Hydraulic Excavators

By

Er. Ashok Shrestha (DoR) IOE-BEM Construction Equipment (Elective) August 2010

Hydraulic Excavator
Hydraulic Excavator is the most commonly used construction machine. it has bucket with specified volumetric capacity. Hydraulic power is the key utility to operate the hydraulic excavators. Excavator can work above and under the ground level where it rest. It can work at all gradient and difficult terrain and even under water excavation work where other machine can not be used. With various front attachments, it can be used for diversified purposes. Most excavators are mounted on track base, but smaller model may be mounted on wheels base.
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 2

Hydraulic Excavator: Main Parts
• A hydraulic Excavator consists THREE major parts
1. Work Equipment
This part consist working tools for digging and loading

2. Upper Structure
This part consist engine, cabin and holds components such as operator’s seat controlling joysticks and monitoring gauges

3. Undercarriage
This part consist Crawler/ track chain or Wheel for moving machine on the ground.
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 3

Work Equipment:
Work equipment is designed to run by hydraulic cylinders Piston

Force = Pressure x Area Rod Cylinder Arm Cylinder

Oil Pressure Inside the cylinder is the key factor to overcome require FORCE to do work.

Oil flow rate inside cylinder is key factor to move and speed up and down of work equipment
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 4

Upper Structure: Cabin Interior
Arm/Swing Controls (Left Joystick) move forward and backward to move Arm out and in move left and right to control direction of swing Boom/Bucket Controls (Right Joystick) move forward and backward to lower and raise boom move left and right to control bucket curl and dump

Depending on moving direction of control Joystick Boom, Arm or Bucket can be moved for doing work or machine can swing to require degree of rotation

Travel Levers
Depending on moving direction of control Lever/ Pedals Machine can move straight or turn left or right.

Machine monitoring units (Temp., Press. Gauges) Work equipment control Joystick Engine starting switch

Work equipment control Joystick

Travel Pedals Operator’s seat
16 August 2010

Fuel gauge

Cabin Interior
IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Lights / Other switches
Slide No. 5

Excavators: Swing mechanism
The outer race fixed at upper structure turns with the “Pinion” that spins along with the inner race fixed at the lower structure.

SWING CIRCLE
The part between the outer race and the inner race turns smoothly on the ball bearings.

Pinion

Outer race

Inner race
This part enables an hydraulic excavator to turn around

Ball bearings
Stick/Swing Controls (Left Joystick) move forward and backward to move stick out and in move left and right to control direction of swing

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 6

Lower Structure:
Undercarriage
Most are Crawler/ Track type. Compared to the Wheel type, the Crawler type has more part touching the ground. Which enables them to work on muddy surface where Wheel type can not be used.
Wheel type excavator make use of supports/ Stabilizers during work.
Can also be fitted with dozing blade . (Optional)

CRAWLER / TRACK

WHEEL (TYRE)

Seen from the sides

Seen from the underneath

The part touching the ground surface
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 7

Hydraulic Excavators: How it Works ?
Hydraulic Power is the key utility to operate all Hydraulic Excavators
Arm Cylinder Control Valves Hydraulic Pump

Boom Cylinder

Engine Hydraulic Oil Tank

Bucket Cylinder Travel Motors

Swing Motor

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 8

Excavators : Types
• Based on feet mounted on undercarriage they are classified as: 1. Crawler or Track type 2. Wheel type • Based on types of Bucket mounted or digging motion of bucket they are classified as: 1. Shovel type 2. Hoe type
Both front SHOVEL type or HOE type Excavator can be mounted on either on a Crawler or a Wheel tractor base.
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 9

Hydraulic Excavator: Front Shovel
Basic Features:
• An upward motion unit is know as “front shovel” • Hydraulic front Shovel excavators are used mainly for hard digging above track level and for loading hauling units. • A shovel develops breakout force by crowding material away from the machine. • The boom of a shovel swings upward to load; so the machine requires a material face above the ground level
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 10

Hydraulic Excavator: Hoe
Basic Features:
• A downward arc unit is classified as Hoe • Hydraulic Hoe excavators are used primarily to excavate below natural surface of the ground on which machine rest • It develops excavation breakout force by pulling the bucket towards the machine and curling the bucket inward. • The downward swing of a hoe dictates usage for excavating below the ground level at which machine rest
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 11

Hydraulic Excavator
• The hydraulic excavators are fully hydraulically control machine which provides:
– – – – – Faster cycle time Less noisy Smoothness and ease of operation High overall efficiency Greater accuracy and precision

• It is a versatile machine that can be used for almost all kind of applications. • A quick coupler enables to quick change with different type attachments and perform a variety of tasks in rapid succession
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 12

Excavator Specifications
• Machine (Make/ Model/ Sr. No., overall dimension) • Operating Weight (kN) (with operator,
cabin and all standard items & accessories)

• Engine (Make/ Model/ Sr. No./Type, Cly. No./stroke,
• CI/SI, Torque/ RPM/ Cooling type

• Flywheel Power (kW) • Undercarriage (Track shoe size type,
• roller no., track length, ground pressure etc.)

• Hydraulic System
– Swing Mechanism (Speed/ Torque) – Drive System (Travel speed / Drawbar-pull)
– Work Implements (Pressure, Cylinder type size)

• Bucket (model, Cubic capacity) • Performance Data (Working range, Arm force/ Bucket force)
16 August 2010 IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Dozers: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 13

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 14

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 15

Hydraulic Excavator: Application
• Hydraulic hoe has evolved from a single purpose excavating machine into a versatile multipurpose tool. • It is a versatile machine that can be used for almost all kind of applications. • Typical general applications are:
– – – – Digging under or above the ground level Canal/ Trench excavating and pipe laying Loading hauling units Lifting construction materials

• A quick coupler enables the hoe to change attachments and perform a variety of tasks in rapid succession. Some common attachments are:
– – – – Hydraulic breaker Clamshell Impact hammer Cutters - Crane - Rock driller - Demolition jaw - Land clearing grapple
Slide No. 16

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Typical Applications

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 17

Attachments

Various types of attachments

Building demolishing
16 August 2010

Handling Scrap materials
IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha Slide No. 18

Commonly used terminologies related to shovel/ bucket size rating
• Struck Capacity :
– The volume actually enclosed by the bucket with no allowance for bucket teeth

• Heaped Capacity:
– Both PCSA and SAE uses a 1:1 angle of repose for evaluating heaped Capacity. CECE specifies 2:1 angle of repose.

PCSA – Power Crane and Shovel Association SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers CECE – Committee on European Construction Equipment

18 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 19

Fill Factors
Fill factors:
The actual amount of material in a bucket needed for shovel production calculation. Fill factor are express in percentage which when multiplied by heaped capacity, adjust the volume by accounting for how specific material will load into the bucket.

16 August 2010

IOE-BEM-CE(Elective): Excavators: By Ashok Shrestha

Slide No. 20

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful