A COURSE IN MATHEMATICS

&amp;lt;yr

WO&amp;lt;6DS

AND BAILEY
II

VOLUME

APR 19 1909

R. Tracv

A COURSE IN

MATHEMATICS
FOR STUDENTS OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE

BY

FREDERICK
AND

S.

WOODS
BAILEY

FREDERICK

H.

PKOFKSSOKS OF MATHEMATICS IN THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

VOLUME

II

INTEGRAL CALCULUS FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES, SPACE GEOMETRY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

GINN & COMPANY
BOSTON
.

NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON

1909,

BY
H. BAILEY

FREDERICK

S.

WOODS AND FREDERICK
79.3

gtftenaum GINN & COMPANY- PROPRIETORS

BOSTON

U.S.A.

PKEFACE
This volume completes the plan of a course in mathematics outLined in the preface to the
first

volume.

The subject
treated in the

of integration of functions of a single variable is

first

eight chapters.

Emphasis

is

here laid upon the

fundamental processes, and the conception of the definite integral and its numerous applications are early introduced. after the

Only

student

well grounded in these matters are the more special methods of evaluating integrals discussed. In this the student s way
is

interest

is

early aroused in the use of the subject,

and he

is

drilled

in those processes

which occur
is

in subsequent practice.

A

new

feature of this part of the book

a chapter on simple differential

equations in close connection with integration and long before the formal study of differential
equations,,

With the ninth chapter
variables
of the
is

the study of functions of two or more

begun.

This

is

introduced and accompanied by the use

elements of solid analytic geometry, and the treatment of

partial differentiation

and

of multiple integrals is careful

and rea

sonably complete.
integrals.
texts, is

is the chapter on line This subject, though omitted from elementary generally needed by most engineering students in their later work.

A

special feature here

The

latter part of the

work

consists of chapters on series, the

complex number, and
differential equations

differential equations.

In the treatment of

many things properly belonging to an ex tended treatise on the subject are omitted in order to give the student a concise working knowledge of the types of equations which occur most often in practice.
iii

MJ2987JJO

iv

PREFACE
In conclusion the authors wish to renew their thanks to the
Massachusetts

members

of the

mathematical department

of the

Institute of Technology,
for

and

especially to Professor

H. W. Tyler,

continued helpful suggestion and criticism, and to extend

thanks to their former colleague, Professor

W. H. Eoever
more

of

Washington

University, for the construction of the

difficult

drawings particularly in space geometry.
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE or TECHNOLOGY
February, 1909

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
ARTICLE
1-2. Order of infinitesimals
3.
,

I

INFINITESIMALS

AND DIFFERENTIALS
PAGE
1 4
Q

Fundamental theorems on
Differentials

infinitesimals

4.

5-6. Graphical representation
7.
8.

8
9

Formulas for

differentials

Differentials of higher orders

10

CHAPTER
9.

II

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION

10.

Definition of integration Constant of integration

.12
12 13 14
17
.

11.

Fundamental formulas

12. Integral of u n

Integrals of trigonometric functions 14-15. Integrals leading to the inverse trigonometric functions
13.

.

19

16. Integrals of exponential functions 17. Collected formulas
18.
19.

25
26
27

Integration by substitution
Integration

by

parts

30
32

20.

Possibility of integration

Problems

33

CHAPTER
21. Definition

III

DEFINITE INTEGRALS

.39
41

22. Graphical representation 23. Generalization 24. Properties of definite integrals 25. Evaluation of the definite integral 26.

43

45

by integration

....

47

Change

of limits

49
51
v

27. Integration

by parts

vi
ARTICLE
28. 29. 30.
Infinite limits Infinite integrand

CONTENTS
PAGE
52

53 54 55 59
61

The mean value
s

of a function

and Maclaurin s series 31. Taylor 32-33. Operations with power series Problems

CHAPTER
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

IV

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
64 64
67 69
bases

Element of a definite integral Area of a plane curve in Cartesian coordinates Area of a plane curve in polar coordinates

Volume Volume of a solid with parallel The prismoidal formula
Length Length

of a solid of revolution

72

.74

40.
41.
42.

of a plane curve in rectangular coordinates of a plane curve in polar coordinates

....

75
77

The

differential of arc

78
79 SO

43.

Area of a surface of revolution Problems

CHAPTER V
44.

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS
86 86 88

Work

45. Attraction 46. Pressure

47. Center of gravity

90 92 94 96 98
99

48. Center of gravity of a plane curve 49. Center of gravity of a plane area 50. Center of gravity of a solid or a surface of revolution of con

stant density
51. Center of pressure

Problems

CHAPTER VI
52. Introduction

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
103
.

53-54. Separation into partial fractions 55-57. Proof of the possibility of separation into partial fractions
58. Integration of rational fractions

.

109 113
117

Problems

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
ARTICLE
59. Rationalization

vii

VII

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
PAGE
119

60. Integrand containing fractional powers of a 61. Integrand containing fractional powers of a 62. containing integral powers of Vo

+ bx + bx n
4-

119
.
.

Integrand

bx bx
.

+
.

x2 x2
.

.

.

63. Integrand containing integral powers of 64. Integration of trigonometric functions
65. Integrals of the 66.

Va +
.
.

.

.

.

.

.120 .121 .122 .123
123

forms f

sin&quot;

xdx and
x
cos&quot;

J cos

n

xdx
..
..

Integrals of the form

f

1 sin&quot;

x dx

...
nx
J&quot;ctn

.

.

.124
126 127

67. Integrals of the 68. Integrals of the 69. Integrals of the

forms C

tan&quot;

xdx and
x dx and
I

dx

forms
J

sec&quot;

csc n xdx
csc n xdx

forms ftan m o; sec n xdx and Cctnm x

.

128
129

70.

The

substitution

tan- =

z

.

.

;

.

71. Algebraic reduction formulas 72-73. Proof of reduction formulas 74. Trigonometric reduction formulas
75.

130
131

134 136
137

Use of tables Problems

of integrals

CHAPTER
76. Definitions

VIII

INTEGRATION OF SIMPLE DIFFEREN TIAL EQUATIONS
141

77.

The equation
rated

Mdx + Ndy =

when the
-\-

variables can be sepa

v

...

144

78-79.
80.
81.

The homogeneous equation Mdx Ndy = The linear equation of the first order
Bernoulli
s

145
146

equation

148
11 9
.
.

82. Certain equations of the second order

Problems

.154

CHAPTER IX
83.

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
158
158
.
.

Functions of more than one variable

Rectangular coordinates in space 85-86. Graphical representation of a function of two variables
84. 87. Surfaces of revolution
.

159

...

168

viii

CONTENTS
PAGE
m

ARTICLE
88. Cylinders

IQQ
170 172

89-90. Space curves
91.

t

Ruled surfaces Problems

.

f

174

CHAPTER X
92. Projection 93. Distance

PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE
176

between two points
. .

178
.

94. Length of a space curve in rectangular coordinates 95-96. Direction of a straight line 97. Direction of a space curve

179
180

182

98.

99. Direction of the

Angle between two straight lines normal to a plane
of a plane

.183
.

184

100.

Normal equation

.

185
186
186

Angle between two planes 102. Determination of the direction cosines of any straight line 103-104. Equations of a straight line determined by two points 105. Equations of a tangent line to a space curve
101.
.

.

.187
189

106. Equations of a straight line in terms of its direction cosines and a known point upon it .190

107. Problems on the plane and the straight line 108. Change of coordinates

190
193

Problems

....

.195

CHAPTER XI
109. Partial derivatives

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
198

110. Increment and total differential of a function of several variables
111. Derivative of /(a-, y) when x 112. Tangent plane to a surface

200

and y are functions

of

t

.

.

.202
204
t
.

113. Derivatives of f(x, y} when x and y are functions of 114. Property of the total differential
115. Implicit functions

s

and

206

209

210 212
of

116-117. Higher partial derivatives
118.

Higher derivatives of /(ar, y) when x and y are functions t, or of s and t
Problems

214
216
.

119. Differentiation of a definite integral
.
.

217

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
ARTICLE
120.

ix

XII

MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
PAGE
.

Double integral with constant limits

222

121. Graphical representation

225
226

122-123. Double integral with variable limits 124. Computation of a double integral
125.

228
229
*.

Double integral in polar coordinates

126. Triple integrals

230
231

127. Cylindrical and polar coordinates 128. Elements of volume in cylindrical

and in polar coordinates

.

232

129.

Change

of coordinates

234

Problems

234

CHAPTER

XIII

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
236 239 241

130-132. Moment of inertia of a plane area 133-134. Area bounded by a plane curve
135.

Area

of

any surface

136. Center of gravity 137-138. Center of gravity of a plane area
139. Center of gravity of a solid

245
246

248 249
251

140. 141.

Volume

Moment

of inertia of a solid

142. Attraction

252 253

Problems

CHAPTER XIV
143. Definition 144.

LINE INTEGRALS AND EXACT DIFFERENTIALS
258
261

Fundamental theorem

145. Line integrals of the first kind, dy
146. Line integrals of the second kind,

=
dy

-

263

dx

^

267
x

147. Exact differentials

269
271

148-149.

The

integrating factor
s

150-151. Stokes

theorem

274 276

Problems

CHAPTER XV

INFINITE SERIES
279 280
281

152. Convergence 153. Comparison test for convergence 154. The ratio test for convergence

X
ARTICLE

CONTENTS
PAGE
283
155. Absolute convergence 156. The power series

284
s series

157. Maclaurin
158. Taylor

s

and Taylor

287

s series

for functions of several variables

....

288 290

159-160. Fourier
161-162.
163.

s series

The indeterminate form -.
The indeterminate form
Problems
5

.

.

295 298 300
.

164. Other indeterminate forms

301

CHAPTER XVI
165. Graphical representation 166. Addition and subtraction
167. Multiplication

COMPLEX NUMBERS
304
305
306
.

and division

and evolution 169. Exponential and trigonometric functions
168. Involution

306 307

170.

The logarithmic function

310
311

171. Functions of a

complex variable in general 172. Conjugate functions
Problems
.

313

314

CHAPTER XVII
174. Solution

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST ORDER
316

173. Introduction

by

series

318

175. Equations not of the first degree in the derivative 176. Equations solvable for_p
177. Equations solvable for y 178. Equations solvable for x

....

318
319

320
321 322

179-181. Envelopes

325 182. Singular solutions 183. Orthogonal trajectories 327 184. Differential equation of the first order in three variables.

The
185.

integrable case
first

328 332 335
.

Two

differential equations of the first order in three variables

186. Differential equation of the The nonintegrable case

order in three variables.

Problems

336

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
ABTICLK
187. Definitions
.
. . .

xi

XVIII

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
PA E

188.

The equation

of the first order with constant coefficients

.

341

189.
190.

The

operator
of the second order

The equation
by

with constant

coefficients

.

343 347
348

191. Solution
192.

partial fractions

constant coefficients general equation with 193. Solution by undetermined coefficients constant 194. Systems of linear differential equations with

The

.....
coeffi
.

350

cients

195.

The

linear differential equation with variable coefficients
series

354
8

196. Solution

by Problems

36

CHAPTER XIX
197. Introduction

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
363
.

198. Special forms of partial differential equations order 199. The linear partial differential equation of the first

304
8

200. Laplace 201. Laplace

s

s

equation in the plane equation in three dimensions

#*.

.

368
37

Problems

INDKX
.

A COURSE

IN

MATHEMATICS
I

CHAPTER

INFINITESIMALS AND DIFFERENTIALS
which Order of infinitesimals. An infinitesimal is a variable mathe limit. The word &quot;infinitesimal&quot; in the approaches zero as a
1.
minute.&quot; matical sense must not be considered as meaning &quot;very the size of an atom of matter is not a mathematical For example, definite. That infinitesimal, since that size is regarded as perfectly it is essential that it can be a quantity should be infinitesimal made smaller than any assigned quantity. In operating with in

finitesimals

of them as not, however, necessary to think are finite quantities and microscopic or of negligible size. They division, etc., like finite all the laws of
it is

obey

multiplication,

It is generally the last step in a problem involving infinitesimals to determine the limit of some expression, usually

quantities.

a quotient or a sum,

when

the infinitesimals contained in

it

approach
Ex.
1.

zero.

To

find the velocity of a
,

moving body

(I,

106)*

it is

necessary to

find the limit of the quotient

A

as As and Ai approach zero as a limit, where

As

are infinitesimals and the space traversed in the time A*. Here As and the velocity is the limit of the quotient of two infinitesimals. Ex. 2. To find the area of a circle it is customary to inscribe in the into n tri circle a regular polygon of n sides and to divide the polygon When radii of the circle drawn to the vertices of the polygon. angles by
is is

M

n

the area of the circle

increased without limit, the area of each triangle is infinitesimal, and of is the limit of the sum of the infinitesimal areas
triangles.
I refer to

an indefinitely great number of

* References preceded
1

by

Vol.

I.

2

INFINITESIMALS AND DIFFERENTIALS

In a mathematical discussion involving infinitesimals there will usually be two or more infinitesimals so related that as one ap proaches zero the others do also. Any two of these may be coinpared by determining the limit of their the following definitions
:

ratio.

We have accordingly
the limit

Two infinitesimals are of the same order ratio is a finite quantity not zero.

when

of their

An

infinitesimal

ft is

of higher order than an infinitesimal a rt
is zero.

if the limit of the ratio
Ex.
3.

Let

ft

=

sin

a:

and 7
.

=

1

cos a,
,.

where a

is

an infinitesimal angle.

Then

T Lim
.

ft

a

r=

Lim
.

.

sin

a

a
1

=

1,

T Lim 7 = T Lim a

cos a

a

=

0.

(I,

151)

Hence

ft is

of the

same order as

1) be an arc of a a with center at 0, the chord the side of an inscribed regular polygon of n sides, and CD the side of a regular circumscribed polygon. Also let

a, and 7 is of higher order. Ex. 4. Let the arc AB (fig.

AB

a=
ft

7

= =
n

the area of the triangle OB, the area of the triangle COD, the area of the trapezoid ABDC.
is

A

Then
FIG.
1

if

infinitesimal.

To compute

indefinitely increased, a, ft, their values,

and 7 are

draw

OE

perpendicular to

AB
n

and CD.

Then
-,

-,

n

OE = acos-,

#D=atan-.

From

this it follows that
-

=
2

a2

sin

n

cos

n

-

=

(
sin

EF = (EB + FD) (OF \

OE)

/

i.

- +
n

tan

) (

1

-

cos -

)

=
COS
7T -

n/

\

n]

n

OliDEK OF INFINITESIMALS
R

Hence

Liui

a

= Lim

1

=

1,

cos2

TT

n

Lim ^ = Lim a
Therefore
2.
/3

cos 2

-

=

0.

O TT

n
is

is

of the

same order as

cr,

and y

of higher order.

of the ratio of

Particular importance attaches to the case in which the limit two infinitesimals is unity. Suppose, for example, that

a
Then, by the definition of a limit
(I,

53),

s-+
where
e

approaches zero as a approaches

zero.

Hence

= a + ae.
Now
Lim
the term ae
is

an infinitesimal
that
j3

of higher order

than

a, for

= Lim e =

0, so

and a

differ

by an infinitesimal

of

higher order than each of them.
Conversely, let @ and a differ by an infinitesimal of higher order than either of them, i.e. let
/3

= a + 7, =
0.

where, by hypothesis,

7 Lim -

Then

We
and
&quot;

infinitesimals /3
ft

have accordingly proved that the two statements, &quot;Two and a differ by an infinitesimal of higher order&quot;

Lim 1.

=1

&quot;

are equivalent.

Ex.
order

The
151).

infinitesimals

a and

sin

a

differ

by an

infinitesimal of higher

(I,

Ex. 2. The areas of the triangles and 1) differ (Ex. 4, infinitesimal of higher order, namely, the area of the trapezoid ABDC.

