium ( 21H) nucleus fuses with a tritium ( 31H) nucleus to form a
helium-4 ( 42He) nucleus. The nuclear equation for the reaction is

2H + 3H 4He + 1n + energy
1 1 2 0

Some data for this reaction are given in Fig. 9.1.

mass / u

deuterium ( 21H) 2.01356


tritium ( 31H) 3.01551
helium-4 ( 42He) 4.00151
neutron ( 10n) 1.00867

Fig. 9.1

(i) Calculate the energy, in MeV, equivalent to 1.00 u. Explain your working.

energy = ................................................ MeV [3]

(ii) Use data from Fig. 9.1 and your answer in (i) to determine the energy released in this
D-T reaction.

energy = ................................................ MeV [2]

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21

(iii) Suggest why, for the D-T reaction to take place, the temperature of the deuterium and
the tritium must be high.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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22

Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

10 (a) An ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) has infinite open-loop gain and infinite input resistance
(impedance).

State three further properties of an ideal op-amp.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

3. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) The circuit of Fig. 10.1 is used to detect changes in temperature.

740 1 +9 V
A

+
9 V V

Fig. 10.1

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23

The voltmeter has infinite resistance.

The variation with temperature of the resistance R of the thermistor is shown in Fig. 10.2.

4.0

R / k1

3.0

2.0

1.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
e / C

Fig. 10.2

(i) When the thermistor is at a temperature of 1.0 C, the voltmeter reads +1.0 V.

Show that, for the thermistor at 1.0 C, the potential at A is 0.20 V.

[4]

(ii) The potential at A remains at 0.20 V.

Determine the voltmeter reading for a thermistor temperature of 15 C.

voltmeter reading = ..................................................... V [2]

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24

(c) The voltmeter reading for a thermistor temperature of 29 C is 0.35 V.

(i) Assuming a linear change of voltmeter reading with change of temperature over the
range 1 C to 29 C, calculate the voltmeter reading at 15 C.

voltmeter reading = ..................................................... V [1]

(ii) Suggest why your answers in (b)(ii) and (c)(i) are not the same.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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25

11 The use of X-rays in medical diagnosis gives rise to an increased exposure of the patient to
radiation.

Explain why

(a) an aluminium filter may be placed in the X-ray beam when producing an X-ray image of a
patient,

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) the radiation dose received by a patient is different for a CT scan from that for a simple X-ray
image.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [4]

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12 (a) Information may be carried by different channels of communication.

State one application, in each case, where information is carried using

(i) microwaves,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) coaxial cables,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) wire pairs.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) A station on Earth transmits a signal of initial power 3.1 kW to a geostationary satellite.
The attenuation of the signal received by the satellite is 190 dB.

(i) Calculate the power of the signal received by the satellite.

power = .................................................. kW [2]

(ii) By reference to your answer in (i), state and explain the changes made to the signal
before transmission back to Earth.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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27

13 A simplified block diagram of a mobile phone handset is shown in Fig. 13.1.

aerial

switch
tuning
circuit
r.f. amplifier
r.f. amplifier

modulator oscillator demodulator

parallel-to- serial-to-
serial parallel
converter converter

ADC DAC

a.f. amplifier a.f. amplifier

microphone loudspeaker

Fig. 13.1

State the purpose of

(a) the switch,

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) the tuning circuit.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

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.............................................................................................................................................. [2]
UCLES 2014 9702/41/O/N/14
28

BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2014 9702/41/O/N/14


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 6 1 4 3 3 6 7 7 5 5 *

PHYSICS 9702/42
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions October/November 2014
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
4
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or
part question. 5

10

11

12

13

Total

This document consists of 25 printed pages and 3 blank pages.

DC (NF/SW) 98838
UCLES 2014 [Turn over
www.egyptigstudentroom.com
2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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UCLES 2014 9702/42/O/N/14
3

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 12 at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = pV

gravitational potential, = Gm
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p= 3 <c >
V
simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

Q
electric potential, V=
40r

capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W = 12 QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp(t)

decay constant, = 0.693


t 1
2

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UCLES 2014 9702/42/O/N/14 [Turn over
4

Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 An isolated spherical planet has a diameter of 6.8 106 m. Its mass of 6.4 1023 kg may be
assumed to be a point mass at the centre of the planet.

(a) Show that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the planet is 3.7 N kg1.

[2]

(b) A stone of mass 2.4 kg is raised from the surface of the planet through a vertical height of
1800 m.
Use the value of field strength given in (a) to determine the change in gravitational potential
energy of the stone.
Explain your working.

change in energy = ..................................................... J [3]

(c) A rock, initially at rest at infinity, moves towards the planet. At point P, its height above the
surface of the planet is 3.5 D, where D is the diameter of the planet, as shown in Fig. 1.1.

D 3.5 D

path of
P rock
planet

Fig. 1.1

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Calculate the speed of the rock at point P, assuming that the change in gravitational potential
energy is all transferred to kinetic energy.

speed = ............................................... m s1 [4]

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2 A large bowl is made from part of a hollow sphere.

A small spherical ball is placed inside the bowl and is given a horizontal speed. The ball follows a
horizontal circular path of constant radius, as shown in Fig. 2.1.

ball

14 cm

Fig. 2.1

The forces acting on the ball are its weight W and the normal reaction force R of the bowl on the
ball, as shown in Fig. 2.2.

wall of R
ball
bowl

Fig. 2.2

The normal reaction force R is at an angle to the horizontal.

(a) (i) By resolving the reaction force R into two perpendicular components, show that the
resultant force F acting on the ball is given by the expression

W = F tan .

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UCLES 2014 9702/42/O/N/14
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(ii) State the significance of the force F for the motion of the ball in the bowl.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) The ball moves in a circular path of radius 14 cm. For this radius, the angle is 28.

Calculate the speed of the ball.

speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

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BLANK PAGE

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3 (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) A storage cylinder for an ideal gas has a volume of 3.0 104 m3. The gas is at a temperature
of 23 C and a pressure of 5.0 107 Pa.

(i) Show that the amount of gas in the cylinder is 6.1 mol.

[2]

(ii) The gas leaks slowly from the cylinder so that, after a time of 35 days, the pressure has
reduced by 0.40%. The temperature remains constant.
Calculate the average rate, in atoms per second, at which gas atoms escape from the
cylinder.

rate = .................................................. s1 [4]

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10

4 (a) State what is meant by simple harmonic motion.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A small ball rests at point P on a curved track of radius r, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

curved track,
radius r x

Fig. 4.1

The ball is moved a small distance to one side and is then released. The horizontal
displacement x of the ball is related to its acceleration a towards P by the expression

gx
a =
r

where g is the acceleration of free fall.

(i) Show that the ball undergoes simple harmonic motion.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) The radius r of curvature of the track is 28 cm.

Determine the time interval between the ball passing point P and then returning to
point P.

= ..................................................... s [3]

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(c) The variation with time t of the displacement x of the ball in (b) is shown in Fig. 4.2.

0
0 t
o 2ot 3ot 4 ot

Fig. 4.2

Some moisture now forms on the track, causing the ball to come to rest after approximately
15 oscillations.

On the axes of Fig. 4.2, sketch the variation with time t of the displacement x of the ball for
the first two periods after the moisture has formed. Assume the moisture forms at time t = 0.
[3]

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5 (a) Define electric potential at a point.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) An isolated solid metal sphere is positively charged.

The variation of the potential V with distance x from the centre of the sphere is shown in
Fig. 5.1.

200

160

V/V

120

80

40

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
x / cm

Fig. 5.1

Use Fig. 5.1 to suggest

(i) why the radius of the sphere cannot be greater than 1.0 cm,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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(ii) that the charge on the sphere behaves as if it were a point charge.

[3]

(c) Assuming that the charge on the sphere does behave as a point charge, use data from
Fig. 5.1 to determine the charge on the sphere.

charge = ..................................................... C [2]

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BLANK PAGE

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6 A stiff straight copper wire XY is held fixed in a uniform magnetic field of flux density 2.6 103 T,
as shown in Fig. 6.1.

stiff wire

uniform magnetic field


34 flux density 2.6 103 T

4.7 cm 34

Fig. 6.1

The wire XY has length 4.7 cm and makes an angle of 34 with the magnetic field.

(a) Calculate the force on the wire due to a constant current of 5.4 A in the wire.

force = ..................................................... N [2]

(b) The current in the wire is now changed to an alternating current of r.m.s. value 1.7 A.

Determine the total variation in the force on the wire due to the alternating current.

variation in force = ..................................................... N [3]

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7 (a) The mean value of an alternating current is zero.

Explain

(i) why an alternating current gives rise to a heating effect in a resistor,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) by reference to heating effect, what is meant by the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of
an alternating current.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) A simple iron-cored transformer is illustrated in Fig. 7.1.

primary secondary
coil coil

iron core

Fig. 7.1

(i) State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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(ii) Use Faradays law to explain why the current in the primary coil is not in phase with the
e.m.f. induced in the secondary coil.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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8 White light is incident on a cloud of cool hydrogen gas, as illustrated in Fig. 8.1.

cool
hydrogen gas
incident emergent
white light light

Fig. 8.1

The spectrum of the light emerging from the gas cloud is found to contain a number of dark lines.

(a) Explain why these dark lines occur.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) Some electron energy levels in a hydrogen atom are illustrated in Fig. 8.2.

0.38
0.55
0.85

1.51
energy
/ eV

3.41

Fig. 8.2

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One dark line is observed at a wavelength of 435 nm.

(i) Calculate the energy, in eV, of a photon of light of wavelength 435 nm.

energy = ................................................... eV [4]

(ii) On Fig. 8.2, draw an arrow to indicate the energy change that gives rise to this dark line.
[1]

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9 One likely means by which nuclear fusion may be achieved on a practical scale is the D-T reaction.

(a) State what is meant by nuclear fusion.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) In the D-T reaction, a deuterium ( 21H) nucleus fuses with a tritium ( 31H) nucleus to form a
helium-4 ( 42He) nucleus. The nuclear equation for the reaction is

2H + 3H 4He + 1n + energy
1 1 2 0

Some data for this reaction are given in Fig. 9.1.

mass / u

deuterium ( 21H) 2.01356


tritium ( 31H) 3.01551
helium-4 ( 42He) 4.00151
neutron ( 10n) 1.00867

Fig. 9.1

(i) Calculate the energy, in MeV, equivalent to 1.00 u. Explain your working.

energy = ................................................ MeV [3]

(ii) Use data from Fig. 9.1 and your answer in (i) to determine the energy released in this
D-T reaction.

energy = ................................................ MeV [2]

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(iii) Suggest why, for the D-T reaction to take place, the temperature of the deuterium and
the tritium must be high.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

10 (a) An ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) has infinite open-loop gain and infinite input resistance
(impedance).

State three further properties of an ideal op-amp.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

3. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) The circuit of Fig. 10.1 is used to detect changes in temperature.

740 1 +9 V
A

+
9 V V

Fig. 10.1

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The voltmeter has infinite resistance.

The variation with temperature of the resistance R of the thermistor is shown in Fig. 10.2.

4.0

R / k1

3.0

2.0

1.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
e / C

Fig. 10.2

(i) When the thermistor is at a temperature of 1.0 C, the voltmeter reads +1.0 V.

Show that, for the thermistor at 1.0 C, the potential at A is 0.20 V.

[4]

(ii) The potential at A remains at 0.20 V.

Determine the voltmeter reading for a thermistor temperature of 15 C.

voltmeter reading = ..................................................... V [2]

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(c) The voltmeter reading for a thermistor temperature of 29 C is 0.35 V.

(i) Assuming a linear change of voltmeter reading with change of temperature over the
range 1 C to 29 C, calculate the voltmeter reading at 15 C.

voltmeter reading = ..................................................... V [1]

(ii) Suggest why your answers in (b)(ii) and (c)(i) are not the same.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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11 The use of X-rays in medical diagnosis gives rise to an increased exposure of the patient to
radiation.

Explain why

(a) an aluminium filter may be placed in the X-ray beam when producing an X-ray image of a
patient,

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) the radiation dose received by a patient is different for a CT scan from that for a simple X-ray
image.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [4]

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12 (a) Information may be carried by different channels of communication.

State one application, in each case, where information is carried using

(i) microwaves,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) coaxial cables,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) wire pairs.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) A station on Earth transmits a signal of initial power 3.1 kW to a geostationary satellite.
The attenuation of the signal received by the satellite is 190 dB.

(i) Calculate the power of the signal received by the satellite.

power = .................................................. kW [2]

(ii) By reference to your answer in (i), state and explain the changes made to the signal
before transmission back to Earth.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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13 A simplified block diagram of a mobile phone handset is shown in Fig. 13.1.

aerial

switch
tuning
circuit
r.f. amplifier
r.f. amplifier

modulator oscillator demodulator

parallel-to- serial-to-
serial parallel
converter converter

ADC DAC

a.f. amplifier a.f. amplifier

microphone loudspeaker

Fig. 13.1

State the purpose of

(a) the switch,

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) the tuning circuit.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

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.............................................................................................................................................. [2]
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BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

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Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2014 9702/42/O/N/14


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 8 8 9 6 7 0 9 2 2 3 *

PHYSICS 9702/43
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions October/November 2014
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
4
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or
part question. 5

10

11

12

13

Total

This document consists of 27 printed pages and 1 blank page.

DC (NF/CGW) 77823/2
UCLES 2014 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1

1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 12 at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = pV

gravitational potential, = Gm
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p= 3 <c >
V
simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

Q
electric potential, V=
40r

capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W = 12 QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp( t)

decay constant, = 0.693


t 1
2

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Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 A light spring is suspended from a fixed point. A bar magnet is attached to the end of the spring,
as shown in Fig. 1.1.

spring

bar magnet

cardboard cup

Fig. 1.1

In order to shield the magnet from draughts, a cardboard cup is placed around the magnet but
does not touch it.
The magnet is displaced vertically and then released. The variation with time t of the vertical
displacement y of the magnet is shown in Fig. 1.2.

2.0

y / cm

1.0

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 t/s 0.6

1.0

2.0

Fig. 1.2
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The mass of the magnet is 130 g.

(a) For the oscillations of the magnet, use Fig. 1.2 to

(i) determine the angular frequency ,

= ............................................. rad s1 [2]

(ii) show that the maximum kinetic energy of the oscillating magnet is 6.4 mJ.

[2]

(b) The cardboard cup is now replaced with a cup made of aluminium foil.
During 10 complete oscillations of the magnet, the amplitude of vibration is seen to decrease
to 0.75 cm from that shown in Fig. 1.2. The change in angular frequency is negligible.

(i) Use Faradays law of electromagnetic induction to explain why the amplitude of the
oscillations decreases.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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(ii) Show that the loss in energy of the oscillating magnet is 4.8 mJ.

[2]

(c) The mass of the aluminium cup in (b) is 6.2 g. The specific heat capacity of aluminium is
910 J kg1 K1.
The energy in (b)(ii) is transferred to the cup as thermal energy.
Calculate the mean rise in temperature of the cup.

temperature rise = ..................................................... K [2]

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Please turn over for Question 2.

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2 (a) On the axes of Fig. 2.1, sketch the variation with distance from a point mass of the gravitational
field strength due to the mass.

gravitational field
strength

0
0 distance

Fig. 2.1
[2]

(b) On the axes of Fig. 2.2, sketch the variation with speed of the magnitude of the force on a
charged particle moving at right-angles to a uniform magnetic field.

force

0
0 speed

Fig. 2.2
[2]

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(c) On the axes of Fig. 2.3, sketch the variation with time of the power dissipated in a resistor by
a sinusoidal alternating current during two cycles of the current.

power

0
0 time

Fig. 2.3
[3]

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3 A fixed mass of gas has an initial volume of 5.00 104 m3 at a pressure of 2.40 105 Pa and a
temperature of 288 K. It is heated at constant pressure so that, in its final state, the volume is
14.5 104 m3 at a temperature of 835 K, as illustrated in Fig. 3.1.

initial state final state

5.00 104 m3 14.5 104 m3


2.40 105 Pa 2.40 105 Pa
288 K 835 K

Fig. 3.1

(a) Show that these two states provide evidence that the gas behaves as an ideal gas.

[3]

(b) The total thermal energy supplied to the gas for this change is 569 J.

Determine

(i) the external work done,

work done = ..................................................... J [2]

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(ii) the change in internal energy of the gas. State whether the change is an increase or a
decrease in internal energy.

change in internal energy = ........................................................... J

........................................................................................................ [2]

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4 (a) State what is meant by simple harmonic motion.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A trolley is attached to two extended springs, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

spring trolley

Fig. 4.1

The trolley is displaced along the line joining the two springs and is then released. At one
point in the motion, a stopwatch is started. The variation with time t of the velocity v of the
trolley is shown in Fig. 4.2.

0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
t/s

Fig. 4.2

The motion of the trolley is simple harmonic.

(i) State one time at which the trolley is moving through the equilibrium position and also
state the next time that it moves through this position.

.............................................. s and .............................................. s [1]

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(ii) The amplitude of vibration of the trolley is 3.2 cm.

Determine

1. the maximum speed v0 of the trolley,

v0 = ............................................. cm s1 [3]

2. the displacement of the trolley for a speed of v0.

displacement = .................................................. cm [2]

(c) Use your answers in (b) to sketch, on the axes of Fig. 4.3, a graph to show the variation with
displacement x of the velocity v of the trolley.

0
4 2 0 2 x / cm 4

Fig. 4.3
[2]

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5 (a) Define electric potential at a point.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) An isolated metal sphere is charged to a potential V . The charge on the sphere is q.
The charge on the sphere may be considered to act as a point charge at the centre of the
sphere.

The variation with potential V of the charge q on the sphere is shown in Fig. 5.1.

q / 108 C

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
V / kV

Fig. 5.1

Use Fig. 5.1 to determine

(i) the radius of the sphere,

radius = .................................................... m [2]

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(ii) the energy required to increase the potential of the sphere from zero to 24 kV.

energy = ..................................................... J [3]

(c) The sphere in (b) discharges by causing sparks when the electric field strength at the surface
of the sphere is greater than 2.0 106 V m1.

Use your answer in (b)(i) to calculate the maximum potential to which the sphere can be
charged.

potential = ..................................................... V [3]

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6 Three capacitors, each of capacitance 48 F, are connected as shown in Fig. 6.1.

48 +F

A 48 +F B

48 +F

Fig. 6.1

(a) Calculate the total capacitance between points A and B.

capacitance = ................................................... F [2]

(b) The maximum safe potential difference that can be applied across any one capacitor is 6 V.

Determine the maximum safe potential difference that can be applied between points A and B.

potential difference = ..................................................... V [2]

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7 (a) State what is meant by quantisation of charge.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) Charged parallel plates, as shown in Fig. 7.1, produce a uniform electric field between the
plates.

beam of
protons

Fig. 7.1

The electric field outside the region between the plates is zero.
A uniform magnetic field is applied in the region between the plates so that a beam of protons
passes undeviated between the plates.

(i) State and explain the direction of the magnetic field between the plates.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) The magnetic flux density between the plates is now increased.

On Fig. 7.1, sketch the path of the protons between the plates. [2]

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8 (a) State what is meant by a photon.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A beam of light is incident normally on a metal surface, as illustrated in Fig. 8.1.

light beam

metal surface
area of cross-section
1.3 105 m2

Fig. 8.1

The beam of light has cross-sectional area 1.3 105 m2 and power 2.7 103 W.
The light has wavelength 570 nm.

The light energy is absorbed by the metal and no light is reflected.

(i) Show that a photon of this light has an energy of 3.5 1019 J.

[1]

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(ii) Calculate, for a time of 1.0 s,

1. the number of photons incident on the surface,

number = ........................................................ [2]

2. the change in momentum of the photons.

change in momentum = ........................................... kg m s1 [3]

(c) Use your answer in (b)(ii) to calculate the pressure that the light exerts on the metal surface.

pressure = ................................................... Pa [2]

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9 During the de-commissioning of a nuclear reactor, a mass of 2.5 106 kg of steel is found to be
contaminated with radioactive nickel-63 ( 63 28Ni).
The total activity of the steel due to the nickel-63 contamination is 1.7 1014 Bq.

(a) Calculate the activity per unit mass of the steel.

activity per unit mass = ........................................... Bq kg1 [1]

(b) Special storage precautions need to be taken when the activity per unit mass due to
contamination exceeds 400 Bq kg1.
Nickel-63 is a -emitter with a half-life of 92 years.
The maximum energy of an emitted -particle is 0.067 MeV.

(i) Use your answer in (a) to calculate the energy, in J, released per second in a mass of
1.0 kg of steel due to the radioactive decay of the nickel.

energy = ..................................................... J [1]

(ii) Use your answer in (i) to suggest, with a reason, whether the steel will be at a high
temperature.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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(iii) Use your answer in (a) to determine the time interval before special storage precautions
for the steel are not required.

time = .............................................. years [3]

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Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

10 An electronic sensor may be represented by the block diagram of Fig. 10.1.

sensing processing output


device unit device

Fig. 10.1

(a) State suitable sensing devices, one in each case, for the detection of

(i) change of temperature,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) pressure changes in a sound wave.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) The ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) shown in Fig. 10.2 is to be used as a processing unit.

