You are on page 1of 34

A COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER (14-14-14) AND

ORGANIC FERTILIZER (COMBINED SEAWEED AND AZOLLA LEAVES) ON

THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF BELL PEPPER (Capsicum annum)

A Research Proposal Presented

To the Faculty – Special Science Class

Passi National High School

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements of the Subject

Research II

Wilfredo G. Bonto Jr.

Liza Mae P. Ballaran

April 2010
APPROVAL SHEET

The research paper attached here, entitled “A

Comparative Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer (14-14-14) and

Organic Fertilizer (combined SEAWEED and AZOLLA leaves) on

the Growth and Yield of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annum)”

prepared and submitted by Wilfredo G. Bonto Jr. and Liza

Mae P. Ballaran, in partial fulfillment of the requirement

for the subject Research II

__________________________ _________________________
NESCEL P. PANES RAMONIT P. BELASCUAIN
HT1/Head, Social Studies HT1/Head, English

__________________ __________________
Date Signed Date Signed

________________________
________________________
DOLLY ROSE H. FLORES HEAVEN G. BONTO
Mathematics Teacher GRAMMARIAN

__________________ _________________
Date Signed Date Signed

________________________ _______________________
GLADYS G. BONTO JULIETA P. PACHEJO
Research Adviser/Consultant Research II Adviser

__________________ ________________
Date Signed Date Signed

Is accepted as partial fulfillment of the

requirement for the subject Research II, in Special Science

Class, Passi National High School.


________________________ _____________________
Regina Palencia Rey P. Deatras
HEAD, Special Science Class Principal IV, PNHS

_______________ _______________
Date Signed Date Signed
Acknowledgement

The researchers would like to extend their gratitude

and appreciation to following persons for their support and

assistance that made this study possible:

Above anything else the researchers would like to

thank the Almighty One for his love, grace and mercy.

Mrs. Ma. Febe Cang

(Assistant School’s Division Superintendent/

Officer-in-Charge, Division of Passi City)

Mr. Rey P. Deatras

(Principal IV, PNHS)

Mrs. Regina P. Palencia

(Department Head, SSC)

Mrs. Gladys G. Bonto

(Research II Adviser)

Miss Heaven G. Bonto


(Research Adviser/ Grammarian)

Mrs. Julieta P. Pachejo

(Research II Teacher)

Mr. Wilfredo C. Bonto

Mr. Felizardo C. Ballaran

(Parents)

Wilfredo G. Bonto

Liza Mae P. Ballran

Researchers
Bonto, Wilfredo Jr. G. and Ballaran, Liza Mae P.
“A Comparative Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer (14-14-
14) and Organic Fertilizer (combined SEAWEED and AZOLLA
leaves) on the Growth and Yield of Bell Pepper
(Capsicum annum)”. Unpublished Research Proposal,
Passi National High School- Special Science Class,
Passi City, March 2010.

Abstract

The research entitled “A Comparative Effect of Inorganic

Fertilizer (14-14-14) and Organic Fertilizer (combined

SEAWEED and AZOLLA leaves) on the Growth and Yield of Bell

Pepper (Capsicum annum)” aims to find out the effects of

organic and inorganic fertilizer to the growth and yield of

bell pepper. The independent variables are the organic and

inorganic fertilizer while the dependent variable is the

growth and yield of bell pepper based on the time it takes

for the bell pepper plant to grow flowers, the time it

takes for the bell pepper plant to bear vegetables, height

of the bell pepper plant, number of functional leaves, and

number of flowers. The subjects of the study are the 45

bell pepper plants. There will be three treatments the

Organic fertilizer (seaweed and azolla leaves) will be

applied randomly to 15 bell pepper plants and labeled as


set up A, inorganic fertilizer (14-14-14) will be applied

randomly to another 15 bell pepper plants and labeled as

set up B and the remaining 15 bell pepper plants will not

receive any fertilizer at all and labeled as set up C.

After gathering the data it will be subjected to SPSS for

statistical and descriptive analysis. Kruskal-Wallis Test

will be used to determine the significant difference in the

growth of the bell pepper seedlings in terms of their

height and number of photosynthesizing leaves.


