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CHAPTER 7

DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS

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CLOSED-BOOK PRACTICE CHAPTER 7: DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS

CONCEPT CHECK

  • 1. Which of the following is the slip system for the simple cubic (SC) crystal structure? Why?

{100}110

{110}110

{100}010

{110}111

(Note: A unit cell for the simple cubic crystal structure is shown in Fig. 3.3.) Ans:

The slip system for some crystal structure corresponds to the most densely packed crystallographic plane, and in that plane, the most closely packed crystallographic direction. For simple cubic, the most densely packed atomic plane is the {100}-type plane; the most densely packed direction within this plane is a 010type direction. Therefore, the slip system for simple cubic is {100}010.

  • 2. Explain the difference between resolved shear stress and critical resolved shear stress. Ans: Resolved shear stress is the shear component of an applied tensile (or compressive) stress resolved along a slip plane that is other than perpendicular or parallel to the stress axis. The critical resolved shear stress is the value of resolved shear stress at which yielding begins; it is a property of the material.

  • 3. When making hardness measurements, what will be the effect of making an indentation very close to a preexisting indentation? Why? Ans: The hardness measured from an indentation that is positioned very close to a preexisting indentation will be too large. The material in this vicinity was cold-worked when the first indentation was made.

  • 4. Would you expect a crystalline ceramic material to strain harden at room temperature? Why or why not? Ans: No, it would not be expected. In order for a material to strain harden it must be plastically deformed. Because ceramic materials are brittle at room temperature, they will fracture before any plastic deformation takes place.

  • 5. Explain why some metals (i.e., lead, tin) do not strain harden when deformed at room temperature. Ans: Metals such as lead and tin do not strain harden at room temperature because their recrystallization temperatures lie below room temperature (Table 7.2).

  • 6. Would you expect it to be possible for ceramic materials to experience recrystallization? Why or why not? Ans: No, recrystallization is not expected in ceramic materials. In order to experience recrystallization, a material must first be plastically deformed, and ceramic materials are too brittle to plastically deform.

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QUESTIONS & PROBLEMS

Basic Concepts & Characteristics of Dislocations

  • Consider two edge dislocations of opposite sign and having slip planes that are separated by several atomic distances, as indicated in the diagram. That is, the two edge dislocations are not on the same plane. Briefly describe the defect that results when these two dislocations become aligned vertically with each other. Ans:

C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 2/8 Q UESTIONS & P

When the two edge dislocations become aligned, a planar region of vacancies will exist between the dislocations as shown below at left.

C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 2/8 Q UESTIONS & P
C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 2/8 Q UESTIONS & P
  • Is it possible for two screw dislocations of opposite sign to annihilate each other? Explain your answer. Ans: It is possible for two screw dislocations of opposite sign to annihilate one another if their dislocation lines are parallel. This is demonstrated in the figure above at right.

  • The originally perfect grid of a metallic lattice microstructure is distorted by an edge dislocation line, as shown in the figure at right. Draw on the figure the resulting residual strain fields, including the sense of tension/compression. Explain why. Ans:

C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 2/8 Q UESTIONS & P
C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 2/8 Q UESTIONS & P

As shown in the figure above at left, the grids above the edge dislocation line contract in, resulting in a compressive residual strain field, whereas below the dislocation line expand out to become a tensile residual strain field.

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For each of edge, screw and mixed dislocations, cite the relationship between the direction of the applied shear stress and the direction of dislocation line motion.

Ans:

For the various dislocation types, the relationships between the direction of the applied shear stress and the direction of dislocation line motion are as follows:

edge dislocation:

parallel

screw dislocation: perpendicular mixed dislocation: neither parallel nor perpendicular

Slip Systems

  • (a) Define the term slip system and explain its relation with dislocation motion.

  • (b) Do all metals have the same slip system? Why or why not?

Ans:

  • (a) A slip system is a crystallographic plane (usually the most densely packed and is called the slip plane) and within that plane, a crystallographic direction (usually also the most densely packed and is called the slip direction) along which dislocation motion (or slip) occurs.

  • (b) All metals do not have the same slip system. The reason for this is that for most metals, the slip system will consist of the slip plane (i.e., the most densely packed crystallographic plane), and within that plane the slip direction (i.e., the most closely packed direction). This slip plane and direction will vary from crystal structure to crystal structure.

The figure at right shows the simple cubic (SC) crystal structure. Determine if a combined system of crystallographic plane {100} and crystallographic direction <110> forms a slip system. Explain why. Ans:

A slip system is formed by a slip plane, which is the most densely

<110>
<110>

{100}

packed crystallographic plane (i.e., the highest planar density PD), and a slip direction, which is the most densely packed crystallographic direction (i.e., the highest linear density LD) within that plane. For the SC crystal structure, the crystallographic plane {100} is the most packed, thus a slip plane. However, within that plane, the slip direction is <100>. Hence the combination of {100} plane and <110> direction is NOT a slip system for SC.

Deformation by Twinning

List four major differences between deformation by twinning and deformation by slip relative to mechanism, conditions of occurrence, and final result.