+5 V

+
V IN
5 V V OUT

Fig. 10.2

(i) State the value of the output potential VOUT for an input potential VIN of +0.5 V. Explain
your answer.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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(ii) A sensing device produces a variable potential VIN .


The variation with time t of VIN is shown in Fig. 10.3.

10

8
potential / V
6

4
V IN
2

0
0 t
2

10

Fig. 10.3

On the axes of Fig. 10.3, sketch the variation with time t of the output potential VOUT . [3]

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11 (a) By reference to ultrasound waves, state what is meant by the specific acoustic impedance of
a medium.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A parallel beam of ultrasound of intensity I is incident normally on a muscle of thickness


3.4 cm, as shown in Fig. 11.1.

muscle bone
transducer

incident intensity I

reflected intensity IR

3.4 cm

Fig. 11.1

The ultrasound wave is reflected at a muscle-bone boundary. The intensity of the ultrasound
received back at the transducer is IR.

Some data for bone and muscle are given in Fig. 11.2.

specific acoustic impedance linear absorption coefficient


/ kg m2 s1 / m1

bone 6.4 106 130


muscle 1.7 106 23

Fig. 11.2

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25

(i) The intensity reflection coefficient for two media having specific acoustic impedances
Z1 and Z2 is given by

(Z1 Z2)2
= .
(Z1 + Z2)2

Calculate the fraction of the ultrasound intensity that is reflected at the muscle-bone
boundary.

fraction = ........................................................ [2]

(ii) Calculate the fraction of the ultrasound intensity that is transmitted through a thickness of
3.4 cm of muscle.

fraction = ........................................................ [3]

IR
(iii) Use your answers in (i) and (ii) to determine the ratio .
I

ratio = ........................................................ [2]

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12 (a) Distinguish between an analogue signal and a digital signal.

analogue signal: ........................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

digital signal: .............................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) An analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) converts whole decimal numbers between 0 and 23
into digital numbers.

State

(i) the minimum number of bits in each digital number,

number of bits = ......................................................... [1]

(ii) the digital number representing decimal 13.

........................................................... [1]

(c) An analogue signal is digitised before transmission. It is then converted back to an analogue
signal after reception.

State and explain the effect on the reproduction of the signal when the number of bits in the
analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) and the digital-to-analogue converter (DAC) is increased.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

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27

13 In a mobile phone system, the country is divided into a number of cells, each with its own base
station.

State and explain

(a) why the country is divided into cells,

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) two reasons why the base stations operate on UHF frequencies.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[4]

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28

BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2014 9702/43/O/N/14


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 6 5 9 2 5 8 1 0 5 1 *

PHYSICS 9702/41
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions May/June 2015
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
4
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or
part question. 5

10

11

12

13

Total

This document consists of 23 printed pages and 1 blank page.

DC (NF/CGW) 92826/3
UCLES 2015 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K 1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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UCLES 2015 9702/41/M/J/15
3

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut +  at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential, =
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p =  V
<c >

simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )

Q
electric potential, V =
40r
capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W =  QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R 2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp( t )


0.693
decay constant, =
t 

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Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) State Newtons law of gravitation.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The planet Neptune has eight moons (satellites). Each moon orbits Neptune in a circular path
of radius r with a period T.

Assuming that Neptune and each moon behave as point masses, show that r and T are
related by the expression

42r 3
GMN =
T2

where G is the gravitational constant and MN is the mass of Neptune.

[3]

(c) Data for the moon Triton that orbits Neptune and for the moon Oberon that orbits the planet
Uranus are given in Fig. 1.1.

planet moon radius of orbit period of orbit


r /105 km T / days
Neptune Triton 3.55 5.9
Uranus Oberon 5.83 13.5

Fig. 1.1

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5

Use the expression in (b) to determine the ratio

mass of Neptune
.
mass of Uranus

ratio = ......................................................... [3]

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2 (a) State what is meant by internal energy.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The variation with volume V of the pressure p of an ideal gas as it undergoes a cycle ABCA of
changes is shown in Fig. 2.1.

4.0

p / 105 Pa
B
3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

A C

1.0
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
V / 10 m3

Fig. 2.1

The temperature of the gas at A is 290 K. The temperature at B is 870 K.

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7

Determine

(i) the amount, in mol, of gas,

amount = .................................................. mol [2]

(ii) the temperature of the gas at C.

temperature = ..................................................... K [2]

(c) Explain why the change from C to A involves external work and a change in internal energy.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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8

3 (a) Define specific latent heat.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) An electrical heater is immersed in some melting ice that is contained in a funnel, as shown in
Fig. 3.1.

heater
melting
ice

water

Fig. 3.1

The heater is switched on and, when the ice is melting at a constant rate, the mass m of
ice melted in 5.0 minutes is noted, together with the power P of the heater. The power P of
the heater is then increased. A new reading for the mass m of ice melted in 5.0 minutes is
recorded when the ice is melting at a constant rate.

Data for the power P and the mass m are shown in Fig. 3.2.

power of heater mass m melted in mass m melted


P/ W 5.0 minutes / g per second / g s1

70 78 .................................

110 114 .................................

Fig. 3.2
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9

(i) Complete Fig. 3.2 to determine the mass melted per second for each power of the heater.
[2]
(ii) Use the data in the completed Fig. 3.2 to determine

1. a value for the specific latent heat of fusion L of ice,

L = ................................................ J g1 [3]

2. the rate h of thermal energy gained by the ice from the surroundings.

h = .................................................... W [2]

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BLANK PAGE

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4 (a) For an oscillating body, state what is meant by

(i) forced frequency,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) natural frequency of vibration,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) resonance.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) State and explain one situation where resonance is useful.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(c) In some situations, resonance should be avoided.

State one such situation and suggest how the effects of resonance are reduced.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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5 A charged metal sphere is isolated in space. Measurements of the electric potential V are made
for different distances x from the centre of the sphere.

The variation with distance x of the potential V is shown in Fig. 5.1.

4.0

3.0

V / 103 V

2.0

1.0

0
0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
x / cm

Fig. 5.1

(a) Use Fig. 5.1 to determine the electric field strength, in N C1, at a point where x = 4.0 cm.
Explain your working.

electric field strength = ............................................... N C1 [3]

(b) The charge on the sphere is 8.0 109 C.

(i) Use Fig. 5.1 to state the electric potential at the surface of the sphere.

potential = ..................................................... V [1]

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(ii) The sphere acts as a capacitor. Determine the capacitance of the sphere.

capacitance = ..................................................... F [2]

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6 (a) State the type of field, or fields, that may cause a force to be exerted on a particle that is

(i) uncharged and moving,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) charged and stationary,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) charged and moving at right-angles to the field.

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) A particle X has mass 3.32 1026 kg and charge +1.60 1019 C.

The particle is travelling in a vacuum with speed 7.60 104 m s1. It enters a region of uniform
magnetic field that is normal to the direction of travel of the particle. The particle travels in a
semicircle of diameter 12.2 cm, as shown in Fig. 6.1.

region of
uniform magnetic
field

12.2 cm
path of
particle X

Fig. 6.1

For the uniform magnetic field,

(i) state its direction,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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(ii) calculate the magnetic flux density.

magnetic flux density = ..................................................... T [3]

(c) A second particle Y has mass less than that of particle X in (b) and the same charge.

It enters the region of uniform magnetic field in (b) with the same speed and along the same
initial path as particle X.

On Fig. 6.1, draw the path of particle Y in the region of the magnetic field. [1]

7 In many distribution systems for electrical energy, the energy is transmitted using alternating
current at high voltages.

Suggest and explain an advantage, one in each case, for the use of

(a) alternating voltages,

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) high voltages.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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16

8 A photon of wavelength 6.50 1012 m is incident on an isolated stationary electron, as illustrated


in Fig. 8.1.

deflected photon
wavelength 6.84 1012 m

incident photon
e

wavelength 6.50 1012 m


electron
mass me

Fig. 8.1

The photon is deflected elastically by the electron of mass me. The wavelength of the deflected
photon is 6.84 1012 m.

(a) Calculate, for the incident photon,

(i) its momentum,

momentum = .................................................. N s [2]

(ii) its energy.

energy = ...................................................... J [2]

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17

(b) The angle through which the photon is deflected is given by the expression

h
= (1 cos )
mec

where is the change in wavelength of the photon, h is the Planck constant and c is the
speed of light in free space.

(i) Calculate the angle .

= ...................................................... [2]

(ii) Use energy considerations to suggest why must always be positive.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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18

9 (a) An isotope of an element is radioactive. Explain what is meant by radioactive decay.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) At time t, a sample of a radioactive isotope contains N nuclei. In a short time t, the number of
nuclei that decay is N.

State expressions, in terms of the symbols t, t, N and N for

(i) the number of undecayed nuclei at time (t + t),

number = ......................................................... [1]

(ii) the mean activity of the sample during the time interval t,

mean activity = ......................................................... [1]

(iii) the probability of decay of a nucleus during the time interval t,

probability = ......................................................... [1]

(iv) the decay constant.

decay constant = ......................................................... [1]

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(c) The variation with time t of the activity A of a sample of a radioactive isotope is shown in
Fig. 9.1.

0
0 t 2t 3t
t

Fig. 9.1

The radioactive isotope decays to form a stable isotope S. At time t = 0, there are no nuclei of
S in the sample.

On the axes of Fig. 9.2, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the number n of
nuclei of S in the sample.

0
0 t 2t 3t
t

Fig. 9.2
[2]

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20

Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

10 An operational amplifier (op-amp) is used in the comparator circuit of Fig. 10.1.

+4.5 V

4.2 k1
+5 V
+

5 V
V IN V OUT
1.2 k1 R

Fig. 10.1

(a) (i) Show that the potential at the inverting input of the op-amp is +1.0 V.

[1]

(ii) Explain why the potential difference across resistor R is + 5 V when VIN is greater than
1.0 V and is zero when VIN is less than 1.0 V.

VIN > 1.0 V: .........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

VIN < 1.0 V: .........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[4]

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21

(b) The variation with time t of the input voltage VIN is shown in Fig. 10.2.

4
voltage / V
3
V IN
2

1 +1 V

0
0 time t

Fig. 10.2

(i) On the axes of Fig. 10.2, draw the variation with time t of the output potential VOUT. [2]
(ii) Suggest a use for this type of circuit.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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22

11 (a) State and explain how, in an X-ray tube, the hardness of the X-ray beam is controlled.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) A parallel beam of X-rays has intensity I0 and is incident on a medium having a linear
absorption (attenuation) coefficient .

(i) State an equation for the variation of the intensity I with the thickness x of the medium.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Data for the linear absorption (attenuation) coefficient for an X-ray beam in blood and
in muscle is shown in Fig. 11.1.

/ cm1
blood 0.23
muscle 0.22

Fig. 11.1

Suggest why, if this X-ray beam is used to image blood vessels in muscle, contrast on
the image would be poor.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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12 (a) Information may be carried by means of various channels of communication.

Name examples, one in each case, of devices where information is carried to the device
using

(i) a wire pair,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) a coaxial cable,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) microwaves.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) State two advantages of optic fibres as compared with coaxial cables for long-range
communication.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................
[2]

(c) An optic fibre has length 62 km and an attenuation per unit length of 0.21 dB km1.
The input power to the fibre is P. At the receiver, the noise power is 9.2 W.
The signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver is 25 dB.

(i) Calculate the ratio, in dB, of the input power P to the noise power at the receiver.

ratio = ................................................... dB [2]

(ii) Use your answer in (i) to determine the input power P.

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UCLES 2015 9702/41/M/J/15 [Turn over
24

13 During magnetic resonance imaging to obtain information about internal body structures, a large
constant magnetic field is used with a calibrated non-uniform magnetic field superimposed on it.

(a) State and explain the purpose of

(i) the large constant magnetic field,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) the non-uniform magnetic field.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(b) The de-excitation energy E (measured in joule) of a proton in magnetic resonance imaging is
given by the expression

E = 2.82 1026 B

where B is the magnetic flux density measured in tesla.


The energy E is emitted as a photon of electromagnetic radiation in the radio-frequency
range.

Calculate the magnetic flux density required for the radio frequency to be 42 MHz.

magnetic flux density = ..................................................... T [2]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2015 9702/41/M/J/15


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 2 2 0 3 2 4 1 3 4 4 *

PHYSICS 9702/42
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions May/June 2015
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or 4
part question.
5

10

11

12

Total

This document consists of 23 printed pages and 1 blank page.

DC (KN/CGW) 92818/4
UCLES 2015 [Turn over
www.egyptigstudentroom.com
2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K 1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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UCLES 2015 9702/42/M/J/15
3

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut +  at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential, =
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p =  V
<c >

simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )

Q
electric potential, V =
40r
capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W =  QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R 2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp( t )


0.693
decay constant, =
t 

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4

Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) The Earth may be considered to be a uniform sphere of radius 6.37 103 km with its mass
of 5.98 1024 kg concentrated at its centre. The Earth spins on its axis with a period of
24.0 hours.

(i) A stone of mass 2.50 kg rests on the Earths surface at the Equator.

1. Calculate, using Newtons law of gravitation, the gravitational force on the stone.

gravitational force = ....................................................... N [2]

2. Determine the force required to maintain the stone in its circular path.

force = ....................................................... N [2]

(ii) The stone is now hung from a newton-meter.

Use your answers in (i) to determine the reading on the meter. Give your answer to three
significant figures.

reading = ....................................................... N [2]


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(b) A satellite is orbiting the Earth. For an astronaut in the satellite, his sensation of weight is
caused by the contact force from his surroundings.

The astronaut reports that he is weightless, despite being in the Earths gravitational field.

Suggest what is meant by the astronaut reporting that he is weightless.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[3]

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BLANK PAGE

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2 In a sample of gas at room temperature, five atoms have the following speeds:

1.32 103 m s1
1.50 103 m s1
1.46 103 m s1
1.28 103 m s1
1.64 103 m s1.

For these five atoms, calculate, to three significant figures,

(a) the mean speed,

mean speed = ................................................. m s1 [1]

(b) the mean-square speed,

mean-square speed = ................................................ m2 s2 [2]

(c) the root-mean-square speed.

root-mean-square speed = ................................................. m s1 [1]

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3 (a) Define specific latent heat.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) A beaker containing a liquid is placed on a balance, as shown in Fig. 3.1.

liquid
heater

insulation
pan of
balance

Fig. 3.1

A heater of power 110 W is immersed in the liquid. The heater is switched on and, when the
liquid is boiling, balance readings m are taken at corresponding times t.

A graph of the variation with time t of the balance reading m is shown in Fig. 3.2.

380

360

m/g

340

320

300
0 2 4 6 8
t / min

Fig. 3.2

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(i) State the feature of Fig. 3.2 which suggests that the liquid is boiling at a steady rate.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Use data from Fig. 3.2 to determine a value for the specific latent heat L of vaporisation
of the liquid.

L = ................................................ J kg1 [3]

(iii) State, with a reason, whether the value determined in (ii) is likely to be an overestimate
or an underestimate of the normally accepted value for the specific latent heat of
vaporisation of the liquid.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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4 (a) State what is meant by simple harmonic motion.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The variation with time t of the displacement x of two oscillators P and Q is shown in Fig. 4.1.

3
x / cm
2
oscillator P
1 oscillator Q

0
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8
t/s
1

Fig. 4.1

The two oscillators each have the same mass.

Use Fig. 4.1 to determine

(i) the phase difference between the two oscillators,

phase difference = ................................................... rad [1]

(ii) the maximum acceleration of oscillator Q,

maximum acceleration = ................................................ m s2 [2]

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(iii) the ratio

maximum kinetic energy of oscillations of Q


maximum kinetic energy of oscillations of P .

ratio = .......................................................... [2]

(c) Use data from (b) to sketch, on the axes of Fig. 4.2, the variation with displacement x of the
acceleration a of oscillator Q.

0
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
x / cm

Fig. 4.2
[2]

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5 (a) Define electric potential at a point.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Two positively charged metal spheres A and B are situated in a vacuum, as shown in Fig. 5.1.

sphere A sphere B

Fig. 5.1

A point P lies on the line joining the centres of the two spheres and is a distance x from the
surface of sphere A.

The variation with x of the electric potential V due to the two charged spheres is shown in
Fig. 5.2.

600

500

V/V

400

300

200

100
0 2 4 6 8 10
x / cm
surface surface
of A of B

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Fig. 5.2
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13

(i) State how the magnitude of the electric field strength at any point P may be determined
from the graph of Fig. 5.2.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Without any calculation, describe the force acting on a positively charged particle placed
at point P for values of x from x = 0 to x = 10 cm.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(c) The positively charged particle in (b)(ii) has charge q and mass m given by the expression
q 7 1
m = 4.8 10 C kg .
Initially, the particle is at rest on the surface of sphere A where x = 0. It then moves freely
along the line joining the centres of the spheres until it reaches the surface of sphere B.

(i) On Fig. 5.2, mark with the letter M the point where the charged particle has its maximum
speed. [1]

(ii) 1. Use Fig. 5.2 to determine the potential difference between the spheres.

potential difference = ....................................................... V [1]

2. Use your answer in (ii) part 1 to calculate the speed of the particle as it reaches the
surface of sphere B.
Explain your working.

speed = ................................................. m s1 [3]

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6 (a) Explain what is meant by a photon.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) An X-ray photon of energy 3.06 1014 J is incident on an isolated stationary electron, as
illustrated in Fig. 6.1.

deflected photon
wavelength 6.80 1012 m

incident photon
e

energy 3.06 1014 J

Fig. 6.1

The photon is deflected elastically by the electron through angle . The deflected photon has
a wavelength of 6.80 1012 m.

(i) On Fig. 6.1, draw an arrow to indicate a possible initial direction of motion of the electron
after the photon has been deflected. [1]

(ii) Calculate

1. the energy of the deflected photon,

photon energy = ....................................................... J [2]

2. the speed of the electron after the photon has been deflected.

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speed = ................................................ m s 1 [3]
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(c) Explain why the magnitude of the final momentum of the electron is not equal to the change
in magnitude of the momentum of the photon.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

7 (a) A solenoid is connected in series with a resistor, as shown in Fig. 7.1.

N S

motion of magnet

Fig. 7.1

As the magnet is being moved into the solenoid, thermal energy is transferred in the resistor.
Use laws of electromagnetic induction to explain the origin of this thermal energy.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[4]

(b) Explain why the alternating current in the primary coil of a transformer is not in phase with the
alternating e.m.f. induced in the secondary coil.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[4]
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8 The power for a space probe is to be supplied by the energy released when plutonium-236 decays
by the emission of -particles.

The -particles, each of energy 5.75 MeV, are captured and their energy is converted into electrical
energy with an efficiency of 24%.

(a) Calculate

(i) the energy, in joules, equal to 5.75 MeV,

energy = ....................................................... J [1]

(ii) the number of -particles per second required to generate 1.9 kW of electrical power.

number per second = .................................................... s1 [2]

(b) Each plutonium-236 nucleus, on disintegration, produces one -particle.


Plutonium-236 has a half-life of 2.8 years.

(i) Calculate the decay constant, in s1, of plutonium-236.

decay constant = .................................................... s1 [2]

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(ii) Use your answers in (a)(ii) and (b)(i) to determine the mass of plutonium-236 required
for the generation of 1.9 kW of electrical power.

mass = ....................................................... g [4]

(c) The minimum electrical power required for the space probe is 0.84 kW.

Calculate the time, in years, for which the sample of plutonium-236 in (b)(ii) will provide
sufficient power.

time = ................................................ years [2]

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Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

9 (a) The strain in a beam is to be monitored using a strain gauge.


The strain gauge is included in the potential divider circuit shown in Fig. 9.1.

+2000 mV

120.0 1 5000 1

A B

strain
gauge 5000 1

Fig. 9.1

The strain gauge has a resistance of 120.0 when it is not strained. The resistance increases
to 121.5 when the strain is .

Calculate the potential difference between points A and B on Fig. 9.1 when the strain in the
gauge is .

potential difference = ................................................... mV [3]

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(b) An inverting amplifier, incorporating an operational amplifier (op-amp), uses a high-resistance


voltmeter to display the output. A partially completed circuit for the amplifier is shown in
Fig. 9.2.

+9 V

V IN 9 V V

Fig. 9.2

The voltmeter is to indicate a full-scale deflection of +6.0 V for an input potential VIN of 0.15 V.

(i) On Fig. 9.2,

1. complete the circuit for the inverting amplifier, [2]

2. mark, with the letter P, the positive terminal of the voltmeter. [1]

(ii) Suggest appropriate values for the resistors you have shown in Fig. 9.2.
Label the resistors in Fig. 9.2 with these values. [2]

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10 (a) State what is meant by the specific acoustic impedance of a medium.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The specific acoustic impedances Z of some media are given in Fig. 10.1.

