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COLLEGE OF PUBLIC SAFETY 0

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 26 AS PERCEIVED BY BARANGAY

OFFICIALS AND POLICE OFFICERS

AUSTRIA, JADE ADRIAN M.

GAMBOA, ANNE JEANETTE A.

JAVIER, NEIL R.
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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

The chapter presents a brief background about the origin and purpose of

the study. The statement of the problem, significance of the study, scope and

delimitations and definition of terms are likewise presented.

INTRODUCTION

Many Filipinos die due to smoking-related diseases. On a daily basis, 240

Filipinos die because of these smoking-related diseases such as heart failure,

stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease and

many cancers. This accounts for 87,600 deaths due to smoking-related diseases

in the country every year (World Health Organization, 2009b).

Direct and indirect exposures to cigarette smoking cause these diseases.

Direct exposure or first- hand is the actual smoking, while indirect exposure may

be second hand or inhaling the smoke when a person smokes near and third-

hand smoke or exposure to chemicals that remain after the cigarette is put out

(Apelberg, 2007).
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In connection with these dangers of smoking, there are increasing

numbers of Filipino smokers who have no limits to its consumption. Most of

these smokers smoke in public places and in enclosed spaces. Some of them

may not be fully aware that there are existing laws that was implemented in the

Philippines that prohibits and regulates the usage and consumption of cigarette

or tobacco where specific violations and penalties are imposed therein.

One of the laws that was being implemented is the Executive Order No.

26 entitled as Providing for the Establishments of Smoke Free Environment in

Public and Enclosed Places whereas, the Republic of the Philippines under the

World Health Organization on Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

(FCTC) to which it is a Party, being determined to give priority to the right to

protect public health and to promote measures of tobacco control based on

current and relevant scientific, technical and economic considerations agreed to

implement the measures provided in the treaty. In addition, tobacco

consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke causes death, diseases and

disability which will lead to devastating health, social, economic and

environmental consequences, and places and gives burdens on families, on the

poor, and on national and local health systems. This law was ordered and

signed by the President of the Philippines, President Rodrigo Duterte on May 16,

2017 and takes effect 60 days after its publication in a newspaper of its general

circulation.
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Republic Act 9211 or te is the one that prohibits smoking in certain public

places, and prohibits the purchase and sale of cigarettes and other tobacco

products to and by minors and in certain places frequented by minors. It is the

one that provides specific penalties for any violation of the prohibition.

Due to these effects, the researchers identify the level of effectiveness of

Executive Order No. 26 also known as the nationwide smoking ban as perceived

by the police officers and barangay officials in order to recommend some

programs and/or implement related prohibitions regarding the regulation of

usage of tobacco.

Statement of the Problem

1. What is the perception of the respondents about the effectiveness of

Executive Order No. 26 in terms of:

1.1. Centers of Youth Activity;

1.2. Food Preparation Areas;

1.3. Locations where Fire Hazards are present and ;

1.4. Parks and public places?


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2. Is there a significant difference between the perception of Barangay

officials and police officers in the effectiveness of Executive Order No. 26

also known as nationwide smoking ban?

3. What alternative programs may be recommended and/or proposed by the

researcher to conform with, and support E.O No. 26 also known as the

nationwide smoking ban?

Conceptual Framework

In order to have a more comprehensive view on the extent of the level of

effectiveness of Executive Order No. 26, the backbone of the study was based

on the theories and models regarding the natures of addiction to smoking.

The physiological factor is one of the reasons why people smoke, in

which according to Rappaport, Hopkins, et.al. that smoking is reinforcing

because nicotine stimulates reward which centers in the nervous system.

Nicotine also speeds up the heart, causes relaxation of the skeletal muscles,

and has an indirect effect on the level of circulating catecholamine. A factor

arguing against this is that nicotines effect on the body is short-lived and

disappears when the drug is not present. Thus, although the effects of nicotine

may prompt the repeated use of cigarettes, they cannot account for the fact that
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many people return to smoking in weeks, months, or even years after they have

stopped.

