aka ADVERTISING STRATEGY a plan is vital

 those who obtain the greatest return on advtg. investment are those who have : - a well conceived, well developed plan - they known why they are advtg. - to whom and - what results are expected
 essential to integrate advtg. into overall promo plan

A diamond is forever…












THE ADVERTISING CHAMPAIGN     Developing the right sales message Setting that message to the right audience At the right time At a reasonable cost .

Absolut Fun… .






       Evaluation of Mktg. environment Development of short/long term objectives Strategic planning Mktg opportunity analysis Target market selection Mktg. mix strategy Development of formal mktg. plan



strategies. organization Mktg. scope & goals Situation analysis Current mktg. procedures Mktg.MARKETING PLAN            Company mission. objectives Mktg. policies. Progress Schedule/assignments Personal plan Budgets Proforma P/L & balance sheet Contracts / continuity .

goals Advertising recommendation Media recommendation Sales promotion recommendation Budget Evaluation method .ADVERTISING PLAN        Situation analysis Mktg.




COMMUNICATION & ADVERTISING  Individuals communication  Interpersonal communication .




WORKS  Some Theories .HOW ADVTG.

instrumental conditioning tours on reward & punishment used to persuade people to learn correct response. to create brand image .THE BEHAVIORIST APPROACH  2 dominant schools .classical conditioning repetitions exposure of advtg. .

attitude. benefits.COGNITIVE LEARNING     People actively involved in leering Consumers as goal oriented trying to fulfill needs Service of interviewing variables in consumers mind : Perception. motivation .


SOCIETAL LEVEL THEORIES    Diffussion Theory Uses structure of step how models.  Opinion leadership central to the concept . innovation & true. communication . Focus on how whom communication helps disseminate innovation Major components : diffusion. adoption. adoption units.

Advtg.AGENDA SETTING . focuses attention on what products brands & attributes to think about us opposed to persuade consumers what to think of them .



advtg.DEMAND .3 basic measurements  Market demand  Market forecast  Market potential .shows relationship of sales to price/availability .demand illustrated by series of curves .purchasing effects of consumers on products/services . campaign planning demand to be estimated .

TYPES OF DEMAND  generic demand  demand for brand .

every product/service has a life cycle .PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE .life cycle is imp in development of ad campaign .not constant over time .

ESTIMATING MARKET DEMAND     Market buildup Expert opinion Sales force opinion Market research .

consumers have some basis/criteria to judge products  Routinized Response Behaviour (RRB) .TYPES OF PURCHASING BEHAVIOR  Extensive Problem Solving (EPS) .product category/brands known purchasing decision may be based on price/promotion .to make a purchase consumers normally need a great deal of info  Limited Problem Solving (LPS) .

assumes all consumers are alike  Market segmentation .TWO VIEWS  Market aggregation .concentrates efforts on the market segment with the most potential .

METHODS OF MARKET SEGMENTATION      Geographics Demographics (SEC) Psychographics / lifestyle Media usage Buying & use .


/mktg. research basis of satisfying inner desire/inner vice we differentiate by type of life styles we have / seek attempt to develop/define specific lifestyles that may be used in ad campaign .PSYCHOGRAPHIC RESEARCH imp areas of advtg.

developed by SRI International .research identified isolated & labelled .3 major/4 sub-groups on basis of behaviour/emotional make-up .attempted to categorize consumers according to lifestyles/values rather than statistics .VALUES & LIFESTYLE SYSTEMS (VALS) .

THE NEED DRIVEN . struggling to buy basics .money restricted.divided into 2 sub-categories  Survivors  Sustainers .

OUTER-DIRECTED CONSUMERS .conduct their lives so that others will think well of them .

un-experimental Emulators : ambitious. status. puritanical. competitive. fame. characterized by efficiency. govt. sentimental. conventional. professions. nostalgic. good life. comfort & materialistic value . macho.3 sub-categories Belongers : traditional. conservative. upwardly mobile status-conscious. but distrustful/angry Achievers : leaders in business.

rather than respond to opinion of others .INNER-DIRECTED CONSUMERS  buy products to meet inner needs.

dramatic. zippy. exhibitionistic. concerned with inner growth/naturalision Societally conscious individuals : attracted to simple living/smallness of scale. inventive Experimentals : nature variety. want direct experience/vigorous involvement. narcissistic. tend to support causes viz conservation. consumerism . environmentalism. impulsive individualistic.I-am-me : young.

need the power of outer-directedness With the sensitivity of inner-directedness . have a world view . self-actualizing. assured. tolerant.mature.THE INTERGRATEDS .heavily represented in corporate/national leadership .


Attitude Change

Behaviour Change


- 5 basic methods of changing  Attitudes towards product/brand  Affect product class linkages  with goals/events  Add a salient characteristic  Alter the perception of existing  product characteristic  Change perceptions of the advertiser’s brand  Change perception of competing brand

 Result of consumer attitudes about brands is called ‘evoked set of brands’  When consumer feels need for a particular product category goes through a mental search

- is the idea that in an unknown situation consumer has little/no info to make a buying decision - the advertiser is said to ‘set the agenda’ for the purchase

DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION & THE ADOPTION PROCESS Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 awareness of the innovation interest in the innovation evaluation of the innovation trial of the innovation decision as to whether to adopt the innovation Step 6 : Confirmation of the decision to adopt the innovation : : : : : .