Z / kg m2 s1
air 4.3 102
gel 1.5 106
soft tissue 1.6 106
bone 7.0 106

Fig. 10.1

(i) The density of a sample of bone is 1.7 103 kg m3.

Determine the wavelength, in mm, of ultrasound of frequency 9.0 105 Hz in the bone.

wavelength = ................................................... mm [3]

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(ii) Ultrasound of intensity I is incident normally on the boundary between two media of
specific acoustic impedances Z1 and Z2, as shown in Fig. 10.2.

incident intensity I Z1 Z2

reflected intensity IR

Fig. 10.2

The intensity of the ultrasound reflected from the boundary is IR.


IR
The ratio is given by the expression
I
IR (Z1 Z2)2
= .
I (Z1 + Z2)2

By making reference to the data for air, gel and soft tissue, explain quantitatively why,
during medical diagnosis using ultrasound, a gel is usually put on the skin.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[4]

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11 One channel of communication is by the use of a coaxial cable. Such a cable is illustrated in
Fig. 11.1.

protective
covering
inner copper
wire
plastic insulation A

Fig. 11.1

(a) (i) Suggest the material from which the component labelled A on Fig. 11.1 is made.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Suggest two functions of the component labelled A.

1. ........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

2. ........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) When a signal travels along the coaxial cable, it is attenuated.

(i) State the meaning of attenuation.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) State and explain why attenuation is frequently measured in decibels (dB).

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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(c) A television aerial is connected to a receiver using a coaxial cable of length 11 m. The
attenuation per unit length of the cable is 190 dB km1.

Calculate the ratio


output signal from coaxial cable
.
input signal to coaxial cable

ratio = ...........................................................[3]

Please turn over for Question 12.

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12 A mobile phone handset is, at its simplest, a radio transmitter and receiver.

Outline the role of base stations and the cellular exchange when a mobile phone is switched on
and before a call is made.

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................[4]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

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Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2015 9702/42/M/J/15


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 4 3 8 8 3 1 5 6 1 3 *

PHYSICS 9702/43
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions May/June 2015
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
4
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or
part question. 5

10

11

12

13

Total

This document consists of 23 printed pages and 1 blank page.

DC (LK/CGW) 109959
UCLES 2015 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K 1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut +  at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential, =
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p =  V
<c >

simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )

Q
electric potential, V =
40r
capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W =  QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R 2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp( t )


0.693
decay constant, =
t 

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Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) State Newtons law of gravitation.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The planet Neptune has eight moons (satellites). Each moon orbits Neptune in a circular path
of radius r with a period T.

Assuming that Neptune and each moon behave as point masses, show that r and T are
related by the expression

42r 3
GMN =
T2

where G is the gravitational constant and MN is the mass of Neptune.

[3]

(c) Data for the moon Triton that orbits Neptune and for the moon Oberon that orbits the planet
Uranus are given in Fig. 1.1.

planet moon radius of orbit period of orbit


r /105 km T / days
Neptune Triton 3.55 5.9
Uranus Oberon 5.83 13.5

Fig. 1.1

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Use the expression in (b) to determine the ratio

mass of Neptune
.
mass of Uranus

ratio = ......................................................... [3]

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2 (a) State what is meant by internal energy.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The variation with volume V of the pressure p of an ideal gas as it undergoes a cycle ABCA of
changes is shown in Fig. 2.1.

4.0

p / 105 Pa
B
3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

A C

1.0
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
V / 10 m3

Fig. 2.1

The temperature of the gas at A is 290 K. The temperature at B is 870 K.

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Determine

(i) the amount, in mol, of gas,

amount = .................................................. mol [2]

(ii) the temperature of the gas at C.

temperature = ..................................................... K [2]

(c) Explain why the change from C to A involves external work and a change in internal energy.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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3 (a) Define specific latent heat.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) An electrical heater is immersed in some melting ice that is contained in a funnel, as shown in
Fig. 3.1.

heater
melting
ice

water

Fig. 3.1

The heater is switched on and, when the ice is melting at a constant rate, the mass m of
ice melted in 5.0 minutes is noted, together with the power P of the heater. The power P of
the heater is then increased. A new reading for the mass m of ice melted in 5.0 minutes is
recorded when the ice is melting at a constant rate.

Data for the power P and the mass m are shown in Fig. 3.2.

power of heater mass m melted in mass m melted


P/ W 5.0 minutes / g per second / g s1

70 78 .................................

110 114 .................................

Fig. 3.2
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(i) Complete Fig. 3.2 to determine the mass melted per second for each power of the heater.
[2]
(ii) Use the data in the completed Fig. 3.2 to determine

1. a value for the specific latent heat of fusion L of ice,

L = ................................................ J g1 [3]

2. the rate h of thermal energy gained by the ice from the surroundings.

h = .................................................... W [2]

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BLANK PAGE

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4 (a) For an oscillating body, state what is meant by

(i) forced frequency,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) natural frequency of vibration,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) resonance.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) State and explain one situation where resonance is useful.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(c) In some situations, resonance should be avoided.

State one such situation and suggest how the effects of resonance are reduced.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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5 A charged metal sphere is isolated in space. Measurements of the electric potential V are made
for different distances x from the centre of the sphere.

The variation with distance x of the potential V is shown in Fig. 5.1.

4.0

3.0

V / 103 V

2.0

1.0

0
0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
x / cm

Fig. 5.1

(a) Use Fig. 5.1 to determine the electric field strength, in N C1, at a point where x = 4.0 cm.
Explain your working.

electric field strength = ............................................... N C1 [3]

(b) The charge on the sphere is 8.0 109 C.

(i) Use Fig. 5.1 to state the electric potential at the surface of the sphere.

potential = ..................................................... V [1]

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(ii) The sphere acts as a capacitor. Determine the capacitance of the sphere.

capacitance = ..................................................... F [2]

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6 (a) State the type of field, or fields, that may cause a force to be exerted on a particle that is

(i) uncharged and moving,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) charged and stationary,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) charged and moving at right-angles to the field.

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) A particle X has mass 3.32 1026 kg and charge +1.60 1019 C.

The particle is travelling in a vacuum with speed 7.60 104 m s1. It enters a region of uniform
magnetic field that is normal to the direction of travel of the particle. The particle travels in a
semicircle of diameter 12.2 cm, as shown in Fig. 6.1.

region of
uniform magnetic
field

12.2 cm
path of
particle X

Fig. 6.1

For the uniform magnetic field,

(i) state its direction,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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(ii) calculate the magnetic flux density.

magnetic flux density = ..................................................... T [3]

(c) A second particle Y has mass less than that of particle X in (b) and the same charge.

It enters the region of uniform magnetic field in (b) with the same speed and along the same
initial path as particle X.

On Fig. 6.1, draw the path of particle Y in the region of the magnetic field. [1]

7 In many distribution systems for electrical energy, the energy is transmitted using alternating
current at high voltages.

Suggest and explain an advantage, one in each case, for the use of

(a) alternating voltages,

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) high voltages.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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8 A photon of wavelength 6.50 1012 m is incident on an isolated stationary electron, as illustrated


in Fig. 8.1.

deflected photon
wavelength 6.84 1012 m

incident photon
e

wavelength 6.50 1012 m


electron
mass me

Fig. 8.1

The photon is deflected elastically by the electron of mass me. The wavelength of the deflected
photon is 6.84 1012 m.

(a) Calculate, for the incident photon,

(i) its momentum,

momentum = .................................................. N s [2]

(ii) its energy.

energy = ...................................................... J [2]

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(b) The angle through which the photon is deflected is given by the expression

h
= (1 cos )
mec

where is the change in wavelength of the photon, h is the Planck constant and c is the
speed of light in free space.

(i) Calculate the angle .

= ...................................................... [2]

(ii) Use energy considerations to suggest why must always be positive.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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9 (a) An isotope of an element is radioactive. Explain what is meant by radioactive decay.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) At time t, a sample of a radioactive isotope contains N nuclei. In a short time t, the number of
nuclei that decay is N.

State expressions, in terms of the symbols t, t, N and N for

(i) the number of undecayed nuclei at time (t + t),

number = ......................................................... [1]

(ii) the mean activity of the sample during the time interval t,

mean activity = ......................................................... [1]

(iii) the probability of decay of a nucleus during the time interval t,

probability = ......................................................... [1]

(iv) the decay constant.

decay constant = ......................................................... [1]

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(c) The variation with time t of the activity A of a sample of a radioactive isotope is shown in
Fig. 9.1.

0
0 t 2t 3t
t

Fig. 9.1

The radioactive isotope decays to form a stable isotope S. At time t = 0, there are no nuclei of
S in the sample.

On the axes of Fig. 9.2, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the number n of
nuclei of S in the sample.

0
0 t 2t 3t
t

Fig. 9.2
[2]

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Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

10 An operational amplifier (op-amp) is used in the comparator circuit of Fig. 10.1.

+4.5 V

4.2 k1
+5 V
+

5 V
V IN V OUT
1.2 k1 R

Fig. 10.1

(a) (i) Show that the potential at the inverting input of the op-amp is +1.0 V.

[1]

(ii) Explain why the potential difference across resistor R is + 5 V when VIN is greater than
1.0 V and is zero when VIN is less than 1.0 V.

VIN > 1.0 V: .........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

VIN < 1.0 V: .........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[4]

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(b) The variation with time t of the input voltage VIN is shown in Fig. 10.2.

4
voltage / V
3
V IN
2

1 +1 V

0
0 time t

Fig. 10.2

(i) On the axes of Fig. 10.2, draw the variation with time t of the output potential VOUT. [2]
(ii) Suggest a use for this type of circuit.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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22

11 (a) State and explain how, in an X-ray tube, the hardness of the X-ray beam is controlled.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) A parallel beam of X-rays has intensity I0 and is incident on a medium having a linear
absorption (attenuation) coefficient .

(i) State an equation for the variation of the intensity I with the thickness x of the medium.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Data for the linear absorption (attenuation) coefficient for an X-ray beam in blood and
in muscle is shown in Fig. 11.1.

/ cm1
blood 0.23
muscle 0.22

Fig. 11.1

Suggest why, if this X-ray beam is used to image blood vessels in muscle, contrast on
the image would be poor.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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23

12 (a) Information may be carried by means of various channels of communication.

Name examples, one in each case, of devices where information is carried to the device
using

(i) a wire pair,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) a coaxial cable,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) microwaves.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) State two advantages of optic fibres as compared with coaxial cables for long-range
communication.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................
[2]

(c) An optic fibre has length 62 km and an attenuation per unit length of 0.21 dB km1.
The input power to the fibre is P. At the receiver, the noise power is 9.2 W.
The signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver is 25 dB.

(i) Calculate the ratio, in dB, of the input power P to the noise power at the receiver.

ratio = ................................................... dB [2]

(ii) Use your answer in (i) to determine the input power P.

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
P = .................................................... W [2]
UCLES 2015 9702/43/M/J/15 [Turn over
24

13 During magnetic resonance imaging to obtain information about internal body structures, a large
constant magnetic field is used with a calibrated non-uniform magnetic field superimposed on it.

(a) State and explain the purpose of

(i) the large constant magnetic field,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) the non-uniform magnetic field.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(b) The de-excitation energy E (measured in joule) of a proton in magnetic resonance imaging is
given by the expression

E = 2.82 1026 B

where B is the magnetic flux density measured in tesla.


The energy E is emitted as a photon of electromagnetic radiation in the radio-frequency
range.

Calculate the magnetic flux density required for the radio frequency to be 42 MHz.

magnetic flux density = ..................................................... T [2]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

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Cambridge International Examinations


Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 5 7 8 5 5 9 0 7 4 5 *

PHYSICS 9702/41
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions October/November 2015
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or 4
part question.
5

10

11

12

Total

This document consists of 23 printed pages and 1 blank page.

DC (ST/CGW) 97085/2
UCLES 2015 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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3

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 12 at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = pV

gravitational potential, = Gm
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p= 3 <c >
V
simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

Q
electric potential, V=
40r

capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W = 12 QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp(t)

decay constant, = 0.693


t 1
2

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4

Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 A satellite of mass mS is in a circular orbit of radius x about the Earth.

The Earth may be considered to be an isolated uniform sphere with its mass M concentrated at its
centre.

(a) (i) Show that the kinetic energy EK of the satellite is given by the expression
GMmS
EK =
2x
where G is the gravitational constant. Explain your working.

[3]

(ii) State an expression, in terms of G, M, mS and x, for the potential energy EP of the
satellite.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) Using answers from (i) and (ii), derive an expression for the total energy ET of the
satellite.

ET = ...........................................................[2]

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5

(b) Small resistive forces acting on the satellite cause the radius of its circular orbit to change.

Use your answers in (a) to state, for the satellite, whether each of the following quantities
increases, decreases or remains constant.

(i) total energy

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) radius of orbit

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) potential energy

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(iv) kinetic energy

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

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6

2 (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The mean-square speed of the atoms of a fixed mass of an ideal gas at 32 C is 1.9 106 m2 s2.

The gas is heated at constant volume to a temperature of 80 C.

Determine

(i) the rise, in kelvin, of the temperature of the gas,

temperature rise = ...................................................... K [1]

(ii) the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) speed of the atoms at 80 C.

r.m.s. speed = ................................................ m s1 [3]

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7

3 (a) State an expression, in terms of work done and heating, that is used to calculate the increase
in internal energy of a system.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) State and explain, in terms of your expression in (a), the change, if any, in the internal energy

(i) of the water in an ice cube when the ice melts, at atmospheric pressure, to form a liquid
without any change of temperature,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii) of the gas in a tyre when the tyre bursts so that the gas suddenly increases in volume.
Assume that the gas is ideal.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

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8

4 (a) Distinguish between free oscillations and forced oscillations.

free oscillations: ........................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

forced oscillations: ....................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) A trolley is held on a horizontal surface by means of two stretched springs, as shown in
Fig. 4.1.

spring trolley spring


fixed point
oscillator

Fig. 4.1

One spring is attached to a fixed point. The other spring is attached to an oscillator that
causes horizontal oscillations of the trolley.

The oscillator vibrates with a constant amplitude of vibration. The frequency of vibration of the
oscillator is gradually increased from a very low value.

The variation with frequency f of the amplitude x0 of vibration of the trolley is shown in
Fig. 4.2.

x0

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


f / Hz

Fig. 4.2

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9

Use Fig. 4.2 to state and explain

(i) the value of the natural frequency of vibration of the trolley,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii) whether there are any frictional forces acting on the trolley.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) The oscillator in (b) is now stopped.

The trolley is given a horizontal displacement of 4.7 cm along the line of the springs.
The trolley is then released.

Use information from Fig. 4.2 to estimate the maximum speed of the trolley.

speed = ................................................ m s1 [2]

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10

5 A charged particle P is situated in a vacuum at a distance x from the centre of a charged conducting
sphere of radius r, as illustrated in Fig. 5.1.

r P

Fig. 5.1

For the particle P outside the conducting sphere, the charge on the sphere may be assumed to be
a point charge at its centre.

(a) (i) State Coulombs law.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) The sphere and the particle P are both charged positively.

1. State the direction of the force acting on particle P.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

2. State the position of particle P for the force to be maximum.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

3. Determine the ratio


force on particle P at x = r .
force on particle P at x = 4r

ratio = .......................................................... [2]

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11

(b) When the charge on the sphere is 6.0 107 C, the electric field strength at the surface of the
sphere is 1.5 106 V m1.

Electrical breakdown (a spark) occurs when the electric field strength at the surface of the
sphere exceeds 2.0 106 V m1.

Determine the additional charge that may be added to the sphere before breakdown occurs.

charge = ...................................................... C [3]

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12

6 (a) A particle has mass m, charge +q and speed v.

State the magnitude and direction of the force, if any, on the particle when the particle is
travelling along the direction of

(i) a uniform gravitational field of field strength g,

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) a uniform magnetic field of flux density B.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Two charged horizontal metal plates, situated in a vacuum, produce a uniform electric field of
field strength E between the plates. The field strength outside the region between the plates is
zero.

The particle in (a) enters the region of the electric field at right-angles to the direction of the
field, as illustrated in Fig. 6.1.

particle, v
charge +q
mass m
E

Fig. 6.1

A uniform magnetic field is to be applied in the same region as the electric field so that the
particle passes undeviated through the region between the plates.

(i) State and explain the direction of the magnetic field.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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13

(ii) Derive, with explanation, the relation between the speed v and the magnitudes of the
electric field strength E and the magnetic flux density B.

[3]

(c) A second particle has the same mass m and charge +q as that in (b) but its speed is 2v.
This particle enters the region between the plates along the same direction as the particle
in (b).

On Fig. 6.1, sketch the path of this particle in the region between the plates. [2]

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14

7 (a) By reference to the photoelectric effect, state what is meant by the threshold frequency.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Electrons are emitted from a metal surface when light of a particular wavelength is incident on
the surface.
Explain why the emitted electrons have a range of values of kinetic energy below a maximum
value.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) The wavelength of the incident radiation is .


The variation with 1/ of the maximum kinetic energy EMAX of electrons emitted from a metal
surface is shown in Fig. 7.1.

4.0

3.0
EMAX
/ 1019 J
2.0

1.0

0
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
1
/ 106 m1
h

Fig. 7.1

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15

(i) Use Fig. 7.1 to determine, without reference to the work function energy, the threshold
frequency f0.

f0 = .................................................... Hz [2]

(ii) Use your answer in (i) to calculate the work function energy .

= ....................................................... J [2]

(d) Caesium metal has a work function energy of 2.2 1019 J.

On the axes of Fig. 7.1, sketch a graph to show the variation with 1/ of EMAX for caesium
metal. [2]

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16

8 (a) Distinguish, for an atom, between a nucleus and a nucleon.

nucleus: .....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

nucleon: ....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) Radon gas is a naturally occurring radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.8 days.

The activity of radon gas in a room is found to be 97 Bq in each 1.0 m3 of air.

(i) Calculate

1. the decay constant, in s1, of radon,

decay constant = .................................................... s1 [2]

2. the number of radon atoms giving rise to an activity of 97 Bq.

number = .......................................................... [2]

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17

(ii) A volume of 2.5 102 m3 of air in the room contains 1.0 mol of molecules.

Determine the ratio, for 1.0 m3 of air,


number of radon atoms .
number of air molecules

ratio = .......................................................... [2]

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18

Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

9 A battery of e.m.f. 6.0 V and negligible internal resistance is connected to three resistors, each of
resistance 2.0 k, and a thermistor, as shown in Fig. 9.1.

2.0 k1

6.0 V A B

2.0 k1 2.0 k1

Fig. 9.1

The thermistor has resistance 2.8 k at 10 C and resistance 1.8 k at 20 C.

(a) Calculate the potential

(i) at point A,

potential = ...................................................... V [1]

(ii) at point B for the thermistor at 10 C,

potential = ...................................................... V [2]

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19

(iii) at point B for the thermistor at 20 C.

potential = ...................................................... V [1]

(b) The points A and B in Fig. 9.1 are connected to the inputs of an ideal operational amplifier
(op-amp), as shown in Fig. 9.2.

+9 V

B +

9 V VOUT

Fig. 9.2

The thermistor is warmed from 10 C to 20 C.

State and explain the change in the output potential VOUT of the op-amp as the thermistor is
warmed.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[4]

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20

10 (a) Explain what is meant by the sharpness and by the contrast of an X-ray image.

sharpness: ................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

contrast: ....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) A parallel X-ray beam of intensity I is incident on a medium of thickness x, as illustrated in


Fig. 10.1.

incident transmitted
intensity I intensity IT

medium

Fig. 10.1

The transmitted intensity is IT.

Data for the linear absorption (attenuation) coefficient for 80 keV X-rays in bone and in
muscle are given in Fig. 10.2.

/ cm1
bone 3.0
muscle 0.27

Fig. 10.2

(i) State, with reference to the production of X-rays, what is meant by 80 keV X-rays.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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21

(ii) Calculate the ratio IT / I for 80 keV X-rays passing through a thickness of 1.4 cm of bone.

ratio = .......................................................... [2]

(c) An X-ray image of the upper leg of a student is produced.


Part of the X-ray beam passes through a comparatively large thickness of muscle and part
through some muscle and the leg bone.

Use data from Fig. 10.2 to suggest whether the image has good contrast.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[3]

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22

11 A carrier wave is frequency modulated.

(a) Describe what is meant by frequency modulation.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The sinusoidal carrier wave has a frequency of 750 kHz and an amplitude of 5.0 V.
The carrier wave is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal signal of frequency 7.5 kHz and
amplitude 1.5 V.
The frequency deviation of the carrier wave is 20 kHz V1.

Determine, for the frequency-modulated carrier wave,

(i) the amplitude,

amplitude = ...................................................... V [1]

(ii) the minimum frequency,

minimum frequency = .................................................. kHz [1]

(iii) the maximum frequency,

maximum frequency = .................................................. kHz [1]

(iv) the number of times per second that the frequency changes from its minimum value to its
maximum value and then back to the minimum value.

number = .................................................... s1 [1]

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23

12 (a) When infra-red radiation passes along an optic fibre, it is attenuated.