Table of Contents

Page

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL SHEET ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

ABSTRACT vi

Chapters

1 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY

Background of the Study 2

Conceptual Framework 6

Statement of the Problem 7

Hypothesis 8

Significance of the Study 8

Definition of Terms 10

Delimitation of the study

12

2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Bell Pepper 14

Uses and Nutrition 14


Propagation 15

Inorganic Fertilizer 16

Organic Fertilizer 16

Seaweed 16

Seaweed Agricultural Uses 17

Azolla 18

3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Purpose of the Study and Research Design 20

Methods 20

Subjects 20

Materials 21

Procedure 22

Data Analyses and Procedure 23


A COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER (14-14-14) AND

ORGANIC FERTILIZER (COMBINED SEAWEED AND AZOLLA LEAVES) ON

THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF BELL PEPPER (Capsicum annum)

Wilfredo G. Bonto Jr. and Liza Mae P. Ballaran


A COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER (14-14-14) AND

ORGANIC FERTILIZER (COMBINED SEAWEED AND AZOLLA LEAVES) ON

THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF BELL PEPPER (Capsicum annum)

Wilfredo G. Bonto Jr. and Liza Mae P. Ballaran

Chapter 1

Introduction of the Study

Background of the Study

Bell peppers are native to Mexico, Central America,

and South America. Botanists may dispute the bell pepper's

original birthplace, but its amazing journey across the

world and its adoption by almost every culture proves that


the bell pepper is truly a global food. The bell pepper has

been with many cultures for so long - over five hundred

years.

In some cases, most people would be surprised to

discover that it originally came from South America.

Bell peppers are thought to have been eaten in Meso-America

as early as 5000 BCE and to have been growing since 7000

BCE. Archaeologists have estimated that humans began

farming bell peppers between 5000 BCE and 3400 BCE, which

makes them one of the oldest crops cultivated by man.

Clearly, bell peppers had been around long before

Christopher Columbus discovered their heat on his travels

to America. In fact, confusing the bell pepper with the

pepper he was hoping to find in India, Columbus named it

pimiento, or, Spanish for pepper. Bell pepper, however, has

no relation to the black pepper, known as Piper nigrum, for

which Columbus was searching. Columbus later brought the

bell pepper back to Spain; calling it a spice even though

it is a member of the Solanacenae family, impede the bell

pepper's almost immediate migration across the world.

Varieties of bell pepper are based on the color

which can be green, red, yellow, orange and more rarely,

white, purple, blue, pink, rainbow, aqua, violet, maroon,

black and brown, depending on when they are harvested and

the specific cultivars. Green peppers are less sweet and


slightly bitterer than red, yellow, or orange peppers. The

taste of ripe peppers can also vary with growing conditions

and post-harvest storage treatment; the sweetest are fruit

allowed to ripen fully on the plant in full sunshine, while

fruit harvested green and after ripened storage are less

sweet.

The bell pepper's global presence owes much to its

resilience and capacity to be spread even without human

intervention. The flesh of the bell pepper dries well and

the seeds survive for long periods, which allowed the bell

pepper’s easy transport on its first trans-Atlantic trip.

Furthermore, the chili's small size proved tempting to

birds that eat the fruit and deposit the seeds miles away.

Bell peppers are sold in both its immature green state

and its red, yellow, or orange ripe state. They may be

eaten cooked or raw, such as in salads. They also may be

ground in to a powder and added to fruit as a coloring or

flavoring.

Bell peppers offer a number of nutritional values.

They are excellent sources of Vitamin C and Vitamin A and

bell pepper contains phytochemicals (GMF 2008). They also

are a source of vitamin B6, folic acid, beta-carotene, and

fiber. Red peppers also contain lycopene, believed

important for reducing risk of certain cancers (prostrate

cancer, cancer of the cervix, bladder and pancreas) (GMF,


2008). Various studies on red peppers or their components

support the view that bell peppers have a productive effect

against cataracts, rheumatoid arthritis, and lung cancer

(GMF 2008).

According to Dr. Lynette Morgan, a soil-grown bell

pepper crop, the amount, type, and combination of

fertilizer that is required is dependent on the fertility

of the soil used. Different soil types have very different

natural fertility levels and will be affected by any

fertilizer that may have been previously applied. The pH of

the soil also needs to be considered. As a very general

guide, a combination of one part each of the 14-14-14 will

provide a reasonable N-P-K level for a pepper crop.

However, the levels of calcium, magnesium, and trace

elements in the soil should also be checked in case they

need boosting.

A close look at some of the fresh water ecosystems and

trained eye can observe a few green colored ferns freely

floating on the water surface. These ferns are known as

Azolla the nature’s gift to mankind in harvesting

atmospheric nitrogen from the air and good for growing bell

peppers combined with seaweed.


Conceptual Framework

Independent Variable Dependent variable

Organic
Fertilizer
(Combined
Seaweed and
Azolla Leaves)

Growth of Bell
Pepper Plant

Inorganic
Fertilizer
(14-14-14)

Figure 1. The research paradigm shows the effect of the

inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer to the growth

of bell pepper plant.


Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the effect of different

concentration of inorganic fertilizer (14-14-14) and

organic fertilizer (combined seaweed and azolla leaves) on

the growth and of bell peppers.

Specifically this study seeks to answer the following

questions:

1. What are the effects of the organic fertilizer

(combined seaweed and azolla leaves) to the growth

of the bell pepper plants in terms of the following:

A. number of leaves that is green in color, and

capable of photosynthesizing.

B. measurement of the plant from the soil to last e

exposed node of the leaf in centimeters.

C. number of functioning branches, and green in color.

D. number of fruits 3-4 inches in length.

E. Yield-

a. Marketable- fruits of the bell pepper plant is

healthy, no parasites and green in color.


b. Non-marketable- fruits of the bell pepper plant

is wilt, have parasites and yellowish in color.

2. Is there a significant difference in the growth of

bell pepper plant applied with organic fertilizer

(combined seaweed and azolla leaves) and inorganic

fertilizer(14-14-14)?

Hypothesis

Based on the presented problems, the hypothesis is

formulated.

1. There is no significant difference in the growth of

bell pepper plant using the organic and inorganic

fertilizers.

Significance of the Study

The success of the study will be beneficial to the

following:

School, TLE teachers particularly agriculture teachers.


Department of Agriculture, this study could help them

determine the right soil and concentration in producing the

best and one of a kind bell pepper. In this way, they could

have a seminar and workshops regarding the proper way of

planting bell pepper for less cost and greater yield. In

addition to that, many of the Philippine growers nowadays

are practicing the organic way of farming so that Filipinos

could avoid some unhealthy features of plants, which were

brought up by inorganic fertilizers.

For the bell pepper growers, learning new techniques

and knowledge regarding bell peppers are of great help to

them. This study shows efficient and effective ways on how

to produce best quality of bell peppers in an effortless

way. And there is no need for the growers to apply much

fertilizer and other pesticides.

For the people in the community, this study will help

them in choosing and preparing the proper soil medium in

growing not only bell pepper but also other fruit and

vegetable bearing plants that they could grow in their

backyard. This could help them save money and could assure

them that what they produce is healthy and are not

dangerous to human health.

In some Farm Schools, this would serve as their

reference on the selection of soil medium, manner of


planting and caring of vegetable bearing plants especially

bell pepper.

Furthermore our study would be beneficial to the

future researchers on the same field for this will serve as

their guide as they go along with their study.

Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined purposely to ensure

clarity and understanding of the subjects discussed.

Azolla-

Bell pepper - A variety of sweet pepper widely

cultivated for its edible fruit.

In the study, bell pepper is the primary subject

and its growth and yield in different soil media will be

measured.

Comparative- making use of or capable of making use of

a method whereby likeness of dissimilarities are determined

by simultaneous examination of two or more items (Webster

Third New Dictionary, Vol.1)


Growth- the act or process, or manner of growing;

development; gradual increase. Size or stage of

development. It hasn’t yet reached its full growth.

Inorganic fertilizer- fertilizers which are composed

of crude chemical compounds of standard composition and

which contain plant nutrients in a concentrated and

valuable form. (T.L.E. I, Josephine C. Bernardino with

coordinator Estifania Gloria L. Lee, 2007)

In this study 14-14-14 refers to the inorganic

fertilizer

Organic fertilizer- known as natural fertilizers

because they are man-made. (T.L.E. I, Josephine C.

Bernardino with coordinator Estifania Gloria L. Lee, 2007)

In this study, the combination of seaweed and azolla

leaves is the organic fertilizer.

Seaweed-
Delimitation of the study

This study aims to determine the best fertilizer

in growing bell pepper. The study will use experimental

research design to determine the effect of organic and

inorganic fertilizer on the growth of bell pepper.

The subject of this investigation is the bell pepper

plant. The data needed for this investigation will be

gathered through the use of experimental research design.

The accurate statistical tool will then analyze the

accumulated data in order to determine the significant

difference between the variables involved.

This experimental research will be conducted in Passi

National High School, located at Dorillo St., Passi City.

In view of time and financial constraints, the researchers

need a lot of time, money and effort in order to promote

success of the study.