The Advertising Plan .


contains Info relevant to advtg/sales promotion programme during a given time frame . It is part of the mktg plan.

 purpose of the Advertising Plan is to provide an outline of what is recommended & what is done .

 The purpose of the plan is to communicate clearly/completely what is proposed & the reason why. .

 A background. history. . campaigns conducted for the brand  It is an opportunity to explain/illustrate the reasoning that has gone in the development of the Plan  It is an action document  Provides management with outlines of the financial commitments made on behalf of the brand . past records of the advtg. .SPECIFICALLY THE ADVERTISING PLAN IS .

ADVERTISING PLAN : The Elements I : II : Executive Summary Situation Analysis  Company/product history  Product evaluation  Consumer evaluation  Competitive evaluation III :Marketing Goals IV :Budget .

V : Advertising Recommendations      Target Market Advertising communication objectives Creative Strategy Creative Execution Plans .

VI : Media Recommendations     Key media problem Media objectives Media Strategy Media plan .

VII : Sales Promotion Recommendations  Sales Promotion Strategy  Sales Promotion Executions  Sales Promotion Plan .

EVALUATION  Recommended methods  Costs .

RESEARCH : The Foundation for the Advertising Campaign .

The Reasons for Research  increasing complexity of products. consumers & marketplace  penalty of failure is tremendous  important to learn what the consumer needs/wants  research might indicate direction of the advt. campaign .

at the lowest cost .TYPES OF RESEARCH  essential to understand various research techniques  have a sufficient understanding of research analysis  know how to gather info in the least possible time.

MKTG RESEARCH Vs ADVTG. RESEARCH  Mktg. placement & evaluation of actual ad campaign . prospects. competition. research : info on market. pre-testing. with the development. distribution & pricing  Advtg. Research : info related to ad campaign.

research in 5 specific areas required .ADVERTISING RESEARCH PLAN . evaluation of plan . testing.includes development.

market. market location. product & competitive research .STEP: 1 Prospect. market size.to identify TG. dist patterns. pricing. product tests/evaluation .

deals with the sales message/type of appeal to be made to TG .STEP: 2 Strategy development research .

STEP: 3 Advertising performance research .specific goal is to determine how well the ad campaign performed/is performing. .

media availability. . media usage & media placement research .to determine media distribution. usage of media by consumer population.STEP: 4 Media. size of media audiences.

STEP: 5 Measurements of the effects of the ad campaign .activities / methods designed to evaluate results of the ad campaign among TG .

Weigh cost against potential value Develop final plan / proposal .DEFINING A RESEARCH PLAN        Define the advtg. Estimate cost of each form of research. Select the most effective / efficient one/s. problem Determine specifically how research can help solve the problem Project the form in which the material will be used in the campaign plan Determine what additional info is required List the alternative methods available.

GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT  info to be gathered must be measurable  relevant to the problem under consideration  various info/knowledge gained must be related .

MARKETS & COMPETITION FOR EXSTING PRODUCTS/SERVICES     Info on consumers/present users Basic market info Info about product/service to be advertised Info on competition .IDENTIFYING PROSPECTS.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION        Company records/mktg intelligence Previous company research Syndicated market/consumer info Trade & association studies Census/registration data Libraries/universities Miscellaneous sources .

EXTRAPOLATION DATA  Limited only by ability/creativity  Research can be a very creative field .




conviction or other communication effect .ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES  A clearly stated. preference. measurable end result of an advertising message/s  Usually the objective is measured in terms of change in awareness.

ADVERTISING STRATEGY  Formulation of an ad message that communicates benefits / problem solution characteristics of brand to TG  Generally developed for mass media .

ADVERTISING EXECUTION  Physical form in terms of art/illustration/copy/music/etc in which ad strategy is presented to TG to achieve ad objective's .

STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT : 5 BASIC APPROACHES      Focus Groups Perceptual / Brand Mapping Usage Studies Motivation Research Benefit Segmentation .

FOCUS GROUPS     Comprises individuals Who are asked Qs about product To determine what is imp to them & how they make purchases in a particular product group .

FOCUS GROUPS  attempt to learn why purchases of one product are diff  from users of competitive products  & to determine what they consider to be the key benefits they receive  Focus groups provide general direction  Which can be pursued through other forms of research .

PERCEPTUAL / BRAND MAPPING  An effort to understand how consumers position brands in their minds  To learn more about how consumers feel about brands in a category  researchers use an approach that requires consumers to evaluate existing brands .

PERCEPTUAL / BRAND MAPPING  a 5-point/7-point rating scale is constructed using bipolar adjectives that might apply to product/category  scale used to determine which benefits/attributes are most imp in brand decision & then comp is made  adjectives use attributes considered imp to users/marketer  mapping determines how brand relates to competition on various benefits/features .






USAGE STUDIES     Research conducted with existing users to determine reasons for purchase Intent is to determine benefits consumer seeks/finds in the brand To be used as a strategy to bring more users to the brand Basic approach is to ask current users why they buy/the benefits from the brand through discussions/questionnaire .

which might not be uncovered in surface interviews  Often used to determine basic beliefs of brand/category  Beliefs can be confirmed in more formal/quantitative research .MOTIVATION STUDIES  Uses a depth interviewing technique to determine why people act as they do  Objective is to discover imp aspects.

BENEFIT SEGMENTATION  Segmentation studies attempt to group consumers in some fashion so that a specific ad message might be directed at them  The studies attempt to group customers/prospects along demographics/Geographic’s/psychological/lifestyle segments  Benefit segmentation attempts to determine various benefits consumers seek from products/services/brands & then to quantify consumers based on these benefits  Benefit segmentation a complex process but provides valuable answers/insights to campaign planners .

NEW USER RESEARCH  Research methodology called ‘concept test’  Attempts to determine consumer interest in a product/brand based on a description of what a product/brand might be / might do  And then determines the best method of communicating that benefit  Concept testing is a 2-step procedure .

STEP : I  Campaign planner must determine which of the Several Potential product benefits is most imp to the consumer  A separate concept statement would be written for each benefit .

A GOOD CONCEPT STATEMENT :  3 Basic Attributes  a statement of the problem the product is meant to solve  a definition of the type of solution that the product provides  supporting attributes that lend credibility to the problem solving claim .

STEP : II     determine the best way to communicate the benefit requires a concept statement – different sort the alternative routes in which the benefit can be communicated this is the strategy statement/advertising promise .

TWO POINTS : VV-IMP  the promise/end consumer benefit received on purchase  Reason why attributes that make the promise possible .

EVALUATING RESEARCH  imp to evaluate existing / just completed research  key Qs are : do the results provide solid research on which advtg. decisions can be based  crucial bench marks : (i) soundness of research (ii) issues of validity/reliability (iii) whether the info is germane to the recommendations. resulting from analysis of data .

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF RESEARCH     .an Advertising Research Foundation guideline Under what conditions was the study made? Has the interviewing been adequate and reliably done? Has the sampling plan been followed? .

coding & tabulating? Is the interpretation forthright / logical? .CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF RESEARCH     Has the sampling plan been fully executed? Is the sample large enough? Was there systematic control of editing.

no matter how well conducted will not provide precise answers All research is time/situation specific Research is a business tool. not an answer to all business questions Research is an out-of-pocket expense Research is time-consuming Research personnel is in short supply .LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH       Research.




DETERMINING / ESTABLISHING ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES  need to define goals/objectives that an ad campaign should reach  ad campaign planning process determines how the ad plan will be developed .




WHY SET AD OBJECTIVES?  agreement that there are specific.  measurable objectives for the campaign .

    Measurement Design the Plan Evaluate the Results of the Campaign Relate Advertising to other Expenditure

 determination of whether a campaign has been successful  means setting objectives against which actual results can be measured  By setting objectives the measures that will be used to determine evaluation are set

 Objectives of the campaign dictate specific actions/activities  Clear-cut objectives makes task simpler

 If the planner knows the situation of the brand prior to the campaign  has the measure that will be used to evaluate  and knows how the plan was implemented  he/she can clearly evaluate the results  setting ad objectives tells how exactly the campaign will be evaluated after completion

RELATE ADVERTISING TO OTHER EXPENDITURES  Management evaluates advtg investment on a cost-return basis  Increasingly accountability is becoming a key factor  Advtg needs to compete for scarce resources  Returns can be calculated & advtg. . investment compared to other opportunities.

CORPORATE STRATEGIC PLAN  Not all organizations are interested in growth  Some prefer to harvest existing businesses  The corporate strategic plan has a direct bearing on advtg/its importance .

PRODUCTION OR MKTG ORIENTATION  The difference is dramatic  Mktg-oriented organizations view markets from the consumer viewpoint & determine how to best meet the consumer needs  for production-oriented organizations manufacturing & distribution are most important .

. is involved influences corporate goals eg: pharma : research  These goals influence mktg/advtg.PRIME INDUSTRY  Prime industry in which a co.

COMPETITION  Strength / activity of competition also influences corporate goals .

MANAGEMENT  Management approach is a key in how an organization views advtg / mktg  Aggressive / growth-minded corporate goals will be different if management is conservative. .

that relates to prod / dist / pricing / promotion of brand . both physical / financial.MARKETING OBJECTIVES  Outlines details of all mktg activities for a given period  Long-term plan developed for 5 yrs or more  The annual mktg plan is of direct interest to campaign planners  Annual mktg plan is of direct interest to campaign planners  Annual mktg plan consists of all data.



to carry out this strategy mktg plan incorporates various aspects of Advtg. including advtg. Plan. objectives.WHAT IS A MARKETING PLAN?       a written document examines major acts in mktg situation of product / service identifies the problems / opportunities in the situation proposes long-range strategy to meet problems / opportunities recommends tactics of selling / advtg. .

& advtg.UNDERSTANDING ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES  But first the differences between mktg. goals .

goals are measured in concrete terms – in rupees  Advtg.SALES Vs SALES MESSAGE  Mktg. attitude  and info shifts among consumers . goals set in terms of delivery of sales message  Mktg. goals are measured by changes in awareness. goals defined in terms of sales/profits  Advtg.

CURRENT Vs LAGGED EFFECTS  Mktg. . but effects are a carry forward. Ad rupees are spent in a specific year. in many cases has a lagged effect. objectives generally evaluated over single time frame  Advtg.

self facings in stores  Advtg. units moved. sales/profits. goals usually stated in concrete terms. goals can be quite intangible . distribution achieved.TANGIBLE Vs INTANGIBLE RESULTS  Mktg.