Another factor is the mental health factor which according to Jarvick

(1997), that smoking regulates the level of nicotine in the body. When the

plasma levels of nicotine depart from the idea level, smoking occurs in studies

that alter nicotine level in the blood stream, smokers do not alter their smoking

behavior enough to compensate for these manipulations. Moreover, smoking is

very responsive to rapidly changing forces that can affect blood plasma levels of

nicotine. Finally, the high rates of relapse are found among smokers long after

plasma nicotine levels are at zero level.

Emotional factor is also one of the reasons why people smoke because

according to H. Leventhal and Cleary (2000), it is central to smoking and that

nicotine becomes conditioned to these emotional states. One theoretical

example is a beginner in smoking who actually is an adolescent and socially

anxious. Initially, he may smoke to develop feelings of security and maturity then

smoking acts to reduce social anxiety. Once he finishes smoking, however the

anxiety reappears and nicotine levels begin to drop. The anxiety will become

conditioned overtime to decline nicotine level because of their continual pairing.

The sensations produced by a decline in nicotine level will, in return, became

craving for smoking.


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The last factor is the behavioral effect and according to Pomerleau O.,

smoking as a neuro-regulator in concurrence with addiction to nicotine, may help

explain why it is so difficult for people to permanently stop smoking. Specifically,

nicotine may be a way of regulating behavior and decision making of a person

using it. Consistent with this point, habitual smokers who stop smoking

conveyed that their concentration was reduced and their attention becomes

unfocused. They show memory impairments, and experience increase in

anxiety, tension, irritability, craving and moodiness. So, as a way of dealing with

these difficulties, former smokers return to smoking because they have realized

that nicotine has the ability to relieve these problems and thus, improve them in

coping and adapting with the demands of their daily living.

CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM

Perception of Barangay Officials and Police Officers about


Nationwide Smoking Ban

Physiological Behavioral Mental Health Emotional


Effects Effects Effects Effects

The alternative solutions and/or programs to be


recommended by the researchers to address the
problem.

FIGURE 1
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This study is focused on the perception of the barangay officials and

police officers on the effectiveness of Executive Order No. 26 also known as the

nationwide smoking ban with the four factors which affects a persons decision

making and normal functioning of his mind and body.

For the first factor, nicotine affects the physiological health of a person

who smokes and to some extent hinders the functions of certain parts of the

body which was affected by the nicotine intake. For the second factor, the

behavioral effects of smoking affect the way a person behaves and thus affects

the way a person decide on small and important things. The third one is the

mental health which when a person has large intake of nicotine, the plasma level

of nicotine arouse and will affect the persons mental ability to perform normal

things. Emotional effects of smoking plays important role in this study because a

person believes that his anxiety or other incapacities were relieved by smoking

and will affect the persons ability to socialize with other people specially those

who are non-smokers. All of the factors stated above affect the persons mind

and body to perform and cope up with the demand of their daily living. So the

researchers identify recommendations or alternative programs to address the

problems caused by nicotine intake.


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Significance of the Study

This study hopes to provide relevant data and significant to the following:

First Asia Institute of technology and Humanities- this study is beneficial to

the institution for further research and related studies that faculties or students

of the institution may conduct. It may also help in enhancing the teaching of

other related subjects.

Community/Barangay Residents- the study will be able to benefit the

residents of barangay for their awareness in the nation-wide smoking ban, its

effects and the alternative solutions or programs that may be proposed for the

regulation and consumption of tobacco.

Barangay Officials- the findings of the study will be beneficial to the

barangay officials and other persons in authority to have broad idea about the

effectiveness of the nation-wide smoking ban in their barangays. Knowing this

enables them to propose other interactive programs to lessen the too much

usage of tobacco and therefore may contribute to a healthy environment.

Police Officers/ Philippine National Police (PNP) this study will be of

help to the police officers to have a basis on how the Executive Order No. 26
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became effective and for them to have ideas about comprehensive and efficient

way of the enforcement of the law.

Future Researchers- this research may serve as a reference for those

who will engage in the same field similar in nature of this study.

Scope and Delimitations

This study focuses on the comparative analysis of the perception of the

respondents about the level of effectiveness of E.O. No. 26 also known as the

nationwide smoking ban in selected barangays of Tanauan City Batangas. It

aims to identify the effectiveness of the said law in terms of the centers of youth

activity, food preparation areas, locations where fire hazards are present and

parks and public places.

