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Original Title: Impact of Jet Lab Report

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ABSTRACT

The impact of jet experiment is a way to understand fluid pressure by using the pressure to

accelerate the fluid to a plate by a high velocity in a jet which in result will generate force due to

impulse. It enables the force developed by a jet of water affecting upon a stationary object to be

measured. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the validity of theoretical expressions for

the force exerted by a jet on target of various shapes. The shapes can be categorised into three

geometries which are plate, hemisphere and slope. For this experiment, only the slope deflector is

used at an angle of 120. The procedure of this experiment is by changing the amount of load placed

on the weight pan and time is recorded for the volume of water to reach 5.0L to measure the flow rate

of the water jet at different weight. The higher the load's weight gave a lower time taken for the water

to reach 5.0L which resulted in a higher flowrate of the water jet. The graphs will show load weight

and computed theoretical jet force against volume flow rate and the square of volume flow rate to get

linear slope which will be easier to compare. The results obtained experimentally will be compared

with the theoretical value and any discrepancies between the slopes of the measured forces will be

discussed. From here we can conclude that the objective of this experiment has been achieved of not.

This experiment helps us to understand about fluid pressure also gives us a better understanding about

fluid related machines.

2. INTRODUCTION

A moving stream of fluid carries momentum. Momentum is defined as the product of the

mass of a body and its velocity. When a moving stream of fluid, or jet, is deflected by a surface, a

change in linear momentum occurs. This change in linear momentum results in the water jet exerting

a force on the surface it is impacting (Mirdo, 2010). One of the applications of jet impact is used to

generate power. Impact of jet is used to rotate the turbine namely Pelton wheel in the generator. The

water jet is applying force tangential to the wheel. The tangential forces of water jet generate moment

of torque on the wheel to its maximum value and therefore increase the mechanical energy of the

Pelton wheel (UKEssays, 2015). Although the concept is essentially simple, such turbines can

generate considerable output at high efficiency. Powers in excess of 100MW, and hydraulic

efficiencies greater than 95%, are not uncommon. It may be noted that the Pelton wheel is best suited

to conditions where the available head of water is great, and the flow rate is comparatively small

(Saminathan, n.d.). To predict the output of a Pelton wheel and to determine its optimum rotational

speed, understanding on how the deflection of the jet generates a force on the buckets and how the

force is related to the rate of momentum flow in the jet are needed (Conor, n.d.).

The velocity of fluid, Vjet, leaving the nozzle of cross-sectional area, A is given by

It is assumed that the magnitude of the velocity does not change as fluid flows around the deflector,

and that only its direction changes.

0, steady flow

= +

(

)

Control Control

volume surface

1

At entrance : 1 = 1 =

At exit : 2 = 2 cos = cos

= ( )1 + cos ( )2 (1)

1 1 + 2 2 2 = 0 (2)

= 2 (1 cos ) (3)

2

=

(1 cos ) (4)

2 1 3 2

= [1 ( )] = (5)

2 2

2 2

= (1 0) =

2 2 2

= [1 (1)] =

List of symbols:

d= diameter of jet t= time

g= acceleration of gravity, 9.81 m/s2 W= weight of the masses on the pan

Fy= theoretical jet force Vjet= average velocity of the jet

m= mass on the weight pan = angle jet is deflected

n= normal unit vector = density of water

One of the applications of impact of jet is used for turbines for power generator. Hydraulic

Turbines are being used from very ancient times to harness the energy stored in flowing streams,

rivers and lakes. The oldest and the simplest form of a Hydraulic Turbine was the Waterwheel used

for grinding grains. Different types of Hydraulic Turbines were developed with the increasing need

for power. Three major types are Pelton Wheel, Francis and Kaplan Turbine. The Pelton Turbine has

a circular disk mounted on the rotating shaft or rotor. This circular disk has cup shaped blades, called

2

as buckets, placed at equal spacing around its circumference. Nozzles are arranged around the wheel

such that the water jet emerging from a nozzle is tangential to the circumference of the wheel of

Pelton Turbine. According to the available water head (pressure of water) and the operating

requirements the shape and number of nozzles placed around the Pelton Wheel can vary. The high

speed water jets emerging form the nozzles strike the buckets at splitters, placed at the middle of a

bucket, from where jets are divided into two equal streams. These stream flow along the inner curve

of the bucket and leave it in the direction opposite to that of incoming jet. The high speed water jets

running the Pelton Wheel Turbine are obtained by expanding the high pressure water through nozzles

to the atmospheric pressure. The high pressure water can be obtained from any water body situated at

some height or streams of water flowing down the hills. The change in momentum (direction as well

as speed) of water stream produces an impulse on the blades of the wheel of Pelton Turbine. This

impulse generates the torque and rotation in the shaft of Pelton Turbine.