(i) State what is meant by attenuation.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) The infra-red radiation is transmitted as a series of pulses.

State and explain two advantages of the digital, rather than the analogue, transmission
of information.

1. ........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

2. ........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[4]

(b) The input light power to an optic fibre of length 36 km is 145 mW. The output light power is
29 mW.

Calculate, in dB km1, the attenuation per unit length of the optic fibre.

attenuation per unit length = ............................................. dB km1 [2]

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24

BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2015 9702/41/O/N/15


www.dynamicpapers.com

Cambridge International Examinations


Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 6 5 9 5 3 5 2 3 1 1 *

PHYSICS 9702/42
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions October/November 2015
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or 4
part question.
5

10

11

12

Total

This document consists of 23 printed pages and 1 blank page.

DC (GB) 116823
UCLES 2015 [Turn over
www.dynamicpapers.com
2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1


1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

UCLES 2015 9702/42/O/N/15


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3

Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 12 at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = pV

gravitational potential, = Gm
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p= 3 <c >
V
simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

Q
electric potential, V=
40r

capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W = 12 QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp(t)

decay constant, = 0.693


t 1
2

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4

Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 A satellite of mass mS is in a circular orbit of radius x about the Earth.

The Earth may be considered to be an isolated uniform sphere with its mass M concentrated at its
centre.

(a) (i) Show that the kinetic energy EK of the satellite is given by the expression
GMmS
EK =
2x
where G is the gravitational constant. Explain your working.

[3]

(ii) State an expression, in terms of G, M, mS and x, for the potential energy EP of the
satellite.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) Using answers from (i) and (ii), derive an expression for the total energy ET of the
satellite.

ET = ...........................................................[2]

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5

(b) Small resistive forces acting on the satellite cause the radius of its circular orbit to change.

Use your answers in (a) to state, for the satellite, whether each of the following quantities
increases, decreases or remains constant.

(i) total energy

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) radius of orbit

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(iii) potential energy

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(iv) kinetic energy

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

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6

2 (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The mean-square speed of the atoms of a fixed mass of an ideal gas at 32 C is 1.9 106 m2 s2.

The gas is heated at constant volume to a temperature of 80 C.

Determine

(i) the rise, in kelvin, of the temperature of the gas,

temperature rise = ...................................................... K [1]

(ii) the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) speed of the atoms at 80 C.

r.m.s. speed = ................................................ m s1 [3]

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7

3 (a) State an expression, in terms of work done and heating, that is used to calculate the increase
in internal energy of a system.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) State and explain, in terms of your expression in (a), the change, if any, in the internal energy

(i) of the water in an ice cube when the ice melts, at atmospheric pressure, to form a liquid
without any change of temperature,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii) of the gas in a tyre when the tyre bursts so that the gas suddenly increases in volume.
Assume that the gas is ideal.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

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4 (a) Distinguish between free oscillations and forced oscillations.

free oscillations: ........................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

forced oscillations: ....................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) A trolley is held on a horizontal surface by means of two stretched springs, as shown in
Fig. 4.1.

spring trolley spring


fixed point
oscillator

Fig. 4.1

One spring is attached to a fixed point. The other spring is attached to an oscillator that
causes horizontal oscillations of the trolley.

The oscillator vibrates with a constant amplitude of vibration. The frequency of vibration of the
oscillator is gradually increased from a very low value.

The variation with frequency f of the amplitude x0 of vibration of the trolley is shown in
Fig. 4.2.

x0

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


f / Hz

Fig. 4.2

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Use Fig. 4.2 to state and explain

(i) the value of the natural frequency of vibration of the trolley,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii) whether there are any frictional forces acting on the trolley.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) The oscillator in (b) is now stopped.

The trolley is given a horizontal displacement of 4.7 cm along the line of the springs.
The trolley is then released.

Use information from Fig. 4.2 to estimate the maximum speed of the trolley.

speed = ................................................ m s1 [2]

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5 A charged particle P is situated in a vacuum at a distance x from the centre of a charged conducting
sphere of radius r, as illustrated in Fig. 5.1.

r P

Fig. 5.1

For the particle P outside the conducting sphere, the charge on the sphere may be assumed to be
a point charge at its centre.

(a) (i) State Coulombs law.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) The sphere and the particle P are both charged positively.

1. State the direction of the force acting on particle P.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

2. State the position of particle P for the force to be maximum.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

3. Determine the ratio


force on particle P at x = r .
force on particle P at x = 4r

ratio = .......................................................... [2]

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(b) When the charge on the sphere is 6.0 107 C, the electric field strength at the surface of the
sphere is 1.5 106 V m1.

Electrical breakdown (a spark) occurs when the electric field strength at the surface of the
sphere exceeds 2.0 106 V m1.

Determine the additional charge that may be added to the sphere before breakdown occurs.

charge = ...................................................... C [3]

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6 (a) A particle has mass m, charge +q and speed v.

State the magnitude and direction of the force, if any, on the particle when the particle is
travelling along the direction of

(i) a uniform gravitational field of field strength g,

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) a uniform magnetic field of flux density B.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Two charged horizontal metal plates, situated in a vacuum, produce a uniform electric field of
field strength E between the plates. The field strength outside the region between the plates is
zero.

The particle in (a) enters the region of the electric field at right-angles to the direction of the
field, as illustrated in Fig. 6.1.

particle, v
charge +q
mass m
E

Fig. 6.1

A uniform magnetic field is to be applied in the same region as the electric field so that the
particle passes undeviated through the region between the plates.

(i) State and explain the direction of the magnetic field.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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(ii) Derive, with explanation, the relation between the speed v and the magnitudes of the
electric field strength E and the magnetic flux density B.

[3]

(c) A second particle has the same mass m and charge +q as that in (b) but its speed is 2v.
This particle enters the region between the plates along the same direction as the particle
in (b).

On Fig. 6.1, sketch the path of this particle in the region between the plates. [2]

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7 (a) By reference to the photoelectric effect, state what is meant by the threshold frequency.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Electrons are emitted from a metal surface when light of a particular wavelength is incident on
the surface.
Explain why the emitted electrons have a range of values of kinetic energy below a maximum
value.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) The wavelength of the incident radiation is .


The variation with 1/ of the maximum kinetic energy EMAX of electrons emitted from a metal
surface is shown in Fig. 7.1.

4.0

3.0
EMAX
/ 1019 J
2.0

1.0

0
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
1
/ 106 m1
h

Fig. 7.1

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(i) Use Fig. 7.1 to determine, without reference to the work function energy, the threshold
frequency f0.

f0 = .................................................... Hz [2]

(ii) Use your answer in (i) to calculate the work function energy .

= ....................................................... J [2]

(d) Caesium metal has a work function energy of 2.2 1019 J.

On the axes of Fig. 7.1, sketch a graph to show the variation with 1/ of EMAX for caesium
metal. [2]

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8 (a) Distinguish, for an atom, between a nucleus and a nucleon.

nucleus: .....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

nucleon: ....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) Radon gas is a naturally occurring radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.8 days.

The activity of radon gas in a room is found to be 97 Bq in each 1.0 m3 of air.

(i) Calculate

1. the decay constant, in s1, of radon,

decay constant = .................................................... s1 [2]

2. the number of radon atoms giving rise to an activity of 97 Bq.

number = .......................................................... [2]

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(ii) A volume of 2.5 102 m3 of air in the room contains 1.0 mol of molecules.

Determine the ratio, for 1.0 m3 of air,


number of radon atoms .
number of air molecules

ratio = .......................................................... [2]

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Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

9 A battery of e.m.f. 6.0 V and negligible internal resistance is connected to three resistors, each of
resistance 2.0 k, and a thermistor, as shown in Fig. 9.1.

2.0 k1

6.0 V A B

2.0 k1 2.0 k1

Fig. 9.1

The thermistor has resistance 2.8 k at 10 C and resistance 1.8 k at 20 C.

(a) Calculate the potential

(i) at point A,

potential = ...................................................... V [1]

(ii) at point B for the thermistor at 10 C,

potential = ...................................................... V [2]

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(iii) at point B for the thermistor at 20 C.

potential = ...................................................... V [1]

(b) The points A and B in Fig. 9.1 are connected to the inputs of an ideal operational amplifier
(op-amp), as shown in Fig. 9.2.

+9 V

B +

9 V VOUT

Fig. 9.2

The thermistor is warmed from 10 C to 20 C.

State and explain the change in the output potential VOUT of the op-amp as the thermistor is
warmed.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[4]

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10 (a) Explain what is meant by the sharpness and by the contrast of an X-ray image.

sharpness: ................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

contrast: ....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) A parallel X-ray beam of intensity I is incident on a medium of thickness x, as illustrated in


Fig. 10.1.

incident transmitted
intensity I intensity IT

medium

Fig. 10.1

The transmitted intensity is IT.

Data for the linear absorption (attenuation) coefficient for 80 keV X-rays in bone and in
muscle are given in Fig. 10.2.

/ cm1
bone 3.0
muscle 0.27

Fig. 10.2

(i) State, with reference to the production of X-rays, what is meant by 80 keV X-rays.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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(ii) Calculate the ratio IT / I for 80 keV X-rays passing through a thickness of 1.4 cm of bone.

ratio = .......................................................... [2]

(c) An X-ray image of the upper leg of a student is produced.


Part of the X-ray beam passes through a comparatively large thickness of muscle and part
through some muscle and the leg bone.

Use data from Fig. 10.2 to suggest whether the image has good contrast.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[3]

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11 A carrier wave is frequency modulated.

(a) Describe what is meant by frequency modulation.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The sinusoidal carrier wave has a frequency of 750 kHz and an amplitude of 5.0 V.
The carrier wave is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal signal of frequency 7.5 kHz and
amplitude 1.5 V.
The frequency deviation of the carrier wave is 20 kHz V1.

Determine, for the frequency-modulated carrier wave,

(i) the amplitude,

amplitude = ...................................................... V [1]

(ii) the minimum frequency,

minimum frequency = .................................................. kHz [1]

(iii) the maximum frequency,

maximum frequency = .................................................. kHz [1]

(iv) the number of times per second that the frequency changes from its minimum value to its
maximum value and then back to the minimum value.

number = .................................................... s1 [1]

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12 (a) When infra-red radiation passes along an optic fibre, it is attenuated.

(i) State what is meant by attenuation.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) The infra-red radiation is transmitted as a series of pulses.

State and explain two advantages of the digital, rather than the analogue, transmission
of information.

1. ........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

2. ........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[4]

(b) The input light power to an optic fibre of length 36 km is 145 mW. The output light power is
29 mW.

Calculate, in dB km1, the attenuation per unit length of the optic fibre.

attenuation per unit length = ............................................. dB km1 [2]

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24

BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

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Cambridge International Examinations


Cambridge International Advanced Level
* 6 1 1 0 0 5 6 7 5 7 *

PHYSICS 9702/43
Paper 4 A2 Structured Questions October/November 2015
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
For Examiners Use
Answer all questions.
1
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use 2
appropriate units.
3
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
4
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or
part question. 5

10

11

12

13

Total

This document consists of 23 printed pages and 1 blank page.

DC (NF/CGW) 97089/2
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2

Data

speed of light in free space, c = 3.00 10 8 m s 1

permeability of free space, 0 = 4 10 7 H m1

permittivity of free space, 0 = 8.85 10 12 F m1

1
( = 8.99 10 9 m F1 )
40
elementary charge, e = 1.60 10 19 C

the Planck constant, h = 6.63 10 34 J s

unified atomic mass constant, u = 1.66 10 27 kg

rest mass of electron, me = 9.11 10 31 kg

rest mass of proton, mp = 1.67 10 27 kg

molar gas constant, R = 8.31 J K 1 mol 1

the Avogadro constant, NA = 6.02 10 23 mol 1

the Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 10 23 J K1

gravitational constant, G = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s 2

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Formulae

uniformly accelerated motion, s = ut + 12 at 2


v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas, W = pV

gravitational potential, = Gm
r
hydrostatic pressure, p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas, p= 3 <c >
V
simple harmonic motion, a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m., v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

Q
electric potential, V=
40r

capacitors in series, 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel, C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor, W = 12 QV

resistors in series, R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel, 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

alternating current/voltage, x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay, x = x0 exp(t)

decay constant, = 0.693


t 1
2

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Section A

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) State Newtons law of gravitation.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Some of the planets in the Solar System have several moons (satellites) that have circular
orbits about the planet.
The planet and each of its moons may be considered to be point masses.

Show that the radius x of a moons orbit is related to the period T of the orbit by the expression

42x 3
GM =
T2

where G is the gravitational constant and M is the mass of the planet. Explain your working.

[3]

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(c) The planet Neptune has eight moons, each in a circular orbit of radius x and period T. The
variation with T 2 of x 3 for some of the moons is shown in Fig. 1.1.

5.0

4.0

x 3 / 1014 km3

3.0

2.0

1.0

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
2 2
T / day

Fig. 1.1

Use Fig. 1.1 and the expression in (b) to determine the mass of Neptune.

mass = ................................................... kg [4]

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2 (a) An ideal gas is said to consist of molecules that are hard elastic identical spheres.

State two further assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) The number of molecules per unit volume in an ideal gas is n.

If it is assumed that all the molecules are moving with speed v, the pressure p exerted by the
gas on the walls of the vessel is given by

p = 13 nmv 2

where m is the mass of one molecule.

Explain the reasoning by which this expression is modified to give the formula

p = 13 nm<c 2>.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(c) The density of an ideal gas is 1.2 kg m3 at a pressure of 1.0 105 Pa and a temperature
of 27 C.

(i) Calculate the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) speed of the molecules of the gas at 27 C.

r.m.s. speed = ................................................. m s1 [3]

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(ii) Calculate the mean-square speed of the molecules at 207 C.

mean-square speed = ............................................. m2 s2 [2]

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3 (a) Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium.

State what is meant by thermal equilibrium.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The temperature of a body is found to increase from 15.9 C to 57.2 C.

Determine, in kelvin and to an appropriate number of decimal places,

(i) the rise in temperature of the body,

temperature rise = ..................................................... K [1]

(ii) the final temperature.

temperature = ..................................................... K [1]

(c) An ideal gas at a constant pressure of 1.2 105 Pa is heated from a temperature of 290 K to a
final temperature of 350 K. The change in volume of the gas is 950 cm3.

The total change in kinetic energy EK, measured in joules, of the gas molecules is given by
the expression

EK = 32 1.9 T

where T is the change in temperature in kelvin.

Determine the thermal energy required to produce the change in temperature from 290 K to
350 K.

energy = ...................................................... J [4]

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4 (a) Define simple harmonic motion.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A tube, sealed at one end, has a circular cross-sectional area A of 4.9 104 m2. Some sand
is put in the tube so that the total mass M of the tube and its contents is 70 g. The tube floats
upright in a liquid, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

tube
cross-sectional area A
liquid 4.9 104 m2

h
sand

Fig. 4.1

The liquid has a density of 0.79 g cm3.

By reference to the liquid pressure exerted on the base of the tube, show that the distance h
of the base of the tube below the liquid surface is 18 cm. Explain your working.

[2]

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(c) The tube in (b) is displaced vertically and then released. The variation with time t of the
distance h is shown in Fig. 4.2.

21

20
h / cm
19

18
0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t
17

16

15

Fig. 4.2

The system oscillates with simple harmonic motion of angular frequency given by the
expression

Ag
2 =
M

where g is the acceleration of free fall.

(i) Use data from (b) to determine

1. the time t1,

t1 = ...................................................... s [3]

2. the time t3 .

t 3 = ...................................................... s [1]

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(ii) Determine the loss in total energy of the oscillating system between time t = 0 and time
t = t4.

loss in energy = ...................................................... J [3]

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5 A positively charged solid metal sphere is isolated in space. The electric field strength E is
measured for different distances x from the centre of the sphere. The variation with x of the field
strength E is shown in Fig. 5.1.

100

80
E / N C1

60

40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
x / cm

Fig. 5.1

(a) Suggest why, for values of x less than 4.0 cm, the electric field strength is zero.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A point charge of +8.5 109 C moves from a point where x = 7.0 cm to a point where
x = 5.0 cm.
Use Fig. 5.1 to estimate the change in electric potential energy of this point charge.

energy = ...................................................... J [3]

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6 Suggest an explanation for each of the following observations.

(a) Two wires are laid side-by-side and carry equal currents I in opposite directions, as shown in
Fig. 6.1.

Fig. 6.1

The total magnetic flux density due to the current in the wires is negligible.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) An air-cored solenoid is connected in series with a battery, as shown in Fig. 6.2.

solenoid
iron core

Fig. 6.2

As an iron core is inserted into the solenoid, an e.m.f. that opposes the e.m.f. of the battery is
induced in the solenoid.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [4]

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7 A student is using a power supply that produces a sinusoidal output. The meters on the supply
show that the output voltage V has a root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of 14 V with a frequency of
750 Hz.

The variation with time t of the output voltage V may be represented by the expression

V = V0 sint.

(a) Determine the value of

(i) V0,

V0 = ..................................................... V [1]

(ii) .

= ............................................. rad s1 [1]

(b) A capacitor with a large capacitance is connected across the terminals of the supply.

Suggest and explain why this may lead to a large current from the supply.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

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8 Light of wavelength is incident on a metal surface having a work function energy .

Photoelectrons of maximum kinetic energy EMAX are emitted from the surface.

(a) State an equation relating , EMAX and . Explain any other symbols you use.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The variation with 1/ of EMAX is shown in Fig. 8.1.

EMAX

0
1/ h

Fig. 8.1

(i) By reference to your answer in (a), explain why the gradient of the line does not depend
on the metal surface.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) The work function energy of sodium is 2.28 eV.

Determine the minimum wavelength 0 at which EMAX is zero.

0 = .................................................... m [3]

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9 (a) State what is meant by the binding energy of a nucleus.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Data for two isotopes of uranium are given in Fig. 9.1.

isotope binding energy per nucleon / MeV binding energy / MeV

uranium-235 7.59 .............................

uranium-238 ............................. 1802

Fig. 9.1

(i) State what is meant by isotopes.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) Complete Fig. 9.1. [2]

(c) Uranium-235 has a half-life of 7.1 108 years.

(i) Show that the decay constant of uranium-235 is 3.1 1017 s1.

[1]

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(ii) A sample of uranium-235 has an activity of 5.0 103 Bq.

Calculate the mass of the sample.

mass = ..................................................... g [3]

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BLANK PAGE

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19

Section B

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

10 The output potential VOUT from an operational amplifier is to be monitored using an output device.
The output VOUT can be either +5 V or 5 V.

(a) On Fig. 10.1, draw a circuit for the output device that consists of two light-emitting diodes B
and G.
Diode B alone is to emit light when VOUT is +5 V. Diode G alone is to emit light when
VOUT is 5 V.

VOUT

Fig. 10.1
[3]

(b) On Fig. 10.2, draw a circuit of the output device that consists of a relay and a diode such that
a high-power lamp is switched on only when VOUT is 5 V.

VOUT

high power
lamp

power supply

Fig. 10.2
[4]

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11 (a) An X-ray source is placed on one side of a metal plate, as shown in Fig. 11.1.

metal
plate

X-ray
source A B

Fig. 11.1

The intensity of the X-ray beam is measured at points A and B.

State two reasons, other than absorption of X-ray photons in the metal, for the intensity at
point A to be different to that at point B.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) A specimen of muscle and bone undergoes X-ray examination. Parallel beams of X-rays are
incident on the specimen, as shown in Fig. 11.2.

X-ray
beams

1.5 cm bone muscle 4.0 cm

Fig. 11.2

The specimen has a total thickness of 4.0 cm. One section contains a bone of thickness
1.5 cm.

Data for the linear absorption (attenuation) coefficient for the bone and for the muscle in the
specimen are given in Fig. 11.3.

/ cm1

bone 3.0
muscle 0.27

Fig. 11.3
UCLES 2015 9702/43/O/N/15
www.dynamicpapers.com
21

(i) Calculate the ratio

intensity of X-ray beam incident on the specimen


intensity of X-ray beam emerging from the specimen

for the beam passing through

1. the 4.0 cm thickness of muscle alone,

ratio = ......................................................... [2]

2. the bone and the muscle.

ratio = ......................................................... [2]

(ii) Using your answers in (i), suggest and explain whether an X-ray image of this specimen
is likely to have good contrast.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

UCLES 2015 9702/43/O/N/15 [Turn over


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22

12 A transmission system for speech may be represented by the block diagram of Fig. 12.1.

P Q
X Y Z

analogue-to- parallel-to-
digital serial
converter converter

Fig. 12.1

(a) Name the component labelled

(i) block X,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) block Y,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) Z.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) The variation with time of part of the signal at the input P to the analogue-to-digital converter
(ADC) is shown in Fig. 12.2.

16

14

signal 12
/ mV
10

0
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75
time / ms

Fig. 12.2

UCLES 2015 9702/43/O/N/15


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23

Each number of the output from the ADC is a digital number where the smallest bit represents
1 mV.