TYPES OF ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES  Sales  Behavioral Effects  Communication Effects .

is the only form of mktg/selling .SALES EFFECTS  Some marketers primarily involved in direct response of unit / rupee sale  Because advtg.

BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS  Some behavioral consumer activity can be used as a measure of effect  Action short of purchase is sought like returning a reply card / making a call  Helps to identify who is responding / what results are being obtained .

or some other mental effects .COMMUNICATION EFFECTS  Advtg. has a measure of effects in terms of awareness. preference. knowledge.

FACTORS INFLUENCING ESTABLISHMENT OF AD OBJECTIVES The Primary Ones  Marketing System  Type of Message  Long – or short-term effects  Intended audience  Product familiarity  Competitive activity .

SETTING ADVTG. communications effects are used as the basis for advtg. OBJECTIVES  Russell Colley wrote : Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results for the Association of National Advertisers in 1961  He believed that communication effects are the logical basis for advertising evaluation  Established the idea advertising objectives and that measuring results of the ad campaign against those objectives  Now advtg. objectives/measurement .

Advertising succeeds or fails depending on how well it communicates the desired information and attitudes to the right people at the ight time at the right cost. .COLLEY STATES: Advertising’s job. purely & simply is to communicate to a defined audience information and a frame of mind that stimulates action.


PRINCIPLE : 1 An advertising goal is a succinct statement of the communication aspects of the mktg. is uniquely qualified to perform and does not encompass results that require a combination of several different mktg. (It expresses the particular work advtg. job. forces) .

) . (If there is agreement among all of those concerned on what advtg.PRINCIPLE : 2 The goal is expressed in writing – infinite. measurable terms. is expected to accomplish. then there is no great chore to reduce it to writing.

) .PRINCIPLE : 3 Goals are agreed upon by those concerned at both creative and approval levels. Agreement is reached on what needs to be said to whom before time and money are spent on how best to say it. (Planning is separated from doing.

They do not express mere hopes / desires arrived at without factual foundation.) .PRINCIPLE : 4 Goals are based on intimate knowledge of markets / buying motives (They express realistic expectancy in the light of carefully evaluated market opportunities.

PRINCIPLE : 5 Benchmarks are set up against which accomplishments can be measured (State of mind knowledge. and buying propensity are appraised before/after the advtg. or among those reached versus those not reached by advtg.) . attitude.

PRINCIPLE : 6 Methods to be used at a later date in evaluating accomplishments are set up at the time goals are established. .

DEFINING ADVTG. benefits of products / services to be sold?  MARKETS: Who are the people to be reached?  MOTIVES: Why should these people buy / fail to buy?  MESSAGES: What are the key ideas / info / attitudes to be conveyed? . GOALS : COLLEY’S ‚6 M‛ APPROACH  MERCHANDISE: What are the imp.

 MEDIA: How can the prospects be reached?  MEASUREMENTS: What method is proposed to measure accomplishment in getting intended message across to intended audience.

 AWARENESS Prospect must be made aware of brand/product.  COMPREHENSION Prospect must comprehend what product is / what it will do for him  CONVICTION Prospect must arrive at mental disposition / conviction to buy product  ACTION Prospect must take action



The Lavidge & Steiner Model

1. Near the bottom of the steps stand the potential purchasers who are completely unaware of the existence of the product / service in question 2. Closer to purchasing, but still a long way from the cash register, are those who are merely aware of the products existence. 3. Up a step are prospects who know what the product has to offer

Those whose favourable attitudes have developed to the point of preference over all other possibilities 6. 7.4. Even closer to purchasing are consumers who couple preference with desire to buy and have the conviction that the purchaser would be wise. Still closer to purchasing are those who have a favourable attitude towards the product 5. The final step which translates attitude into purchaser .

2. consumers might not go through the sequence as it is set out i. Feedback at various stages might allow later events to have an influence on earlier activities .e. they may start & stop or they may make mistakes & start over. For some products.PLANNER BE AWARE 1.

Some consumers might not follow the process at all.PLANNER BE AWARE 3. They might make purchasing decisions under some other system . particularly for low-cost. low-risk products 4. Some consumers might collapse the entire process into a split second.

RICHARD VAUGHNE .1971 Presents an enhanced adoption process model .


mystical area called ‚creative‛  Far most difficult part of the campaign process .DEVELOPING THE CREATIVE STRATEGY  Advtg sales message is truly the heart of the campaign  There is no sure – fire method of developing / assuming the development of an effective sales message for every campaign  No such magic formula exists  Development of sales message falls into vague.

Must know how/why consumers act / react to advtg. .PREPARING FOR DEVELOPING THE SALES MESSAGE  Preparing to sell .Planners must master/remember the basics .Understanding of basic mktg. .Must have basic understanding of communication principles .

 Advertising Is Always a Sales Message ‚Anybody in advertising who doesn’t say his purpose is to sell is either ignorant or a phony.or to influence customer / prospects for the advertised product so that they consider it for a future purchase. . Doyle Dane Bernbach . .The primary / sole purpose of an advtg.‛ William Bernbach. campaign is to generate a direct sale of product / service.

. doesn’t deliver a sales message. . must provide a sound. purchased. it is not successful.Advtg.. or repurchased over competition.Sales messages come in many forms . legitimate benefit/tell why the advertised brand should be either preferred.If an advtg.

value will equal more than one. and the person will probably buy  When price is greater than benefit. value will equal .CONSUMER BUYING EQUATION  To create effective sales messages you have to know why people buy  Benefit divided by price equals value B=V P  When benefit is greater than price.

 Price can be defined as anything of value the purchaser has to give up to get the benefit promised  Value of a product / service lies in the consumer’s comparison / evaluation of the price benefit ratio compared to available alternatives  Benefit a product/service provides is subjective  Benefit personally affects consumer of a product / service  Benefit exists independently of / apart from merchandise/service being provided . less than one. & the person probably will not buy.

CONSUMER’S VIEW  Try to get on the consumer’s side of the equation to determine what prospects really want  Many times ad campaign talk of benefits of very little importance to consumers .

measurable. message. objective is measured in terms of a change in awareness preference. Usually the advtg. messages campaign ….SOME DEFINITIONS ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE The clearly stated. conviction or other communication effect. end result of an advtg. .

ADVERTISING STRATEGY The benefit. or other product advantage. . either physical / psychological. that is the benefit . message. general idea of the advertising / the promise made to the purchaser through advtg. problem solution.

this includes art. copy.ADVERTISING EXECUTION The physical form in which the advtg. music. illustration. SFX. objective . strategy is translated/presented to TG to achieve advtg. or other physical / emotional characteristics through which advtg. appears.

.WHAT IS ADVERTISING STRATEGY? To ideate the one thing that sets a brand apart from competition in the consumers mind and the benefit the brand provides / problem it solves.

A standard form/approach assures that everyone involved in the development of the message is to achieve. what benefit of the product is to be featured. etc…. .WHY FORMALIZE ADVERTISING STRATEGY 1.

strategy makes sure the emphasis of the creative work is on the message and not the execution in the media .2. The development of an advtg.

message is developed from the point of view of the consumer and not the advertiser . strategy helps assume that the advtg.3. The development of advtg.

Psychographics e. C.ADVERTISING STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT 5 BASIC STEPS A. Geographics b. Buying use patterns . Key fact Primary marketing problem Communication objective Message strategy 1. D. B. Demographics c. Target Market a.

Reason why E. Corporate requirement . Promise 4. Primary competition 3.2.

STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT – 2 CAUTIONS  Simply trying to cram too many ideas into a strategy  Trying to talk to too many people .

strategy form is the most basic aid creative people can have It outlines all info / material known about the advtg. strategy’ form is a straight jacket ‚It/s too structural‛ Frankly. problem to be solved . advtg.THE CREATIVE COMPLAINT     Creative people complain that the ‘advtg.

HOW TO DEVELOP AN ADVERTISING STRATEGY 3 of the best-known / most widely accepted methods  Unique Selling Proposition  Brand Image  Positioning .

. Each advertisement must say to each reader : ‚Buy this product and you will get this specific benefit . then with Ted Bales in his book : Reality in Advertising. . Each advertisement must make a proposition to the consumer. Not just words. not just product puffery.  Reeves described USP as having 3 parts : 1.UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION Ideated by Rosser Reeves. not just show-window advertising.‛ .

. It must be unique either in the brand or in the claim . . The proposition must be one that the competition either cannot or does not offer.2. .

pull over customers to your brand. The proposition must be strong enough to move mass millions. i.2. .e.

and they provide sound selling messages .USP : The Limitations  because of technological developments/increased complexity of the marketplace the USP is considered passé  yet USPs for products/services certainly aren’t easy to develop as they were in the ‘60s  they are possible.

he/she buys the physical/psychological benefits which the brand promises to deliver Advertising Man.BRAND IMAGE  Idea popularized by David Ogilvy through his book : Confession of an  The basic concept : Every campaign should be considered a long term investment in the overall make-up of the brand  Each brand develops/projects an image which is conveyed to TG through promotion / advertising  Based on this image the consumer just does not buy the ‚image‛. .

 What is said about the product in advertising is often more important in the purchase decision than the actual physical attributes which the product promises  Imagery can be created in different ways.  Sometimes even fantasy  A good example of clear-cut brand image : Marlboro .

now considered most basic method of advertising strategy development  Positioning : used to locate a ‘position’ for the ‘product’ in the ‘mind’ of the consumer.POSITIONING  Early 70’s Jack Trout/Al Ries introduced the positioning concept in a series of articles (Industrial Marketing/Ad Age. 1972)  Concept has since been expanded / revised / adapted. .

 Once that ‘position’ is established. the consumer should consider that product/brand every time the need for the solution to that problem arises  ‚positioning‛ advertising seeks to make a brand fill all the consumer needs / desires in that specific product category .

decision in an advtg. campaign  The advtg. execution or the ‚how the advtg.ADVERTISING EXECUTION  ‚What to say‛ is the most imp. . strategy is communicated to the prospect‛ has a strong effect on the campaign  A sound strategy succeeds regardless of execution  If ‚what you say‛ is of benefit to the prospect/solves TG’s problem. some response will occur.