To obtain the optimum output from the Pelton Turbine the impulse received by the blades

should be maximum. For that, change in momentum of the water stream should be maximum

possible. That is obtained when the water stream is deflected in the direction opposite to which it

strikes the buckets and with the same speed relative to the buckets. A typical setup of a system

generating electricity by using Pelton Turbine will have a water reservoir situated at a height from the

Pelton Wheel. The water from the reservoir flows through a pressure channel to the penstock head and

then through the penstock or the supply pipeline to the nozzles, from where the water comes out as

high speed jets striking the blades of the Pelton Turbine. The penstock head is fitted with a surge tank

which absorbs and dissipates sudden fluctuations in pressure. For a constant water flow rate from the

nozzles the speed of turbine changes with changing loads on it. For quality hydroelectricity generation

the turbine should rotate at a constant speed. To keep the speed constant despite the changing loads on

the turbine water flow rate through the nozzles is changed. To control the gradual changes in load

servo controlled spear valves are used in the jets to change the flow rate. And for sudden reduction in

load the jets are deflected using deflector plates so that some of the water from the jets do not strike

the blades. This prevents over speeding of the turbine (Agrawal and Stonecypher, 2009).

3

3. OBJECTIVE

To investigate the validity of theoretical expressions for the force exerted by a jet on target of

various shapes.

4. PROCEDURES

2. The level of water in tank is checked whether is sufficient or not.

3. The control valve is closed.

4. The area of the nozzle(jet) is calculated and recorded.

5. The weight is placed on the weight pan and the pump is switched on.

6. The control valve is opened to allow water to flow out.

7. The flow rate is adjusted until the datum on the weight pan is adjacent to the level gauge.

8. The readings of volume and time is taken for determining flow rate. The mass on the

weight pan is noted.

9. The steps are repeated by putting additional masses on the weight pan.

2 (0.008)2

Area of the nozzle, A = 4

= 4

= 5.0265 105 2

Load Load Volume Time (t), s Flow rate (Q) 2 , 6 2 Jet force

mass weight of 1 2 3 ( ), N

(m), g (W), N water, L

30 0.2943 5.0 45.0 44.0 44.5 0.1124 1.1236 104 1.2625 108 0.3762

50 0.4905 5.0 33.0 32.0 32.5 0.1538 1.5385 104 2.3670 108 0.7057

80 0.7848 5.0 30.0 29.0 29.5 0.1695 1.6949 104 2.8727 108 0.8565

100 0.9810 5.0 27.0 26.0 26.5 0.1887 1.8868 104 3.5600 108 1.0614

130 1.2753 5.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 0.2083 2.0833 104 4.3401 108 1.2934

150 1.4715 5.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 0.2273 2.2727 104 5.1652 108 1.5400

180 1.7658 5.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 0.2500 2.5000 104 6.2500 108 1.8634

Below are the graphs for the experiment that is plotted using a free online software, Online Chart Tool

https://www.onlinecharttool.com/

4

5

From the graph of load weight (W) against 2 ( 2 ),

3 2

the equation for the graph is = 2

We know that the component for x-axis is 2 and the component of y-axis is W. Therefore, the

3

gradient for the graph is .

2

From the information we can calculate the theoretical value of the gradient;

3(1000)

= = 2.98416 107 6 2

2( 0.0042 )

For the experimental value of the gradient;

= 2.95038 107 6 2

To calculate the percentage of error, we use the formula

100%

. . = 100% = 1.13%

2.98416 107

For graph jet force ( ) against 2 ( 2 )

= 2.98138 107 6 2

. . = 100% = 0.093%

2.98416 107

From the calculation of data and the slight percentage of error for the slope of the graphs show some

little discrepancies in the validity of theoretical value that may be caused by some factors;

i) Human error; parallax error when adjusting the weight pan adjacent to the level gauge

and taking readings of the volume of water. We took turns to take the readings so it may

result in non-uniform collections of data.

ii) Apparatus error; there was a problem for our set up for the experiment which is the hole

for the load weight is too small to fit the pole in the middle of the weight pan. So, to do

the experiment, we had no choice but to place the weight on the side of the weight pan

and this resulted in a non-uniform distribution of weight by the load on the weight pan

that may affect the force of the water jet. We did try to balance the weight pan by placing

the load weight on each side of the weight pan but the reading will still be different every

time.

iii) Friction; the water jet is subjected to friction along its way especially when hitting the

nozzle and also in the spring of the weight pan. The theoretical expression does not

consider the frictions in this experiment and is neglected. We are also required to oscillate

the weight when testing for level to minimize the effect of friction. This shows that

frictions indeed cause some errors for the experiment as it is not included in the

calculations.

6

6. CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that from the calculations of data and percentage of error, the experiment carried

out validates the theoretical expression for the force exerted by a jet on a target and hence the

objective of the experiment is achieved. Even though there are some errors for the experimental

values with the theoretical value (1.13% for load weight and 0.093% for jet force), the percentage is

small enough that we can still validate the theoretical expression as errors in the experiment are to be

expected. So, it is logical and acceptable for us to accept that the theory for the impact of jet to be

true.

7. REFERENCES

Agrawal, N. and Stonecypher, L. (2009). Hydraulic Turbines: The Pelton Wheel. Retrieved from

http://www.brighthubengineering.com/fluid-mechanics-hydraulics/26777-hydraulic-turbines-the-

pelton-turbine/

https://www.scribd.com/doc/51634941/Impact-Of-A-Jet-Lab-Report

https://www.scribd.com/doc/48248022/Impact-of-a-Jet-of-Water

https://www.scribd.com/document/169681540/Introduction-Impact-Jet

https://www.ukessays.com/essays/engineering/when-a-jet-of-water-strikes-engineering-essay.php

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