AOB

COD

by an

4
3.

INFINITESIMALS AND DIFFEKENTIALS
Fundamental theorems on
infinitesimals.

There are two im
:

portant problems which arise in the use of infinitesimals, namely
1. quotient problem infinitesimals as each approaches zero.
:

A

to find the limit of the quotient of

two
of

2.

A sum

problem

:

to find the limit of the

sum

of a

number

infinitesimals as the

number

increases without limit

and each in
1

finitesimal approaches zero.

Each
there
is

of these

problems has been illustrated in
:

;

for

each

a fundamental theorem as follows

1. If the quotient of two infinitesimals lias a limit, that limit is unaltered by replacing each infinitesimal by another which differs

from
2.

by an infinitesimal of higher order. sum of n positive infinitesimals has a limit, as n increases indefinitely, that limit is unaltered by replacing each infinitesimal
it

If the

by another which differs

from

it

by an infinitesimal of higher order.

To prove theorem 1, let a and ft be two infinitesimals and let a and ft respectively by a, and ft, be two others which differ from infinitesimals of higher order. Then we have ( 2)

Lim
!

= 1,
l

Lim -~- =
Pi
ft

1,

whence
where
e1

a

= a + e av
l

= ft,+ e^ftv
ft

and

e2

approach zero as a and

approach

zero.

Then

a
Therefore
ft Lim -

al +

e1

1

a,

1+ e,
Lim

a

1 eA = Lim /ft, r+ - )= Lim \a, l+ej
-

aL

+e = - Lim ft, l+e a,
l
2
1

Ex.

1.

Since the sine of an

angle differs
3
,

from the angle by an infinitesimal
-

of higher order,

Lim
To show
this directly,

sm -

sin 2

3 a _, = Lim 3 a = 2 2a a

a_ ~~ sin 2 a
sin 3

Therefore

we may write 4 sin 3 o: _ 3 sin a ~ 2 sin a cos a sin 3 a Lim sin 2 a

3

_
a

2 sin 2

a

2 cos 3 2

cos a

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS ON INFINITESIMALS
To prove theorem
2, let

5

-, a n be n positive infini increases indefinitely, each of the infinitesimals approaches zero and their sum approaches a limit and let /3 V /3 2 /3 3 /3n be n other infinitesimals such that

a v av as

,

tesimals so related that, as

n

;

,

,

,

Lim^ = l, Lim^ = l,
*i
*

Lim

-=
3

as

1,

-,

Lim

^=
an

1.

We

wish to show that

Now (2)

i=*i+ii&amp;gt;
/32

=tf 2 +e 2 tf 2
38

,

ft

+&amp;gt;

whence

Lim (

+

a

+

8

+

.

=

Lim(a 1

+ /3j +a +a +
. .

2

s

+a
2

n)

+ Lim (e ^ + e
1 1

tf

2

+
is

s

as +

+e

n

a n ).

Now let 7 be a positive quantity which numerical value of the quantities e v e 2 e 8
,
,

equal to the largest
,

eB

.

Then
whence
since

-7^
is

=s
l

7,

by hypothesis a l

positive

and may multiply the inequality

without change of

sign.

Similarly,

whence

6

INFINITESIMALS AND DIFFERENTIALS
As n
increases indefinitely,

!+,+ *,+

&amp;lt;

+

.

approaches a

finite limit

zero. by hypothesis, and 7 approaches + en a n ) = lim (6^ + e 2 a 2 + e 3 a s + Therefore

0,

and hence

Lim

(&+
is

2

+

3

+

+ ft)

=

The theorem
Ex.
is 2.

thus proved for positive infinitesimals.

The

limit of the

sum

of the areas of

n

triangles such as

AOB
as

(fig. 1)

the same as the limit of the when n is indefinitely increased.

sum

of the areas of

n triangles such

COD,

The theorem

is

also true

if

the infinitesimals are
is

all

negative,

simply to change since to change the sign of each infinitesimal are not all the sign of the limit of the sum. If the infinitesimals
of the

same
3.

sign,

however, the theorem

is

not necessarily true.

Ex.

Let
ai

= JL, Vn
a
.

01
1

= --4=i
Vn
a
2

fl*

= -4=i
Vn
0,

&amp;lt;*4

=

etc
7=1 Vn
-&amp;gt;

o

n

,

= a2 +
3

-

n

,

=

&amp;lt;r

+n
or

1

ft

=

4

+

-

etc

-

n

Then

&amp;lt;*i

+

&amp;lt;?2

+
+

+
+
and

h

^ =
Pn

0,

=

Vn
Or

01

+

^2

&
;

+

=

1,

=1+

,

according as n

is

even or odd

Lim
Lim
n= oo
4.

(&amp;lt;*i

+ a2 + a s + +
02

1-

&amp;lt;*)

= 0,
L
is

(|3i

+

03

+
of

+

)

Differentials.

The process

differentiation

an

illus

tration of

3. y=f(x) is a the quotient problem of and continuous function of x which has the derivative f(x), A and Ay are the corresponding infinitesimal increments of

For

if

x and

y,

then,

by

definition,

T

^ Lim A?/ ?-=f(x).
.

*,.

I

/i\ 1)

AX= o A^?

DIFFERENTIALS
It appears

7

from

(1) that

A# and Ay
which

are infinitesimals of the
is

same
(1)

order, except in the cases in

f (x)

or

GO.

Moreover,

may

be written

A

where Lim

e

=

Ax0

0,

and hence

Ay=/()A + eA.
It appears, then, that

(2)

differs from Ay by an infinitesimal and f(x)&x may therefore be used in of higher order than A#, and sums. place of Ay in problems involving limits of quotients The quantity f(x)&x is called the differential of y, and is rep

f (x)&x

resented by the symbol dy.

Accordingly
(3)

dy=f(x)*x.

Now

in the special case in

which y

= x,

formula

(3)

reduces to
(4)

dx

= A#.

Hence we may

write (3) as

dy=f(x)dx.
To sum
equal
to

(5)

this
the

up

:

The

differential

of

the

independent variable

is

increment of the variable; the differential of
equal

the

function

to the differential of the independent variable multiplied ly the derivative of the function, and differs from the increment of the function ly an infinitesimal of higher order. is

From

this point of

view the derivative

is

called the differential

coefficient.

The use

increments

is justified

by the

fundamental theorems
It is to be

of

3 in

many problems which

are eventu

ally to involve the limit of a quotient or the limit of a

sum.

ject to all the

emphasized that dx and dy are finite quantities, sub laws governing such quantities, and are not to be
(5)

thought of as exceedingly minute. Consequently both sides of may be divided by dx, with the result

8

INFINITESIMALS AND DIFFERENTIALS
That
is,

the derivative is the quotient of two differentials. the notation already chosen for the derivative. explains
Ex.
1.

This

Let y

=
Ay

x3

.

We may
On

increase x

by an increment Ax equal

to dx.
2

Then

=

(x

+

dx)

3

-

x

3

=

3 x dx
&amp;gt;2

+

3 x (dx)

+

(dx)

3.

the other hand, by definition,

dy

=

3 x 2 dx.

3 which is 2 It appears that Ay and dy differ by the expression 3 x (dx) + (dx) an infinitesimal of higher order than dx. Ex. 2. If a volume v of a perfect gas at a constant temperature is under
,

the pressure p, then v

=

k -

,

where k
dp.

is

a constant.

Now

let the pressure

be

gas

increased by an is then the increment

amount Ap =
k k

The actual change

in the

volume of the

_ ~

kdp

_

Mp /
p2
I

1

p + dp
The
differential of v
is,

P
however,

P(p + dp)~

1

dp

V
dv

P

=-

^
p2

,

differs from Av by an infinitesimal of higher order. The differential dv may, accordingly, be used in place of Au in problems which involve the limit of quotients or sums of this and other infinitesimals.

which

Graphical representation. The distinction between the increment
5.

and the

differential

may

be

illus

trated graphically as follows:

Let the function be

represented
(fig. 2).

by

the curve

y=f(x]

Let

P(x, y) be any point of the curve, and Q (x -f- A#, y + Ay) a neighboring
.

x

point.

Draw

the lines

PR

and

RQ

FIG. 2

parallel to the axes, the chord PQ, and the tangent PT. Then

and

dy =f(x) dx

=

(tan

RPT) PR = R T.

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
Hence the increment and the
an infinitesimal
differential differ

9

by QT. That

QT is
:

of higher order

than

PR may
.

be shown as follows

_ lm QT

= Llm RT-RQ

___

=

RT -LunRQ T

= tan RPT - Lim (tan RPQ) = 0.
6.

The formula

dy=f (x^dx
has been obtained on the hypothesis that x
variable and
is

(I)

the independent

y = f(x).

Consider

now

the case

y=f(x), where x
substitution

=
&amp;lt;j&amp;gt;(t)

and

t

is

the

independent variable.

By
r

we have

-/W dy=F (t)dt.
F (t) = f(x)
r
.
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

Then, by

(1),

(2)
(t).

But by

I,

96, (7),

Substituting in

(2),

we have
(3)

But since from 1)
&amp;lt;

t

is

the independent variable and x

=

&amp;lt;

(t),

we

have,

Substituting in

(3),

we have
dy

= f (x)dx.
Therefore
(1)
is

This

is

the same form as
is

(1).

always true

whether x
7.

the independent variable or not.
for differentials.

Formulas

By

virtue of the results of the

preceding article, from the formulas for the corresponding derivatives. n For example, since the derivative of u with respect to
n

the formulas for differentials can be derived

u

is

nu*~ l

,

d(u

}

= nu

n

~l

du,

whether u be an independent variable or the function of another
variable.

10

INFINITESIMALS AND DIFFERENTIALS
we
derive the following

Proceeding as in the above example, formulas
:

8.

&quot;

i^

Differentials of higher orders.

By

definition
(1)

dy=f(x)dx.
But dy
is

itself

a function of

differential,

which
n

will be denoted

in general, d(d ~^y) d n y. called differentials of the second, the third,
respectively.

=

and may, accordingly, have a 2 2 by d y i.e. d (dy) = d y, and, 2 The differentials d y, d 3 y, d*y are
x,
;

,

,

the %th order

When x is the independent variable, its increment dx may be taken as independent of x. With this assumption, applying our definition of a differential to (1), we have
d*y

= d[f(x) dx] =

[f(x) dx] dx

=f&quot;(x)
2

dx2
.

,

where dx2

is

written for convenience instead of (dx)

In like manner,
d*y=f&amp;gt;

(x)dx\
n

and, in general,

dny

=f

(n

\x)dx

.

DIFFERENTIALS OF HIGHER OKDEKS
The reason
the third,
,

11

for the notation

used for derivatives of the second,

the nth orders

is

now

apparent.

not the independent variable, the expressions for the If be assumed as differentials become more complex, since dx cannot

x

is

independent of

x.

We

have, then,
=/&quot;(*)

tfy

= d \f(x) dx]
dx

dx*

+f(x) d\
2 i
&amp;lt;&quot;W^
&amp;gt;

(by

(4),

7)

where,

if

x

=
&amp;lt;(*),

= * (0^

and

&x =

bein g the in ~

that the formula for the dependent variable. It appears, then, second differential is not the same when written in terms of the when written in terms of a function independent variable as it is This is true of all differentials except the first of that variable.
(see
6).
first,

Hence the higher differentials are not as convenient as the and the student is advised to avoid their use at present.

CHAPTEE

II

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
9.

Definition of integration.
its

The process of finding a function
is called integration.

This is evi dently the same as the process of finding a function when its derivative is known, called integration in I, 110. In that place integration was performed by rewriting the deriv ative in such a manner that we could recognize, by the formulas of the function of which it is the derivative. But this differentiation,

when

differential is

known

method can be applied only
complex cases
it is

in the simpler cases.

For the more

necessary to have formulas of integration, which can evidently be derived from the formulas for differentials (7).

Using the symbolic denote integration,
definition that
if

it is

evident from the

f(x) dx

= dF(x},
= F(x).

then

Cf(x) dx

is said to be under the sign of integration, called the integrand. and/() F(x} is called the integral of f(x) dx. 10. Constant of integration. Two functions which differ
is

The expression f(x) dx

only

by a constant have the same derivative and hence the same differ ential and conversely, if two functions have the same differential,
;

they

differ
if

only by a constant

(I,

110

;

II,

30).
(1)
&amp;lt;7],

Hence
it

follows that

= dF(x), f(x) dx = d [F(x] +
f(x) dx

(2)

where

any constant. Eewriting (1) and (2)
is

C

as formulas of integration,

we have
(3)

x)dx
and

= F(x)
= F(x) +
C.

dx

Jf(x)

(4)

FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAS
It is evident that (3) is

13
and hence that

but a special case of

(4),

all integrals ought to be written in the latter form. The constant C is called the constant of integration and is independent of the form

of the integrand. For the sake of brevity it will be omitted from the formulas of integration, but must be added in all integrals evaluated by means of them. As noted in I, 110, its value is

determined by the special conditions of the problem in which the
integral occurs. 11. Fundamental formulas.

The two formulas

C c du = c Cdu
and

(1)

\(du

+ dv + dw+-&amp;gt;) = Cdu + idv + idw +

-

(2)

are of fundamental importance, one or both of

them being used

in

the course of almost every integration. as follows
:

Stated in words, they are

(1)

A

constant factor

may

&quot;be

changed from one side of the sign
finite

of integration
(2)

to the other.

The integral of a sum of a
the integrals
(1),

number of functions

is the

sum of

of the separate functions.
note that since

To prove

we
I

cdu

= d(cu),
I

it

follows that

c

du

=

I

d (cu)

= cu = c

du.

In like manner, to prove

(2), since

du

+ dv + dw +
+
dv

= d (u + v + iv +
=
I

we have
I

(du

+ dw H

)

d(u

-f

v

+w

-\

=u+v+w+ =
The
/

du

+

I

dv

+

I

dw +

application of these formulas

is

illustrated in the following

articles.

14

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
12. Integral of
u&quot;.

Since

d
it

(%&quot;

)

= mum ~
m~l

l

du,
.

follows that

/

mu

du

= um

But by

11(1),

if

m=0,
I

m

Placing

m = n -f 1,

/u
u m ~^du

um

~l

du

=

I

mu m ~

1

du

= um

,

=

m

we have
u du
&quot;

the formula

= ~T^

(1)

for all values of
If

n

=

1,

n except n 1. the differential under the integral sign in (1) becomes

=

du
&amp;gt;

which

is

recognized as dQogu).
I
-

Therefore

^

= l og u

.

(2)

In applying these formulas, the problem is to choose for u some function of x which will bring the given integral, if possible, under one of the formulas. The form of the integrand often suggests the
function of x which should be chosen for u.
Ex.
1.

Find the value of /Yax2

J \

+

bx

Applying

11 (2)

and then

11 (1),

- -f \dx. x x2/ we have

+

f (*+*+*+\$+- f-Mt+f^+ftp = + afxtdx bfxdx + ^
c

The first, the second, and the fourth of these integrals may be evaluated by formula (1), and the third by formula (2), where u = x, the results being
respectively

-ax 3 -bx 2 --, and
, ,

32

x

c logx.

Therefore
2 flax + \

bx

+

-

&quot;

x

+ -\dx =
x
/

-ax^

32

+ ~bx2 +

c

logx

-

x

-f

C.

INTEGliAL OF U*
Ex.
2.

15

Find the value of f (x 2

+

2)xdx.

If the factors of the integrand are multiplied together,

we have

f(x

2

-f

2)xdx=
in

which may be evaluated by the same method as that used
4 being \ x

Ex.

1,

the result

+

x2

-f

C.

Or,

we may

let

x2

+

2

-

w,

whence 2 x ox

=

du, so that x dx

=

dw.