The respondents of this study were the barangay officials of the selected

barangays of Tanauan City, Batangas including Barangay 7 and Barangay 5,

and random police officers of Tanauan City Police Station. The respondents will

be answering survey questionnaires to gather information for the study. The

researchers did not include other questions that would be too personal and

sensitive for the respondents to comply.


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DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following are terms that was hereby operationally defined for better

understanding:

Fire Hazard- It is defined as the possibility of a fire accident to occur in a

particular place because of the carelessness of people like improper storage of

hazardous chemicals.

Executive Order No. 26- this law was entitled as Providing for the

Establishment of Smoke-free Environments in Public and Enclosed Places.

This was signed by President Duterte that ban smoking within public areas

nationwide with the exception in designated smoking areas.

Nicotine- is a toxic colorless or yellowish oily liquid that is the chief active

constituent of tobacco. It acts as a stimulant in small doses, but in larger

amounts blocks the action of autonomic nerve and skeletal muscle cells.

Oplan Balik Eskwela is a program by the Department of Education (DepEd)

with the coordination of other agencies to ensure that the students are enrolled

and able to attend the first day of classes.


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Republic Act 9211- Republic Act 9211- an act regulating the packaging, use,

sale, distribution and advertisements of tobacco products and for other

purposes. It shall be known as the Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003.

Smoking- It is defined as an act of inhaling the smoke from burning tobacco

which is developed in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars.

Tobacco- is a preparation of the nicotine-rich leaves of an American plant,

which are cured by a process of drying and fermentation for smoking or

chewing.
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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents different authoritative views and research studies

related to the present studies. This study will give the researchers more

knowledge, insights, and learning for its expansion and completions on hand.

The researchers have read articles, documents and other studies which they

considered related to their current research.

Centers of Youth Activity

The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2007) estimates that there are 17% or

4 million Filipino youths with ages 13-15 years who are smoking. Of these early

starters, 2.8 million are boys and 1.2 million are girls. With these alarming

statistics, a number of anti-smoking campaigns are being implemented around

the country.

The Department of Education (DepEd) through their program Oplan Balik

Eskwela integrates anti-smoking campaign in schools for the protection of the

students against the hazards of smoking. The main goal of the campaign is to

ensure the implementation of the anti-smoking policies in schools (DepEd,

2011). Aside from the efforts of DepEd, the Metro Manila Development Authority
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(MMDA) has also launched its anti-smoking campaign in the National Capital

Region (NCR). The MMDA enforcers have started to reprimand those who are

smoking in public places (Aning, 2011). MMDAs vision of having a smoke-free

Manila is the main reason why this study is made in NCR.

According to Section 9 of the Republic Act 9211 or the Tobacco

Regulation Act of 2003 which was about the Minimum Age Sales, it is unlawful

for any retailer of tobacco products to sell or distribute tobacco products to any

minor; for any person to purchase cigarettes or tobacco products from a minor;

for a minor to sell or buy cigarettes or any tobacco product; and for a minor to

smoke cigarettes or any other tobacco products. It also shall not be a defense

for the person selling or distributing that he/she did not know or was not aware of

the real age of the minor. Neither shall it be a defense that he/she did not know

nor had any reason to believe that the cigarette or any other tobacco product

was for the consumption of the minor to whom it was sold.

Section 10 of this Act was about the sale of tobacco products within

school perimeters, that the sale or distribution of tobacco products is prohibited

within one hundred (100) meters from any point of the perimeter of a school,

public playground or other facility frequented particularly by minors. Section 35,

Instruction on the Hazardous Effect of Smoking as Part of School Curricula

discusses that the instruction on the adverse effects of cigarette/tobacco


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smoking, including their health, environmental and economic implications, shall

be integrated into the existing curricula of all public and private elementary and

high schools.

The DepEd Secretary shall promulgate such rules and regulations as may

be necessary to carry out the above stated policy hereof, and, with the

assistance of the Secretary of Health, and with the approval of the IAC-Tobacco,

shall cause the publication and distribution of materials on the unhealthy effects

of smoking to students and the general public. (The Official Gazette of R.A.