State

(i) the minimum number of bits in each digital number so that the signal in Fig. 12.2 can be
sampled fully,

number = ......................................................... [1]

(ii) the digital number produced by the ADC at time 0.50 ms.

number = ......................................................... [1]

(c) The ADC samples the signal in Fig. 12.2 at a frequency of 4.0 kHz. The first sample is taken at
time zero.

Using data from Fig. 12.2, draw, on the axes of Fig. 12.3, the variation with time of the output
at point Q for time zero to time 1.5 ms.

16

14

12
output
level 10

0
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75
time / ms

Fig. 12.3
[4]

Please turn over for Question 13.

UCLES 2015 9702/43/O/N/15 [Turn over


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24

13 Polar orbiting satellites have orbits over the poles of the Earth. Geostationary satellites are in
equatorial orbits. Both are used as part of communication channels.

(a) State one advantage and one disadvantage of the use of a polar orbiting satellite as compared
with a geostationary satellite.

advantage: ................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

disadvantage: ............................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) A geostationary satellite is known to operate on the 6/4 GHz band.

Explain

(i) what is meant by the 6/4 GHz band,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) why two different frequencies are necessary.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2015 9702/43/O/N/15


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
* 7 1 9 9 9 3 4 2 9 4 *

PHYSICS 9702/41
Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions May/June 2016
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Answer all questions.

Electronic calculators may be used.


You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 26 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (NF/SG) 108406/3
UCLES 2016 [Turn over
www.egyptigstudentroom.com
2

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m1

permittivity of free space 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1


1
( = 8.99 109 m F1)
40
elementary charge e = 1.60 1019 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 1034 J s

unified atomic mass unit 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 1031 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 1027 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 J K1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
3

Formulae

1
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + 2 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential =
r

hydrostatic pressure p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas p = 3
c
V
simple harmonic motion a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )
fsv
Doppler effect fo =
v vs

Q
electric potential V =
40r

capacitors in series 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor W = 12 QV

electric current I = Anvq

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

BI
Hall voltage VH =
ntq

alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay x = x0 exp(t )

0.693
decay constant =
t 1
2

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4

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) By reference to the definition of gravitational potential, explain why gravitational potential is a
negative quantity.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Two stars A and B have their surfaces separated by a distance of 1.4 1012 m, as illustrated in
Fig. 1.1.

1.4 = 1012 m
star A star B
P

Fig. 1.1

Point P lies on the line joining the centres of the two stars. The distance x of point P from the
surface of star A may be varied.

The variation with distance x of the gravitational potential at point P is shown in Fig. 1.2.

x / 1012 m
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
2

8
q/ 108 J kg1
10

12

14

16

Fig. 1.2

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
5

A rock of mass 180 kg moves along the line joining the centres of the two stars, from star A
towards star B.

(i) Use data from Fig. 1.2 to calculate the change in kinetic energy of the rock when it
moves from the point where x = 0.1 1012 m to the point where x = 1.2 1012 m.
State whether this change is an increase or a decrease.

change = ............................................................. J

..................................................................................
[3]

(ii) At a point where x = 0.1 1012 m, the speed of the rock is v.

Determine the minimum speed v such that the rock reaches the point where
x = 1.2 1012 m.

minimum speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

[Total: 8]

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6

2 (a) An ideal gas is assumed to consist of atoms or molecules that behave as hard, identical
spheres that are in continuous motion and undergo elastic collisions.

State two further assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) Helium-4 ( 42He) may be assumed to be an ideal gas.

(i) Show that the mass of one atom of helium-4 is 6.6 1024 g.

[1]

(ii) The mean kinetic energy EK of an atom of an ideal gas is given by the expression

EK = 32 kT.

Calculate the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) speed of a helium-4 atom at a temperature of


27 C.

r.m.s. speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

[Total: 6]

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7

3 (a) State, by reference to displacement, what is meant by simple harmonic motion.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A mass is undergoing oscillations in a vertical plane.

The variation with displacement x of the acceleration a of the mass is shown in Fig. 3.1.

0
0 x

Fig. 3.1

State two reasons why the motion of the mass is not simple harmonic.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

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8

(c) A block of wood is floating in a liquid, as shown in Fig. 3.2.

oscillation
block of block

liquid

Fig. 3.2

The block is displaced vertically and then released.

The variation with time t of the displacement y of the block from its equilibrium position is
shown in Fig. 3.3.

2.0
y / cm
1.5

1.0

0.5

0
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 t/s
0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Fig. 3.3

Use data from Fig. 3.3 to determine

(i) the angular frequency of the oscillations,

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
= ............................................. rad s 1 [2]
UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
9

(ii) the maximum vertical acceleration of the block.

maximum acceleration = ............................................... m s2 [2]

(iii) The block has mass 120 g.

The oscillations of the block are damped. Calculate the loss in energy of the oscillations
of the block during the first three complete periods of its oscillations.

energy loss = ...................................................... J [3]

[Total: 11]

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10

4 (a) (i) State what is meant by the specific acoustic impedance of a medium.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) The intensity reflection coefficient is given by the expression

(Z2 Z1)2
= .
(Z2 + Z1)2

Explain the meanings of the symbols in this expression.

: .......................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

Z2 and Z1: ..........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) A parallel beam of ultrasound has intensity I0 as it enters a muscle.


The beam passes through a thickness of 3.4 cm of muscle before being incident on the
boundary with a bone, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

muscle bone

intensity I0 intensity IT

entering muscle entering bone

3.4 cm

Fig. 4.1

The intensity of the ultrasound beam as it passes into the bone is IT.

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
11

Some data for muscle and bone are given in Fig. 4.2.

linear absorption specific acoustic impedance


coefficient / m1 / kg m2 s1

muscle 23 1.7 106


bone 130 6.3 106

Fig. 4.2

IT
Calculate the ratio .
I0

ratio = ......................................................... [5]

[Total: 9]

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16 [Turn over
12

5 The variation with time t of the voltage level of part of an analogue signal is shown in Fig. 5.1.

16

14

voltage level 12

10

0
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
time t / ms

Fig. 5.1

The signal is sampled at 0.25 ms intervals. Each sample is converted into a four-bit digital number.

Fig. 5.2 lists various times t at which the voltage level is sampled.
The digital number for time t = 0 is shown.

time t / ms 0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50

digital number 1011

Fig. 5.2

(a) (i) On Fig. 5.2, underline the most significant bit (MSB) for the digital number at time t = 0.
[1]
(ii) Complete Fig. 5.2 for the times shown. [2]

(b) After transmission of the digital numbers, the signal is passed through a digital-to-analogue
converter (DAC).

On Fig. 5.3, plot the transmitted analogue signal from the DAC.

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
13

16

14

voltage level 12

10

0
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
time t / ms

Fig. 5.3
[3]

(c) The transmitted signal in (b) has less detail than the original signal in Fig. 5.1.

Suggest and explain two means by which the level of detail in the transmitted signal could be
increased.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[4]

[Total: 10]

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14

BLANK PAGE

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
15

6 A solid metal sphere of radius R is isolated in space. The sphere is positively charged so that the
electric potential at its surface is VS. The electric field strength at the surface is ES.

(a) On the axes of Fig. 6.1, show the variation of the electric potential with distance x from the
centre of the sphere for values of x from x = 0 to x = 3R.

1.0 Vs

0.8 Vs
potential
0.6 Vs

0.4 Vs

0.2 Vs

0
0 R 2R 3R
distance x

Fig. 6.1
[3]

(b) On the axes of Fig. 6.2, show the variation of the electric field strength with distance x from
the centre of the sphere for values of x from x = 0 to x = 3R.

1.0 Es

0.8 Es
field
strength 0.6 Es

0.4 Es

0.2 Es

0
0 R 2R 3R
distance x

Fig. 6.2
[3]

[Total: 6]

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16

7 A student sets up the circuit shown in Fig. 7.1 to measure the charge on a capacitor C for different
values of potential difference across the capacitor.

C meter to
V
measure charge

Fig. 7.1

The variation with potential difference V of the charge Q stored on the capacitor is shown in
Fig. 7.2.

15

Q / mC

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
V/V

Fig. 7.2

(a) State and explain how Fig. 7.2 indicates that there is a systematic error in the readings of one
of the meters.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
17

(b) Use Fig. 7.2 to determine the capacitance, in F, of capacitor C.

capacitance = .................................................... F [3]

(c) Use your answer in (b) to determine the additional energy stored in the capacitor C when the
potential difference across it is increased from 6.0 V to 9.0 V.

energy = ...................................................... J [3]

[Total: 8]

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18

8 The circuit of an inverting amplifier incorporating an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) is shown
in Fig. 8.1.

R1

+V
R2
P

+
V IN V OUT
V

Fig. 8.1

(a) Explain why point P is known as a virtual earth.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) Derive an expression, in terms of the resistances R1 and R2, for the gain of the amplifier
circuit.
Explain your working.

[3]

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
19

(c) A relay and the output terminals of the amplifier circuit are shown in Fig. 8.2.

V OUT

Fig. 8.2

On Fig. 8.2, show how the relay may be connected to the amplifier output so that the relay
operates only when VOUT is positive. [3]

[Total: 9]

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20

BLANK PAGE

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
21

9 A thin rectangular slice of aluminium has sides of length 65 mm, 50 mm and 0.10 mm, as shown in
Fig. 9.1.

direction of
magnetic field

Z Y
0.10 mm
50 mm
X
current
3.8 A
Q R

P S
65 mm

Fig. 9.1 (not to scale)

Some of the corners of the slice are labelled.

A current I of 3.8 A is normal to face RSXY of the slice.

In aluminium, the number of free electrons per unit volume is 6.0 1028 m3.

A uniform magnetic field of magnetic flux density B equal to 0.13 T is normal to face QRYZ of the
aluminium slice in the direction from Q to P.

A Hall voltage VH is developed across the slice and is given by the expression

VH = BI .
ntq

(a) Use Fig. 9.1 to state the magnitude of the distance t.

t = ................................................. mm [1]

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the Hall voltage VH.

VH = ..................................................... V [2]

[Total: 3]

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22

10 (a) A coil of insulated wire is wound on a copper core, as illustrated in Fig. 10.1.

insulated copper
wire core

Fig. 10.1

An alternating current is passed through the coil.

The heating effect of the current in the coil is negligible.

Explain why the temperature of the core rises.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [4]

(b) Two hollow tubes of equal length hang vertically as shown in Fig. 10.2.

magnet A magnet B

plastic aluminium
tube tube

Fig. 10.2

One tube is made of plastic and the other of aluminium.

Two small similar bar magnets A and B are held above the tubes and then released
simultaneously.
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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
23

The magnets do not touch the sides of the tubes.


Explain why magnet B takes much longer than magnet A to fall through the tube.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [5]

[Total: 9]

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24

11 The variation with time t of the sinusoidal current I in a resistor of resistance 450 is shown in
Fig. 11.1.

1.0

I/A

0.5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
t / ms

0.5

1.0

Fig. 11.1

Use data from Fig. 11.1 to determine, for the time t = 0 to t = 30 ms,

(a) the frequency of the current,

frequency = ................................................... Hz [2]

(b) the mean current,

mean current = ..................................................... A [1]

(c) the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) current,

r.m.s. current = ..................................................... A [2]

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
25

(d) the energy dissipated by the resistor.

energy = ...................................................... J [2]

[Total: 7]

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26

12 Some of the electron energy bands in a solid are illustrated in Fig. 12.1.

conduction band
(partially filled)

forbidden band

valence band

Fig. 12.1

(a) In isolated atoms, electron energy levels have discrete values.


Suggest why, in a solid, there are energy bands, rather than discrete energy levels.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) A light-dependent resistor (LDR) consists of an intrinsic semiconductor.

Use band theory to explain the dependence on light intensity of the resistance of the LDR
when it is at constant temperature.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [5]

[Total: 8]

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16
27

13 Copper-66 is a radioactive isotope.

When a nucleus of copper-66 decays, the emissions include a particle and a -ray photon.

The count rate produced from a sample of the isotope copper-66 is measured using a detector
and counter, as illustrated in Fig. 13.1.

to counter

detector

radioactive
sample

shielding

Fig. 13.1

(a) State three reasons why the activity of the sample of copper-66 is not equal to the measured
count rate.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

3. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[3]

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UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16 [Turn over
28

(b) In a time of 42.0 minutes, the count rate from the sample of copper-66 is found to decrease
from 3.62 104 Bq to 1.21 102 Bq.

Calculate the half-life of copper-66.

half-life = .......................................... minutes [2]

(c) The -ray photons emitted from radioactive nuclei have specific energies, dependent on the
nucleus emitting the photons.

By comparison with emission line spectra, suggest what can be deduced about energy levels
in nuclei.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

[Total: 6]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2016 9702/41/M/J/16


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
* 7 6 2 2 8 7 4 4 8 6 *

PHYSICS 9702/42
Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions May/June 2016
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Answer all questions.

Electronic calculators may be used.


You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 27 printed pages and 1 blank page.

DC (NF/FD) 108407/3
UCLES 2016 [Turn over
www.egyptigstudentroom.com
2

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m1

permittivity of free space 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1


1
( = 8.99 109 m F1)
40
elementary charge e = 1.60 1019 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 1034 J s

unified atomic mass unit 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 1031 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 1027 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 J K1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
UCLES 2016 9702/42/M/J/16
3

Formulae

1
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + 2 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential =
r

hydrostatic pressure p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas p = 3
c
V
simple harmonic motion a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )
fsv
Doppler effect fo =
v vs

Q
electric potential V =
40r

capacitors in series 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor W = 12 QV

electric current I = Anvq

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

BI
Hall voltage VH =
ntq

alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay x = x0 exp(t )

0.693
decay constant =
t 1
2

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4

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 A binary star consists of two stars A and B that orbit one another, as illustrated in Fig. 1.1.

2.8 108 km
t
VWDU$ VWDU%
PDVV0$ 3 PDVV0%

t
G

Fig. 1.1

The stars are in circular orbits with the centres of both orbits at point P, a distance d from the
centre of star A.

(a) (i) Explain why the centripetal force acting on both stars has the same magnitude.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) The period of the orbit of the stars about point P is 4.0 years.

Calculate the angular speed of the stars.

= ............................................. rad s1 [2]

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5

(b) The separation of the centres of the stars is 2.8 108 km.
The mass of star A is MA. The mass of star B is MB.
M
The ratio A is 3.0.
MB

(i) Determine the distance d.

d = ................................................... km [3]

(ii) Use your answers in (a)(ii) and (b)(i) to determine the mass MB of star B.
Explain your working.

MB = .................................................... kg [3]

[Total: 10]

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2 (a) State what is meant by

(i) the Avogadro constant NA,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) the mole.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) A container has a volume of 1.8 104 cm3.

The ideal gas in the container has a pressure of 2.0 107 Pa at a temperature of 17 C.

Show that the amount of gas in the cylinder is 150 mol.

[1]

(c) Gas molecules leak from the container in (b) at a constant rate of 1.5 1019 s1.
The temperature remains at 17 C.
In a time t, the amount of gas in the container is found to be reduced by 5.0%.

Calculate

(i) the pressure of the gas after the time t,

pressure = ................................................... Pa [2]

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7

(ii) the time t.

t = ....................................................... s [3]

[Total: 9]

3 (a) Explain what is meant by the statement that two bodies are in thermal equilibrium.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) Suggest suitable types of thermometer, one in each case, to measure

(i) the temperature of the flame of a Bunsen burner,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) the change in temperature of a small crystal when it is exposed to a pulse of ultrasound
energy.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Some water is heated so that its temperature changes from 26.5 C to a final temperature of
38.0 C.

State, to an appropriate number of decimal places,

(i) the change in temperature in kelvin,

change = ..................................................... K [1]

(ii) the final temperature in kelvin.

final temperature = ..................................................... K [1]

[Total: 5]

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8

4 A metal block hangs vertically from one end of a spring. The other end of the spring is tied to a
thread that passes over a pulley and is attached to a vibrator, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

pulley vibrator

spring

block

Fig. 4.1

(a) The vibrator is switched off.


The metal block of mass 120 g is displaced vertically and then released. The variation with
time t of the displacement y of the block from its equilibrium position is shown in Fig. 4.2.

y / cm 2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1 W /s

Fig. 4.2

For the vibrations of the block, calculate

(i) the angular frequency ,

www.egyptigstudentroom.com 1
= ............................................. rad s [2]
UCLES 2016 9702/42/M/J/16
9

(ii) the energy of the vibrations.

energy = ...................................................... J [2]

(b) The vibrator is now switched on.

The frequency of vibration is varied from 0.7f to 1.3f where f is the frequency of vibration of
the block in (a).

For the block, complete Fig. 4.3 to show the variation with frequency of the amplitude of
vibration. Label this line A. [3]

amplitude

0
0.7I I 1.3I
frequency

Fig. 4.3

(c) Some light feathers are now attached to the block in (b) to increase air resistance.

The frequency of vibration is once again varied from 0.7f to 1.3f. The new amplitude of
vibration is measured for each frequency.

On Fig. 4.3, draw a line to show the variation with frequency of the amplitude of vibration.
Label this line B. [2]

[Total: 9]

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5 The signal from a radio station is amplitude modulated.

(a) State what is meant by amplitude modulation (AM).

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The variation with frequency of the intensity of the signal from the radio station is shown in
Fig. 5.1.

intensity

0
193 198 203
frequency / kHz

Fig. 5.1

State, for this signal,

(i) the bandwidth,

bandwidth = ................................................. kHz [1]

(ii) the maximum audio frequency that is broadcast.

maximum frequency = ................................................. kHz [1]

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11

(c) A transmission line of length 45 km has an attenuation per unit length of 2.0 dB km1.

The input power to the transmission line is 500 mW.


The minimum acceptable signal-to-noise ratio is 24 dB for background noise of 5.0 1013 W.

(i) Calculate the minimum acceptable power output from the transmission line.

power = .................................................... W [2]

(ii) Use your answer in (i) to determine whether it is possible to transmit the signal along the
transmission line.

[2]

[Total: 8]

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13

6 (a) By reference to electric field lines, explain why, for points outside an isolated spherical
conductor, the charge on the sphere may be considered to act as a point charge at its centre.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Two isolated protons are separated in a vacuum by a distance x.

(i) Calculate the ratio

electric force between the two protons


.
gravitational force between the two protons

ratio = ......................................................... [3]

(ii) By reference to your answer in (i), suggest why gravitational forces are not considered
when calculating the force between charged particles.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 6]

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7 (a) State two uses of capacitors in electrical circuits, other than for the smoothing of direct current.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) The combined capacitance between terminals A and B of the arrangement shown in Fig. 7.1
is 4.0 F.

+F

& &
A B

+F

Fig. 7.1

Two capacitors each have capacitance C and the remaining capacitors each have
capacitance 3.0 F.

The potential difference (p.d.) between terminals A and B is 12 V.

(i) Determine the capacitance C.

C = ................................................... F [2]

(ii) Calculate the magnitude of the total positive charge transferred to the arrangement.

charge = ................................................... C [2]

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15

(iii) Use your answer in (ii) to state the magnitude of the charge on one plate of

1. a capacitor of capacitance C,

charge = ......................................................... C

2. a capacitor of capacitance 3.0 F.

charge = ......................................................... C
[2]

[Total: 8]

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8 An ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) has infinite voltage gain and infinite slew rate.

(a) State what is meant by

(i) the voltage gain,

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) infinite slew rate.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) A non-inverting amplifier circuit incorporating an ideal op-amp is shown in Fig. 8.1.

9

9
9,1 N1 9287

Fig. 8.1

The supply to the op-amp is +9 V / 9 V.


The voltage gain of the amplifier circuit is 12.

Determine the resistance of resistor R.

resistance = ..................................................... [2]

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17

(c) For the circuit of Fig. 8.1, the variation with time t of the input potential VIN to the amplifier is
shown in Fig. 8.2.

1.0
9IN / V
0.5

0
 W W W
0.5

1.0

Fig. 8.2

On Fig. 8.3, show the variation with time t of the output potential VOUT for time t = 0 to time
t = t2.

15
9OUT / V
10

0
 W W W
5

10

15

Fig. 8.3
[4]

[Total: 9]

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9 A magnetic field of flux density B is normal to face PQRS of a slice of a conducting material, as
shown in Fig. 9.1.

magnetic field
flux density %

S
R

Z FXUUHQWI
P Q

X Y

Fig. 9.1

A current I in the slice is normal to face QRZY of the slice.

The Hall voltage VH across the slice is given by the expression

BI
VH = .
ntq

(a) (i) State what is represented by the symbol n.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) The symbol t represents the length of one side of the slice. Use letters from Fig. 9.1 to
identify t.

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) (i) In general, the Hall voltage produced in a slice of a metal is very small.
For a slice of the same dimensions with the same current and magnetic flux density, the
Hall voltage produced in a semiconductor material is much larger.
Suggest and explain why.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

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19

(ii) In some semiconducting materials, electrons are mainly responsible for conduction.
In other semiconducting materials, holes are mainly responsible for conduction.
Suggest and explain the difference, if any, that conduction by electrons or by holes will
have on the Hall voltage.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

[Total: 7]

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10 Two coils P and Q are placed close to one another, as shown in Fig. 10.1.

coil P coil Q

V
power
supply

Fig. 10.1

(a) The current in coil P is constant.