Hence

f (x 2

-f

2)xdx

r=

fJ

=

2

J (x

-f 2)

2

+

C.

Instead of actually writing out the integral in terms of w, x dx = d (x 2 + 2), and proceed as follows

we may

note that

%

:

(V + 2 )^

d:c

=

f

(

x&amp;lt;2

+

2)

2 ld(x +

2)

=
Comparing the two values

2

I (x

+

2

2)

+

C.

of the integral found by the two see that they differ only by the constant unity, integration, be made a part of the constant of integration.

we

methods of which may

Ex.

3.

Find the value of

2

J(ax

+

2 6x) 3 (ax

+

b)dx.

Let ax 2 + 2 bx

= u. Then (2 ax + 2 6) dx = du, so that (ax + 6) dx =
2 6x) 3 (ax
-f b)

1 du.

Hence

f (ax2 +

dx

=

it

3

du

=
Or, the last part of the
2

| (ax

2

+ 2 6x)* -f C.
as follows
:

work may be arranged

f(ax

+

2 6x) 3 (ax

+

6)

dx

=
J(ccx

2

+
2

2 6x) 8

d (ax 2

+
+

2 6x)
2 bx)

= =

f(ax
J (ax
2

+

2 6x) 8 d (ax 2

+

2 6x) 4

+

C.

16
Ex.

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
4.

Find the value of
2 3, let ax

J

/

ax 2

-f

2 bx

As

in

Ex.

+2 bx=u. Then
r 4 (ax + b) dx J ax 2 + 2 bx

(2

ax+2b)dx=du,
&quot;

so that (ax + b)dx=^du.

Hence

_ ~

r2du_rdu
J ~^T
2 log

J

~u

= =

u

+C
-f

2 log (ax 2

2 bx)

+C

Or

r4(ax + b)dx_ r 2 d (ax2 + 2 bx) J ax* + 2bx ~J ax 2 4- 2 6x + bx

_

r d (ax 2 + 2 bx) J ax 2 + 2 bx
2 log (ax 2

=

+

2 bx)

+C

Ex. Let

5.

Find the value of C(e nx

+

2

b)

e ax dx.

e ax

+

b

=

u.

Then

e nx

a dx

=

aw.

Hence
cfct
:

a

= --(e^ + oa
Or,

6)3

+
2

C.

J

f (e* +

2

6)

e

a:

dx

= f J

i(e a

+

6)

d(e^ +

6)

Ex.

6.

Find the value of f

Let tan (ax

+

6)

+

c

=

u.
2

+ 6) + 6) + c Then sec 2 (ax + 6) a cfx =
sec 2 (ax
d&quot;x

tan (ax

d*w.

Hence

(ax

+

b)dx

_
_ ~

rl du

/sec (ax tan

-f 6)

+c

J a
1

it

/&quot;(fat

a J u

INTEGRALS OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
c

17

=
/

-

log [tan (ax

+

6)

+
&)

c]

+ C.
c]

Or

sec2(ox

+

b)dx

J

UixT&Tc

= rl
J

d [tan (ax d [tan (ax
tan (ax

+

+

a&quot;

_ ~

1

/

a J
-

+ &) + c] + 6) + c
6)

=
The student
is

a

log [tan (ax

+

+

c]

+

C.

advised to use more and more the second method,

illustrated in the preceding problems, as

he acquires

facility in

integration. 13. Integrals

the trigonometric functions. By rewriting func formulas ( 7) for the differentiation of the trigonometric tions. we derive the formulas
of

cos

u du u du

= sin u =

t

(1)

sin

cos u,

(2)

2

^ du
u du

= tan u, =
ctn u,

(3)

esc

2

(4)

sec

u tan u du

= sec u, =
esc u.

(5)

esc

u ctn u du

(6)

In addition to the above are the four following formulas
I

:

tan

u du u du

= log sec u,
= log sin u,
rj

(7)

I

ctn

(8)

fsec u du

= log (sec u + tan u) = log tan
= log (esc u
ctn u)

+
7j

)

(

9)

jcsc

u du

= log tan -

(10)

18

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
(7) we note Then

To derive

that tan

u

=

-

and that

sin

u du

= d(cosu).

I

tan

u du

=

d (cos u)
/

cosu

In like manner,

/C
ctn

= log cos u = log sec u.
cos
:

udu =

I

J

smu

u du -- =

log sin u.

Direct proofs of (9) and (10) are given in 68. At present they may be verified by differentiation. For example, (9) is evidently true since d log (sec u + tan u) = sec u du.

The second form

of the integral

may
u

be found by making a
to tan
(

trigonometric transformation of sec

+ tan u

\4

+ -)
2/

Formula
Ex.
1.

(10)

may

be treated in the same manner.

Find the value of f cos (ax 2

Let ax2

+

bx

=

u.

Then
2

(2

ax

+ bx) (2 ax + + b)dx = du. +
b)dx

b) dx.

Therefore

j^cos (ax

+

bx) (2

ax

= =

Jcos (ax
sin (ax
2

2

+

bx)

d (ax 2
C.

+

bx)

+

bx)

+

Ex.
Let

2.

Find the value of Tsec (e^2

-f 6)

tan

(e

**

+

aa? x 6) e

dx.

e a3?

+b=

u.

Then
ax2
(e

e ay?

2axdx =
(e ay?

du.
aa? b) e

Therefore

/sec

+
1

b)

tan

+
+
b)

xdx
(e

=
=

r sec (ef** / 2a J

b)

tan

ax*

+b)d (e ax +

*

6)

2a

sec (ea ^

+

+ C.

The integral may often be brought under one or more of the fundamental formulas by a trigonometric transformation of the
integrand.

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Ex.
3.

19

Find the value of
cos2

f

cos z xdx.

Since

x

=

(1 -f cos 2 x),

we have

f cos 2 xdx

=

% f(l

+

cos2x)dx
*

+ =
Ex.
If
4.

f cos2x d(2x)
x

\x

+

I

sin 2

+

C.

Find the value of
let sec 6 2

fsec 6
-

2xdx.

we

x

=
x,

sec 4 2 x

2 tan 2 2 x

+

tan 4 2

and place sec 4 2 x the original integral becomes
2 tan 2 2 x
sec 2

sec 2 2 x,

=

(1

+

tan 2 2 x) 2

=

f (1 +
Place

+

tan 4 2 x) sec 2 2 x dx.
du.

simplifying,

tan2x = w. Then we have

2x 2dx =
i

Making
2 u2

this substitution

and

f sec 6 2 x dx

f (1 +

+

u4 ) du

= =
14.

l(U

+

Jtt&amp;gt;+t*)+C

^ tan 2 x

+^

tan 3 2 x

+ TL tan5 2 x + C.

From

Integrals leading to the inverse trigonometric functions. the formulas (7) for the differentiation of the inverse trig

onometric functions
of integration
:

we
du

derive the following corresponding formulas

fVl-t
du
du

= sm _, u
.

or

cos

_T

u,

= tan~
con&quot;

1

w
/

or

1
ctn&quot;

^,

i 1

-1
These formulas are
replaced

much more
Making

serviceable, however,

if

u

is

by

-

(a&amp;gt;0).

this

substitution

and evident

Cb

reductions,

we have
2

as our required formulas:

du

/Va / +u
or

= sm _,u
.

,u
or
cos&quot;
&amp;gt;

(1)

--^-tan&quot; 2

1

a

or

1
eta&quot;

-*

a

a

a

(2)

(3)

20

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
I,

Referring to
in the
first

153,

we

see that in (1)

1
sin&quot;
fit

- must
ct

be taken
in

and that

1
cos&quot;

- must be taken
1

the
esc&quot;

first
r\i

In like manner in

(3)

sec&quot;

and

1

must be taken

in the first or the third quadrant.
(1) differ

It is to

be noted that the two results in

only by a
is

constant.
first

For

let

1
sin&quot;

a

=

d&amp;gt;

and

1
cos&quot;

~
a

^r,

where

&amp;lt;h

in the

and

i/r

is

in the first or the second

Then
sin
d&amp;gt;

=-

Therefore cos
(&amp;lt;

+

^r)

= 0,

whence

&amp;lt;

+

= (2 k + 1)

&amp;gt;

where

k

is

any

integer or zero.
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

Hence

= (2 k + 1)~ i 1

or

sm&quot;

07 - = (2 &
a

+ 1) -^
x

i 1

cos&quot;

-.

2

a

Similarly, the results in (2) or (3) constants.
Ex.

may

be shown to differ by

1.

Find the value

dx
of

V9-4x
Letting 2 x
/
I

2

=

it,

we have du
1
/
I

2 dx,

and
or
1 --- cos- .2x \-C.
1

J

dx -^^^^ = - J 2 -

=
V9 -(2x) 2

-4x2

- sin- 1 2

1..2x h C --

Ex.
If

2.

Find the value of
x
let

V3 x 2 -

4

we

V3 x =
r
JI

M, then du

= V3 dx,

and we may write

dx r J xV3x 2
I

== = -4

d(V3x)

_

+ C or--c S c-

+

C.

V3

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Ex.
3.

21

Find the value of

dx
\

Since

V4 x -

x2

= V4 -

(x

V4 x - x 2 - 2) 2 we have
,

/axV4
x

_
x
2

r
*

ax

_/*(*
2)
2

*
(x

V4 -

^
or

(x

V4 -

-

*)

=

sin-i-

?

+C

-

cos-i -

-

+

C.

Ex.

4.

Find the value of
fractions

f

/

2 x2

4-

3x

4-

5

To avoid

and

we

place

dx

8dx
16x 2 4-24x

=

4dx

Therefore

J 2x 2

f

^
+ 3x4-6

=

r
2
&quot;J

4dx
(4x

=
4-

/

2

d(4x
(4

+ 3)
2

+
n 1

2

3)

31
4-

J

2

tan-

4x4-3

C

or

V31
The methods used
in Exs. 3

V31

-V31
2

x

+

3)

4-

31
1

ctn-

,4x4-3 -\/31

-=

\-C.

and 4 are often of value in dealing with

functions involving ax 2

+

bx

+

c.

Ex.

5.

Find the value of C J

-

5

4-

4 x4
i.e.

Separating the integrand into two fractions,

54-4x*
and using
11 (2)

5

we have
f(x*
5
/ ax 4- x) ax 4-x)dx _ r x 3 dx + 4x4 ~J 54-4x4

r
/

xdx
5

J
But
and

J
dx

+ 4x 4
1
.

r x 3 dx

J5 +
J
5
4-

I

=

1

/&amp;gt;16x

3

4X4
4x

16J5 + 4x 4
r

/

=

log (5

4-

4 x4 )

:

16

r_xdx_^l 4
=

4xdx

4 J 5
1

+

(2

x2 ) 2

tan4

.2x 2 1

1

or

--Cto&quot;

1

.2x 2

V5
log(5

V5
4

4

V5

&quot;

V5

Therefore

(x8

f J 5

+ 4X4

+ x)(fa =
10
1

+ 4x4) + -L= tan-i
V5
1

**
V5
2
a- 2

+ C,

or

log(5

+ 4x4 )- J-ctn-i-l-fC. V5

22

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
15. Closely resembling formulas (1) and (2) of the last article form of the integrand are the following two formulas
:

in the

and

C
I

J
To derive
2

u2

du -- = 7^1og u
1
,

a

; 2

2 a

*u + a

a
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;.
&amp;lt;&amp;gt;

(1)

1

a

u

or

2 a

r

log& a
*fat

+u
a
sec*&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;d&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;,

(2)

(1)

we
&amp;lt;.

place

u

= a tan

Then

=

and

+

a2

=

a sec

Therefore

du

Vtr

,

.

= C sec
a
2

+

J/

= log (sec

-kg

+ tan +
2

&amp;lt;)

(by

(9),

1 3)

= log (u + Vw + a
But
log

2 )

log

a.

a

is

a constant,

the formula of

and may accordingly be omitted from integration. If retained, it would affect the con
of the fact that the fraction

stant of integration only.

Formula (2) is derived by means

be separated into two fractions, the denominators of which a and u + a i.e. are respectively u

may

;

if

a

2

2

a\u

a
l

u

+
l

(53)
-\du
\
\
,

Then

r

du
u
2
r,
a&quot;

J

|

rf ==-.(/2 a

l

J \u a l / r du a 2 a \J u
[

u

+ a/
u

r du

J
)

+ a/

= 5-

lo S

(

u

a

-

2 a

,

u

[Qff

u+

a

LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
The second form
of (2) is derived

23

by noting that
.

/du = J au =
I

C-

du -

u

a

log(a

u).

The two

results differ only

and hence
and log(
1) is

,

,

,

log b

a

by a constant,
i

for

a

+

u u

=
,

1

-u u
a
-f-

)

a

a

a

+

u u

= log

(

1)

+ log

,

*u +

u
a
a

:

a constant complex quantity which can be ex
(

pressed in terms of i

170).

/: 3x 2 + 4x
To
avoid fractions

we

multiply both numerator and denominator by

V.

Then

-g
V3 x 2 +
4x

= ^/3jfa_ = Vo x 2 + 12 x V(3x +
3 dx, and

^&amp;lt;fa

2)

2

-4

Letting 3 x

+

2

=

M,

we have du =

dx

=

3x + 4x
2

r 1 3dx J /iJfV3 V(3x + 2) 2 2

4

= ^log(3x +
V3
Ex.
2.

+ V(3a

Find the value of

/*

_-*L_.
8,

Multiplying the numerator and the denominator by

we have

J 2x 2 +

x-15~
=

J
1

(4

x

+

2

I)

-(11)2
11
f-

_ log
Iog

(4 x 1-

+ !)_ Z_J
5

c.

This

may

be reduced to
11

2x ~ 2x +

6

+ C,

or
11

2a;

Iog

x

and the term

log 2, being independent of x, only affect the value of the constant of integration.

-

^

~5 +3

11

log 2
it

+ C,
will

may

be omitted, as

24

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
If in

the formulas for the differentiation of
1
sinh&quot;

1

^,

cosh&quot;

^,

and

1

tanh&quot;

^

(I,

161)

we

replace

u by
ct

&amp;gt;

they become

d dx

.

,

,

Sinn&quot;

u a

=

du dx

,

and

d

,

tanli&quot;

,u -

=
a

dx

ax

a

u

The corresponding formulas
du

of integration are evidently

= smlr
.

,

i 1

-*

u

=
v&amp;lt;
&quot;

.

cosh

_,u
:

and

r du = J d if a
/

/

.,&quot;

2

tanh

1

-

These forms of the integrals are often of advantage in problems where the resulting equation has to be solved for the value of u in
terms
of the other quantities in the equation.

By

formulas

(2),

14,

and

+lx + /dx-ax2
c

we

can find the value
can also find the

We
c

value of any integral of the form

J

/

-^+bxUL ax +
2

as

shown

in Ex.

3.

/P

(x)

dx
?

ax?+lx

+c

where P(x)

is

a

is polynomial, can always be found, since by division the integrand to a polynomial plus a fraction of the form just mentioned. equal

INTEGKALS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
Ex.3. Find the value
If 2

25

of

x2

+

x

4

15

=

Now

3x

+

may

M, du = (4x + 1) dx. be written as f (4 x +

1)

+ \3

.

_3 / (4x + l)ds ~4 J 2x2 +x-15
The
of the
first

13
4

/

cte

J 2x2

+ xlast integral is

integral

is

f Iog(2x

2

+ x -15),
44
log

by
-f

12

(2),

and the

form solved

in Ex. 2,

and

is

x

o

Hence the complete

integral

is

Ex.4.

Find the value of

3x2

+4x

The value of this integral may be made to depend upon that of Ex. 1 in the same way that the solution of Ex. 3 was made to depend upon the solution of Ex. 2. For let 3 x 2 + 4 x = u then du = (6x + 4) dx.
;

Now 2 +
a;

5

=
-

Gx +

4)

+

J-.