9211, 2003)

According to Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Bhutan conducted

in 2013, a national-level representative sample of students in grades 79 was

selected. The survey consisted of 25 sampled schools and random classes

selected within the sampled schools. A total of 1378 students aged 1315 years

were surveyed with an overall response rate of 97.1%. Its findings indicate that

there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of current tobacco use

among boys; from 28.6% in 2006 to 39.0% in 2013 and, among girls, from

12.4% in 2006 to 23.2% in 2013. This drastic increase is mainly because of a

significant rise in the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use among both

boys and girls; from 14.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013 (boys) and from 6% in

2006 to 18.9% in 2013 (girls).


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However, the exposure to second-hand smoke has decreased both in

homes and public places. Exposure to tobacco smoke among students aged

1315 years in homes has reduced significantly from around 30% in 2004, 2006

and 2009 to 15.3% in 2013. Exposure to tobacco smoke in public places has

reduced significantly, from over 50% in 2006 and 2009 to 42.8% in 2013 and

over half of the students (51.3%) were exposed to second hand smoke inside

and outside the school property in the past 30 days. The survey revealed that

almost half of the students (49.1%) favored banning smoking both in enclosed

and outdoor public places. (WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2015)

Food Preparation Areas

According to Section 5, paragraph 7 of the Republic Act 9211 or the

Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003 entitled as Smoking Ban in Public Places,

smoking shall be absolutely prohibited in public places which include prohibition

in smoking on food preparation areas and establishments.

The California Indoor Clean Air Act of 1976 declares tobacco smoke as a

health hazard for the general public. Section 118910 of the California Health and

Safety Code states the Legislative intent as not to pre-empt the field of

regulation of the smoking of tobacco.


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Section 5148 of the California Code of Regulations also prohibits smoking

in workplace. The Rules prohibit an employer from permitting any person from

smoking tobacco products in an enclosed space at the place of employment.

Smoking is prohibited in retail food production and marketing establishment,

during the hours when it is open to the public. This provision does not apply to

establishments or to areas in establishments that are set aside for employee

smoking and are not open to the public. In case of restaurants situated in

publicly owned building serving food or alcoholic beverages in rooms having a

capacity of 50 or more persons, smoking should be prohibited in a contiguous

area of not less than 20 percent of the serving area. Signs showing that

smoking is prohibited should be posted in sufficient numbers at places where

people can readily see them. This rule does not apply to banquet rooms in use

for private functions.

The California Retail Food Code (CRFC) is a part of the California Health

and Safety Code and the purpose of this law is to provide uniform state wide

health and sanitation standards for retail food facilities. Food can be

contaminated if a person is preparing food, serving food or cleaning utensils

while using tobacco at the same time. Also, if the person using tobacco does not

wash their hands after smoking, they can transmit germs to the food or utensils.

Therefore, California Retail Food Code, Sections 113977 and 113953,

specifically state that An employee shall eat, drink, or use any form of tobacco
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only in designated areas where contamination of non-pre-packaged food; clean

equipment, utensils, and linens; unwrapped single-us articles; or other items

needing protection cannot result.

According to Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, and under

Food Safety Standard 3.2.2 entitled Food Safety Practices and General

Requirements, food businesses are expected to ensure, as far as they can,

that their food handlers and anyone else on the premises do not contaminate

food. Food businesses also have specific responsibilities relating to the health

of people who handle food, the provision of hand washing facilities, telling food

handlers of their health and hygiene obligations and the privacy of food

handlers. A food business must also take practical steps to stop people from

smoking or spitting in food preparation areas or in areas where there is

unprotected food. Practical steps include putting No Smoking signs on the

walls and, if spitting is a problem, putting up signs to say that this is also

prohibited; and making sure that there are no ashtrays in these areas.

Places where Fire Hazards are Present

According to the Shell Safety Basics of Shell Gasoline Station, they are

committed to ensuring that laws about prohibition on smoking are obeyed,

because they exist for the safety of gasoline man and their workers or crews,
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and for the safety of our their customers as well, their neighbors and their staffs.

Their commitment also applies to all their Retailers and Sales Associates. Shell

sites dont allow the consumers and the motorists to break the law, and that they

know the consumer has deep understanding why they were so careful regarding

the issue. They need the full cooperation of the consumers to keep their retail

sites safe and free from hazards and dangers of smoking.