. larger numbers of prospects will likely respond to the message / respond more quickly  While ‚what you say‛ is vital. the ‚how you say it‛ can really prove to be the difference between a successful campaign & an outstanding one. However if strategy is presented in an interesting. exciting. and memorable manner.

an understanding of the marketplace / an empathy with the TG that literally makes the ad jump off the page/off the TV screen into the lives of the reader/viewer .THE BIG IDEA  Great advertising campaign. but it brings a realism. particularly those which are brought about by great advertising executions. are the result of a ‚big idea‛  The ‚big idea‛ is usually very simple.




























to come up with new / exciting concepts/approaches that will grab attention of TG & drive sales message home in an interesting / effective way  A big idea is more a result of perspiration than inspiration . campaign  How can a person learn to generate ideas.HOW TO DEVELOP A BIG IDEA  A big idea is often quite simple  The Big Q ? how does one come up with really great ideas that will turn a sound strategy into a winning advtg.

Kris & Kubie to the Gestalt theories of Wertheimer. to the association theories of Medwick. A person needs to use a sound. proven approach as preparation for having ideas  The basic psychological literature (on creativity) comes from several theories that attempt to explain creativity / how it occurs  Ranges from theories of Freud. to the composite theories of Koestler. Gruber and Hadamand . logical.

copywriter JWT  Developed concept of idea generation in 1940.Technique for Producing Ideas : James Webb Young  Widely known / accepted method of developing advtg. . ideas  Proposed by James Webb Young. widely quoted. discussed since then  Young suggested that a ‚new idea is nothing more or less than a new combination of old elements.

 Young addresses a primary question in his book.  Technique for Producing Ideas : how to bring about these new combinations of old elements .

the gathering of raw material – both the materials of your immediate problem and the materials which come from a constant enrichment of your store of general knowledge.JAMES WEBB YOUNG : 5 STEPS IN DEVELOPING IDEAS First. .

Second. the working over of these materials in your mind .

Third. the incubation stage. where you let something besides the conscious mind do the work of synthesis .

the actual birth of the idea – the ‚Eureka. I have it‛ stage .Fourth.

the final shaping and development of the idea to practical usefulness .And fifth.

being interested in things around  More elements available for this combining procedure the greater the possibility of developing a combo that can be truly exciting / effective .GATHERING RAW MATERIALS  gathered : specific & the general  Specific relates to elements / info directly related to the product / service to be advertised  The general materials are those about life / events that a person gathers.

WORKING OVER THE MATERIALS IN THE MIND  The process is akin to digestion  ‚you take the diff bits of materials which you have gathered and feel them all over…. with the tentacles of the mind. not the absolute facts in the combination .‛  Look for the meaning.

and the new meanings really occur . new processes.THE INCUBATION STAGE  You turn the problem over to your unconscious mind and let it do the work  It is here that new combinations.

you will surely experience the Fourth out of nowhere the idea will appear It will come to you when you are least expecting it.BIRTH OF THE IDEA ‚Now.‛ . if you have really done your part in these 3 stages of the process.

grey dawn of the morning after‛ Not every idea is totally complete Often the idea requires work/adaptation to make it exactly fit the situation At this stage many ideas are lost. because the idea generator wasn’t patient enough to go through the final adaptation process .THE FINAL SHAPING / DEVELOPMENT OF THE IDEA     ‚the cold.

WILL YOUNG’S METHOD WORK FOR YOU?  It has worked for many successful advtg. people  But there are other ways to develop a big idea .

ARTHUR KOESTLER’S ‚ACT OF CREATION‛     Concept built mound the idea of ‚biociation‛ Means a new idea occurs when 2 thoughts collide & combine It occurs when 2 frames of references (matrices) coincide The coincidence / collision of these matrices result in a combination that previously had not be considered / had not been thought of. .

 Korestler described it as ‚an act of liberation‛. result in a new / original idea. 2 rather common concepts / thoughts / situations / events when brought together through ‚biociation‛. ‚the defeat of habit by originality‛ .


TRADITIONAL TAKE ‚Vertical thinking is traditional logical thinking. or like digging a hole by making deeper the hole you already have. It is like building a tower by placing one stone firmly on top of the preceding stone.‛ -Edward de Bono . It is called vertical thinking because you proceed directly from one state of formation to another state.

Lateral thinking is generative Vertical thinking moves only if there is a direction in which to move. lateral thinking is provocative Vertical thinking is sequential.VERTICAL VS LATERAL THINKING 1. Vertical thinking is selective. lateral thinking moves in order to generate a direction Vertical thinking is analytical. lateral thinking can make jumps .

. with lateral thinking one welcomes chance intrusions. 8. With vertical thinking one uses the negative in order to block off certain pathways. With vertical thinking categories. Vertical thinking is a finite process. With lateral thinking there is no negative. Vertical thinking follows the most likely paths.6. 7. lateral thinking explores the least likely. with lateral thinking they are not. classifications. and labels are fixed. 10. With vertical thinking one concentrates / excludes what is irrelevant. lateral thinking is a probabilistic one. 9.

 The purpose of lateral thinking is the generation of new ideas/escape from old one. . .  Lateral thinking seeks to explore new relationships among elements/ situations /events/even activities to generate new/unique ideas. .IN SHORT .