Therefore

J

{

V3 x 2 +

== =
4x

J

I

v8 x 2 +
2
J&amp;gt;x

4x

=
The
11
I

1

+

4x)-*[(6z

+ 4)dx] +

y fis

first integral
cr(3

x

+

2

V3x 2 + 4x, by 12 (1), + Vox + 12 x), by Ex. 1. Hence
is
2

and the second integral
the complete integral
is

3V3
-

3V3

log (3 x

+

2

+ V9 x2 +

12 x)

+

C.

16. Integrals of exponential functions.

The formulas
(1)

e&quot;du

= eu

j

and
are derived immediately
entiation.

I

&amp;lt;(&quot;du

=
lS
a

au

(2)

J
The
proof
is left

from the corresponding formulas of
to the student.

differ

26

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
17. Collected formulas.

?

~

J
flii.

n

+l
(2)

I

cos

udu =
u du
2

sin u,

(3)

/

sin

cos u,

(4)

/

sec

^ du
^
rfw

= tan w, =
rfw

(5)

/

csc

2

ctn u,

(6)

/

sec

u tan w

= sec u,

(7)

/

esc

u
^6

ctn

w ew

=

esc u,

(8)

/w
tan
c?^
J

= log sec u,
= log sin u,

(9)

/

ctn

u du

(10)
h

sec

u du

J

= log (sec u + tan M) = log tan
ctn u)

(

)
,

(11)

esc

udu = log (esc %
^
1

= log tan

&amp;gt;

2

(12)

f

-

or

1 cos- -.

^sin&quot;

(13)

^

/

2

+%

9 2

= -tan~
a

1

- or
a
or

ctn

-1
-&amp;gt;

a
1

a
osc

(14)
71
i

/du
ttVt**
tfM

1 = - sec _-,u

_i^
a
/}/

cx

d
2

2

a

a
2

a

(15)

Vit + /flni a
2

= 1nafa + V^T^

)

or sinh- -,

1

a
or

(16)

V^ /dU
2

=
a
2

1

ng

(7/

+ v/

9
?/
ffl

y.

11^
cosh&quot;
-&amp;gt;

/1 rrv

)

a

(17)

INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION

27
,

^f^^^Ta /du

1

u

a

1
*

,

2^

g

^
a

u

1 r

~a

tanh

,u
a

,.,

ox

(1)
(19)

= e*
fc*d&amp;lt;u,

9

Ca u du =
18. Integration

-au

-

(20)

by

substitution.

integral forms.

it is

necessary to reduce it to

In order to evaluate a given one of the foregoing standard

very important method by which this may be done is that of the substitution of a new variable. In fact, the work thus
far

A

has been of this nature, in that by inspection
of

we have taken

some function
In

x as

u.
is

many

cases

where the substitution
it

not so obvious as in the

new

previous examples, possible by the proper choice of a variable to reduce the integral to a known form. The choice of the new variable depends largely upon the skill and the experi
is
still

ence of the worker, and no rules can be given to cover

all cases.

A

systematic discussion of some types of desirable substitution will be taken up in later chapters, but we shall in this chapter work a

few

illustrative examples.
2 flr

/i* 2x
Let 2 x

+

3

=

z2

.

Then x

=

%

2

(z

-

3)

and dx

=

z dz.

Substituting these val

ues in the original integral,

we have
1(1
25

_ 2z 3 +

9z)

+C

.

Replacing z by

its

value in terms of x,
2(?X

we have

Jf

f

=

I

o

V2x +

3 (x 2

-

2x

+ 6) +

C.

Ex.2.

Find the value of

/
=

^+
z dz,

a

&quot;

dx.

and

,

dx

=

1

x dx

=

zdz

Then, after substitution,
z

we have
l

*~

ft2

/z ^^=J

dz

r(
(

+

a2

\

,

trr*)

dz

=*+

a.
2 log

z-a a + ^Ta

28

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
its

Replacing z by

value in terms of

x,

we have
a
9:

2

/Vx
Ex.
3.

+
1-

a2

/^

Vx2 +

a2

a

Find the value
a sin z.

of

f Va 2 - x 2 dx.

Let x

Then dx

=

a cos z dz and

Va2

x2

=
+

a cos

z.

Therefore

f Va 2 - x 2 dx = a 2 f cos 2 z dz =

a 2 f (1
z)

cos 2 z) dz

=
But
z

1 a2

(z

+

1 sin 2

+
a2

0.

=

sin- 1 -

,

and

sin 2 z

=

2 sin z cos z

=

2

Va 2

x2

.

a
Finally,

by

substitution,

we have

J

C Va 2 - x 2 dx

=
2

x

-

x2

+

a2 sin-i a

+

C.

Ex.

4.

Find the value

of

f x 3 Vx 2 - a 2 dx.

Let x

=

a sec

z.

Then dx
a 2 dx

=

a sec z tan z dz, and a5 Ttan 2 z sec 4 zdz a5
|

Vx 2

a2

a tan z.

Therefore fx3 Vx 2

=
=

2 (tan z

+ +

tan 4 z) sec 2 z

cZz

tan z

3

1 tan 5 z)

+
by

C.

But

sec z

=

,

whence tan z

=

x2

-

a2
so that,

substitution,

we have

2

-

a 2 dx

= TL V(x 2 -

a2 ) 3

(2

a2

+

3 x2 )

+

C.

/dx +
(x
2

a 2 )i

5

Let x

=

a tan

z.

Then dx
-

=
I

a

sec 2

z dz

and
I

Vx 2 +
cos z dz

2

=

a sec z.

Therefore

r
I

- dx
2

=

r dz
I

=

r
/
/

=

sin z

J

(x

+

a2 ) 2

a2

/

sec z

a2

+

(7.

But tan

z

=

,

whence

sin z

=
Vx 2 +
a2

so that,

by

substitution,

dx
2

x
a2
x2

(x

+

+

INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION
Ex.
6.

29

Find the value of f -

,

and

V6x2

Therefore

r

dx,

~_
3

^

(2

x

+

1)

V6x 2 + 8x +
an d hence

dz r J Vz 2 + 6 z + 6
log (2

_

r ^

dz

V(z
5)

=_
But
z

+

3

+ Vz +
2

6z

+

+ 3) 2 + C.

=
2x +
-f

-

log (2

3

+ Vz 2 +

Gz

+

5)

==

+4 +
log-

2

8x + 3

2x +
log

-log 2.
2

3a
dx
(2x

2+V5x
2x +
2

+ l)V5x + 8x +
2

3

3x +

+V5x +
2

8x +

3

log 2 having been

a part of the constant of integration.

refer freely to these examples as possibly a type of substitution desirable in the solution of a new suggesting for substitution in similar problem. From them the following hints

The student should

cases

may

be deduced

:

as in Ex. 1. In integrals involving ~Va 4- bx try a + bx = 2 2 2 2 In integrals involving Var + a try either x + a = z as in Ex.
2&quot;,

8

,

2,

or

x

= a tan z,

as in Ex.

5.

In integrals involving In integrals involving
In integrals of the as in Ex. 6.
It is

Va V#

2

x2 try #
a try
2
a;

a

= a sin = a sec

0, z,

as in Ex.

3.

as in Ex. 4.

form

not to be supposed that the above substitutions are desir able in all cases. For instance, in Ex. 2 the substitution x = a tan z
does not simplify the integral
letter for the
;

2 2 but the substitution x -f a =

z

2

is

though

it

is

rare that the substitution of a single

simplification.

30

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
by
parts.

19. Integration

Another method

the reduction of a given integral to a gration ly parts, the formula for which
for the differential of a product,

known
is

importance in type is that of inte derived from the formula
of

d (uv)

= u dv

-f-

v du.

From

this

formula we derive directly that

uv

=
|

u dv

+

I

^ du,

which

is

usually written in the form
I

u dv

= uv
|

v du.

In the use of this formula the aim
inal integration

is evidently to make the orig the evaluation of a simpler integral. depend upon

Ex.
If

1.

Find the value of Cxex dx.
let

we

x

=

u and

e x dx

=

dv,

Substituting in our formula,

we have du we have

dx and

v

=

ex .

jxe

x dx

=

xex xex

iex dx
ex

+C

It is evident that in selecting the expression for dv it is desirable, if possible,

to choose

an expression that

is

easily integrated.

Ex.

2.

Find the value of
let

Here we may

sin-ix

Substituting in our formula,

/r
sin- 1 xdx.
J

=

u and dx = we have

dv,

whence du

=

V1

=
x2

and

v

= x.

sm~ l xdx = x sin- 1 x

xdx
x2

I

=

x sin-ix
12
(1).

+ Vl -

+ C,

the last integral being evaluated

by

Ex.

3.

Find the value of

/

xcos 2 xcZx.

Since cos 2 x

/I
^
(1

=

+

cos2x), we have
2

x cos 2 x dx

r
I

(x

+

x cos 2 x) dx

=

x2
(-

1 -

/*
|

x cos 2 x dx.

/

4

2

t/

INTEGRATION BY PARTS
Letting x

31
v

=

u and cos 2 x dx

//
du,

=

we have du = dx and
1

^ sin 2 x.

x cos 2 x dx

=

- sin 2 x
2
-f

/*
/

sin 2 x

dx

2

/

=
fx
cos2 x dx

- sin 2 x
2

- cos 2 x 4

+

C.

.*.

J

=
4

+ -(- sin 2 x + 2
\2
2

- cos 2 x ) 4 /

+C
+
C.

=
Sometimes an integral
tion

|(2 x

+

2 x sin 2 x

+

cos 2 x)

may

be evaluated by successive integra

by
4.

parts.

Ex.

Find the value of Cx 2 e x dx.
will let

Here we

x2

=u

and

e x dx

=

dv.

Then du
2

=

2 x dx

and

v

=

ex

.

Therefore

Cx 2 ex dx = x2 ex

Cxex dx.

The integral so that finally

J

x^dx may

be evaluated by integration by parts (see Ex.
2 (x
x 1) e

1),

Cx 2 ex dx

= x2^

+C=

e x (x 2

2x

+

2)

+

C.

Ex.

6.

Find the value of
|

eF* sin 6x dx.

Letting sin bx

=

u and

eax

dx

=

dv,

we have
* sin 6x

/&* sin 6x dx = a e
In the integral
ax

a J

le** cos 6x dx.

je

cos6xdx we
cos bx dx

let

cos&x

=

u and
-

T
e&quot;

dx

=

du,

and have

/&**

=

- e?* cos 6x a

+

a J

fe^ sin 6x dx.

Substituting this value above,

we have
(

Co J

* sin bx

dx

=

a

-e

sin bx

- eax cos bx

a\a
member

+

a Jfe

-

ax sin bx dx)
/

Now

bringing to the left-hand

of the equation. all the terms con

taining the integral,
1 H

we have
e&quot;*

1

\

a2 / J

)

f

sin bx

dx

=

a

e x sin

bx

e&quot;*

cos

a2
in te

fox,

whence

J

C ** sin 6x dx -

&quot;(

a2

- 6 cos te) + &2

32
Ex.

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
6.

Find the value of
eax
(

Ce^ cos bx dx.
)
,

The
it is

acosbx
a2

result is

+ bsmbx
62
5.

the

+

work being

left to

the student, an.

exactly like that of Ex.

Ex.7.
Placing

Find the value

of

f Vx 2 + a 2 dx.
du,

Vx 2 +

a2

= u and dx =

whence du

=
Vx 2 +
a2

and

v

=

x,

we have

J
Since x2

J
a2 ) a2 the second integral of
,

Vx2 +
(1)

a2 be written as

=

2

(x

+

may

/x
J which equals

dx
a2
a?

Vx2 +

J

f Vz 2 + a?dx -

J\

Vx2 +
(1),

a2

in Evaluating this last integral and substituting

we have

f Vx2
whence

+

a2 dx

=

x

Vx 2 +

a2

- f Vx 2 +
a2

a2 dx

+

a 2 log (x

+ Vx2 +
a2 ) ]
.

a2 ),

f Vx 2 + a 2 dx

=

[x

Vx 2 +

+

a2 log (x

+ Vx 2 +

20. Possibility of integration. In this chapter we have learned how to express the integrals of certain types of functions in terms

elementary functions, and the discussion of in Chaps. VI and VII. gration will be continued
of the

methods of inte But it should

be noted

not always possible to express the integral For of elementary functions in terms of elementary functions.

now
f-

that

it is

example

J

= V1-^1-&V
it is

cannot be so expressed; in

fact,

kind. this integral defines a function of x of an entirely new of certain func Accordingly when it is said that the integration
tions is not possible,
for

meant that the

integration

is

not possible

which are in only the elementary functions, In this fact the functions generally used in applied mathematics. from differentiation, which can differs
one

who knows

respect integration

functions. This fact is not always be performed upon elementary to what takes place in surprising, since it is closely analogous

PROBLEMS

33

connection with other operations which are the inverse of each other. For example, the addition of positive numbers can always
tion of subtraction tion of negative
is

be expressed in terms of positive numbers, but the inverse opera is made always possible only by the introduc

numbers

;

also the involution of rational
is

numbers

always possible, but evolution

always possible only after

irrational

numbers are introduced.
PROBLEMS

Find the values of the following integrals

:

2.

4.

IZ-UL^rfx.
O -f*Ls

51
.

-

s

^-dx.

19

mxdx

/sn &COSX a +
C
J
(I

20.

Xdx
.

+

x2 ) 3

7.

Jf(x-l)

2

x2 dx.

21

C 3a J (2 + 3x2 ) 2
.

8

/^lT^ dx
x*dx J x +

-

22.

r. C

(

x

+ ^ dx
*2

J
9.

f~
I

Vo + 4x +
a + bx
a
U,

23.
I

C
v J

dx.

f\

I~L

_

+

~T b

X t

11.

C

l

24
?L.

e + C *Je2x + tan2x

l

-/X
f/
1

25

-/^KifcT
&quot;

13.

(1+ x^tan-ix

-1 X

-.

.

,u. 26.

f ^ J
i

^ (tan (tan-ix-1)^

(fa.

1

14

* C 1 + cos x J (x + sinx) 3

^

27

r J

34
28.

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
*
b)*0*xdx.
,

32.

r
J
2

-x

a

+

x

33
&amp;lt;**

I

r

-^7= 5

-

Vx

Vx 4

S7=

34.

31

VxM^)
36.
J&quot;[sin

35.

Jsin3xcosxdx.
6)

4

(ax

+

6)

+

cos 4 (ax

+

6)] sin (ax

+

cos (ax

+

6) dx.

37.

j*(cscbx

ctnbx)cscbxdx.

46.

f (sec3x f
/&amp;gt;

-

tan3x)

2

dx.

38.

f
./

^
sin 2 (ax
2

+

47
6)

_
sec x

J

+

tan x

on

r sec2 (z

+

a2 ) x dx
42)

J

tan 3 (x 2

I

.sinmxsinrixdx, (m
cos

^ ^
6

n).

W.
ft

.

f
J
I

sec x 2 tan x 2
2 a5

-

x dx

.

_

r
I

+

sec x 2
-f

49.

J
50.
J
/

mx

cos nx dx.

(m

ri).

41.

f (sec x
/

tan x

sec x) 2 dx.

sin (ox

+

b)

cos (a x

+

)

dx.

42.

J|sin J

2

2xdx.

51.

|

(tan

2x +
x2

i/

ctn 2x) 2 dx.

43.

f

Cos2xdx
,

smx
sin 2

52.

^f(sec

+
-

tan x2 ) 2 sec x 2 x dx.
.

44.

Tcos x

x dx.

53.

J
J

cos 2 (1

2 x) dx.

45.

2 x Jf(tan

-

ctn 2 x)dx.

54.
\

cosx

sin2xy

55.
|

(sec 2 x

+

tan 2 x

-

1) (sec

2x

-

tan 2 x

-

1) dx.