After performing a risk assessment at the National Petroleum gas station,

in Curepe Trinidad, there were several fire hazards that were identified. These

comprised the smoking of cigarettes and improper safeguarding of extension

cords. According to the survey being conducted, an interview with a worker

revealed that many people mistakenly come into the gas station smoking;

despite No Smoking signs are displayed, resulting in having to remind them

that the gas station is a no smoking zone. This simple act of negligence can

lead to a fire at the station.

Under Section 8 of Republic Act 9514 which was also known as the

Revised Fire Code of the Philippines of 2008, smoking in prohibited areas as

may be determined by fire service, or throwing of cigars, cigarettes, burning

objects in places which may start or cause fire was declared as prohibited act

and omission. Violation to this act will result from imposition of penalties such as

fine and imprisonment. This law was made to ensure adherence to standard fire
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prevention and safety measures, and promote accountability for fire safety in the

fire protection service and prevention service.

Parks and Public Places

Section 5 of Republic Act 9211 (Department of Education, 2011), or the

Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003, specifies the smoking prohibition in public

places including Centers of youth activity such as playschools, preparatory

schools, elementary schools, high schools, colleges and universities, youth

hostels, and recreational facilities for persons under eighteen years old. Thus,

this law of the country has a purpose of promoting a healthful environment and

to protect specifically the youth from being exposed to tobacco smoking.

According to the Code of Ordinances of Davao City 2009, in Chapter III

Article A which was entitled, Buying and Selling of Liquors and Cigarettes, it

specifically stated in section 3 all the prohibited acts in the city. It includes the

prohibition on smoking to all minors with age of 17 and below, from buying,

ordering, serving or drinking beer, liquor, coconut wine and other intoxicating

beverages as well as buying and smoking cigarettes and other tobacco

products from wholesale, retail, grocery, or convenience stores and all other

business establishments in the City; and all persons are prohibited from

instructing, ordering, sending on an errand or co-opting minors, aged 17 and

below, to buy, order or drink beer, liquor, coconut wine and other intoxicating
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beverages as well as to buy, order or smoke cigarettes and other tobacco

products from wholesale, retail, grocery or convenience stores and all other

business establishments in the City.

It also comprises that all wholesale, retail, grocery or convenience stores

as well as all other business establishments in the city are prohibited from

selling or serving beer, liquor, coconut wine and other intoxicating beverages as

well as cigarettes and other tobacco products to all minors, aged 17 and below.

For this purpose, all wholesale, retail, grocery or convenience stores as well as

all other business establishments in the city are mandated to determine the age

of their would-be buyers by requiring them, whenever necessary, by reason of

their looks and appearance that they may still be minors, to present their

identification cards, such as Drivers License, School ID, Employee ID, other

Government-issued ID or Community Tax Certificate before selling or serving to

them beer, liquor, coconut wine and other intoxicating beverages as well as

cigarettes and other tobacco products.

The city ordinance also provides the imposition of penalties and shall be

penalized. For first offense, a fine of Php1,000.00 or an imprisonment of not

less than ten (10) days or both at the discretion of the Court. While for second

offense, a fine of Php3, 000.00 or an imprisonment of not less than twenty (20)

days or both at the discretion of the court.


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Davao City is the leading example for taking forward the smoke-free

agenda in the Philippines. In 2002, Mayor Rodrigo Duterte instigated a review

of Davao Citys ordinances related to smoking in public places and found out

that these ordinances did not protect the public from the dangers of exposure to

secondhand smoke. Well ahead of the 2003 national law on tobacco control

(Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003), the city council passed its Comprehensive

Anti-Smoking Ordinance on 30 July 2002. Following its approval by the mayor

on 14 August 2002, the ordinance finally took effect on 09 November 2002.

Through Executive Order No. 25, the Anti-Smoking Task Force was established

to monitor compliance and implementation of the Comprehensive Anti-smoking

Ordinance, conduct advocacy and campaigns, and support the Davao City

Police in filing charges for violation.