Ans:

Four major differences between deformation by twinning and deformation by slip are as follows:

1) with slip deformation there is no crystallographic reorientation, whereas with twinning there is a reorientation; 2) for slip, the atomic displacements occur in atomic spacing multiples, whereas for twinning, these

3)

displacements may be other than by atomic spacing multiples; slip occurs in metals having many slip systems, whereas twinning occurs in metals having relatively few slip systems; and

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4)

normally slip results in relatively large deformations, whereas only small deformations result for twinning.

Solid-Solution Strengthening

  • The figure at right shows an interstitial impurity atom (the dark circle) would be situated in the vicinity of an edge dislocation. It should be noted that the impurity atom is smaller than the host atoms (the white circles). Explain the effect of the interstitial impurity on the original edge-dislocation-induced lattice strain field. Ans:

C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 4/8 4) normally slip results
C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 4/8 4) normally slip results

As shown in the figure above at left, the grids above the edge dislocation line contract in, resulting in a compressive residual strain field, whereas below the dislocation line expand out to become a tensile residual strain field. Since compressive lattice strains are introduced by the impurity atom, there will be a net reduction in lattice strain energy when these lattice strains partially cancel the tensile strains associated with the edge dislocation; such tensile strains exist just below the bottom of the extra half-plane of atoms.

Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction

  • Explain why small-angle grain boundaries are not as effective in interfering with the slip process as are high-angle grain boundaries. Ans: Small-angle grain boundaries are not as effective in interfering with the slip process as are high-angle grain boundaries because there is not as much crystallographic misalignment in the grain boundary region for small-angle, and therefore not as much change in slip direction.

  • When compared to FCC and BCC metals, are HCP metals typically more brittle or ductile? Explain why. Ans: Hexagonal close packed (HCP) metals are typically more brittle than FCC and BCC metals because there are fewer slip systems in HCP. There are only 3 to 6 slip systems in HCP whereas at least 12 in FCC or BCC. Hence dislocation movements are limited and it is more difficult to have plastic deformation.

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Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are positioned right next to each other in the Periodic Table. Although copper is FCC while zinc is HCP, they both have many comparable properties, such as atomic number/weight/radius,

density, electronegativity, Young’s modulus, heat capacity, speed of sound, etc. At room temperature, do

you think (a) Cu is more ductile than Zn, (b) Zn is more ductile than Cu, or (c) they have about the same ductility. Explain why.

Ans:

Hexagonal close packed (HCP) metals are typically more brittle than FCC metals because there are only 3 to 6 slip systems in HCP while there are 12 in FCC. Hence in HCP dislocation movements are limited and it is more difficult to have plastic deformation than in FCC. Thus, (a) Cu is more ductile than Zn even though they both have many other comparable properties.

Strain Hardening

 

If a hardness reading is measured from an indentation, which is positioned very close to a pre-existing indentation, compared to the correct hardness value, will this reading be (a) too large, (b) too small, or

  • (c) about the same. Explain why.

 

Ans:

The hardness measured from an indentation that is positioned very close to a pre-existing indentation will be

  • (a) too large since the material in this vicinity was cold-worked when the first indentation was made. Thus,

the material was strengthened and the yield strength was increased.

 

Recovery/Recrystallization/Grain Growth

Cite the differences between the recovery and recrystallization processes. Ans:

For recovery, there is some relief of internal strain energy by dislocation motion; however, there are virtually no changes in either the grain structure or mechanical characteristics. During recrystallization, on the other hand, a new set of strain-free grains forms, and the material becomes softer and more ductile.

Explain the differences in grain structure for a metal that has been cold worked and one that has been cold worked and then recrystallized.

Ans:

During cold-working, the grain structure of the metal has been distorted to accommodate the deformation. Recrystallization produces grains that are equi-axed and smaller than the parent grains.

  • (a) What is the driving force for recrystallization?

 
  • (b) What is the driving force for grain growth?

Ans:

  • (a) The driving force for recrystallization is the difference in internal energy between the strained and unstrained material.

  • (b) The driving force for grain growth is the reduction in grain boundary energy as the total grain boundary area decreases.

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  • The figures below show three photomicrographs of the same magnification factor taken for a C26000 brass alloy during annealing.

    • i) Tensile strength and hardness: Rank them from the highest to the lowest. Why?

ii) Ductility and toughness: Rank them from the highest to the lowest. Why? iii) Annealing time: If the annealing temperature is the same for all three cases, rank the annealing time required from the shortest to the longest. Why? iv) Annealing temperature: If the annealing time is the same for all three cases, rank the annealing temperature required from the lowest to the highest. Why? Repeat the ranking for the three photomicrographs of a 33%CW brass alloy during annealing.