56
esc x

dx
ctn x

&quot;/ cos e
.

sin e

/

sec

d0

J sec0
&amp;gt;

+

tan0

rji!i

sin

dd
sin

J
x

i1

60.
1

+

cos x

35

36

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION

dx.

e

+

Vl -

2x

-

x2

141

f^T~

PROBLEMS

37

x
159.

x2

-

a2
.

176.

ftan-iaxcfx.

f
J

X5dx

Vx 2 + a2

/

38

ELEMENTARY FORMULAS OF INTEGRATION
178.

flog(x

+ Vx 2 +

a 2 )dx.

186.
J&quot;x

3

sin

ax ax.
2

179.

fxsinaxdx.

187.

J (log ax)

ax.

180.

f sec- 1 ax dx.
Cxsec~ l axdx.

188.

J(x log ax)

2 d*x.

181.

189.

Cxsm z axdx.
Te 2;r cos 2 xdx.
fe^sin 2xsinxcZx.

182.

fxtan-iaxdx.

190.

183.

Cx 2 e nx dx.
f(x

191.

184.

+

2

l)

ea; dx.

192.

Te 3;c sm3xcosxdx.

185.

Tx2 cosaxdx.

193.

fX

sin-

*

az dx.

CHAPTER

III

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
have said in 3 that there are two impor tant problems in the use of infinitesimals, the one involving the limit of a quotient, the other the limit of a sum. have also
21. Definition.

We

We

4 that the derivative of a function is the limit of the of two infinitesimal increments, so that the limit of a quotient quo tient is fundamental in the differential calculus and its applications.
noted in
Similarly, there exists a limit of a

sum which has fundamental
This limit
is

connection with the subject of integration.
definite integral

called a

and

is

defined as follows

:

If f(x)
for
as

is

all values

a function of x which is continuous and one-valued of x between x = a and x = b inclusive, then the
of f(x)dx between a and
I is defined as the limit,

definite integral

n

increases indefinitely, of the following

sum of n

terms,

w/iere

7

A A# = 1)

a
-

n

and x v x2 x s
,

-

,

&amp;gt;,

xn _^ are values of x between

a and

b

such that

The sum
notation

in the above definition

is

expressed concisely by the

where

(sigma), the
&quot;

Greek form

of the letter S, stands for the

and the whole expression indicates that the sum is to be taken of all terms obtained from /(#,.) A# by giving to i in succession the values 0, 1, 2, 3, - 1, where XQ = a. ., n
sum,&quot;
. .

word

40

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
Also the definite integral
is

denoted by the symbol
b
t

r f(x)dx Ja
I

where

f is

a modified form of

S.

Hence the

definition of the

definite integral

may
I

be expressed symbolically by the equation
i=

rb
Ja

= UmVf(x )kx. f(x)dx
l
=*&amp;gt;

^

1

&amp;lt;=0

The numbers a and

b are called

* the lower and the upper limit

definite integral. respectively of the of a definite Ex. The conception of mechanical work gives an illustration the work done in moving a body against a constant integral. By definition, which the body to the force multiplied by the distance through
force

from A(x = a) against a force which is not constant but a function of x and Let the line AB be divided into n equal intervals, each expressed by /(x). = 7.) fi g- 3, n n (I s 2 equal to Ax, by the points MI, be /(a) Ax if the work done in moving the body from A to MI would Then the interval AMi. Conse the force were constantly equal to /(a) throughout done is small, /(a) Ax is approximately equal to the work quently, if the interval and 2 is approxi between A and MI. Similarly, the work done between MI to 3 approximately equal 2 and mately equal to f(xi) Ax, that between so on. Hence the work done between A and B is approximately 2 Ax, and

O

-

is

equal
jf

JL

4 j/

3

MI

4

Al&amp;lt;

b

*

is

moved.

Suppose now that a body

is

moved along to B(x b)

OX

(fig. 3)

M M
,

,

,

M

-\&amp;gt;

M

M

M

/(x ) equal to

f

^ +f ^ ^ + f{^ Ax +
A

.

.

.

+f(Xn _ l ) Ax.
Hence we have,

The
if

W

the better is this approximation. larger the value of n, and B, represents the work done between

W = Lim V
The use
of the

i=n-\
f(Xi)

Ax

= f

h

/(x) dx.

&quot;^o

word

&quot; &quot;

integral

and

of the

symbol

/

suggests a

connection with the integrals of the previous chapter. This con 25 for the present, it is to be empha nection will be shown in
;

or sized that the definition is independent of either differentiation

integration as previously
*

known.
word
&quot;

The student should

notice that the
it is

limit

&quot;

ferent from that in

which

used

when a variable

is

is here used in a sense quite dif said to approach a limit (I, 53).

/U
Iii

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
c
a
b
I

41

distinction to the definite integral
is

f(x)dx,the integral

f(x)dx

called the indefinite integral.

The definition assumes that the

limit of

V/(# A# always
f)

exists.

A

rigorous proof of this will not

will find it
of the

be given here, but the student obvious from the graphical representation geometrically
article.

next

22. Graphical representation.

Let

LK

(fig.

4) be the

graph of
&amp;lt;

= a and OB = b. f(x), and let OA For convenience, we assume in the first place that a that f(x) is positive for all values of x between a and b.
n
and lay
off

b

and
find

We

the
2

equal lengths

MM
2

=MM =
1

(In

=*... = 3 n = 9.) fig. 4,

Let
,

OM = x OM _ = x
1

l9

n

l

n

_r

Draw
f(a),
3/5 3/6 3/7 3/8

the

ordinates

the
-,

Draw

also

lines

FIG. 4

J^K 8

,

P _^R
n

n

parallel to

OX.

Then

= the = the /(#i) A# = the f(x Aa?
/(a) A#
2)

area of the rectangle ^

area of the rectangle
area of the rectangle
area of the rectangle

(._!) Aaj

= the

M_
H

l

P _ Rn B.
n
l

The sum

is

then the

sum

of the areas of these rectangles,

and equal
is

to the

area of the polygon the limit of this sum as

n

.

.

R

n

n _^P _

l

R

n B.

It is evident that

is

indefinitely increased

the area

bounded by AD, AB, BC, and the arc DC.

42
Hence

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
Cf(x)dx
Jo.

= the

area

ABCD.
if

It is evident that the result is

not vitiated

or

BC

is of

length

zero.

The area
2

ABCD
etc.

is

exactly the

sum

of the areas

,

,

P2

P3-M&quot;3 ,

But one such

area, for

example lf1 PiP2 3f2
rectangle the area

differs

from

that of the corresponding

MiPiR 2 M2 by
of

A

JKi

MM
z

3

M&amp;lt;

M,

M

G

M, M,

B
&quot;

x

the
is

figure
less

PiR 2 P2

,

which

than that of the rectangle

Ax Ay, where Ay = J2 2 P2 The area of Pi# 2 P 2 is an
.

infinitesimal of higher order

than

MiPiR&amp;lt;zM2

,

since

PiR 2 P 2 MtPiRzMz
whence Lin
L

Ax Ay

Ay

yAx

Therefore
of

(

3)

the areas

FIG. 5
affect the limit of the

the
as

triangular figures

such

PiE 2 P2 do

not

sum used
all

in finding the area of the entire figure.

If

f(x)

is

negative for

values of x between a and
is

b(a&amp;lt;b),

the graphical representation

as in

fig. 5.

Here

= f(xj &x =
f(a) A#
so that
I

the area of the rectangle the area of the rectangle
etc.,

r*

Ja

f(x) dx

= - the

area

ABCD.
we

In case f(x) is sometimes positive and sometimes negative have a combination of the foregoing results, as follows
:

If
the

a&amp;lt;b,

the integral

I

Ja

f(x)dx represents

the algebraic

sum of

areas bounded ly the curve y =f(x), the axis of x, and the ordinates x = a and x = b, the areas above the axis of x being
positive

and

those below negative.

GENERALIZATION
If

43
The only change

a

&amp;gt;

I,

A#

is

negative, since

A# =

b-a

necessary in the above statement, however, is in the algebraic and those signs, the areas above the axis of x being now negative

below

positive.

.

Ex. The work done in moving a body against a force may be represented is the work in moving a body along by an area. For if the force is f(x) and the axis of x from x = a, to x = 6, then (Ex., 21)

W

W=
of

b

f f(x)dx.

Consequently if the force is represented by the graph DEC (fig. 6), the equation which is y = f(x), the area ABCED represents the work W. This fact is taken advantage of in constructing an indicator diagram attached

to a

steam engine. Here
ordinate

the

pressure. travels from
to

represents the distance traversed represents the Then as the piston

AB

by the

piston,

and

A

to

B

and back
is

A

the

curve

DECFD

automatically drawn. The
area

ABCED

represents the

work done by the steam on the piston. The area ABCFD represents the work done by the piston on the steam. The
difference of these

which
curve
piston.

is

areas, the area of the closed

two

A
FIG. 6

B

represents the net work done by the steam in one stroke of the In practice this area can be measured by an instrument, called a planimeter, or the figure is divided into rectangles and the area computed approxi mately. The latter method illustrates the definition of the definite integral.

DECFD,

23. Generalization.
\

In the definition of

21,

where

x= a

and x

=

b.

The sum

may

accordingly be written

or,

more compactly,
t=0

(1)

44
This

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
sum may
be generalized in two ways a mere matter of convenience to take the
:

In the

first place, it is
i

increments xi+1
, ,

x equal

for all values of

x..

In fact the n

1

values x v x 2 xs &quot;,xn _ l may be taken at pleasure between the values x = a and x = b without altering the limit approached by
the

sum

(1),

provided

all

the differences %i+1

i

approach zero as

MM

geometrically obvious from the graphical representation, for the bases V ... of the rectangles of fig. 4 may be of unequal length. 3 2

n

increases without limit.

This

is

AM

,

D/

FIG. 7

the

In the second place, the factor f(x ) in each sum (1) may be replaced by /(&), where
t

of the
is

terms

of

.

any value of

x between x and xi+r The effect on the graphical representa tion of fig. 4 is to alter the altitudes of the rectangles without
i

in altering the limit of their sum, as exemplified

fig.

7.

It

may

be noted that the rectangles here

by

infinitesimals of higher order.

from those of fig. 4 Hence the sum theorem of
differ
is

3 applies. For a rigorous discussion of these points the student
to

referred

*

treatises.*

See, for example, Goursat-Hedrick, Mathematical Analysis, Chap. IV.

PBOPEBTIES OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS
24. Properties of definite integrals.
definite integrals are
s* b

45

The following
:

properties of

consequences
/&

of the definition

1.

/

cf(x)dx

=c

I

i/a

Ja

f(x)dx,

2-

Ja
3.

fVi(*) +/&amp;gt;(*)]

&amp;lt;**

=

a Jf

f,(x)dx

+ f f (x)dx, Ja
2

n

Ja
4.

C f(x)dx = - f f(x)dx, Jb
J

Jf a rb
I

f(x)dx =

Jo,

f

f(x)dx

+ f f(x)dx, Jc
where

5.

Ja
tion,

f(

The truth of formulas 1 and 2 follows at once from the defini 22. We shall and that of formula 3 follows at once from show the truth of formulas 4 and 5 graphically. A fully rigorous

FIG. 8

21 without the use of proof could be based on the definition of diagrams, but would follow the outlines of the following graphical
discussion.

To prove formula Then
and
I

4,

consider
area

fig. 8,

where

OA = a,OC=
tliQ

c,

OB = b.
CBGF,
is

C f(x)dx = t\iQ
*J a
b

ACFE, C f(x)dx =
Uc

area

c f(x)dx = the Ja

area

ABGE. The
3.

truth of formula 4

ap-

parent for any order of the points A, C, B, reference being had,
if

necessary, to formula

46

DEFINITE INTEGKALS
5,
b

To prove formula
.

consider
t

fig. 9,

where the area

ABCD

repre-

sents the value of

C
I

Ja

f(x)dx and

let

m

and

M respectively be the
AB
Construct also the rec

smallest and the largest value assumed by /(a;) in the interval AB. with the base and the altitude Construct the rectangle

ABKH AH= M. Its area is AB AH (b tangle ABLN with the base AB area is AB AN= (b a) m.
Y

a)

M.

and the altitude

AN= m.

Its

CD
FIG. 9

B

-X

Now it is evident that the area ABCD is greater ABLNsm& less than the area ABKH. That is,
a)m&amp;lt;

than the area

r f(x)dx&amp;lt;(b Ja
I

a)M*

Consequently

some quantity greater than m and less than M, and is represented on fig. 9 by AS. But since f(x) is a continuous function, there is at least one value f between a and b such that /( ) = and therefore
where
//,

is

//,,

c/a

//(*)&amp;lt;**:

= (&ABCD

ABTS
.42V
*

is equal to a rectangle Graphically, this says that the area whose base is and whose altitude AS lies between

AB

and AH.

A
I

slight modification is here necessary

if f(x)

=

k,

a constant. Then

M= m = k

and

rb
Ja

f(x)dx=

(b

a)k.

EVALUATION BY INTEGRATION
25. Evaluation of the definite integral

47

by

integration.

When

f(x) the integral
limit b

is

a

known
is

function and a and b are constants, the value of

by a variable
(fig.

fully determined. Hence if we replace the upper x, the definite integral is a function of x.

Graphically
constant,

10),

and

OM = x,
^ (x =
)

UJa

f (x) dx = area, AMPC,
a variable.

where

OA =

a,

a

Let us place
area

rx
I

Ja

f(x) dx

= the
109,
6,

AMPC.

Now we

have shown in

I,

that

proof of this can be given by use of the properties of 24, and this proof has the advantage of being
really independent of the graphical representation, although for conven
-A&quot;

A new

ience

we

shall refer to the figure.
li.

FIG. 10

Take

MN=

Then
\$(x

+ h) =
(/&amp;gt;

I

Ja
(x)

f(x) dx

= the

area

ANQC,

s*x + h

whence
c/&amp;gt;

(x -f h)

=

I

JX

f(x) dx
area

= the =
where x
&amp;lt; &amp;lt;

MNQP,

(by 3 and

4,
5,

24)

()&amp;gt;

(by

24)

x

+

h.

Therefore

Taking now the limit as
T
;

7t

approaches zero, and remembering that
.

Lim
=o

.

=

d

^(a?)

and Lim f

,

,

.

=

a;,

we have

48
Let

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
now F(x)
be any

known
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;(#)

function whose derivative
(

is

f(x).

Then F(x)

differs

from

by a constant

30), that

is,

f*f(x)dx=F(x) + C.
*J a

To determine

C, place

x

= a,

r*
and notice that
I

Ja
whence

f(x) dx
F(a).

= 0.

Then
Therefore

= F(a) + C,
*J a

C=
t

f /(*) dx = F(x) - F(a)
Ja

whence

C f(x) dx = F(b) - F(a).

This result gives the following rule for evaluating a definite
integral
:

To find
x

the

value of

r f(x)dx, Ja
\

b

evaluate

c
I

J

f(x)dx, substitute

=

b

and x

=a

successively,

and

subtract the latter result

from

the

former.
It is to

be noticed that in evaluating
is

I

f(x)dx the constant
is

of

integration
ever,
if

to be omitted, since
is

F(a)

that constant.

How

the constant
[F(b)

it

disappears in the subtraction, since

+ C] - \F(a) + C]= F(b)-F(a).
F(b)F(a) by
the

In practice
bol [F(x)] a
b
,

it is

convenient to express

sym

so that

Ex.

2.

f 2 sinxdx =
*
4-

[

cosx]

2

=
2

cos^ + cosO

= 1.
2 log 4

Ex.3, f
Jo x 2

+
x

2

+

dx
2

=

[2 log(x

4 x +
tan-i

2)]*

=

Ex.4, f J-i

=
1

+

x2

[tan- x]

1

v?=

V3 -

tan- 1 (-

1).