An iron rod is inserted into coil P.

Explain why, during the time that the rod is moving, there is a reading on the voltmeter
connected to coil Q.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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21

(b) The current in coil P is now varied as shown in Fig. 10.2.

current

0
0 W1 W2 WLPH

Fig. 10.2

On Fig. 10.3, show the variation with time of the reading of the voltmeter connected to coil Q
for time t = 0 to time t = t2.

voltmeter
reading

0
0 W1 W2 time

Fig. 10.3 [4]

[Total: 6]

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11 A bridge rectifier contains four ideal diodes A, B, C and D, as shown in Fig. 11.1.

input $
9
' & / N 1

Fig. 11.1

The output of the rectifier is connected to a load L of resistance 2.4 k.

(a) On Fig. 11.1, mark with the letter P the positive terminal of the load. [1]

(b) The variation with time t of the potential difference V across the input to the rectifier is shown
in Fig. 11.2.

6 LQSXW
9/V
4

0
W
2

Fig. 11.2

Calculate the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) current in the load L.

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r.m.s. current = ..................................................... A [2]
UCLES 2016 9702/42/M/J/16
23

(c) The potential difference across the load L is to be smoothed using a capacitor.

(i) On Fig. 11.1, draw the symbol for a capacitor, connected to produce smoothing. [1]
(ii) The minimum potential difference across the load L with the smoothing capacitor
connected is 3.0 V.
On Fig. 11.2, sketch the variation with time t of the potential difference across the load L.
[3]

[Total: 7]

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12 High-energy electrons collide with a metal target, producing X-ray photons.

The variation with wavelength of the intensity of the X-ray beam is illustrated in Fig. 12.1.

intensity

0
wavelength

Fig. 12.1

(a) Explain why there is

(i) a continuous distribution of wavelengths,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

(ii) a sharp cut-off at short wavelength,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(iii) a series of peaks superimposed on the continuous distribution of wavelengths.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) In the X-ray imaging of body structures, longer wavelength photons are frequently filtered out
of the X-ray beam.

(i) State how this filtering is achieved.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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25

(ii) Suggest the reason for this filtering.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 8]

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13 (a) Explain what is meant by gamma radiation (-radiation).

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A source of gamma radiation is placed a fixed distance away from a detector and counter, as
illustrated in Fig. 13.1.

WRFRXQWHU

GHWHFWRU

OHDGVKHHW

[
VKLHOGLQJ VRXUFH

Fig. 13.1

A sheet of lead of thickness x is placed between the source and the detector.
The average count rate C, corrected for background, is recorded. This is repeated for different
values of x.
The variation with thickness x of ln C is shown in Fig. 13.2.

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27

4.00

3.75

ln (& / s1)

3.50

3.25

3.00

2.75
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
[ / mm

Fig. 13.2

The absorption of gamma radiation in lead may be represented by the equation

C = C0 ex

where C0 is the count rate for x = 0 and is the linear attenuation (absorption) coefficient.

Use Fig. 13.2 to determine the linear attenuation coefficient for this gamma radiation in lead.

= .............................................. mm1 [4]

Question 13 continues on the next page.

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(c) The value of calculated in (b) is for gamma radiation in lead.

Suggest and explain whether the value of for aluminium would be the same, greater or
smaller.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

[Total: 8]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will
be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

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Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2016 9702/42/M/J/16


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
* 2 7 3 7 7 4 8 8 7 4 *

PHYSICS 9702/43
Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions May/June 2016
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Answer all questions.

Electronic calculators may be used.


You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 26 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (FD/SG) 126924
UCLES 2016 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m1

permittivity of free space 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1


1
( = 8.99 109 m F1)
40
elementary charge e = 1.60 1019 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 1034 J s

unified atomic mass unit 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 1031 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 1027 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 J K1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

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Formulae

1
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + 2 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential =
r

hydrostatic pressure p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas p = 3
c
V
simple harmonic motion a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos t


v = (x 0 2 x 2 )
fsv
Doppler effect fo =
v vs

Q
electric potential V =
40r

capacitors in series 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + . . .

energy of charged capacitor W = 12 QV

electric current I = Anvq

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

BI
Hall voltage VH =
ntq

alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay x = x0 exp(t )

0.693
decay constant =
t 1
2

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4

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) By reference to the definition of gravitational potential, explain why gravitational potential is a
negative quantity.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Two stars A and B have their surfaces separated by a distance of 1.4 1012 m, as illustrated in
Fig. 1.1.

1.4 = 1012 m
star A star B
P

Fig. 1.1

Point P lies on the line joining the centres of the two stars. The distance x of point P from the
surface of star A may be varied.

The variation with distance x of the gravitational potential at point P is shown in Fig. 1.2.

x / 1012 m
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
2

8
q/ 108 J kg1
10

12

14

16

Fig. 1.2

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A rock of mass 180 kg moves along the line joining the centres of the two stars, from star A
towards star B.

(i) Use data from Fig. 1.2 to calculate the change in kinetic energy of the rock when it
moves from the point where x = 0.1 1012 m to the point where x = 1.2 1012 m.
State whether this change is an increase or a decrease.

change = ............................................................. J

..................................................................................
[3]

(ii) At a point where x = 0.1 1012 m, the speed of the rock is v.

Determine the minimum speed v such that the rock reaches the point where
x = 1.2 1012 m.

minimum speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

[Total: 8]

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6

2 (a) An ideal gas is assumed to consist of atoms or molecules that behave as hard, identical
spheres that are in continuous motion and undergo elastic collisions.

State two further assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) Helium-4 ( 42He) may be assumed to be an ideal gas.

(i) Show that the mass of one atom of helium-4 is 6.6 1024 g.

[1]

(ii) The mean kinetic energy EK of an atom of an ideal gas is given by the expression

EK = 32 kT.

Calculate the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) speed of a helium-4 atom at a temperature of


27 C.

r.m.s. speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

[Total: 6]

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3 (a) State, by reference to displacement, what is meant by simple harmonic motion.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A mass is undergoing oscillations in a vertical plane.

The variation with displacement x of the acceleration a of the mass is shown in Fig. 3.1.

0
0 x

Fig. 3.1

State two reasons why the motion of the mass is not simple harmonic.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

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(c) A block of wood is floating in a liquid, as shown in Fig. 3.2.

oscillation
block of block

liquid

Fig. 3.2

The block is displaced vertically and then released.

The variation with time t of the displacement y of the block from its equilibrium position is
shown in Fig. 3.3.

2.0
y / cm
1.5

1.0

0.5

0
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 t/s
0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Fig. 3.3

Use data from Fig. 3.3 to determine

(i) the angular frequency of the oscillations,

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
= ............................................. rad s 1 [2]
UCLES 2016 9702/43/M/J/16
9

(ii) the maximum vertical acceleration of the block.

maximum acceleration = ............................................... m s2 [2]

(iii) The block has mass 120 g.

The oscillations of the block are damped. Calculate the loss in energy of the oscillations
of the block during the first three complete periods of its oscillations.

energy loss = ...................................................... J [3]

[Total: 11]

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4 (a) (i) State what is meant by the specific acoustic impedance of a medium.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) The intensity reflection coefficient is given by the expression

(Z2 Z1)2
= .
(Z2 + Z1)2

Explain the meanings of the symbols in this expression.

: .......................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

Z2 and Z1: ..........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) A parallel beam of ultrasound has intensity I0 as it enters a muscle.


The beam passes through a thickness of 3.4 cm of muscle before being incident on the
boundary with a bone, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

muscle bone

intensity I0 intensity IT

entering muscle entering bone

3.4 cm

Fig. 4.1

The intensity of the ultrasound beam as it passes into the bone is IT.

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Some data for muscle and bone are given in Fig. 4.2.

linear absorption specific acoustic impedance


coefficient / m1 / kg m2 s1

muscle 23 1.7 106


bone 130 6.3 106

Fig. 4.2

IT
Calculate the ratio .
I0

ratio = ......................................................... [5]

[Total: 9]

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5 The variation with time t of the voltage level of part of an analogue signal is shown in Fig. 5.1.

16

14

voltage level 12

10

0
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
time t / ms

Fig. 5.1

The signal is sampled at 0.25 ms intervals. Each sample is converted into a four-bit digital number.

Fig. 5.2 lists various times t at which the voltage level is sampled.
The digital number for time t = 0 is shown.

time t / ms 0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50

digital number 1011

Fig. 5.2

(a) (i) On Fig. 5.2, underline the most significant bit (MSB) for the digital number at time t = 0.
[1]
(ii) Complete Fig. 5.2 for the times shown. [2]

(b) After transmission of the digital numbers, the signal is passed through a digital-to-analogue
converter (DAC).

On Fig. 5.3, plot the transmitted analogue signal from the DAC.

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13

16

14

voltage level 12

10

0
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
time t / ms

Fig. 5.3
[3]

(c) The transmitted signal in (b) has less detail than the original signal in Fig. 5.1.

Suggest and explain two means by which the level of detail in the transmitted signal could be
increased.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[4]

[Total: 10]

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6 A solid metal sphere of radius R is isolated in space. The sphere is positively charged so that the
electric potential at its surface is VS. The electric field strength at the surface is ES.

(a) On the axes of Fig. 6.1, show the variation of the electric potential with distance x from the
centre of the sphere for values of x from x = 0 to x = 3R.

1.0 Vs

0.8 Vs
potential
0.6 Vs

0.4 Vs

0.2 Vs

0
0 R 2R 3R
distance x

Fig. 6.1
[3]

(b) On the axes of Fig. 6.2, show the variation of the electric field strength with distance x from
the centre of the sphere for values of x from x = 0 to x = 3R.

1.0 Es

0.8 Es
field
strength 0.6 Es

0.4 Es

0.2 Es

0
0 R 2R 3R
distance x

Fig. 6.2
[3]

[Total: 6]

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7 A student sets up the circuit shown in Fig. 7.1 to measure the charge on a capacitor C for different
values of potential difference across the capacitor.

C meter to
V
measure charge

Fig. 7.1

The variation with potential difference V of the charge Q stored on the capacitor is shown in
Fig. 7.2.

15

Q / mC

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
V/V

Fig. 7.2

(a) State and explain how Fig. 7.2 indicates that there is a systematic error in the readings of one
of the meters.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

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(b) Use Fig. 7.2 to determine the capacitance, in F, of capacitor C.

capacitance = .................................................... F [3]

(c) Use your answer in (b) to determine the additional energy stored in the capacitor C when the
potential difference across it is increased from 6.0 V to 9.0 V.

energy = ...................................................... J [3]

[Total: 8]

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8 The circuit of an inverting amplifier incorporating an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) is shown
in Fig. 8.1.

R1

+V
R2
P

+
V IN V OUT
V

Fig. 8.1

(a) Explain why point P is known as a virtual earth.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) Derive an expression, in terms of the resistances R1 and R2, for the gain of the amplifier
circuit.
Explain your working.

[3]

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19

(c) A relay and the output terminals of the amplifier circuit are shown in Fig. 8.2.

V OUT

Fig. 8.2

On Fig. 8.2, show how the relay may be connected to the amplifier output so that the relay
operates only when VOUT is positive. [3]

[Total: 9]

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BLANK PAGE

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21

9 A thin rectangular slice of aluminium has sides of length 65 mm, 50 mm and 0.10 mm, as shown in
Fig. 9.1.

direction of
magnetic field

Z Y
0.10 mm
50 mm
X
current
3.8 A
Q R

P S
65 mm

Fig. 9.1 (not to scale)

Some of the corners of the slice are labelled.

A current I of 3.8 A is normal to face RSXY of the slice.

In aluminium, the number of free electrons per unit volume is 6.0 1028 m3.

A uniform magnetic field of magnetic flux density B equal to 0.13 T is normal to face QRYZ of the
aluminium slice in the direction from Q to P.

A Hall voltage VH is developed across the slice and is given by the expression

VH = BI .
ntq

(a) Use Fig. 9.1 to state the magnitude of the distance t.

t = ................................................. mm [1]

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the Hall voltage VH.

VH = ..................................................... V [2]

[Total: 3]

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10 (a) A coil of insulated wire is wound on a copper core, as illustrated in Fig. 10.1.

insulated copper
wire core

Fig. 10.1

An alternating current is passed through the coil.

The heating effect of the current in the coil is negligible.

Explain why the temperature of the core rises.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [4]

(b) Two hollow tubes of equal length hang vertically as shown in Fig. 10.2.

magnet A magnet B

plastic aluminium
tube tube

Fig. 10.2

One tube is made of plastic and the other of aluminium.

Two small similar bar magnets A and B are held above the tubes and then released
simultaneously.
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23

The magnets do not touch the sides of the tubes.


Explain why magnet B takes much longer than magnet A to fall through the tube.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [5]

[Total: 9]

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11 The variation with time t of the sinusoidal current I in a resistor of resistance 450 is shown in
Fig. 11.1.

1.0

I/A

0.5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
t / ms

0.5

1.0

Fig. 11.1

Use data from Fig. 11.1 to determine, for the time t = 0 to t = 30 ms,

(a) the frequency of the current,

frequency = ................................................... Hz [2]

(b) the mean current,

mean current = ..................................................... A [1]

(c) the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) current,

r.m.s. current = ..................................................... A [2]

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(d) the energy dissipated by the resistor.

energy = ...................................................... J [2]

[Total: 7]

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12 Some of the electron energy bands in a solid are illustrated in Fig. 12.1.

conduction band
(partially filled)

forbidden band

valence band

Fig. 12.1

(a) In isolated atoms, electron energy levels have discrete values.


Suggest why, in a solid, there are energy bands, rather than discrete energy levels.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [3]

(b) A light-dependent resistor (LDR) consists of an intrinsic semiconductor.

Use band theory to explain the dependence on light intensity of the resistance of the LDR
when it is at constant temperature.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [5]

[Total: 8]

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13 Copper-66 is a radioactive isotope.

When a nucleus of copper-66 decays, the emissions include a particle and a -ray photon.

The count rate produced from a sample of the isotope copper-66 is measured using a detector
and counter, as illustrated in Fig. 13.1.

to counter

detector

radioactive
sample

shielding

Fig. 13.1

(a) State three reasons why the activity of the sample of copper-66 is not equal to the measured
count rate.

1. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

3. ..............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[3]

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(b) In a time of 42.0 minutes, the count rate from the sample of copper-66 is found to decrease
from 3.62 104 Bq to 1.21 102 Bq.

Calculate the half-life of copper-66.

half-life = .......................................... minutes [2]

(c) The -ray photons emitted from radioactive nuclei have specific energies, dependent on the
nucleus emitting the photons.

By comparison with emission line spectra, suggest what can be deduced about energy levels
in nuclei.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

[Total: 6]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable
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be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

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Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2016 9702/43/M/J/16


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
* 2 1 3 0 6 2 9 3 2 9 *

PHYSICS 9702/41
Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions October/November 2016
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Answer all questions.

Electronic calculators may be used.


You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 22 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (NF/CGW) 116306/4
UCLES 2016 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m1

permittivity of free space 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1


1
( = 8.99 109 m F1)
40
elementary charge e = 1.60 1019 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 1034 J s

unified atomic mass unit 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 1031 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 1027 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 J K1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

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3

Formulae

1
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + 2 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential =
r

hydrostatic pressure p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas p = c
3 V
simple harmonic motion a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

fsv
Doppler effect fo =
v vs

Q
electric potential V =
40r

capacitors in series 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + . . .

1
energy of charged capacitor W = 2 QV

electric current I = Anvq

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

BI
Hall voltage VH =
ntq

alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay x = x0 exp(t )

0.693
decay constant =
t 1
2

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4

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 A satellite is in a circular orbit of radius r about the Earth of mass M, as illustrated in Fig. 1.1.

Earth satellite
mass M

Fig. 1.1

The mass of the Earth may be assumed to be concentrated at its centre.

(a) Show that the period T of the orbit of the satellite is given by the expression

42r 3
T2 =
GM

where G is the gravitational constant. Explain your working.

[3]

(b) (i) A satellite in geostationary orbit appears to remain above the same point on the Earth
and has a period of 24 hours.
State two other features of a geostationary orbit.

1. ......................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

2. ......................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[2]
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5

(ii) The mass M of the Earth is 6.0 1024 kg.


Use the expression in (a) to determine the radius of a geostationary orbit.

radius = .................................................... m [2]

(c) A global positioning system (GPS) satellite orbits the Earth at a height of 2.0 104 km above
the Earths surface.
The radius of the Earth is 6.4 103 km.

Use your answer in (b)(ii) and the expression

T 2 r3

to calculate, in hours, the period of the orbit of this satellite.

period = .............................................. hours [2]

[Total: 9]

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2 An ideal gas initially has pressure 1.0 105 Pa, volume 4.0 104 m3 and temperature 300 K, as
illustrated in Fig. 2.1.

initial state final state

1.0 105 Pa 5.0 105 Pa


4.0 104 m3 4.0 104 m3
300 K T

Fig. 2.1

A change in energy of the gas of 240 J results in an increase of pressure to a final value of
5.0 105 Pa at constant volume.
The thermodynamic temperature becomes T.

(a) Calculate

(i) the temperature T,

T = ..................................................... K [2]

(ii) the amount of gas.

amount = .................................................. mol [2]

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(b) The increase in internal energy U of a system may be represented by the expression

U = q + w.

(i) State what is meant by the symbol

1. +q,

...........................................................................................................................................

2. +w.

...........................................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii) State, for the gas in (a), the value of

1. U,

U = ............................................................ J

2. +q,

+q = ............................................................ J

3. +w.

+w = ............................................................ J
[3]

[Total: 9]

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3 To demonstrate simple harmonic motion, a student attaches a trolley to two similar stretched
springs, as shown in Fig. 3.1.

spring trolley

Fig. 3.1

The trolley has mass m of 810 g.

The trolley is displaced along the line of the two springs and then released. The subsequent
acceleration a of the trolley is given by the expression

2k x
a =
m

where the spring constant k for each of the springs is 64 N m1 and x is the displacement of the
trolley.

(a) Show that the frequency of oscillation of the trolley is 2.0 Hz.

[3]

(b) The maximum displacement of the trolley is 1.6 cm.


Calculate the maximum speed of the trolley.

speed = ............................................... m s1 [2]


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9

(c) The mass of the trolley is increased. The initial displacement of the trolley remains unchanged.

Suggest the change, if any, that occurs in the frequency and in the maximum speed of the
oscillations of the trolley.

frequency: .................................................................................................................................

maximum speed: ......................................................................................................................


[2]

[Total: 7]

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11

4 (a) Signals may be transmitted in either analogue or digital form. One advantage of digital
transmission is that the signal can be regenerated.

Explain

(i) what is meant by regeneration,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) why an analogue signal cannot be regenerated.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) Digital signals are transmitted along an optic fibre using infra-red radiation. The uninterrupted
length of the optic fibre is 58 km.

The effective noise level in the receiver at the end of the optic fibre is 0.38 W.
The minimum acceptable signal-to-noise ratio in the receiver is 32 dB.

(i) Calculate the minimum acceptable power PMIN of the signal at the receiver.

PMIN = .................................................... W [2]

(ii) The input signal power to the optic fibre is 9.5 mW. The output power is PMIN.
Calculate the attenuation per unit length of the optic fibre.

attenuation per unit length = ........................................... dB km1 [2]

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5 Two small solid metal spheres A and B have equal radii and are in a vacuum. Their centres are
15 cm apart.
Sphere A has charge +3.0 pC and sphere B has charge +12 pC. The arrangement is illustrated in
Fig. 5.1.

sphere A P sphere B
charge + 3.0 pC charge + 12 pC

5.0 cm

15 cm

Fig. 5.1

Point P lies on the line joining the centres of the spheres and is a distance of 5.0 cm from the
centre of sphere A.

(a) Suggest why the electric field strength in both spheres is zero.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Show that the electric field strength is zero at point P. Explain your working.

[3]

(c) Calculate the electric potential at point P.

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electric potential = ..................................................... V [2]
UCLES 2016 9702/41/O/N/16
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(d) A silver-107 nucleus ( 107


47 Ag) has speed v when it is a long distance from point P.

Use your answer in (c) to calculate the minimum value of speed v such that the nucleus can
reach point P.

speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

[Total: 10]

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6 (a) The slew rate of an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) is said to be infinite.

Explain what is meant by infinite slew rate.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The circuit of Fig. 6.1 is designed to indicate whether the temperature of the thermistor is
above or below 24 C.

2.00 k +5 V


4.5 V
+ VOUT

R 3.00 k 5 V

Fig. 6.1

The operational amplifier (op-amp) is assumed to be ideal.

At 24 C, the resistance of the thermistor is 1.50 k.