Based on Article 5 of Clean Air Act of 1999, entitled Pollution from Other

Sources in Section 24, Smoking inside a public building or an enclosed public

place including public vehicles and other means of transport or in any enclosed

area outside of one's private residence, private place of work or any duly

designated smoking area is prohibited. The provision shall be implemented by

the Local Government Units.

While in other places outside our country, in Georgia, smoking

restrictions in public places were implemented in 2003 when the first Georgian
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Law on Tobacco Control was enacted. In 2004, changes in the Georgian Code

of Administrative Offences established penalties for violations of tobacco law

measures. It was stated in the Georgian law that it prohibits tobacco smoking in

educational institutions, enclosed sports buildings, in medical and

pharmaceutical buildings and in public transport. In working places, smoking

zone maybe created. (Bakhturidze, 2013).

RELATED STUDIES

According to the study of Abdolrahman Charkazi, a cross-sectional

survey of 382 pre-college students was conducted in Isfahan Iran in 2010 where

students were selected from eight schools using systematic randomized method

sampling. The instrument was developed by the researchers based on the

Health Belief Model.

The purpose of this study was to determine the association between

constructs of the Health Belief Model which is about the perceived susceptibility

to health-related problems due to smoking, perceived barriers to non-smoking,

perceived benefits of non-smoking, perceived self-value to non-smoking, and

cigarette smoking among male pre-college students. Overall 7.2% of the

subjects reported having smoked in the past 30 days and 32.7% % of the

samples reported ever having smoked in their life time. Results of the t-test
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showed that there were significant differences in knowledge, perceived

susceptibility, benefits, and self-efficacy, between smokers and non-smokers.

These results suggested that the constructs of Health Belief Model can be

incorporated when examining the predictors of cigarette smoking and

developing smoking prevention programs among pre-college students

(Abdolrahman C. et al., 2010).

According to the study of Raute, et. Al, conducted in restaurants in

Mumbai India, a total of 50 venues were selected for the study, including five

restaurants, four pubs, 27 bars and restaurants, 10 country liquor bars and four

hookah restaurants. One measurement session was carried out per venue. At

the time of observational monitoring of the total 50 venues, smoking within

premises was observed in 18 of the venues. There was no smoking observed in

all five restaurants and four pubs, while smoking was observed in seven of 27

bars. The venue with the highest proportion of smoking observed was country

liquor bars (eight out of 10). In addition, the No Smoking signage was seen at

33 venues.

This study mainly focused on assessing the implementation of smoke-

free policies and its impact on indoor air quality. After seven months that the law

has mandated a ban on smoking in public places, there were only 32 out of 50

venues where smoking within premises was not observed. Furthermore, even
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though No Smoking signage were observed in these venues, none of these

venues had signage that met the mandated minimum size of 60 cm 30 cm. It

therefore concludes that considerable scope for the improvement in

implementation of smoke-free policies exists. The PM2.5 levels were

exceedingly high in venues where smoking was observed (Raute, L. et.al. 2009).

According to the study of Aguillon, J. & Romano, P (2012), , The study

aims to determine the effects of the extent of exposure to anti-smoking

advertisements and the recall of National Capital Region (NCR) male high

school students to their perceptions of and attitudes toward smoking. Results

found out that three in ten NCR male high school students had tried smoking at

ages 12 to 14 years. There was a high general perceived susceptibility and

severity of having smoking-related diseases among the NCR male high school

students.

The general attitude of the students toward smoking was either positive or

negative (neutral). The study also found out that there was a weak correlation

between the NCR male high school students exposure to and recall of

antismoking advertisements and their perceptions of and attitudes towards

smoking.
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Synthesis

The related studies presented in this chapter were found to be relevant to

this study. Several sources were used to arrive in more broad studies. The

researchers have chosen the above mentioned studies because there are ideas

that are very much similar to the study of the researchers.

The study of Raute,L. et.al. (2009) was considered very relevant to the

present study in the sense that they focused on assessing the implementation of

smoke-free policies and concludes that considerable scope for improvement in

implementation of smoke-free policies exists.

