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Hydraulic Excavators

By
Er. Ashok Shrestha (DoR)
IOE-BEM
Construction Equipment (Elective)
August 2010
Hydraulic Excavator
Hydraulic Excavator is the most commonly used
construction machine. it has bucket with
specified volumetric capacity.
Hydraulic power is the key utility to operate the
hydraulic excavators.
Excavator can work above and under the ground
level where it rest.
It can work at all gradient and difficult terrain and
even under water excavation work where other
machine can not be used.
With various front attachments, it can be used for
diversified purposes.
Most excavators are mounted on track base, but
smaller model may be mounted on wheels base.
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 2
Hydraulic Excavator: Main Parts
• A hydraulic Excavator consists THREE major parts
1. Work Equipment 2. Upper Structure
This part consist This part consist engine, cabin
working tools for and holds components such as
digging and loading operator’s seat controlling
joysticks and monitoring gauges

3. Undercarriage
This part consist Crawler/
track chain or Wheel for
moving machine on the
ground.
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 3
Work Equipment:
Work equipment is designed
to run by hydraulic cylinders

Piston

Force
Oil Pressure Inside the
=
cylinder is the key factor to
Pressure x Area
overcome require FORCE to
Rod Cylinder do work.

Arm Cylinder

Oil flow rate inside


cylinder is key factor to
move and speed up and
down of work equipment

16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 4


Upper Structure: Cabin Interior
Arm/Swing Controls (Left Joystick) Boom/Bucket Controls (Right Joystick)
move forward and backward to move Arm out and in move forward and backward to lower and raise boom
move left and right to control direction of swing move left and right to control bucket curl and dump

Depending on moving direction of control Joystick Boom, Arm or Bucket can


be moved for doing work or machine can swing to require degree of rotation

Machine monitoring units


Travel Levers
(Temp., Press. Gauges)
Depending on
moving direction Work equipment
of control Lever/ Work equipment
Pedals Machine control Joystick control Joystick
can move
straight or turn Engine starting
left or right.
switch

Travel Fuel gauge


Pedals
Operator’s Lights / Other
seat Cabin Interior
switches

16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 5


Excavators: Swing mechanism
The outer race fixed at upper structure
turns with the “Pinion” that spins along with
the inner race fixed at the lower structure.
SWING CIRCLE
The part between the outer race and the
inner race turns smoothly on the ball
bearings.

Pinion Outer race

Inner race
This part enables an Ball bearings
hydraulic excavator to
Stick/Swing Controls (Left Joystick)
turn around
move forward and backward to move stick out
and in
move left and right to control direction of swing

16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 6


Lower Structure:
Undercarriage
Most are Crawler/ Track type.
Compared to the Wheel type, the
Crawler type has more part touching Can also be fitted
the ground. Which enables them to with dozing blade
work on muddy surface where Wheel . (Optional)
type can not be used.

Wheel type excavator


make use of supports/
Stabilizers during work.
CRAWLER / TRACK

WHEEL Seen from


the sides
(TYRE)

Seen from the


underneath

The part touching the


ground surface
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Hydraulic Excavators: How it Works ?
Hydraulic Power is the key utility to operate all Hydraulic Excavators

Arm Cylinder Control Valves

Hydraulic Pump

Boom Cylinder
Engine

Hydraulic Oil Tank


Bucket Cylinder Swing Motor
Travel Motors

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Excavators : Types
• Based on feet mounted on undercarriage they
are classified as:
1. Crawler or Track type
2. Wheel type

• Based on types of Bucket mounted or digging


motion of bucket they are classified as:
1. Shovel type
2. Hoe type

Both front SHOVEL type or HOE type Excavator can be


mounted on either on a Crawler or a Wheel tractor base.
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 9
Hydraulic Excavator: Front Shovel
Basic Features:
• An upward motion unit is know as
“front shovel”
• Hydraulic front Shovel excavators
are used mainly for hard digging
above track level and for loading
hauling units.
• A shovel develops breakout force
by crowding material away from
the machine.
• The boom of a shovel swings
upward to load; so the machine
requires a material face above
the ground level

16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 10


Hydraulic Excavator: Hoe
Basic Features:
• A downward arc unit is classified
as Hoe
• Hydraulic Hoe excavators are used
primarily to excavate below natural
surface of the ground on which
machine rest
• It develops excavation breakout
force by pulling the bucket towards
the machine and curling the bucket
inward.
• The downward swing of a hoe
dictates usage for excavating
below the ground level at which
machine rest
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 11
Hydraulic Excavator
• The hydraulic excavators are fully hydraulically
control machine which provides:
– Faster cycle time
– Less noisy
– Smoothness and ease of operation
– High overall efficiency
– Greater accuracy and precision
• It is a versatile machine that can be used for
almost all kind of applications.
• A quick coupler enables to quick change with
different type attachments and perform a
variety of tasks in rapid succession
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Excavator Specifications
• Machine (Make/ Model/ Sr. No., overall dimension)
• Operating Weight (kN) (with operator,
cabin and all standard items & accessories)
• Engine (Make/ Model/ Sr. No./Type, Cly. No./stroke,
• CI/SI, Torque/ RPM/ Cooling type
• Flywheel Power (kW)
• Undercarriage (Track shoe size type,
• roller no., track length, ground pressure etc.)
• Hydraulic System
– Swing Mechanism (Speed/ Torque)
– Drive System (Travel speed / Drawbar-pull)
– Work Implements (Pressure, Cylinder type size)
• Bucket (model, Cubic capacity)
• Performance Data (Working range, Arm force/ Bucket force)
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Dozers: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 13
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 14
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 15
Hydraulic Excavator: Application
• Hydraulic hoe has evolved from a single purpose
excavating machine into a versatile multipurpose tool.
• It is a versatile machine that can be used for almost all
kind of applications.
• Typical general applications are:
– Digging under or above the ground level
– Canal/ Trench excavating and pipe laying
– Loading hauling units
– Lifting construction materials
• A quick coupler enables the hoe to change attachments
and perform a variety of tasks in rapid succession. Some
common attachments are:
– Hydraulic breaker - Crane
– Clamshell - Rock driller
– Impact hammer - Demolition jaw
– Cutters - Land clearing grapple

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Typical Applications

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Attachments

Various types of attachments

Building demolishing Handling Scrap materials


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Commonly used terminologies related to
shovel/ bucket size rating
• Struck Capacity :
– The volume actually enclosed
by the bucket with no
allowance for bucket teeth
• Heaped Capacity:
– Both PCSA and SAE uses a
1:1 angle of repose for
evaluating heaped Capacity.
CECE specifies 2:1 angle of
repose.

PCSA – Power Crane and Shovel Association


SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers
CECE – Committee on European Construction Equipment

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Fill Factors
Fill factors:
The actual amount of material in a
bucket needed for shovel
production calculation. Fill factor
are express in percentage which
when multiplied by heaped
capacity, adjust the volume by
accounting for how specific
material will load into the bucket.

16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 20