(i) Determine the resistance of resistor R such that the output VOUT of the op-amp changes
at 24 C.

resistance = ..................................................... [2]

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(ii) On Fig. 6.1,

1. draw two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) connected so as to indicate whether the


output VOUT of the op-amp is either +5 V or 5 V, [2]

2. label with the letter G the LED that will be emitting light when the temperature is
below 24 C. Explain your working.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

[Total: 9]

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7 (a) Explain what is meant by a field of force.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) State the type of field, or fields, that will give rise to a force acting on

(i) a moving uncharged particle,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) a stationary charged particle,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) a charged particle moving at an angle to the field or fields.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) An electron, mass m and charge q, is moving at speed v in a vacuum. It enters a region of
uniform magnetic field of flux density B, as shown in Fig. 7.1.

uniform magnetic field


flux density B

path of electron
mass m, charge q

Fig. 7.1

Initially, the electron is moving at right-angles to the direction of the magnetic field.

(i) Explain why the path of the electron in the magnetic field is the arc of a circle.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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(ii) Derive an expression, in terms of the radius r of the path, for the linear momentum of the
electron. Show your working.

[2]

[Total: 9]

8 Explain the main principles behind the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) to
obtain diagnostic information about internal body structures.

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................... [8]

[Total: 8]

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9 (a) State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The diameter of the cross-section of a long solenoid is 3.2 cm, as shown in Fig. 9.1.

coil C
long solenoid 85 turns

3.2 cm

I I

Fig. 9.1

A coil C, with 85 turns of wire, is wound tightly around the centre region of the solenoid.

The magnetic flux density B, in tesla, at the centre of the solenoid is given by the expression

B = 103 I

where I is the current in the solenoid in ampere.

Show that, for a current I of 2.8 A in the solenoid, the magnetic flux linkage of the coil C is
6.0 104 Wb.

[1]

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(c) The current I in the solenoid in (b) is reversed in 0.30 s.

Calculate the mean e.m.f. induced in coil C.

e.m.f. = .................................................. mV [2]

(d) The current I in the solenoid in (b) is now varied with time t as shown in Fig. 9.2.

3.0

2.0
I/ A
1.0

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
t/s
1.0

2.0

3.0

Fig. 9.2

Use your answer to (c) to show, on Fig. 9.3, the variation with time t of the e.m.f. E induced in
coil C.

E / mV

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
t/s

Fig. 9.3
[4]

www.egyptigstudentroom.com [Total: 9]
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20

10 (a) Explain what is meant by the photoelectric effect.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) One wavelength of electromagnetic radiation emitted from a mercury vapour lamp is 436 nm.

Calculate the photon energy corresponding to this wavelength.

energy = ...................................................... J [2]

(c) Light from the lamp in (b) is incident, separately, on the surfaces of caesium and tungsten
metal.

Data for the work function energies of caesium and tungsten metal are given in Fig. 10.1.

metal work function


energy / eV

caesium 1.4

tungsten 4.5

Fig. 10.1

Calculate the threshold wavelength for photoelectric emission from

(i) caesium,

threshold wavelength = .................................................. nm [2]


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(ii) tungsten.

threshold wavelength = .................................................. nm [1]

(d) Use your answers in (c) to state and explain whether the radiation from the mercury lamp of
wavelength 436 nm will give rise to photoelectric emission from each of the metals.

caesium: ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

tungsten: ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

[Total: 9]

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11 Some of the electron energy bands in a solid are illustrated in Fig. 11.1.

conduction band
(partially filled)

forbidden band

valence band

Fig. 11.1

The width of the forbidden band and the number of charge carriers occupying each band depends
on the nature of the solid.

Use band theory to explain why the resistance of a sample of a metal at room temperature
changes with increasing temperature.

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................... [5]

[Total: 5]

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12 Radon-222 (222
86 Rn) is a radioactive element found in atmospheric air.
The decay constant of radon-222 is 2.1 106 s1.

(a) (i) Define radioactive half-life.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) Show that the half-life t is related to the decay constant by the expression
1
2

t = 0.693.
1
2

[2]

(b) Radon-222 is considered to be an unacceptable health hazard when the activity of radon-222
is greater than 200 Bq in 1.0 m3 of air.

Calculate the minimum mass of radon-222 in 1.0 m3 of air above which the health hazard
becomes unacceptable.

mass = .................................................... kg [4]

[Total: 8]

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BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2016 9702/41/O/N/16


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
* 7 3 1 4 7 0 8 5 3 9 *

PHYSICS 9702/42
Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions October/November 2016
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Answer all questions.

Electronic calculators may be used.


You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 24 printed pages.

DC (RW/JG) 116303/4
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2

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m1

permittivity of free space 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1


1
( = 8.99 109 m F1)
40
elementary charge e = 1.60 1019 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 1034 J s

unified atomic mass unit 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 1031 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 1027 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 J K1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

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3

Formulae

1
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + 2 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential =
r

hydrostatic pressure p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas p= c
3 V
simple harmonic motion a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

fsv
Doppler effect fo =
v vs

Q
electric potential V=
40r

capacitors in series 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + . . .

1
energy of charged capacitor W = 2 QV

electric current I = Anvq

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

BI
Hall voltage VH =
ntq

alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay x = x0 exp(t )

0.693
decay constant =
t 1
2

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4

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) Define gravitational field strength.

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) The nearest star to the Sun is Proxima Centauri.


This star has a mass of 2.5 1029 kg and is a distance of 4.0 1013 km from the Sun.
The Sun has a mass of 2.0 1030 kg.

(i) State why Proxima Centauri may be assumed to be a point mass when viewed from the
Sun.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Calculate

1. the gravitational field strength due to Proxima Centauri at a distance of 4.0 1013 km,

field strength = ............................................... N kg1 [2]

2. the gravitational force of attraction between the Sun and Proxima Centauri.

force = ...................................................... N [2]

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(c) Suggest quantitatively why it may be assumed that the Sun is isolated in space from other
stars.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 8]

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2 (a) The equation of state for an ideal gas of volume V at pressure p is

pV = nRT

where R is the molar gas constant.

State what is meant by

(i) the symbol n,

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) the symbol T.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) An ideal gas is held in a container of volume 2.4 103 cm3 at pressure 4.9 105 Pa.
The temperature of the gas is 100 C.

Show that the number of molecules of the gas in the container is 2.3 1023.

[3]

(c) Use data from (b) to estimate the mean distance between molecules in the gas.

mean distance = .................................................... cm [3]

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3 (a) State what is meant by the internal energy of a system.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Explain, by reference to work done and heating, whether the internal energy of the following
increases, decreases or remains constant:

(i) the gas in a toy balloon when the balloon bursts suddenly,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

(ii) ice melting at constant temperature and at atmospheric pressure to form water that is
more dense than the ice.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

[Total: 8]

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4 A mass hangs vertically from a fixed point by means of a spring, as shown in Fig. 4.1.

spring
l

mass

Fig. 4.1

The mass is displaced vertically and then released. The subsequent oscillations of the mass are
simple harmonic.

The variation with time t of the length l of the spring is shown in Fig. 4.2.

18

17

16
l / cm
15

14

13

12
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
t /s

Fig. 4.2

(a) Use Fig. 4.2 to

(i) state two values of t at which the mass is moving downwards with maximum speed,

t = ................................. s and t = ................................. s [1]

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(ii) determine, for these oscillations, the angular frequency ,

= .............................................. rad s1 [2]

(iii) show that the maximum speed of the mass is 0.42 m s1.

[2]

(b) Use data from Fig. 4.2 and (a)(iii) to sketch, on the axes of Fig. 4.3, the variation with
displacement x from the equilibrium position of the velocity v of the mass.

0.5

0.4
v / m s1
0.3

0.2

0.1

0
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
0.1 x / cm

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Fig. 4.3 [3]

[Total: 8]
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5 Ultrasound may be used to obtain information about internal body structures.

(a) Suggest why the ultrasound from the transducer is pulsed.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) (i) State what is meant by specific acoustic impedance.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) A parallel beam of ultrasound of intensity I0 is incident normally on the boundary between
two media, as shown in Fig. 5.1.

specific acoustic specific acoustic


impedance Z1 impedance Z2

incident beam transmitted beam


intensity I0 intensity IT

Fig. 5.1

The media have specific acoustic impedances Z1 and Z2.


The intensity of the ultrasound beam transmitted across the boundary is IT.

Explain the significance of the magnitudes of Z1 and of Z2 on the ratio IT / I0.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 6]

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6 Two solid metal spheres A and B, each of radius 1.5 cm, are situated in a vacuum. Their centres
are separated by a distance of 20.0 cm, as shown in Fig. 6.1.

1.5 cm 1.5 cm
20.0 cm

sphere A sphere B

Fig. 6.1 (not to scale)

Both spheres are positively charged.

Point P lies on the line joining the centres of the two spheres, at a distance x from the centre of
sphere A.

The variation with distance x of the electric field strength E at point P is shown in Fig. 6.2.

50

40

30

E / N C1
20

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10 x / cm

20

30

40

50

Fig. 6.2

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(a) Use Fig. 6.2 to determine the ratio


magnitude of charge on sphere A
.
magnitude of charge on sphere B
Explain your working.

ratio = ...........................................................[3]

(b) The variation with distance x of the electric potential V at point P is shown in Fig. 6.3.

0.8

0.7

0.6
V/V
0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
x / cm

Fig. 6.3

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An -particle is initially at rest on the surface of sphere A.


The -particle moves along the line joining the centres of the two spheres.

Determine, for the -particle as it moves between the two spheres,

(i) its maximum speed,

maximum speed = ................................................. m s1 [3]

(ii) its speed on reaching the surface of sphere B.

speed = ................................................. m s1 [2]

[Total: 8]

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7 (a) (i) Define capacitance.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Use the expression for the electric potential due to a point charge to show that an isolated
metal sphere of diameter 25 cm has a capacitance of 1.4 1011 F.

[2]

(b) Three capacitors of capacitances 2.0 F, 3.0 F and 4.0 F are connected as shown in Fig. 7.1
to a battery of e.m.f. 9.0 V.

4.0 F

3.0 F

2.0 F

9.0 V

Fig. 7.1

Determine

(i) the combined capacitance of the three capacitors,

capacitance = ..................................................... F [1]

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(ii) the potential difference across the capacitor of capacitance 3.0 F,

potential difference = ...................................................... V [2]

(iii) the positive charge stored on the capacitor of capacitance 2.0 F.

charge = .................................................... C [2]

[Total: 8]

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8 A circuit incorporating an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) is shown in Fig. 8.1.

50 k
RA
+9 V
100

RB

10 k +
VIN
9 V V

Fig. 8.1

The supply to the op-amp is +9 V / 9 V.


The output of the amplifier is measured using a voltmeter having a range 0 5.0 V.

A switch enables the inverting input to the op-amp to be connected to either resistor RA or
resistor RB.

(a) A positive potential +VIN is applied to the input to the circuit.

On Fig. 8.1, mark with the letter P the positive connection of the voltmeter such that the
voltmeter shows a positive reading. [1]

(b) Calculate the potential VIN such that the voltmeter has a full-scale deflection when the
inverting input to the op-amp is connected to

(i) resistor RA of resistance 100 ,

VIN = ...................................................... V [2]

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(ii) resistor RB of resistance 10 k.

VIN = ...................................................... V [1]

(c) Suggest a use for this type of circuit.

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 5]

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9 A stiff wire is held horizontally between the poles of a magnet, as illustrated in Fig. 9.1.

stiff
wire

Fig. 9.1

When a constant current of 6.0 A is passed through the wire, there is an additional downwards
force on the magnet of 0.080 N.

(a) On Fig. 9.1, draw an arrow on the wire to show the direction of the current in the wire.
Explain your answer.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[3]

(b) The constant current of 6.0 A is now replaced by a low-frequency sinusoidal current.
The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of this current is 2.5 A.

Calculate the difference between the maximum and the minimum forces now acting on the
magnet.

difference = ...................................................... N [4]

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10 Explain the function of the non-uniform magnetic field that is superimposed on a large uniform
magnetic field in diagnosis using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................[4]

[Total: 4]

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11 (a) State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) An alternating current is passed through an air-cored solenoid.


An iron core is inserted into the solenoid and then held stationary within the solenoid. The
current in the solenoid is now smaller.

Explain why the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of the current in the solenoid is reduced as a
result of inserting the core.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[3]

(c) Practical transformers are very efficient. However, there are some power losses.

State two sources of power loss within a transformer.

1. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

[Total: 7]

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12 (a) State an effect, one in each case, that provides evidence for

(i) the wave nature of a particle,

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) the particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation.

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Four electron energy levels in an isolated atom are shown in Fig. 12.1.

0.54 eV
0.85 eV

energy
1.51 eV

3.40 eV

Fig. 12.1

For the emission spectrum associated with these energy levels,

(i) on Fig. 12.1, mark with an arrow the transition that gives rise to the shortest wavelength,
[1]

(ii) show that the wavelength of the transition in (i) is 4.35 107 m.

[2]

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22

(c) (i) State what is meant by the de Broglie wavelength.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) Calculate the speed of an electron having a de Broglie wavelength equal to the
wavelength in (b)(ii).

speed = ................................................. m s1 [2]

[Total: 9]

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13 Outline the principles of computed tomography (CT scanning).

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................[6]

[Total: 6]

14 Phosphorus-30 ( 30
15 P) was the first artificial radioactive nuclide to be produced in a laboratory. This
was achieved by bombarding aluminium-27 ( 27 13Al) with -particles.

A partial nuclear equation to represent this reaction is


27 30
13Al + 15 P +

(a) State the full nuclear notation for

(i) the -particle,

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) the particle represented by the symbol .

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

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(b) Data for the rest masses of the particles in the reaction are given in Fig. 14.1.

particle mass / u
27
13Al
26.98153

4.00260
30
15 P
29.97830

1.00867

Fig. 14.1
Calculate, for this reaction,

(i) the change in the total rest mass of the particles,

mass change = ....................................................... u [2]

(ii) the energy, in joule, equivalent to the mass change calculated in (i).

energy = ....................................................... J [2]

(c) With reference to your answer in (b)(i), comment on the energy of the -particle such that the
reaction can take place.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]
[Total: 8]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2016 9702/42/O/N/16


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
* 3 3 0 3 6 9 7 7 7 7 *

PHYSICS 9702/43
Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions October/November 2016
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Answer all questions.

Electronic calculators may be used.


You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 22 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (AL) 135677
UCLES 2016 [Turn over
www.egyptigstudentroom.com
2

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m1

permittivity of free space 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1


1
( = 8.99 109 m F1)
40
elementary charge e = 1.60 1019 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 1034 J s

unified atomic mass unit 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 1031 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 1027 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 J K1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

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UCLES 2016 9702/43/O/N/16
3

Formulae

1
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + 2 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential =
r

hydrostatic pressure p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas p = c
3 V
simple harmonic motion a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos t


v = (x02 x 2)

fsv
Doppler effect fo =
v vs

Q
electric potential V =
40r

capacitors in series 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + . . .

1
energy of charged capacitor W = 2 QV

electric current I = Anvq

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

BI
Hall voltage VH =
ntq

alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay x = x0 exp(t )

0.693
decay constant =
t 1
2

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4

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 A satellite is in a circular orbit of radius r about the Earth of mass M, as illustrated in Fig. 1.1.

Earth satellite
mass M

Fig. 1.1

The mass of the Earth may be assumed to be concentrated at its centre.

(a) Show that the period T of the orbit of the satellite is given by the expression

42r 3
T2 =
GM

where G is the gravitational constant. Explain your working.

[3]

(b) (i) A satellite in geostationary orbit appears to remain above the same point on the Earth
and has a period of 24 hours.
State two other features of a geostationary orbit.

1. ......................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

2. ......................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................
[2]
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(ii) The mass M of the Earth is 6.0 1024 kg.


Use the expression in (a) to determine the radius of a geostationary orbit.

radius = .................................................... m [2]

(c) A global positioning system (GPS) satellite orbits the Earth at a height of 2.0 104 km above
the Earths surface.
The radius of the Earth is 6.4 103 km.

Use your answer in (b)(ii) and the expression

T 2 r3

to calculate, in hours, the period of the orbit of this satellite.

period = .............................................. hours [2]

[Total: 9]

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2 An ideal gas initially has pressure 1.0 105 Pa, volume 4.0 104 m3 and temperature 300 K, as
illustrated in Fig. 2.1.

initial state final state

1.0 105 Pa 5.0 105 Pa


4.0 104 m3 4.0 104 m3
300 K T

Fig. 2.1

A change in energy of the gas of 240 J results in an increase of pressure to a final value of
5.0 105 Pa at constant volume.
The thermodynamic temperature becomes T.

(a) Calculate

(i) the temperature T,

T = ..................................................... K [2]

(ii) the amount of gas.

amount = .................................................. mol [2]

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(b) The increase in internal energy U of a system may be represented by the expression

U = q + w.

(i) State what is meant by the symbol

1. +q,

...........................................................................................................................................

2. +w.

...........................................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii) State, for the gas in (a), the value of

1. U,

U = ............................................................ J

2. +q,

+q = ............................................................ J

3. +w.

+w = ............................................................ J
[3]

[Total: 9]

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3 To demonstrate simple harmonic motion, a student attaches a trolley to two similar stretched
springs, as shown in Fig. 3.1.

spring trolley

Fig. 3.1

The trolley has mass m of 810 g.

The trolley is displaced along the line of the two springs and then released. The subsequent
acceleration a of the trolley is given by the expression

2k x
a =
m

where the spring constant k for each of the springs is 64 N m1 and x is the displacement of the
trolley.

(a) Show that the frequency of oscillation of the trolley is 2.0 Hz.

[3]

(b) The maximum displacement of the trolley is 1.6 cm.


Calculate the maximum speed of the trolley.

speed = ............................................... m s1 [2]


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(c) The mass of the trolley is increased. The initial displacement of the trolley remains unchanged.

Suggest the change, if any, that occurs in the frequency and in the maximum speed of the
oscillations of the trolley.

frequency: .................................................................................................................................

maximum speed: ......................................................................................................................


[2]

[Total: 7]

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BLANK PAGE

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4 (a) Signals may be transmitted in either analogue or digital form. One advantage of digital
transmission is that the signal can be regenerated.

Explain

(i) what is meant by regeneration,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) why an analogue signal cannot be regenerated.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) Digital signals are transmitted along an optic fibre using infra-red radiation. The uninterrupted
length of the optic fibre is 58 km.

The effective noise level in the receiver at the end of the optic fibre is 0.38 W.
The minimum acceptable signal-to-noise ratio in the receiver is 32 dB.

(i) Calculate the minimum acceptable power PMIN of the signal at the receiver.

PMIN = .................................................... W [2]

(ii) The input signal power to the optic fibre is 9.5 mW. The output power is PMIN.
Calculate the attenuation per unit length of the optic fibre.

attenuation per unit length = ........................................... dB km1 [2]

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5 Two small solid metal spheres A and B have equal radii and are in a vacuum. Their centres are
15 cm apart.
Sphere A has charge +3.0 pC and sphere B has charge +12 pC. The arrangement is illustrated in
Fig. 5.1.

sphere A P sphere B
charge + 3.0 pC charge + 12 pC

5.0 cm

15 cm

Fig. 5.1

Point P lies on the line joining the centres of the spheres and is a distance of 5.0 cm from the
centre of sphere A.

(a) Suggest why the electric field strength in both spheres is zero.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Show that the electric field strength is zero at point P. Explain your working.

[3]

(c) Calculate the electric potential at point P.

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electric potential = ..................................................... V [2]
UCLES 2016 9702/43/O/N/16
13

(d) A silver-107 nucleus ( 107


47 Ag) has speed v when it is a long distance from point P.

Use your answer in (c) to calculate the minimum value of speed v such that the nucleus can
reach point P.

speed = ............................................... m s1 [3]

[Total: 10]

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14

6 (a) The slew rate of an ideal operational amplifier (op-amp) is said to be infinite.

Explain what is meant by infinite slew rate.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The circuit of Fig. 6.1 is designed to indicate whether the temperature of the thermistor is
above or below 24 C.

2.00 k +5 V


4.5 V
+ VOUT

R 3.00 k 5 V

Fig. 6.1

The operational amplifier (op-amp) is assumed to be ideal.

At 24 C, the resistance of the thermistor is 1.50 k.

(i) Determine the resistance of resistor R such that the output VOUT of the op-amp changes
at 24 C.

resistance = ..................................................... [2]

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15

(ii) On Fig. 6.1,

1. draw two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) connected so as to indicate whether the


output VOUT of the op-amp is either +5 V or 5 V, [2]

2. label with the letter G the LED that will be emitting light when the temperature is
below 24 C. Explain your working.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

[Total: 9]

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16

7 (a) Explain what is meant by a field of force.

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(b) State the type of field, or fields, that will give rise to a force acting on

(i) a moving uncharged particle,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) a stationary charged particle,

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) a charged particle moving at an angle to the field or fields.

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) An electron, mass m and charge q, is moving at speed v in a vacuum. It enters a region of
uniform magnetic field of flux density B, as shown in Fig. 7.1.

uniform magnetic field


flux density B

path of electron
mass m, charge q

Fig. 7.1

Initially, the electron is moving at right-angles to the direction of the magnetic field.