The study of Aguillon, J. & Romano, P (2012) is found relevant to this

research, entitled A study on the effects of NCR male high school students

exposure to and recall of anti-smoking advertisements to their perceptions of

and attitudes towards smoking where the study found out that there was a

weak correlation between the NCR male high school students exposure to and

recall of anti-smoking advertisements and their perceptions of and attitudes

towards smoking. The difference between the three studies were how the

implementation of the smoke free policies exist and how people or residences

conform to the laws.


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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE

This chapter presents the description of methods to be used, the data

gathering procedures, the respondents of the study and the statistical treatments

applied to the data gathered in the study.


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Research Design

This study aims to identify the level of effectiveness of Executive Order

No. 26 also known as the nationwide smoking ban. The researchers are using a

quantitative research design. Surveys through questionnaires will be conducted

on the respondents, the PNP officers and the barangay officials of selected

barangays. The quantitative research attempts to gather data by objective

methods to provide information about relations, comparisons, and predictions

and attempts to remove the investigator from the investigation (Smith, 1983).

The researchers will be using a constructed questionnaire and survey analysis

as data gathering instruments to secure all the information needed for the study.

Sampling Procedure

The subject of the study is composed of barangay officials from selected

barangays of Tanauan City Batangas and PNP officers of Tanauan City Police

Station. These respondents were selected through systematic random

sampling. The sample size was acquired through sampling interval where the

samples was calculated by dividing the population size by the desired sample

size. The respondents being selected were given a constructed questionnaire.


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Instrumentation

In this study, the main research instrument is a constructed

questionnaire. The first draft is submitted to the adviser for the consultation and

constructive criticism. The researchers also consulted people who have

expertise in the field to go over the questionnaire to determine whether the

questions were categorized correctly. After a series of revisions, the final draft

was presented to the adviser for content and appropriateness. Related studies

were used as references in constructing the content of the questionnaire. he

secondary instrument used by the researchers includes other references,

books, journal and dictionary, and published/unpublished thesis, from which

related studies and literature came from.

Population of the Study

The study was focused on the subjects who are composed of the

barangay officials in selected barangays of Tanauan City Batangas including

barangay 5 and barangay 7; and police officers of Tanauan City Police Station.

This study was limited to a total of 40 respondents coming from the total

population of barangay officials of two barangays which is 20 and 20 as well

from the population or strength of police officers.


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Data Gathering

The researchers followed the following steps to gather pertinent data. First

are the gathering and organizing of conceptual and research literature from

which conceptual frame works were made. For formality, the researchers sent a

letter to the Barangay Captains of selected barangays and to the chief of police

of Tanauan City Batangas and asked for permission to conduct the survey.

After giving the consent the researchers personally approached the

respondents about the study and requested them to participate in answering

the prepared questionnaire. After the agreement of the chosen respondents,

the researchers distributed the questionnaires and the data gathered was

analyzed and interpreted through the use of the most appropriate statistical and

procedures.

Statistical treatment of Data

In the constructed questionnaires, the respondents were requested to


rate each item on four (4) point rating scale with their designated verbal
interpretation.

Numerical Rating Value Verbal interpretation

4 Very Effective
COLLEGE OF PUBLIC SAFETY 30

3 Effective

2 Slightly Effective

1 Not Effective

To interpret the weighted mean of the comparative analysis of the

perceptions of barangay officials and police officers on the level of effectiveness

of Executive Order No. 26, the following numerical values and their

corresponding verbal interpretations were used:

Mean Ranges Verbal Interpretations

3.50- 4.00 Very Effective

2.50- 3.49 Effective

1.50- 2.49 Slightly Effective

1.00- 1.49 Not Effective

Frequency and Percentage. This was used presenting the profile of the

respondents. This is used to determine how much part variable in comparison

with the whole is:

P = f / N 100

Where: P = percentage
COLLEGE OF PUBLIC SAFETY 31

f = frequency for each option

N = total number of respondents

100 = constant multiplier to set the percentage

Weighted Mean. This was used to determine the common response of

the respondents in the variables of the study. The formula given for statistical

tool is as follows:

Where: X = weighted mean

f = frequency

X = assessment value

N = total number of respondents

T-Test- is used to compare two different set of values. It is generally

performed on a small set of data. T-test is generally applied to normal

distribution which has a small set of values. This test compares the mean

of two samples. T-test uses means and standard deviations of two samples

to make a comparison.