 Traditional thinking habits very effective at developing ideas but not good at restructuring them. . Need for lateral thinking arises from the patterning behaviour of the mind which is not good at restructuring ideas to bring them up to date/allow full use of available info.  Lateral thinking designed to supplement traditional thinking & introduce discontinuity that is necessary for restructuring ideas.  Basic process of lateral thinking is to escape from old ideas and the provocation of new ones.

LATERAL THINKING : A SUMMARY 1. . 2. 4. . Recognition of dominant/polarizing ideas The search for different ways of looking at things The relaxation of the rigid control of vertical thinking The use of chance/provocative methods in order to introduce discontinuity. 3. .

STIMULATING LATERAL THINKING        Generate alternatives to present situations Challenge present assumptions Innovate Suspend judgement for a period of time Reverse a common approach Develop analogies for the situation Brainstorming .

FROM IDEA TO EXECUTION      A Few Guide Lines Guideline One : Guideline Two : Guideline Three : Guideline Four : Guideline Five : Know the Product Know Your Market Talk to Your Prospect Make a Promise Get to the Point .

     Guideline Six : Guideline Seven : Guideline Eight : Guideline Nine : Guideline Ten : Be Germane Be Concise Be Logical Be Enthusiastic Be Complete .

 Guideline Eleven : Do not Try to Dazzle  Guideline Twelve : Respect the English Language  Guideline Thirteen : Empathize  Guideline Fourteen : Have a Specific Response in Mind  Guideline Fifteen : Offer Benefits. Not Gimmicks  Guideline Sixteen : Ask for the order .

 If the execution does not translate the strategy toss it out.HOW TO JUDGE ADVERTISING EXECUTIONS : 8 GUIDELINES  The strategy is planned to say one thing and the advtg.‛  1st look at the strategy statements. execution.  This usually happens when ‚creativity gets in the way of the message. ends up saying another. . then look at the advtg.

 The 1st and guiding rule : the advertising must say what it set out to say in the strategy – no exceptions. how exciting the campaign. Start over no matter how cute. . how clever.

have a strong idea of whether or not a specific execution/interpretation of strategy will appeal to them – in terms of layout. .WILL THE EXECUTION APPEAL TO THE RIGHT AUDIENCE?  You should know your TG. tone . style.  the execution should fit the audience . grammar. music. .

.  Ads/commercials make the message more difficult to read. hear or understand  Test an ad’s effectiveness by mentally imagining yourself selling – door – to – door.WOULD YOU SAY THIS TO YOUR PROSPECT IN PERSON?  Advertisers often hide behind advertisements when selling  The anonymity of the printed and/commercial/sales brochure opens the doors to inane ideas. see.

puns.WOULD YOU SAY THIS TO YOUR PROSPECT IN PERSON?  To make a sale you would get directly to the point  You would fill your sales talk with benefits / features the TG would want/could use in making a favourable decision  Advtg. gimmicks… . should not drift into unrelated sales messages. cute sayings.

that tells how great the advertiser is or how wonderful the product is or how proud the company is provides no benefit to prospect. not one-inch drills. . created from the marketer’s or TG’s view point?  Boastful. breast-beating advtg.FROM THE MARKETER’S / CONSUMER’S VIEW  Is the advtg.  Demarcate between benefits and features  People buy one-inch holes.

COMPLETE & CONVINCING?  Most often ad agencies presume the TG knows as much of the ‘brand’ as they do  Is the TG as interested in the ‘brand’ as the creative team is?  Each ad should be single-minded  A clear benefit. backed by a strong reason why that benefit is available / possible should be highlighted .IS THE EXECUTION CLEAR. CONCISE.

CONCISE. words. even benefits so that primary message comes through loud & clear  The advertisement must be complete IS THE EXECUTION CLEAR. Often the biggest problem is trying to cram too many sales points / ideas / messages into the advertisement  The execution should be single-minded  Cutout all extraneous ideas. COMPLETE & CONVINCING? .

not entertain or overwhelm Do not let execution get in the way . message If layout / colour / animation is outstanding it totally overshadows message Beware the line of the gimmick Primary job is to sell.DOES THE EXECUTION OVERWHELM THE MESSAGE?       Often many ads are remembered. but not the brand or the benefit This happens when the ad execution simply overwhelms the advtg.

IS THERE A CALL TO ACTION?  Advertising must ask for commitment from viewer / reader / listener  The purpose of advtg. should be designed for response  Each advertisement must have some sort of call to action  It is much easier to get a response if the ad asks first  Every execution must ask for some sort of action . is to get someone to do something he/she is not doing  It can be a change of opinion/trial of a product/a mental pledge to consider brand at next opportunity  Advtg.

start over Ads you are not proud of rarely gain response People hardly buy from rude/crude/pushy people – the same is true of advertising .ARE YOU PROUD OF YOUR AD?     Is the piece of advtg. you created something you will sign? If not.

change it now.  Be proud of your work but keep your personal prejudices out of the evaluation . to succeed you must make friends with your TG  Does the execution accurately reflect you and your product – if not.ARE YOU PROUD OF YOUR AD?  If you want your advtg.

And all media are not equal  Each medium has unique strengths / WEAKNESS  The ability to capitalize on strength of the medium & minimize its weakness makes the planner effective  Planners need to understand translation of strategy into media .MEDIA TRANSLATION  All ideas are not equal.