(i) Explain why the path of the electron in the magnetic field is the arc of a circle.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [3]

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UCLES 2016 9702/43/O/N/16
17

(ii) Derive an expression, in terms of the radius r of the path, for the linear momentum of the
electron. Show your working.

[2]

[Total: 9]

8 Explain the main principles behind the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) to
obtain diagnostic information about internal body structures.

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................... [8]

[Total: 8]

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18

9 (a) State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) The diameter of the cross-section of a long solenoid is 3.2 cm, as shown in Fig. 9.1.

coil C
long solenoid 85 turns

3.2 cm

I I

Fig. 9.1

A coil C, with 85 turns of wire, is wound tightly around the centre region of the solenoid.

The magnetic flux density B, in tesla, at the centre of the solenoid is given by the expression

B = 103 I

where I is the current in the solenoid in ampere.

Show that, for a current I of 2.8 A in the solenoid, the magnetic flux linkage of the coil C is
6.0 104 Wb.

[1]

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UCLES 2016 9702/43/O/N/16
19

(c) The current I in the solenoid in (b) is reversed in 0.30 s.

Calculate the mean e.m.f. induced in coil C.

e.m.f. = .................................................. mV [2]

(d) The current I in the solenoid in (b) is now varied with time t as shown in Fig. 9.2.

3.0

2.0
I/ A
1.0

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
t/s
1.0

2.0

3.0

Fig. 9.2

Use your answer to (c) to show, on Fig. 9.3, the variation with time t of the e.m.f. E induced in
coil C.

E / mV

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
t/s

Fig. 9.3
[4]

www.egyptigstudentroom.com [Total: 9]
UCLES 2016 9702/43/O/N/16 [Turn over
20

10 (a) Explain what is meant by the photoelectric effect.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) One wavelength of electromagnetic radiation emitted from a mercury vapour lamp is 436 nm.

Calculate the photon energy corresponding to this wavelength.

energy = ...................................................... J [2]

(c) Light from the lamp in (b) is incident, separately, on the surfaces of caesium and tungsten
metal.

Data for the work function energies of caesium and tungsten metal are given in Fig. 10.1.

metal work function


energy / eV

caesium 1.4

tungsten 4.5

Fig. 10.1

Calculate the threshold wavelength for photoelectric emission from

(i) caesium,

threshold wavelength = .................................................. nm [2]


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UCLES 2016 9702/43/O/N/16
21

(ii) tungsten.

threshold wavelength = .................................................. nm [1]

(d) Use your answers in (c) to state and explain whether the radiation from the mercury lamp of
wavelength 436 nm will give rise to photoelectric emission from each of the metals.

caesium: ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

tungsten: ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

[Total: 9]

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22

11 Some of the electron energy bands in a solid are illustrated in Fig. 11.1.

conduction band
(partially filled)

forbidden band

valence band

Fig. 11.1

The width of the forbidden band and the number of charge carriers occupying each band depends
on the nature of the solid.

Use band theory to explain why the resistance of a sample of a metal at room temperature
changes with increasing temperature.

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................... [5]

[Total: 5]

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23

12 Radon-222 (222
86 Rn) is a radioactive element found in atmospheric air.
The decay constant of radon-222 is 2.1 106 s1.

(a) (i) Define radioactive half-life.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii) Show that the half-life t is related to the decay constant by the expression
1
2

t = 0.693.
1
2

[2]

(b) Radon-222 is considered to be an unacceptable health hazard when the activity of radon-222
is greater than 200 Bq in 1.0 m3 of air.

Calculate the minimum mass of radon-222 in 1.0 m3 of air above which the health hazard
becomes unacceptable.

mass = .................................................... kg [4]

[Total: 8]

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UCLES 2016 9702/43/O/N/16
24

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reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

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Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2016 9702/43/O/N/16


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
* 7 2 8 0 3 2 0 9 8 8 *

PHYSICS 9702/41
Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions May/June 2017
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Answer all questions.

Electronic calculators may be used.


You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 22 printed pages and 2 blank pages.

DC (LK/FD) 127087/2
UCLES 2017 [Turn over
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2

Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m1

permittivity of free space 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1


1
( = 8.99 109 m F1)
40
elementary charge e = 1.60 1019 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 1034 J s

unified atomic mass unit 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 1031 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 1027 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 J K1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
3

Formulae

1
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + 2 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = pV

Gm
gravitational potential =
r

hydrostatic pressure p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas p = c
3 V
simple harmonic motion a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos t


v = (x 02 - x 2)
fsv
Doppler effect fo =
v vs

Q
electric potential V =
40r

capacitors in series 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + . . .

1
energy of charged capacitor W = 2 QV

electric current I = Anvq

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

BI
Hall voltage VH =
ntq

alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay x = x0 exp(t )

0.693
decay constant =
t 1
2

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4

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) Explain how a satellite may be in a circular orbit around a planet.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The Earth and the Moon may be considered to be uniform spheres that are isolated in space.
The Earth has radius R and mean density . The Moon, mass m, is in a circular orbit about
the Earth with radius nR, as illustrated in Fig. 1.1.

Earth
radius R

Moon

nR

Fig. 1.1

The Moon makes one complete orbit of the Earth in time T.


Show that the mean density of the Earth is given by the expression

3n3
= .
GT 2

[4]

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
5

(c) The radius R of the Earth is 6.38 103 km and the distance between the centre of the Earth
and the centre of the Moon is 3.84 105 km.
The period T of the orbit of the Moon about the Earth is 27.3 days.
Use the expression in (b) to calculate .

= ............................................... kg m3 [3]

[Total: 9]

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6

2 A bar magnet of mass 180 g is suspended from the free end of a spring, as illustrated in Fig. 2.1.

spring

magnet

coil

Fig. 2.1

The magnet hangs so that one pole is near the centre of a coil of wire.

The coil is connected in series with a resistor and a switch. The switch is open.

The magnet is displaced vertically and then allowed to oscillate with one pole remaining inside the
coil. The other pole remains outside the coil.

At time t = 0, the magnet is oscillating freely as it passes through its equilibrium position. At time
t = 3.0 s, the switch in the circuit is closed.

The variation with time t of the vertical displacement y of the magnet is shown in Fig. 2.2.

2.0

1.5
y / cm
1.0

0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0.5 t/s

1.0

1.5

2.0

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Fig. 2.2
UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
7

(a) Determine, to two significant figures, the frequency of oscillation of the magnet.

frequency = .................................................... Hz [2]

(b) State whether the closing of the switch gives rise to light, heavy or critical damping.

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Calculate the change in the energy E of oscillation of the magnet between time t = 2.7 s and
time t = 7.5 s. Explain your working.

E = ....................................................... J [6]

[Total: 9]

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8

3 The digital transmission of speech may be illustrated using the block diagram of Fig. 3.1.

serial -to -
ADC X parallel Y
optic fibre converter

Fig. 3.1

(a) (i) State what is meant by a digital signal.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) State the names of the components labelled X and Y on Fig. 3.1.

X: ......................................................................................................................................

Y: ......................................................................................................................................
[2]

(iii) Describe the function of the ADC.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The optic fibre has length 84 km and the attenuation per unit length in the fibre is 0.19 dB km1.

The input power to the optic fibre is 9.7 mW. At the output from the optic fibre, the signal-to-
noise ratio is 28 dB.

Calculate

(i) in dB, the ratio

input power to optic fibre


,
noise power at output of optic fibre

ratio = .................................................... dB [2]

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
9

(ii) the noise power at the output of the optic fibre.

noise power = ..................................................... W [3]

[Total: 10]

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10

4 (a) Describe the motion of molecules in a gas, according to the kinetic theory of gases.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Describe what is observed when viewing Brownian motion that provides evidence for your
answer in (a).

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) At a pressure of 1.05 105 Pa and a temperature of 27 C, 1.00 mol of helium gas has a
volume of 0.0240 m3.
The mass of 1.00 mol of helium gas, assumed to be an ideal gas, is 4.00 g.

(i) Calculate the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) speed of an atom of helium gas for a temperature
of 27 C.

r.m.s. speed = ................................................. m s1 [3]

(ii) Using your answer in (i), calculate the r.m.s. speed of the atoms at 177 C.

r.m.s. speed = ................................................. m s1 [3]

[Total: 10]
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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
11

5 An -particle is travelling in a vacuum towards the centre of a gold nucleus, as illustrated in


Fig. 5.1.

gold nucleus -particle

charge 79e energy 7.7 1013 J

Fig. 5.1

The gold nucleus has charge 79e.


The gold nucleus and the -particle may be assumed to behave as point charges.
At a large distance from the gold nucleus, the -particle has energy 7.7 1013 J.

(a) The -particle does not collide with the gold nucleus. Show that the radius of the gold nucleus
must be less than 4.7 1014 m.

[3]

(b) Determine the acceleration of the -particle for a separation of 4.7 1014 m between the
centres of the gold nucleus and of the -particle.

acceleration = ................................................. m s2 [3]

(c) In an -particle scattering experiment, the beam of -particles is incident on a very thin gold
foil.
Suggest why the gold foil must be very thin.

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

[Total: 7]
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12

6 A comparator circuit is designed to switch on a mains lamp when the ambient light level reaches a
set value.
An incomplete diagram of the circuit is shown in Fig. 6.1.

+5 V
D

6V
+

RV 5 V

Fig. 6.1

(a) (i) A relay is required as part of the output device. This is not shown in Fig. 6.1. Explain why
a relay is required.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) On Fig. 6.1, draw the symbol for a relay connected in the circuit as part of the output
device. [2]

(b) Describe the function of

(i) the variable resistor RV,

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) the diode D.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
13

(c) State whether the lamp will switch on as the light level increases or as it decreases. Explain
your answer.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[3]

[Total: 9]

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14

7 An electron having charge q and mass m is accelerated from rest in a vacuum through a potential
difference V.
The electron then enters a region of uniform magnetic field of magnetic flux density B, as shown
in Fig. 7.1.

uniform magnetic
field into plane
of paper

path of
electron

Fig. 7.1

The direction of the uniform magnetic field is into the plane of the paper.
The velocity of the electron as it enters the magnetic field is normal to the magnetic field.
The radius of the circular path of the electron in the magnetic field is r.

(a) Explain why the path of the electron in the magnetic field is the arc of a circle.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[3]

(b) Show that the magnitude p of the momentum of the electron as it enters the magnetic field is
given by

p = (2mqV ).

[2]

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
15

(c) The potential difference V is 120 V. The radius r of the circular arc is 7.4 cm.

Determine the magnitude B of the magnetic flux density.

B = ....................................................... T [3]

(d) The potential difference V in (c) is increased. The magnetic flux density B remains unchanged.

By reference to the momentum of the electron, explain the effect of this increase on the
radius r of the path of the electron in the magnetic field.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 10]

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16

8 Explain the main principles behind the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) to
obtain information about internal body structures.

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................[8]

[Total: 8]

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17

9 A simple transformer is illustrated in Fig. 9.1.

laminated
iron core

input output

Fig. 9.1

(a) (i) State why the transformer has an iron core, rather than having no core.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Explain why the core is laminated.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) By reference to the action of a transformer, explain why the input to the transformer is an
alternating voltage, rather than a constant voltage.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[3]

[Total: 6]

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BLANK PAGE

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19

10 (a) State

(i) what is meant by the hardness of an X-ray beam,

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) how the hardness of an X-ray beam from an X-ray tube is increased.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) The same parallel beam of X-ray radiation is incident, separately, on samples of bone and of
muscle.

Data for the thickness x of the samples of bone and of muscle, together with the linear
attenuation (absorption) coefficients of the radiation in bone and in muscle, are given in Fig.
10.1.

x / cm / cm1
bone 1.5 2.9
muscle 4.0 0.95

Fig. 10.1

Determine the ratio

intensity transmitted through bone


.
intensity transmitted through muscle

ratio = .......................................................... [2]

[Total: 5]

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17 [Turn over
20

11 A beam of light consists of a continuous range of wavelengths from 420 nm to 740 nm.
The light passes through a cloud of cool gas, as shown in Fig. 11.1.

incident light emergent light


cool gas
wavelengths 420 nm 740 nm

Fig. 11.1

(a) The spectrum of the light emerging from the cloud of cool gas is viewed using a diffraction
grating.
Explain why this spectrum contains a number of dark lines.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[4]

(b) Some of the electron energy levels of the atoms in the cloud of gas are represented in
Fig. 11.2.

0.38 eV
0.54 eV
0.85 eV

1.5 eV

energy
3.4 eV

13.6 eV

Fig. 11.2 (not to scale)

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
21

(i) Light of wavelength 420 nm has a photon energy of 2.96 eV.


Calculate the photon energy, in eV, of light of wavelength 740 nm.

photon energy = .................................................... eV [2]

(ii) Use data from (i) and your answer in (i) to show, on Fig. 11.2, the changes in energy
levels giving rise to the dark lines in (a). [2]

[Total: 8]

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17 [Turn over
22

12 One possible nuclear reaction that takes place in a nuclear reactor is given by the equation

235U + 1n 95Mo + 139La + 210n + x 10e


92 0 42 57

Data for the nuclei and particles are given in Fig. 12.1.

nucleus or particle mass / u


235U 235.123
92
95Mo 94.945
42
139La 138.955
57
1n 1.00863
0
0 5.49 104
1e

Fig. 12.1

(a) Determine, for this nuclear reaction, the value of x.

x = ...........................................................[1]

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UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17
23

(b) (i) Show that the energy equivalent to 1.00 u is 934 MeV.

[3]

(ii) Calculate the energy, in MeV, released in this reaction. Give your answer to three
significant figures.

energy = ................................................. MeV [3]

(c) Suggest the forms of energy into which the energy calculated in (b)(ii) is transformed.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 9]

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24

BLANK PAGE

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced online in the Cambridge International
Examinations Copyright Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download at www.cie.org.uk after
the live examination series.

Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local

www.egyptigstudentroom.com
Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2017 9702/41/M/J/17


Cambridge International Examinations
Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
* 3 8 2 8 8 0 4 9 0 5 *

PHYSICS 9702/42
Paper 4 A Level Structured Questions May/June 2017
2 hours
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.

Answer all questions.

Electronic calculators may be used.


You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 24 printed pages.

DC (CW/JG) 127310/3
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Data

speed of light in free space c = 3.00 108 m s1

permeability of free space 0 = 4 107 H m1

permittivity of free space 0 = 8.85 1012 F m1


1
( = 8.99 109 m F1)
40
elementary charge e = 1.60 1019 C

the Planck constant h = 6.63 1034 J s

unified atomic mass unit 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg

rest mass of electron me = 9.11 1031 kg

rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 1027 kg

molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K1 mol1

the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 1023 J K1

gravitational constant G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

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Formulae

1
uniformly accelerated motion s = ut + 2 at 2
v 2 = u 2 + 2as

work done on/by a gas W = p V

Gm
gravitational potential =
r

hydrostatic pressure p = gh

1 Nm 2
pressure of an ideal gas p = c
3 V
simple harmonic motion a = 2x

velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos t


v = (x 02 - x 2)
fsv
Doppler effect fo =
v vs

Q
electric potential V =
40r

capacitors in series 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + . . .

capacitors in parallel C = C1 + C2 + . . .

1
energy of charged capacitor W = 2 QV

electric current I = Anvq

resistors in series R = R1 + R2 + . . .

resistors in parallel 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . .

BI
Hall voltage VH =
ntq

alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin t

radioactive decay x = x0 exp(t )

0.693
decay constant =
t 1
2

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Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a) Define gravitational field strength.

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) The mass of a spherical comet of radius 3.6 km is approximately 1.0 1013 kg.

(i) Assuming that the comet has constant density, calculate the gravitational field strength
on the surface of the comet.

field strength = ............................................... N kg1 [2]

(ii) A probe having a weight of 960 N on Earth lands on the comet.


Using your answer in (i), determine the weight of the probe on the surface of the comet.

weight = ...................................................... N [2]

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(c) A second comet has a length of approximately 4.5 km and a width of approximately 2.6 km. Its
outline is illustrated in Fig. 1.1.

Fig. 1.1

Suggest one similarity and one difference between the gravitational fields at the surface of
this comet and at the surface of the comet in (b).

similarity: ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

difference: .................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

[Total: 7]

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2 (a) The pressure p and volume V of an ideal gas are related to the density of the gas by the
expression
1
p = c 2.
3
(i) State what is meant by the symbol c 2.

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Use the expression to show that the mean kinetic energy EK of a gas molecule is given
by
3
EK = kT
2
where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the thermodynamic temperature.

[3]

(b) (i) An ideal gas containing 1.0 mol of molecules is heated at constant volume.
Use the expression in (a)(ii) to show that the thermal energy required to raise the
3
temperature of the gas by 1.0 K has a value of R, where R is the molar gas constant.
2

[3]

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(ii) Nitrogen may be assumed to be an ideal gas. The molar mass of nitrogen gas is 28 g mol1.
Use the answer in (b)(i) to calculate a value for the specific heat capacity, in J kg1 K1, at
constant volume for nitrogen.

specific heat capacity = .......................................... J kg1 K1 [2]

[Total: 9]

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3 A bar magnet of mass 250 g is suspended from the free end of a spring, as illustrated in Fig. 3.1.

spring

magnet

coil

Fig. 3.1

The magnet hangs so that one pole is near the centre of a coil of wire.

The coil is connected in series with a resistor and a switch. The switch is open.

The magnet is displaced vertically and then allowed to oscillate with one pole remaining inside the
coil. The other pole remains outside the coil.

At time t = 0, the magnet is oscillating freely as it passes through its equilibrium position. At time
t = 6.0 s, the switch in the circuit is closed.

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The variation with time t of the vertical displacement y of the magnet is shown in Fig. 3.2.

2.0

1.5
y / cm
1.0

0.5

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
t/s
0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Fig. 3.2

(a) For the oscillating magnet, use data from Fig. 3.2 to calculate, to two significant figures,

(i) the frequency f,

f = .................................................... Hz [2]

(ii) the energy of the oscillations during the time t = 0 to time t = 6.0 s.

energy = ....................................................... J [3]

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(b) (i) State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) Use Faradays law and energy conservation to explain why the amplitude of the
oscillations of the magnet reduces after time t = 6.0 s.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[3]

[Total: 10]

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4 (a) Explain the main principles behind the use of ultrasound to obtain diagnostic information
about internal body structures.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[6]

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(b) A parallel beam of ultrasound has intensity I0 as it enters a muscle of thickness 4.6 cm, as
illustrated in Fig. 4.1.

4.6 cm
muscle

beam of I0 IT
ultrasound

Fig. 4.1

The intensity of the beam just before it leaves the muscle is IT.
The ratio I0 / IT is found to be 2.9.

Calculate the linear attenuation (absorption) coefficient of the ultrasound in the layer of
muscle.

= ................................................. cm1 [3]

[Total: 9]

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5 (a) State two advantages of the transmission of data in digital form rather than in analogue form.

1. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
[2]

(b) An analogue signal SI is converted into a digital signal D using an analogue-to-digital


converter (ADC). After transmission of the digital signal, it is converted back to an analogue
signal ST using a digital-to-analogue converter (DAC), as illustrated in Fig. 5.1.

analogue signal digital signal analogue signal


ADC DAC
SI D ST

Fig. 5.1

(i) Outline the process by which the ADC converts the analogue signal SI into the digital
signal D.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) The ADC and the DAC operate with the same sampling rate and the same number of
bits in each digital number.

State the effect on the transmitted analogue signal ST when, for the ADC and the DAC,

1. the sampling rate is increased,

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................

2. the number of bits in each digital number is increased.

....................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................
[2]

[Total: 6]

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6 (a) State Coulombs law.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Two charged metal spheres A and B are situated in a vacuum, as illustrated in Fig. 6.1.

6.0 cm

sphere A sphere B
P

Fig. 6.1

The shortest distance between the surfaces of the spheres is 6.0 cm.

A movable point P lies along the line joining the centres of the two spheres, a distance x from
the surface of sphere A.

The variation with distance x of the electric field strength E at point P is shown in Fig. 6.2.

10

E / 103 V m1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x / cm

10

15

Fig. 6.2

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(i) Use Fig. 6.2 to explain whether the two spheres have charges of the same, or opposite,
sign.

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) A proton is at point P where x = 5.0 cm.


Use data from Fig. 6.2 to determine the acceleration of the proton.

acceleration = ................................................. m s2 [3]

(c) Use data from Fig. 6.2 to state the value of x at which the rate of change of electric potential
is maximum. Give the reason for the value you have chosen.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

[Total: 9]

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7 A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates, separated by an insulator, as shown in Fig. 7.1.

insulator
metal
plates

Fig. 7.1

(a) Suggest why, when the capacitor is connected across the terminals of a battery, the capacitor
stores energy, not charge.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) Define the capacitance of the capacitor.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................[2]

(c) The capacitor is charged so that the potential difference between its plates is V0.
The capacitor is then connected across a resistor for a short time. It is then disconnected.
1