CHANGE OF LIMITS
There
is
1 here a certain ambiguity, since tan-

49
1)

Vs and tan-i(-

have each

If, an infinite number tan- J x is composed of an infinite values of tan- 1 ambiguity is removed by taking the

of values.

however, we remember that number of distinct parts, or

the graph of branches, the

V3
^

/*

the same branch of the function. For

if

we consider
if

and tan-i(- 1) from dx - = tan- * b - tan- 1 a

and

select
1

any value

tan- a, since the value of the integral with a to
its final

= a, tan- 1 b must be taken equal to then zero. As b varies from equality tan- 1 a to the nearest value of value, tan-ift will vary from
of tan- a, then
1

b

is

tan- 1 b.

The simplest way
them both between

to

1 1 choose the proper values of tan- b and tan- a

is

to take

-2

and
2

.

Then we have

r Vs

dx
l

J-i
dx
-

+#

_*_( _ ^\ _ I5 12
9
\

4/

Ex.

5.

Jo

f*

Va 2

x2

= r s in-i-1 =8in-H-Bin-iQ. a
L
-lo
J-

The ambiguity
that sin- - must
1

in the values of sin-i
lie

and sin-iQ
first

is

removed by noticing

in the fourth or the

other by continuous values must be so chosen that one comes out of the 1 to accomplish this is to take both sin- ^ and change. The simplest way
7T
,

7T

i-iQ between
2

and
2
/*2

dX

Then

7T =--

=
is

7T

Jo

Va2

x2

^
convenient to evaluate

&quot;

26.

Change

of limits.

In case

it

Cf(x)dx by

substitution, the limits of

f

f(x)dx may be replaced

by the corresponding values
this,

of the variable substituted.

To

see

suppose that in

I

f(x)dx the
t,

variable

x

is

replaced by a func

tion of a

new
I, t

variable

from a to

varies continuously

such that when x varies continuously from t to t r Let the work of
:

be indicated as follows finding the indefinite integral
x)

dx

=
C&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

(t)

dt

=

&amp;lt;\$&amp;gt;

(t)

= F(x),
4&amp;gt;(Q

where F(x)
terms
of x.

is

obtained by replacing

t

in

by

its

value in

Then
F(b)-F()=&amp;lt;t&amp;gt;(t l )-&amp;lt;t&amp;gt;(t ).

50
But
and

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
F(b)

- F(a) =

*) a

f f(x) dx

4&amp;gt;(^-4&amp;gt;(g=

Jt

f

&amp;lt;l&amp;gt;(t)dt.

Hence
Ex.
1.

Ja
Find
Jo
Place x
varies
[

f f(x) dx = f
Jt n

(t)

dt.

Va2 -x 2 dx.
Then dx = a
Hence
cos
cZ0,

=

a sin 0.
to
.

and when x

varies

from

to a,

from

2

Jo

L 2

In making the substitution care should be taken that to each
value of x between a and b corresponds one and only one value of t between t Q and t lt and conversely. Failure to do this may lead to
error.
7T

/5 cos _
7T

d0, which

by

direct integration
-r~

Let us place cos0

= x, whence
77

= cos- 1 ^
is

and d0

=

/7/j

is

equal to

2.

,

Vi-x

where the sign

2

depends upon the quadrant in which
this substitution in
2
/

found.
lies in

We
two
n

cannot, therefore,

make

cos0cZ0, since

we may

write

-?
n

/g cos _![
2

(i0

=

J_E
2

I

cos

d0

-f

I

cos

Jo

(Z0,

and

in the first of the integrals on the right-hand side of this equation place

=

cos- 1 ^,

d(f&amp;gt;

=

.

VI -

and

in the second

0= cos- 1 ^, eZ0 =
_

^

x2

Vl-z2
x2

--

Then

l

_

x2

^

Vl

x2

&quot;v/1

/+!
Ex.
3.

Consider

J-i
Then, when x

|

dx and place x 2

=

t.

tute without care

x

is

negative

;

= 1, t = 1, and when x = 1, would lead to error. But x = and x = \$ and dx = J*~*ctt when x
=
f*
/&amp;gt;

1;
t* is
1

and the attempt to substi and dx = ^t~*dt when positive. Hence
.

/+!
J-i
f

1

dz=

J-i

/

dx+

Jo

(

dx

=-

/^

/

/

1

(

jr*&amp;lt;tt+

Ji

Jo

I

ir*(tt= J

Jo

i

INTEGRATION BY PARTS
27. Integration

51
by
parts,

by

parts.

If it is

desired to integrate

and a and

b are values of the
s*b
I

independent variable, then
s*b
I

u dv

Ua
To prove
this,

= \uv\

v du.

Ua

note that
s*b

it

follows at once from the equation
/

6

s*b

/b
Ex.
1.

(I

(uv)

=

I

(u dv

+ v du] =

I
-/

u dv
a

+

I

^ du.

\J a
l

Ua

Find

r
/

xex dx.

Take x

=

w,

Jo ex dx r
I

dv
l

;

then

xe x dx

=

Jo
n

\xe Y

x

i

r
I

1

e xdx

=

e

Jo

\e

x1

1.

Ex.

2.

Discuss
1

2

Jo

|

sin&quot;xdx.

Take

sin&quot;-

^

=

M,

sinxdx

=

dv; then
7T

7T

7T

2

Jo

I

sin n xdx

=
=

[

cosx
1)

sin n

~1

2

x]

+

2

(n

1)

|

sin&quot;-

2

x cos2 xdx

^

/o

(n

f
Jo

2

2 (sin- x

sin&quot;x)dx.

By

transposing

we have
7T
7T

n

2
/

sin n xcZx

=

2

(n
i

1)

c/

Jo
2
sin&quot;

{

sin&quot;-

2

x(Zx,

-

whence
If, in (1),

C
Jo

2

sin n x

dx

=

-

n

Jo

f

- 2 x dx.

(1)

we

place n

=

2,

we have
1

psii^xdx- 2Jo Jo
If, in (1),

pdx = 2 .^. 2
7T

we

place n
7T

=

3,

we have

2

Jo
If, in (1),

/

sin 3 xdx

=

-

3Jo

/

we

place

n

=

4,

we have
3
/

C\ sin*xefx =
Jo

J

4Jo

sin 2 x(Zx

.

=
4-2
2

52
If, in (1),

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
we
place

n

5,

we have
4

2 T &quot;sinozdzsi

Cl

Jo o
is wa] Continuing in this way, we find

4-2 6-3

1-3-

5

f Jo
Jo

isi

(2

k

-

1)

TT

2-4.6-..2A;

2-4-6. .-2ft

f

3

5

7

(2

k

+

1)

28. Infinite limits.

It is possible to

have the upper limit

oc,

where by

definition

f.

f(x) dx

= Lim

I

f(x) dx.

The integral, then, is represented by the area bounded by the curve y =f(x), the axis of x, and the ordinate x = a, the figure being unbounded at the right hand. There is no certainty that
.

such an area

is

either finite or determinate.
/~
I

The

tests

by which

it

may

be sometimes determined whether

Ja
In
case,

f(x)dx has a meaning
possible to find the in

will not be given.
definite integral

however,

it is

F(x)

=
^|

f(x)dx, the definite integral can be found Iw flip formula by the formula

Ja
where
F(ao)

= Lim F (b)

.

EX.

1.

^=.85

Ex.2.

Jl

r^ = [X2

i] X_\l

=l.

(fig.

12)

Ex .3.
FIG. 13

r
I

oo

Jo

Binxdx=[

coex]
(fig.

= indeterminate,

13)

of the definite integral Similarly, the lower limit, or both limits,

may

be

infinite.

INFINITE INTEGRAND
29.
Infinite integrand.

53
21
it is

According to the definition of

f(x)dx should become
x

infinite

between

= a and x =

Xt&amp;gt;

b.

It

is,

however, possible to admit the case in which

f(x) becomes infinite

when x

=b

by means

of the definition

Ja
and
to

C f(x)dx =

Um C
h

+ oJa

/(,*-)

dx,

compute the integral by the formula
.6

Ua

/
h).

where F(b) means lim F(b

The
value.

integral has not, however, necessarily a
is

finite or

determinate

Graphically, the integral the curve y =/(&amp;lt;), the axis of

represented by the area between

x,

the ordinate x
tote

= a, and the

x

=

asymp

b.

Ex.2,
Jo
Jo
(fig.

15)
-i

Similarly, f(x) may become in finite at the lower limit or at both
limits.
If it

o
FIG. 14
FIG. 15

becomes

infinite for

any value

c

between the

limits,

the integral should be separated into two inte grals having c for the upper and the lower limit
respectively.

Failure to do this

may

Ex.

3.

Consider

/*
J-l
X2

Since

becomes

infinite

when x =
:

(fig. 16),

we sepa

rate the integral into two, thus
-1

O
FIG. 10

dx

l

dx

54

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
carelessly applied the incorrect formula

11+ 1

we should have been
30.

led to the absurd result

2.

The mean value

of a function.

We

have seen in

24 that

/
where f
lies

=

r^ JCf^dx,
^
(*

(1)

a

between a and

J.

The value

is

called the

meaw m/^e

of /(a;) in the interval

from a

to

5.

This

is

in fact

meaning -, y n -^ correspond y Q) y lf y 2 to n values of x, which divide the interval from a to I into n equal parts, each equal to Aa?. Then the average of these n values of y is
value of n measurements.

an extension

of the ordinary

of the average, or
-

mean,

For

let

,

n
This fraction
is

equal to

a

As

7i

limit

is

indefinitely increased,

\

C
I

b

y dx

-

~\.

this expression approaches

as

a

C
I

b

fix) dx. j

Hence the mean value
&quot;

of a
&quot;

be considered as the average of an infinite number of values of the function, taken at equal distances between a and b.
function

may

Ex.

1.

The

velocity
1
is

Find the mean velocity of a body falling from rest during the time t\. is gt, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Hence the mean

velocity

1

c i gtdt Jo
|

=

^gt\.

This

is

half the final velocity.
&quot;

In using the indicator diagram ( 22) engineers use the mean effect ive pressure,&quot; which is defined as the constant pressure which will do the same

Ex.

2.

amount
and
is

indicator diagram.

as is done by the varying pressure shown by the found by dividing the area of the diagram by b a, accordingly an example of the mean value of a function.
of
It is

work per stroke

THE MEAN VALUE OF A FUNCTION
Formula
(1)

55

may

be written in another form, not involving the

integral sign.

Let us place if(x)dx
**

= F(x)-,

then f(x)

=F

(x),

and

(1)

becomes

b-a
or

-F(a)l
(%).

(2)
(3)

.F(a)

= (b

d)F

Formula
(fig.

For let (2) has a simple graphical meaning. 17) be the graph of F(x) and let OA = a and OB=b. Then
F(b)

LK

b-a=AB,

()
a
=:

and

_JJ
b

I

DC

- the

slope of the chord
is

DE.

If

now

f

is

any value

of x,

F (^)

the slope of the tangent at

the corresponding point of

LK.

some point between
to the

A

and
is

B

Hence (2) asserts that there is for which the tangent is parallel

chord DE.

This

evidently true if F(x) and (x) are continuous.

F

K

Formula

(3)

may be used to

prove the proposition, which we have previously used with
out
proof,

namely

:

If

the

derivative of a function is

always zero, the function is a constant. For let F (x) be always zero and let a and b be any two values of x. Then, by (3), F(b) F(a)=Q. That is, any two values of the function are
equal; in other words, the function is a constant. From this it follows that two functions which have the same
derivative
differ
3&amp;gt;(x)]

ly

a

constant.

For
3&amp;gt;

if

F

f

(x)

=

&amp;lt;&

(x),

then

[F(x)

= 0;

whence

F(x) =

(x)

+ C.

31. Taylor s
special case of a
to obtain.

and Maclaurin s series. Formula (3), 30, is a more general relation, which we will now proceed

Let us take the equation

t/ a

f

f&quot;(x)dx

=/ (*)_

56

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
x.

and integrate between a and multiply both sides by dx,
have
x, x

We

s*x

(

Ja Ja

\

/

(*) fa

=

n*

n
I
a,

x

J\a

f (x)dx- f (a)dx *J
(a).

=f(x)-f(a)-(x-a)f
.

Therefore

f(x) =f(a)

+ (x -)/ () + f

C&quot;f&quot;(x)d3t*.

t/a i/a

But if m is the smallest and a and x, then (24), when #

M the largest value
&amp;gt;

of

f&quot;(x)

between

a,

whence

m (x-af
2~ *
Ua

C*r*ut
t/a
/
-/a

/

^

^w
,

2

^M(x-

~2

Hence
If

Fl*f
t/o

(x).datK-

where
is

m

&amp;lt;

/*

&amp;lt;

Jf

:

/&quot;(a)
,

is

a continuous function, there
aj,

at least
/*

one value of
56).

x,

say

between a and

for

which

f&quot;

() =

(I,

Therefore

we

have, finally,

/(x) Again,
let

=/() + (x -

)/ ()

+

^2^/&quot;(l^
c

(!)

us take

= r
Ja
and

/&quot;

=/ () -/ ()-(* -)/&quot;().

m*f
whence
where a
*
&amp;lt;

&quot;(x)d3t?=

ff Ja

(x)dx-

Ja

Cf (a)dx-

Ja

Clx-a)f&quot;(a)dx

+
|2
&amp;lt;

^&quot;

+

-/

&quot;&&amp;gt;*

(2)

03.

The symbol [2 means 1 2, 3_ means 1 means the product of the n integers from 1
1

2
to

3,

n

and, in general, |n, read factorial n, inclusive.

TAYLOK
Similarly,
if

S

AND MACLAUKIN S SERIES
with
/

57

we

start

Ja

f (n+l) (x)dx, we

obtain

where 7
being

tt

= -^

_ 71 ~T~

^-L

/ (n+1
is

&amp;gt;

(f ),

where a

&amp;lt;

f

&amp;lt;

a,

the only restrictions

tliat

the
of

n

+\
n

derivatives of f(x) exist

and are continuous.

The value
but
it

R

in (3)

not

known
a
is

-f- 1 terms of n and this approximation (3), omitting approaches f(x) as a limit as % is indefinitely increased. In this case we say that f(x) is expanded into the infinite series

n= oo by the

Lim7?n =

usually happens 0. Then the value otf(x)
first

that, if

x

exactly, since f is unknown, a sufficiently small quantity,

may

be expressed approximately

n

R

,

+
For larger values
value of
of

|^/
a,

+~.
it

.

.
,

.

(4)

x

however,

Hence the omission of R n in (3) leaves n + 1 terms, the sum of which differs more and more from f(x) the more terms are taken.
n

R

may happen
increases.

that the

increases without limit as

n

In such a case the series
function.

(4)

cannot be taken to represent the

The determination
is,

of the values of

x

a for which

(4) is valid

in general, a matter involving a knowledge of mathematics which lies outside the limits of this course. In the illustrative examples

and in the problems

for the student

we

shall simply state the facts

in each case without proof. Formula (4) is known as Taylor s series.

Here a is a known value of x for which and its derivatives are known. The series f(x) then enables us to compute the value of f(x) for values of x not too remote from a.

58

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
a

Another convenient form of (4) is obtained by placing x whence x = a -f- h. We have, then,

= k,

f(a

+ h) =/() + hf
is

(a)

+
!/&quot;()

+

|/

+

-

-

.

:

(5)

Here the remainder
n
71
1

usually expressed as

+ 1f

n+

\a +6h),

where

&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

1.

A

special

form

of (4) arises

when a
/&quot;(0)

=

0.

We
/&quot;

have, then,

/(*) =/(0)
This
is

+ */ (0) +
Maclaurin s

+

(0)

+

.

.

-.