Is the message clear at a glance? Can you quickly tell what the ad is all about?  Most readers are simply scanners of print media  To be successful.GUIDELINES FOR PRINT 1. the printed ad must tell the scanner quickly / clearly the message / benefit of the advtg.  It must generate additional attention to get the copy read .

difficult to understand headlines don’t work in today’s fast-paced info. . complicated. situations.Is the Benefit In the Headline  With scanner it’s vital for the headline to quickly / clearly tell the prospect the value / benefit / problem – solution being offered  Involved.

Does The Illustration Support The Headline?  Headline & illustration must work in concert  Illustration must support headline & the promise  Demonstrate why the advertise can make the claim made in the headline .

Does The 1st Line In The Copy Support / Explain The Headline?  Print ads must present an united idea  Immediately supporting the benefit in the headline so that scanner can get the message in a few seconds  If there is interest. they will read  Make sure the support for the claim is stated immediately .

IS THE AD EASY TO READ / FOLLOW?  With readers short on time print ads must be easy to read / follow  That includes both layout / composition .

IS THE TYPE LARGE & LEGIBLE?     ‚Artistic‛ & ‚Creative‛ type faces have been developed Advertising is not the place for them Clear. People won’t work to learn what you have to say . sharp. easy-to-read & most of all legible type is a must in print advtg.

IS THE ADVETISER CLEARLY INDENTIFIED?  Too many advertisers seem embarrassed by the seller as the ideas / products  People want to know who they are dealing with & how to contact them  They want to buy from people they know .

but make it complete .ARE THERE ANY EXCESS WORDS / PHRASES / IDEAS THAT COULD BE DELETED ?  People are busy  They don’t want / won’t take time to read extra wards / phrases that have little to do with benefit they seek / problem they want to solve  If the info is important / helpful they will read volumes  Cut the copy to the bone.

maps.IS THERE A COUPON / CLIP-OUT. even if it means giving up an art direction award . directions get lost If the objective is to make a person clip a coupon make it easy to do it Make it big enough to read Do everything possible to help the reader. EAST TO REMOVE?     In some ads key elements like coupons.

GUIDELINES FOR RADIO DOES THE COMMERCIAL INTRUDE ?      Radio is primarily a background medium People are doing something else while listening You must intrude to get attention You must not irritate It is necessary to break out of the drone & either offer a benefit / gain attention so that TG will hear message .

Effective radio allows listener to add content / contrast to the commercial to further support idea being heard  Take advantage to this unique aspect of radio . words..IS THE COMMERCIAL CREATED FOR THE EAR & MIND ?     Radio must play on the mind through the ears It must involve the imagination That’s done with sound effects. pauses….

DOES THE COMMERCIAL INVOLVE THE LISTENER ?     Most advertisers don’t know how to use radio Some advertisers simply have announcers read print ads on air That is a massive waste of the medium Radio has the unique ability to involve listeners .

can’t be referred back to / reviewed  Once commercial is broadcast it is gone forever  It is impossible to repeat brand name / product benefit too often in radio  Radio commercials should have enough brand / benefit identification so that message gets across .IS THE BRAND CLEARLY INDENTIFIED?  Because radio is fleeting & a background medium brand name or sponsor is lost  Radio. unlike print.

usually fail. because thoughts / ideas / concepts are compressed when spoken  People don’t speak in complete sentences / phrases  Radio should be written to communicate to get ideas / info & benefits across to the audience  Writing as you speak doesn’t mean using poor grammar or incorrect sentence construction .DOES THE COMMERCIAL SOUND THE WAY TG SPEAKS?  Spoken words & written word are totally different  Radio commercials written as literacy gems.

GUIDELINES FOR TV 1. not to watch commercials Commercials must break through their relaxation & get their attention If radio must intrude TV commercials must interrupt .    DOES THE COMMERCIAL INTERRUPT? People go to TV to be entertained.

DOES THE COMMERCIAL INTERRUPT?  They must break through the wall of interest in the programme content & literally call attention to the brand message  A TV commercial need not be rude / vulgar / irritating  It does mean that it must interrupt programming & get attention for the message being presented .

IS THE COMMERCIAL A VISUAL IDEA?  TV is visual. Is the sales message a visual idea?  If it isn’t you are not taking full advantage of the media . It is action  Ask yourself. It is movement.

DOES THE COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATE THE BENEFITS OF BRAND?  TV offers the opportunity to actually demonstrate benefit being offered / problem being solved by brand  Almost every product / service can be emonstrated  If not the actual thing a product does then the benefit the user receives .

IS THERE A CLEAR BRAND IDENTIFICATION?  Studies have shown misidentification of brands as high as 50% in some categories  Avoid generic claims – in other words. benefit & problem solutions that are common to the category  The benefit that is being offered must be inexorably connected to the brand .

IS THERE ONLY ONE CLEAR SALES MESSAGE?  Advertises try to insert ‘just one more idea….’  Commercials that try to reach everyone with something usually end up reaching no one with anything  If the brand has other benefits / strategies write additional commercials .

 The general tone of commercials must properly represent the brand  If the product is hi-priced. does the commercial portray the brand?  Create commercials for people who will buy the brand  Beware of ‘Vampire Video’. prestigious. where the execution overwhelms the sales message DOES THE COMMERCIAL PROPERLY REPRESENT THE PRODUCT? .


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