The subject of this investigation is the bell pepper

plant. The data needed for this investigation will be

gathered through the use of Randomized Complete Block

Design. The accurate statistical tool will then analyze the

accumulated data in order to determine the significant

difference between the variables involve. This experimental


research will be conducted in Passi National High School,

located at Dorillo St., Passi City. In view of time and

financial constraints, the researchers need a lot of time,

money and effort in order to promote the success of the

study.
Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

Bell Pepper

Bell pepper (Capsicum annum) Solonaceae, is a

vegetable of widespread popularity in Mexico. From its

native home it has been introduced into several tropical

countries including Philippines. The colorful varieties of

these vegetables are now beginning to appear in our

vegetable markets and indications are that bell pepper can

be grown here into a major vegetable crop.

Uses and Nutrition

Bell peppers are sold in both its immature green state

and its red, yellow, or orange ripe state. They may be

eaten cooked or raw, such as in salads. They also may be

ground in to a powder and added to fruit as a coloring or

flavoring.

Bell peppers offer a number of nutritional values.

They are excellent sources of Vitamin C and Vitamin A (GMF


2008). They also are a source of vitamin B6, folic acid,

beta-carotene, and fiber. Red peppers also contain

lycopene, believed important for reducing risk of certain

cancers (prostrate cancer, cancer of the cervix, bladder

and pancreas) (GMF, 2008). Various studies on red peppers

or their components support the view that bell peppers have

a productive effect against cataracts, rheumatoid

arthritis, and lung cancer (GMF 2008).

Propagation

Peppers are best started from seeds indoors in late

winter and then transplanted into the garden after the soil

and air have warmed in the spring. The plants cannot

tolerate frost and do not grow well in cold, wet soil. When

night temperatures are below 50º to 55ºF, the plants grow

slowly, the leaves may turn yellow and the flowers drop

off. Raised beds, black plastic mulch and floating row

covers may be used to advantage with peppers to warm and

drain the soil and enhance the microenvironment of the

young pepper plants in the spring, when cool weather may

persist.
Inorganic Fertilizer (14-14-14)

The numbers refer to the percent by weight of the

following elements (in order(; N,P,K. The elements are in a

salt form, so the weight does not add up to 100%.

The three numbers shown on fertilizer containers are

the fertilizer analysis. They indicate the percent of

nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium present in the

fertilizer. These figures are always listed in the same

order. So, a 100-pound sack of 10-20-10 fertilizer contains

ten pounds of phosphorus and 10 pounds of potassium. That

equals 40 pounds of nutrients. The rest of the fertilizer

is simply carries or tiller, such as sand, perlite or rice

hulls. A complete fertilizer is one with all three

elements. A general recommendation for gardens and flower

beds is 2-3 pounds of a slow release, compete fertilizer

such as 19-5-9 per 100 square (10’x 10’) feet of planting

area.
Organic Fertilizer

(Combined Azolla and Seaweed)

Seaweed

Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing

macroscopic, multicellular, benthic marine algae. The term

includes some members of the red brown, and green algae.

Seaweeds can also be classified by use ( as food, medicine,

fertilizer, industrial, etc.).

Seaweed Agricultural Uses

As we have mentioned, seaweeds have been used in the

Agricultural industry for centuries now, though only

seaweeds from the brown and red zones are commercially

harvested. The earliest traces of life on earth, about 3.5

billion years old, include forms of blue green algae

equipped with chlorophyll. Many tests have been performed

on these enormous plants other than themselves. Kelpak for

instance, which is a new liquid seaweed concentrate, is


made from brown kelp and harvested near South Africa’s

western coast. It is liquefied without heat, chemicals,

freezing, or dehydration. In some of these tests performed,

a dilute solution was applied to plants as a soil soak or

leaf spray. The growth of these plants was tremendous. The

plants which were doused with seaweed had an improved root

growth and yield which had increased by up to 40 and 60

percent. It had accelerated marigold flowering, and also

increased the size and chlorophyll content of the swiss

chard. All of these effects primarily were attributed

natural growth promoters in the seaweed. The rich

agricultural crops typical of Northwestern France are

attributed directly to regular use of seaweed fertilizer.

The seaweed industry itself is relatively valuable because

it can be used as fertilizers or even as substitute for

soil. This seaweed has been used by the agricultural

industry in animal fodder and in fertilizers that improve

the nutrient content as well as the mechanical properties

of the soil (Libyan and Wayne, 1981). This in turn has had

a tremendous result on the plants and animals that directly

consume this seaweed. Growth, health, and quality have all

been a result of this added fertilizer.

Azolla
“Agriculturally, Azolla is famous for its symbiosis

with the nitrogen-fixing Anabaena azolle Strasburger, a

cyanobacterium (blue-green algae) found at the stem apices,

and in cavities of the upper leaf lobes. Because the plants

fix nitrogen, they are often used as green fertilizers or

mixed with livestock feed as a nutritional supplement.