C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 6/8  The figures below

C26000 brass alloy

C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 6/8  The figures below
C HAPTER 7 D ISLOCATIONS AND S TRENGTHENING M ECHANISMS Page 6/8  The figures below

(a)

(b) 33%CW brass alloy

(c)

( a ) ( b ) 33%CW brass alloy ( c ) ( d ) (
( a ) ( b ) 33%CW brass alloy ( c ) ( d ) (
( a ) ( b ) 33%CW brass alloy ( c ) ( d ) (

(d)

(e)

(f)

Ans:

  • i) Tensile strength and hardness: (a) > (b) > (c) and (d) > (e) > (f) since the tensile strength (hence the

hardness) is inversely proportional to the grain size. A metal with smaller grain size possesses more grain boundaries to impede dislocation motion. Hence, smaller grain size implies higher strength. ii) Ductility and toughness: (c) > (b) > (a) and (f) > (e) > (d) since the ductility (hence the toughness) is directly proportional to the grain size. A metal with smaller grain size possesses more grain boundaries to impede dislocation motion. Hence, smaller grain size implies higher strength and less ductility. iii) Annealing time: (a) < (b) < (c) and (d) > (e) > (f) since at the same annealing temperature, grain growth is directly proportional to the annealing time since more energy is available for grain growth. iv) Annealing temperature: (a) < (b) < (c) and (d) > (e) > (f) since at the same annealing time, the grain growth is also directly proportional to the annealing temperature, which provides more energy for grain growth.

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  • The table below shows the recrystallization temperature T R and crystalline structure at room temperature (25C) of six metals. Assume these metals have all undergone extensive metal working at room temperature. Determine which metal(s) will remain ductile with the original yield strength if the metals stay at room temperature for a long time. Explain why.

Metal

Aluminum (Al)

Copper (Cu)

Iron (Fe)

Lead (Pb)

Tungsten (W)

Zinc (Zn)

Crystalline

FCC

FCC

BCC

FCC

BCC

HCP

Structure

T R (C)

80

120

450

4

1200

10

             

Ans:

As shown in the table, only lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) have a recrystallization temperature T R lower than room temperature (25C). The yield strengths of all other four metals (Al, Cu, Fe & W) will increase due to cold-work. However, the crystalline structure of zinc is HCP, making zinc brittle. Hence, lead (Pb) is the only metal, whose yield strength will remain the same since it is undergone hot-working and recrystallization.

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING

  • Plastically deforming a metal specimen near room temperature generally leads to which of the following property changes?

    • (A) An increased tensile strength and a decreased ductility

    • (B) A decreased tensile strength and an increased ductility

    • (C) An increased tensile strength and an increased ductility

    • (D) A decreased tensile strength and a decreased ductility

Ans: A. Plastically deforming (or strain hardening) a metal increases the dislocation density; this produces an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in ductility.

  • A dislocation formed by adding an extra half-plane of atoms to a crystal is referred to as:

    • (A) a screw dislocation

    • (B) a vacancy dislocation

    • (C) an interstitial dislocation

    • (D) an edge dislocation

Ans: D. A dislocation formed by adding an extra half plane of atoms to a crystal is referred to as an edge dislocation.

  • The atoms surrounding a screw dislocation experience which kinds of strains?

    • (A) Tensile strains

    • (B) Shear strains

    • (C) Compressive strains

    • (D) All of the above

    • (E) Both B and C

Ans: B. The atoms surrounding a screw dislocation experience only shear strains.

  • What are the two fundamental types of dislocations? Ans: The two fundamental types of dislocations are edge and screw.

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  • The process by which plastic deformation is produced by dislocation motion is called ________? Ans: The process by which plastic deformation is produced by dislocation motion is called slip.

  • The direction of motion of a screw dislocation's line is:

    • (A) perpendicular, or

    • (B) parallel

to the direction of an applied shear stress. Ans: A. The direction of motion of a screw dislocation is perpendicular to the direction of an applied shear stress.

  • For a particular crystal structure, the slip direction is that direction in the slip plane having the

    • (A) lowest linear density

    • (B) highest linear density

Ans: B. For a particular crystal structure, the slip direction is that direction in the slip plane having the highest linear density.

  • Increased hindering of dislocation motion makes a metallic material

    • (A) harder

    • (B) softer

Ans: A. Increased hindering of dislocation motion makes a metallic material harder.

  • As the impurity concentration (in solid solution) of a metal is increased, the tensile and yield strengths

    • (A) decrease

    • (B) increase

Ans: B. As the impurity concentration (in solid solution) of a metal is increased, the tensile and yield strengths increase.

  • On the average, dislocation-dislocation strain interactions are

    • (A) repulsive

    • (B) attractive

Ans: A. On the average, dislocation-dislocation strain interactions are repulsive.

  • During the recovery of a cold-worked material, there is a reduction in the number of dislocations

    • (A) True

    • (B) False

Ans: A True. During the recovery of a cold-worked material, dislocations.

there

is

a reduction in

the number of

  • For pure metals, the recrystallization temperature is normally about

    • (A) 0.1T m

    • (B) 0.2T m

    • (C) 0.3T m

    • (D) 0.4T m

where T m is the absolute melting temperature. Ans: C. For pure metals, the recrystallization temperature is normally about 0.3T m .

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