(6)

known

as

series,
x.

and the function

is

said to

be expanded into a power series in
Ex.
1.

ex

.

By

Maclaurin

s series (6),

we

find, since /(x)
1, etc.,

=

ex ,

/

(x)

=

ex ,

f&quot;(x]

=

&,

etc.,

and/(0)

=

1,

/

(O)

-

1,

/&quot;(O)

=

This expansion is valid for all values of x. If we place x~= ^, we have l + J T^ + y i-^ + T ? = 1.3956, correct to four decimal places. If x has a larger value, more terms of the series must be taken in the computation,
e*

=1+

so that the series, while valid,

is

inconvenient for large- values of

x.

Ex.

2.

since.

By Maclaurin

s series,

which

is

valid for all values of

x.

change 15 to circular measure, which is T^^TT = TL TT = .2618. Then the first two terms of the series give sin 15 = .2588, cor rect to four decimal places. By Taylor s series (5), we have
find sin
first
&amp;lt;r

To

15, we

sin (a

+

h)

=

sin

a

+

h cos a

h2

7i

3

sin a

.

cos a

+

.

Ex.

3.

cosx.
s series,

By Maclaurin

x2

x4

OPERATIONS WITH POWER SERIES
Ex.
4.

59

(a

+

z).
s series,

By Maclaurin

This
to 0.
series

is

the binomial theorem.

polynomial of

n
is

+

1

terms, since

a positive integer, the expansion is a and all higher derivatives are equal f&amp;lt;*+(x)
If

n

is

But

if

n
is

which
6.

valid

a negative integer or a fraction, the expansion when x is numerically less than a.

is

an

infinite

Ex.

logx.

The function logx cannot be expanded by Maclaurin s series, since its We may use Taylor s series (4), derivatives are infinite when x = 0.
placing a

=

1.

We

have, then,

Or we may expand log(l

+

x)

by Maclaurin

s series

with the result

This expansion

is

valid

when x

is

numerically

less

than

1.

Operations with power series. When a function is expressed power series, it may be integrated or differentiated by integrat or differentiating the series term by term. The new series will ing be valid for the same values of the variable for which the original series is valid. If the method is applied to a definite integral, the
32.

as a

limits

must be values for which the series is valid. Similarly, if two functions are each expressed by a power
sum, difference, product, or quotient
is

series,

their

the sum, the differ

ence, the product, or the quotient of the series.
Ex.
1.

Required

to

expand sin- 1 x.
dx x

We

have

= sin-ix=

rx

Jo

|

-=
x2
2

rx
I *^

Vl

(l-x2 )~*dx
by Ex 4
&quot;

2-4
1
-

2-4-

&amp;lt;

1

x3

3

x5

1.3.5

60
Ex.
2.

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
To
find

Jo

fV
cannot be found directly.

The
Ex.
1,

indefinite integral
31.

We may expand

e-* by

2

Then

Ex.

3.

To expand
x)

3

By

division,

By

successive differentiation,

_
Therefore

(l

2 (1
(1

+ jc)- 2 = - 1 + 2x - 3x 2 + 4x 3 - 5x 4 + x)- 3 = 2 - 6 x + 12 x 2 - 20 x 3 + + x)- 3 = 1 - 3x + 6 x 2 - 10x 3 +
.

.

Ex.

4.

To expand

lo,

1-x
x)

=
J.

X

log(l

+

-

log(l

-

x)

Ex.

5.

To expand
1,

,

sin- 1 x

Vl-x

2

By
by Ex.

Ex.

sm- l x = x

H

1

1

!-;
+
16 x 7
-.

4,

31,

(l-x 2 )-s=l +

^+
2x 3

^+
8x 5

Hence, by multiplication,
sin-ix

_

33.

By means
I,

of Taylor s

theorem we can complete the rule
the

given in

62, for the

maximum and
;

minimum
f&quot;(a)

values of a
first

function of one variable.

Let a be a value of x for which the
i.e.

n
0,

derivatives of f(x) are zero n+l but
.
.

let
0.

f (a) =

0,

=
s

0,

f

=
&quot;(a)

.,

/&amp;lt;*&amp;gt;()=

0,

f&amp;lt;

\a)=

Then, by Taylor
f

theorem

(5),

31,

/(+

)-f( a )-

fc-+i/&amp;lt;-+

\

n

+i

+

PROBLEMS
If

61

h

is

sufficiently small, the

term

/
I

will be larger
i~ -L
1

?!/

&amp;lt;

contains h n+z as a factor. numerically than R n + v since tlie latter Hence the sign of f(a + h)f(a) depends upon the sign of

n
&quot;

If

n

is

even,

sign of
of h.

h.

n + 1 is odd, and the sign Hence the sign of f (a + h)
is

of

n
7*,

+1

f (a)

changes with the changes with that

Therefore f(a)
is

neither a

maximum
is

nor a

minimum

value

of /(a).
If
7i

odd,

n

+1

is

even and h n+l
is

always

positive.

Hence the

the same as the sign of / (n+1) (a). There sign oif(ali)f(a) fore if / (n+1) (a)&amp;gt;0, f(a) is a minimum value of /(#); and if (n+l is a maximum value of/().

f

\a)&amp;lt;Q,f(a)

PROBLEMS
Find the values of the following
definite integrals
:

is.

Jo

r
(a
2

+

x 2 )*

&quot;

19.

f
t/
tj

Va 2 -

x 2 dx.

20.

/a

fVx
I

2

a2 o!x.

21.

xsinxdx.

Jo

22.

f x2
Ji

logxa?x.

23.

24.

Jo

f x 2 sin-!xdx.

OK
&amp;lt;&u.

f x 2 ^-^^ r 6 tix.
I

Jo

62
7T

DEFINITE INTEGRALS
W
sin 6

26. Prove

f
Jo

2

0d0=

f
Jo

2

sin 4 0d0.

77

E
sin
2 ~ xdx = n C x n l

27. Prove

Jo

f x

2

Jo

cos x dx,

if

n

&amp;gt;

1.

28 Show that f
29

Ji

*

has a definite value when, and only when, k

&amp;gt;

1.

Show

that

f* J a (6 -

x)

k

has a definite value when, and only when, k

&amp;lt;

1.

30. if

/(_ /(-

x)

=

-/(x), show graphically that

J
a

f(x)dx

=
2

0.

31. If

x)

=/(&), show graphically that Jf
=/(x), show graphically that

/(x)dx f(x)dx

=
=

Jf

f(x)dx.

32. If /(a
33.

-

x)

2

j^
x) dx.

*/(*)*

Show

graphically that

f

&quot;/(sin

x)dx

=

k

^

&quot;/(sin

6, and /i(x), values of x between a and

34. If a

&amp;lt;

/2 (x), /8 (x)

are three functions such that, for
2 (x) &amp;lt;/
&amp;lt;/

all

& inclusive, /i(x)

3 (x),

prove

Ja
35. Find the

f /!(x)dx

&amp;lt;

^

f /2 ()dx

&amp;lt;

f*

f /8 (a;)dx.

mean

value of the lengths of the perpendiculars from a diameter

of a semicircle to the circumference.

36. Find the

mean value

of the ordinates of the curve y

=

sinx between

x

=
37.

and x

=

TT.

A

s

a sin

kt.

motion defined by the formula particle describes simple harmonic Show that the mean kinetic energy during a complete vibration is
kinetic energy.

half the

maximum

is

Obtain the following expansions. valid are given in each case.)

(The values of x for which the expansion

40.

,

=!+

, ,og

42. 43.

PROBLEMS
44. sinhz

63
(co
&amp;lt;

=

x

+

-

+ +

r

+
+

r

+ +
---.

z

&amp;lt;

oc)

15

12

12

45. cosho;
46.

=l+
|2

(-co&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;oo)

[4

[6

Compute

the value of tanh ^ to four decimal places.

47. Given log 2 = 0.693, log 3 = 1.099, - 0.693)? log 24 = log 2 + (1.099 48. Assuming sin 60
places.

what error would be made in assuming

=

^

V3 =

.8660, cos 60

=

^, find sin 61

to four decimal

Verify the following expansions

:

r \ x a-l ^ Jo + x b ol
I

_

.

_

11 ___
a

1

I

a

+

b

a

+ 26

a

+ 36

CHAPTER IV
APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
34.

Element

of a definite integral.

In this and the subsequent

chapter
integral.

we

shall give certain practical applications of the definite Here we return in every case to the summation idea of
of

21.

The general method
is

handling one of the various problems

proposed

to analyze

it

into the limit of the
of

sum

of

an

infinite

the form f(x)dx. The expression number well as the concrete object it represents, is called the f(x)dx, as element of the sum.
of

infinitesimals

35.

Area

of a plane curve in Cartesian coordinates.

It

has

that the area bounded by the axis of x, already been shown ( 22) lines x = a and x = b (a&amp;lt;b), and a portion of the the straight which lies above the axis of x is given by the defi curve

y=f(x)

nite integral

/*&amp;gt;

Ua
\

ydx.
of the

(1)

It has also

been noted that either
be replaced by
of integration

x

= b may

a point in

bounding lines x = a or which the curve cuts OX.
of a rec

Here the element

y dx represents the area

dx and the altitude y. tangle with the base the area bounded by the axis of y, the straight lines Similarly, and a portion of the curve x =f(y) lying c and
y

=

y

=

d(c&amp;lt;d),

to the right of the axis of y

is

given by the integral

*xdy

9

(2)

where the element x dy represents a rectangle with base x and
altitude dy.

Areas bounded in other ways than these are frequently found

by expressing the required area
areas of the above type.

as the

sum

or the difference of

64

AREA OF A PLANE CURVE
X2
2

65

Ex.

1.

Find the area of the

ellipse

+

?/

=

1.

It is evident

required area
if
A&quot;

is

from the symmetry of the curve (fig. 18) that one fourth of the bounded by the axis of y, the axis of x, and the curve. Hence,

is

the total area of the ellipse,

,.-1

a

in-i _

a Jo

= ^06.

Ex.

2.

axis of x, the parabola y 2
straight line y

Find the area bounded by the = Ipx, and the

+

2x-4j&amp;gt;

=

1

(fig. 19).-- ,

..

The

straight line

tersect at

and the parabola in the point C(p, 2p), and the

F IG
is

.

18

straight line intersects

OX at B(2,p, 0).
the

The

figure

shows that the required area
if

sum

of

two areas

OCD

and

CBD. Hence,

K

is

the required area,

- 2x)dx

FIG. 19

Ex.

3.

Find the area inclosed by the curve
?/,

(y

x

2

3)

=

4

x2

.

Solving the equation for

we have
y

=

x

+

3

V4 -

x-,

showing that the curve
It is clear

(fig.

20) lies

between the straight

lines x
s&amp;gt;2

=

2

and x

=
x2

2.

from the
~
2
y&amp;lt;zdx, I

figure that the area
.

A CEDE =
x 2 and

I

ACFDB =

where

/_2

y\

=

J
2/0

y^dx and the area

x

+

3

+ v4

=

2

x

+

3

v4

.

66
Therefore,
if

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY

K

is

the required area

CEDFC,
y*)fa

K= JC

yidx
2

J

C y z dx= C
2
&quot;

(y\
2

= =F
L
4

\/4

2

x 2 dx

-x + 4 sin-i -T
2J-

= 4?r.

X&

2/

d# by

its

value f(x) taken from the equation of the curve. More generally, if the equation of the curve is in the parametric form, we replace both x and y by their values in terms of the independent parameter.

This is a substitution of a new variable, as explained in the limits must be correspondingly changed.
Ex.
4.

26,

and

Let the equations of the
x

ellipse
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;,

be

=

a cos

y

=

b sin 0.
:

Then

the area

K of Ex. 1 may be computed as follows
ft

K=4l
Similarly,

m

JO O

ydx =

/^

o

4\
1/7T

=

n

4ab

I

JQ

if

r

=f(0) and the area sought

the equation of the curve is, in polar coordinates, is one of the above forms, we may place

and obtain thus a para
metric representation of the curve.

In case the axes of
reference are oblique, the

method
FIG. 21

of

finding

the

easily as follows
:

area

is

modified,

Let the axes
let

OX and OY
=a

us find the area bounded

and intersect at the angle (fig. 21) the axis of x, by the curve y =/(#),
&amp;lt;w,

and the ordinates x
of the

and x

= b.

The area

is

sum

of the areas

of the parallelograms

evidently the limit whose sides are

AKEA OF A PLANE CURVE
parallel to

67
is

OX

?/Asina).

and OY. The area of one such paraUelogram Hence the required area is

sm
36.

c
ft&amp;gt;

Ua
I

y dx.
Let
(fig.

(3)

Area

of

a plane curve in polar coordinates.

22) be

the pole,

OM

the initial line of a

system

of polar coordinates (r, 0),

OA and OB two
respectively,

which 6

=

a and 6
is

= /3

and

AB

any curve

for

which the equation

r =/(#).

Required the area AOB. The required area may be divided into

n smaller

areas
into

by dividing the angle

AOB=j3a Q
which equals lines
1}

n

equaj. parts,

each of

a

= A0,
)

and drawing the

OP OP OP
Z)
3

,

OP _^ where n
n

(In the figure required area is the

= A0.

=

8.)

The
the

sum

of

areas of these elementary areas for all values of n. The areas of these

FIG. 22

small figures, however, are no easier to find exactly than the given area, but

we may

find

them approxi

mately by describing from

as a center the circular arcs

AR

-PR.

lt

Let

Then, by geometry,
the area of the sector
the area of the sector the area of the sector

AOR = J r A0, P^OR = J r* A0,
2
l

Z

P _ OE = n
l

n

J-

r^^

The sum

of these areas,

namely

is

an approximation to the required area, and the limit of this sum

as

n

is

indefinitely increased is the required area.

68 To show

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
this

we need

to

show that the

area of each of the cir

from the corresponding elementary area (7^0P4)by an infinitesimal of higher order than either. For inter that purpose draw from P an arc of a circle with center
cular sectors
(e.g.
4)

J0LR

differs

secting

OP
3

in S.

Then

area

P OE^
3

&amp;lt;

area

P OP
3

4

&amp;lt;

area

80%,

area

P OP^
Z

area
area

But area

P OR= \ r A0 and
2 Z 3

area

SOP= \rl^Q = \ (r + Ar)
3 2 1

2

A0.

Therefore

area&amp;gt;SO^

(r = ^^ + Ar)- = / 1 H
3
,

Ar\
r.

2

:

I

Now

as

%

increases without limit,
limit.

A0 and
-

consequently

Ar

approach zero as a

Hence Lim

area
to

^p

= 1,

and there-

OR differs from the area 3 OP^ by an infini Z order than either ( 2), and therefore the limit tesimal of higher OE i+l equals the limit of the sum of of the sum of such areas as such areas as J?0JJ*+1 as n is increased indefinitely ( 3). But the
Hence the
area

P

P

P
t

,

latter limit is the area

AOB,

since

= the
i

area

AOB

=Q

for all values of n.

Hence,

finally,

the area

AOB = Lim &rf&0 = n
&quot;

J-

C r*d6 =
/

\

C
J*

[f(0)] d0.

2

=*&amp;gt;

i

=o

The student should compare this discussion with that of I, 189. The above result is unchanged if the point A coincides with 0, but in that case OA must be tangent to the curve. So also B may
coincide with 0.

VOLUME OF A SOLID OF REVOLUTION
Ex. Find the area of one loop of the curve r

69

=

a sin 3

(I,

177).

The required area

K

is

given by the equation

K= a- Jo 7 f 2
To
integrate, place

2

gi

36

=

0;

then
/72
/&amp;gt;

K=
37.