Azolla pinnata has been cultivated for many centuries in

rice paddies of Northern Vietnam and southern China, where

it acts as a fertilizer after it decomposes.

Azolla is the most frequently studied genus of

miniature ferns in the world because of its economic

importance. The three North American species are

naturalized in Europe and South Africa, and they have been

introduced into Hawaii for horticulture into Asia for

agriculture. All species have been studied for agricultural

uses in rice-producing areas.

Azolla is usually found in stagnant or slow-moving

water ponds, lakes, marshes, swamps, and streams. Plants

turn reddish when under stress, poor nutrition, high

temperatures. Sporulation needs further investigation.”


Chapter III

Research Design and Methodology

Purpose of the Study and Research Design

The main purpose of the study is to determine the

effectiveness of the organic fertilizer (combined azolla

leaves and seaweed) to the growth of the bell pepper plant.

The experimental research design will be used in this study

for it is the most suitable process for obtaining the

needed data.

The dependent variable involved in the study is the

growth of the bell pepper plant and the independent

variables are Inorganic Fertilizer (14-14-14) and Organic

Fertilizer (Combined Seaweed and Azolla Leaves)

Methods

Subjects
The subjects of this investigation are the 45 bell

pepper plants. There will be three treatments the Organic

fertilizer (seaweed and azolla leaves) will be applied

randomly to 15 bell pepper plants and labeled as set up A,

inorganic fertilizer (14-14-14) will be applied randomly to

another 15 bell pepper plants and labeled as set up B and

the remaining 15 bell pepper plants will not receive any

fertilizer at all and labeled as set up C.

Materials

1. Seaweed and azolla leaves

2. Bell pepper seeds

3.14-14-14 fertilizer

4. plastic bags

5. trowels

6. weighing scale

7. meter stick

Procedure

A. Gathering of Materials/Samples

The researchers will plant the bell pepper seeds

in the black plastic bags needed in the experiment.


Forty-five (45) bell pepper seeds will be used. Each 15

bell pepper seeds will be randomly applied by organic

fertilizer, another 15 bell pepper plant will be applied

by inorganic fertilizer and the remaining 15 bell pepper

plant will be the control group.

B. Planting

The bell pepper seeds will be planted one in

each plastic bag prepared.

Using a trowel, a hole will be made at the center

about three (3) inches deep. Then, the bell pepper

seedlings will be inserted in it and the soil around the

seedlings will be tightly packed. When the tiny pepper

plants are strong enough, they are transplanted to the

field and planted in rows 3-4 feet apart. The plants are

grown like tomatoes, but stakes are not used because

pepper plants only grow 3-4 feet high.

Green bell varieties are usually picked when they

are fully grown and mature – 3 to 4 inches long, firm and

green. When the fruits are mature, they break easily from

the plant. Less damage is done to the plants, however, if

the fruits are cut rather than pulled off. The new,

colored bell pepper fruits may be left on the plant to

develop full flavor and ripen fully to red, yellow,

orange or brown; or they may be harvested green and


immature. Some (including “white”, light yellow, lilac

and purple) are colors that develop in the immature fruit

and that should be harvested before actually ripening,

when they turn red.

C. Watering and Application of Fertilizer

Water will be administered as needed, three (3)

times a week or as necessary.

Organic fertilizer (seaweed and azolla leaves)

will be applied randomly to 15 bell pepper plants and

labelled, inorganic fertilizer (14-14-14) will be applied

randomly to another 15 bell pepper plants and the

remaining 15 bell pepper plants will not receive any

fertilizer at all.

Pesticide will be sprayed on the seedlings as

needed.

Data Analyses and Procedure

The data obtained in this investigation will be

subjected to the following descriptive and inferential

statistics.

Mean –
Kruskal-Wallis Test – will be used to determine

the significant difference in the growth of the bell

pepper seedlings in terms of their height and number of

functional leaves.

Data to be collected in Kruskal-Wallis Test:

1. Number of leaves- number of leaves that are green

in color, and capable of photosynthesizing.

2. Height- measurement of the plant from the soil to

last exposed node of the leaf in centimeters.

3. Number of branches- number of functioning branches,

and green in color.

4. Number of fruits- number of fruits 3-4 inches in

length.

5. Yield-

A. marketable- fruits of the bell pepper plant is

healthy, no parasites and green in color.

B. Non-marketable- fruits of the bell pepper

plant is wilt, have parasites and yellowish in

color.