TT

f OJo

si

12

Volume
plane.

of a solid of revolution.
l&amp;gt;y

a solid generated
in
its

the revolution
is

The simplest case

^4 sofoW of revolution is a plane figure about an axis of that in which the plane figure is

bounded by the axis of revolution, two straight lines at right angles to the axis, and a curve which does not cut the axis. Such a solid is bounded by two parallel plane bases which are circles and by
a surface of revolution generated by the revolving curve. Each point of this curve generates a circle whose center is in the axis of revolution and whose plane is parallel to the bases and perpen dicular to the axis. Consequently, if planes are passed perpendicular
to the axis, they will divide the solid into smaller solids with par allel circular bases. shall proceed to find an approximate

We

expression for the

volume

of

one of these smaller

solids.

23) be the revolving curve, the equation of which is x the axis of revolution, the line y =f(y), c, and the line y the volume generated by the revo d(c d). Eequired
(fig.

Let

KL

OY

CK

=

DL

=

&amp;lt;

lution of the figure
parts,
s

CKLD.
-

Divide the line

CD

into

n equal

each of which equals

N ,-. .,jru ^ where ON, = y v ON, = y v ON = yv ^ON _, = y _ r Pass planes through the points N N N N _ perpen
-

n

= Ay,
lt

by the points
3

N N
lt

2,

n

n

-

2,

3,

,

n

lt

dicular to OY.
circles

They

will intersect the surface of revolution in
NJ&amp;gt;,

with the radii x v xv x2 = 2 P --, xn _ lf where x l = Z xz = z p xn-i = -^n -!-?-! The areas of these sections, begin ^ ning with the base of the solid, are therefore TTX^ TTX?, TTX^ ., ^-i* where XQ = CK.

N

N

,

&quot;

&amp;gt;

-

The solid is now cut into n slices of altitude Ay. may consider the volume of each as to that of a cylinder with approximately equal

We

70
its

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
base coincident with the base of the slice and its altitude equal The sum of the volumes of the n cylinders is

to that of the slice.

and the limit of this sum as n is indefinitely increased is, by defi revolution. nition, the volume of the solid of is seen to be reasonable and in accordance with This definition the common conception of volume as follows. Whatever the defini-

Y

r

N

I
IS

FIG. 23

tion of volume,
of the

it is

evident that the volume of a solid

is

the

sum

volumes
is

of its parts,

and the volume

of a solid inclosing

another

solid inclosed. greater than that of the be the volume of the slice Let then vol. 4 4 3 (for example) S

N N PP
P

of the plane figure 4 3 generated by the revolution and S S parallel to OY. Then evidently the lines

NN

^

and draw

PR

vol.

N N SE
9

A

&amp;gt;

vol.

N^N.PR
3

&amp;gt;

vol.

vol.

or

&amp;gt;

vol.

N N SP
S

4

vol.

N N,SP
8

9

But
and
vol.
Z 4

vol.

N N PR = 7rN lf N N = irx^y =
-

4

4

3

4

TT

(x s

+ Aa?)*Ay.

VOLUME OF A SOLID OF REVOLUTION
Hence
N^N.P.R Lim -_-_**
vol.
_

71

= Lim (#, + kxf = 1,
v

a

vol.

and consequently

Lim

vol.

^.

48

= 1.

vol.

Therefore the volume of the slice differs from that of the cylinder by an infinitesimal of higher order than that of either (2), and
therefore the limit of the

sum

same

as that of the
finally,

sum

of the

of the volumes of the slices is the volumes of the cylinders ( 3).

Hence,

vol.

CKLD = Lim ir^xf^y = TT

I

x*dy.

(1)

It is evident that the result is not invalidated
lies

if

either

L

or

K

on OY.

Similarly, the volume generated by revolving about OX a figure bounded by OX, two straight lines x = a and x = b(a I), and curve not crossing OX is any
&amp;lt;

TT

f
Ja

fdx.

(2)

To evaluate either of these integrals it is of course necessary express x in terms of y, or y in terms of x, or both x and y terms of a new variable, from the equation of the curve. The volume of a solid generated by a plane figure of other
than that just handled

to

in

shape
or

may

often be found by taking the

sum

the difference of two such volumes as the foregoing.
Ex. Find the volume of the ring solid gen erated by revolving a circle of radius a about an axis in its plane 6 units from the center (b a).
&amp;gt;

Take the axis of revolution as OF (fig. 24) and a line through the center as OX. Then the 2 2 2 equation of the circle is (x b) + y = a The volume required is the difference between the volume generated by CLEKD and that generated by CLFKD. But the volume generated by CLEKD is 7r where xi = b + vV2 - y*, and the volume generated j_ X\dy
.

t

by

CLFKD

is TT

J

C* xfdy where
a

z2

=

b

- Va2 -

y\

72

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
is

Therefore the required volume
a
TT

J-a

C P x fdy-TT J-* x\$dy = v J ~

C&quot;

(x*

a

-xftdy

38.

Volume

of

a solid with parallel bases.

Fig.

25 represents a

is drawn perpen line solid with parallel bases. The straight at A, where y a, and dicular to the bases, cutting the lower base of x may be any line I. base at 7?, where y (The axis

OY

=

the upper

=

but it perpendicular to OY, not shown in the figure and

is
is

not needed in the discussion.) Let the line AB be divided into

n

to parts each equal

-

-

= Ay,

and

let planes be passed through each point of division parallel to the bases of the solid. Let A Q be the area of the lower base

of

the

solid,

A^ the area

of the

first section parallel to the base, A the area of the second sec
2

tion,

being the area of the section next below

and

so on,

An _

l

the

upper

base.

Then

^4

Ay

of a cyl represents the volume inder with base equal to A Q and volume of a cylinder represents the altitude equal to Ay, as a base and extending to the section standing on the next section next above, and so forth. It is clear that

A^y

4, Ay
is

+ ^ Ay + 4, Ay +
of

+ ^ n _iAy
the
solid,

an approximation to the volume

and that the limit
of the solid.

of this

sum

as

n

is the indefinitely increases

volume

That

this is rigorously true

may

to that of the previous article.

be shown by a discussion similar That is, the required volume is

Ua

VOLUME OF A SOLID WITH PARALLEL BASES
To

73

terms of
variable.

find the value of this integral it is necessary to express in or both and y in terms of some other independent y,

A

A

This

is

for eacli solid.

The

a problem of geometry which must be solved solids of revolution are special cases. It is clear

that the previous discussion is valid if the upper base reduces to a point, i.e. if the solid simply touches a plane parallel to its base. Similarly, both bases may reduce to points.
Ex. 1. Two ellipses with equal major axes are placed with their equal axes coinciding and their planes perpendicular. A variable ellipse moves so that its center is on the common axis of the given ellipses, the plane of the moving
ellipse

being perpendicular to those of the given

ellipses.

Required the volume

of the solid generated.

FIG. 26

Let the given ellipses be ABA B (fig. 26) with semiaxes OA = a and OB = 6, ACA C with semiaxes OA = a and 0(7 = c, and let the common axis be OX. Let be one position of the moving ellipse with the center P where OP = x. Then if A is the area of

and

NMN M

NMN M

,

=
But from the

TT

PM-PN.

(by

35,

Ex.

1)

ellipse

ABA B
7-2

+

b2

and from the

ellipse

A CA C

-

PN
-j

a2

~~c?~

Therefore

be PM.PN=(a -x
2

2
).

Consequently the required volume
7T&C

is

-a a2

The

solid

is

called an ellipsoid

(

86, Ex. 5).

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
Ex.
angles.
2.

The axes

of

two equal right circular cylinders intersect at right

Required the volume

common

to the cylinders.

be the axes and Let (fig. 27) their common per of the cylinders, pendicular at their point of intersection 0, and a the radius of the base of each

OA

OB

OF

cylinder.

Then

the

figure

represents

one eighth of the required volume V. A plane passed perpendicular to OF intersects at a distance 0^ y from the solid in a square, of which one side

A

is

NP = VoP - ON =
2
2

a2

-

y

2
.

Therefore

and

39.

The prismoidal formula. The formula

F=

a simple and important result in those cases in which A can be not greater than 3. Let expressed as a polynomial in y of degree

I

b

us place

A=

a
of the solid.

and take 0, for convenience, in the lower base if h is the altitude of the solid,

Then

= p
J

(a Q y*

+a

a 8 ) dy

If

now we

place
base,

B

for the area of the lower base, I for the area

of the

upper tween the bases,

and we have

M

for the area of the section

midway be

The formula

for

V then

becomes

V = -(B6

This

is

known

as the prismoidal formula.

LENGTH OF A PLANE CURVE
To show
above.
its applicability to

75

a given solid,

that the area of a cross section of the solid

The most important and frequent quadratic polynomial in y. In this way the student may show that the formula applies to frustra of pyramids, prisms, wedges,

we need only to show may be expressed as cases are when A is a

cones, cylinders, spheres, or solids of revolution in which the gen erating curve is a portion of a conic with one axis parallel to the

and also to the complete solids just named. The formula takes its name, however, from its applicability to the solid called the prismoid, which we define as a solid having for its two ends dissimilar plane polygons with the same number of sides and the corresponding sides parallel, and for its lateral
axis of revolution,
faces trapezoids.*

Furthermore, the formula

two of whose whose lateral

is applicable to a more general solid, faces are plane polygons lying in parallel planes and faces are triangles with their vertices in the vertices

of these polygons.

Finally, if the number of sides of the polygons of the last defined solid is allowed to increase without limit, the solid goes

over into a solid whose bases are plane curves in parallel planes and whose curved surface is generated by a straight line which

touches each of the base curves.
applies (see

To such a

solid the

formula also

91, Ex.
is

5).

extensively used by in computing earthworks. engineers
40. Length of a plane curve in rec

The formula

tangular coordinates. To find the length of any curve AB (fig. 28), assume n l

%_ lt between A and B and connect each pair of consecutive points by a straight line. The length
points, JJ, 7J,
,

FIG. 28

of

AB

is

then defined as the limit of the

sum
n
is

n chords AP ly limit and the length
the
(I,

P^ P
of

2 P^&amp;gt;

.,

J^^B

as

of the lengths of increased without

each chord approaches zero as a limit

104).
*

The

ih:it

which connects the

definition of the prismoid is variously given by different authors. solid most closely with the prism.

We

76

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
Let the coordinates of J? be
(x.,

y^ + Ay).

Then the length

of the

y ) and those of J?+1 be (x.+ Aa;, chord 7^+1 is V(Aa;) 2 + (A?/) 2 and
z

,

the length of AB is the limit of the sum of the lengths of the n chords as n increases indefinitely. But V(A) 2 + (Ay) 2 is an infini
tesimal which differs
infinitesimal of higher order.

from the infinitesimal Vcta? -f dy* by an For

Lim

&amp;gt;l

Now

if a; is

the independent variable,

the independent variable,
_

Lim
-

-7-

=1

Hence Lim

= 1.

Therefore

length of the curve, we may replace V(A^) Therefore if s is the length of AB, we have
2

_
^x
(4).
(

dx (4);

if a; is

not

Also Lim ~--=.-j-.
3),

in

finding

the
.

2

+ (Ay)

2

2 1 by ^/dx + dy

y

,

(1)

where (J) and (5) denote the values of the independent variable for the points A and B respectively. If x is the independent variable, and the abscissas of A and B are a and b respectively, (1) becomes
d y\ = \c \^ + / dx \dx/ Ja N
)

-

( v

2)

v

If

are c

y is the independent variable, and the values and d respectively, (1) becomes

of

y at

A

and

-jR
If a? and y are expressed in terms of an independent parameter t, and the values of t for A and B respectively are t and t lt (I) be comes / \ 2 TTTi
,&amp;gt;/

/

7

LENGTH OF A PLANE CURVE
Ex.
point
1.

77
to the

Find the length of the parabola y 2

= 4px

from the vertex

(A, k).

Formula

(2)

gives

s

= =

I

\
I

Jo
s

\
r
k

----- dx. c
.

Formula

(3) gives

| 2p Jo

vy

8

Either integral leads to the result

Ex.

2.

Find the length of an
equation of the ellipse
axis,

ellipse.

x2
If the
is

--

7/

2

\-

-

=

1,

and we measure the arc from the

end of the minor

we have

where
then

e

=

;

-s=
4
,

1

ra
I

2

Jo

-\

\

a2

- && ^ dx. - x2
Let us place x

the eccentricity of the ellipse.

=

asin&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;;

i

s

=

a f
t/O

2

Vl-

e2 sin 2

d0.

The

We
(

therefore expand

31,

Ex. 4)

Vl-

_
thus
e2

indefinite integral

Vl
-i

cannot be found in terms of elementary functions. into a series by the binomial theorem e2 sin 2

sin 2

0= 1-

-e 2 sin 2

--&amp;lt;

This series converges for
2

all

values of 0, since e 2 sin 2

&amp;lt;

1;

then

-e* f sin 2 0d0e4 2 Jo 2-4 Jo

f\\n*&amp;lt;t&amp;gt;d&amp;lt;t&amp;gt;

--i^-e6
2-4-6

Jo

f sm60d0 ---- \
J

2

The length
accuracy.

of the ellipse

may now

be computed to any required degree of

41. Length of a plane curve in polar coordinates.
8

The formula

= r
I

(/?)
,

-Jdof+dy*

J(A)
of

40 may be transferred to polar coordinates by placing

x

= r cos 6,

y

= r sin 6.

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
Then
dx

= cos 6 dr r sin 6 dd, dy = sin 6 dr -f r cos dO

}

and
Therefore

=/
/3

(1)

J(A)

If 6 is

the independent variable, and the values of 6 for
respectively, (1)

A

and

B

are a

and

becomes
I

C

ft

2

=1
If r is the

NT

+

U
A
(r
dr.

/dr

(2)

are

a and

b respectively, (1)

independent variable, and the values of r for becomes
1 -f

and

dr

)

(3)

42.

The

differential of arc.

From

it

follows

(

9) that

ds

=
t

(1)

This relation between the differentials of x y, and s is often rep resented by the triangle of fig. 29. This figure is convenient as a
device for memorizing formula should be borne in mind that
rigorously equal to dy
rigorously equal to
ds.
(

(1),

but
is

it

RQ
nor

not

5),

In

fact,

PQ RQ = Ay
is

and PQ = As, but since Ay and As differ from dy and ds respectively by infinitesi mals of higher order, the use of RQ as dy and of PQ as ds is justified by the
theorems
used as a plane right triangle, we have an easy method of recalling the formulas
of
3.

If

now

the triangle of

fig.

29

is

dx
as

= cos
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;,

AREA OF A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION
Similarly, from
s

79

=
u
2
,

we

find
is

ds=^dr +r2 d02

(2)

which

is the arc where suggested by the triangle of fig. 30, the arc of a circle with radius OP=r. This curve and of any used as a straight-line figure, also gives the formulas figure, if

PQ

PR

tan

^=

rdO
&amp;gt;

cos

dr
. .

Y = as

dr

sin

= rdd
ds
of revolu
is

43.
tion.

Area of a surface

A
AB

surface of revolution

a

FIG. 30

surface generated
of

by the revolution a plane curve around an axis in

its

plane

(

37).

Let the

curve

-, P _^ n P^ and connect each pair of consecutive points by between A and B, a straight line. These lines are omitted in the figure since they are so nearly coincident with the arcs. The surface generated by

revolve about (fig. 31) surface generated, assume of the

OY
n

as an axis.
1 points, J^,

To

find the area

P

2,

AB
the

is

then defined as the limit of the

sum
by
as

of the areas of the surfaces generated

n chords

AP

lt

J?JJ,

PP
2
3

,

,

P_ B n
v

n
of

increases without limit

and the length
lateral sur

each chord approaches zero as a limit.

Each chord generates the

face of a frustum of a right circular cone,

X
of Pi
t

the area of which

may

mentary geometry. be (x it y ) and those of Jf+l be (x + A#, y + Ay). Then the has for the radius of the frustum of the cone generated by i+l for the radius of the lower base N^, and for base upper i+l lf +l) is therefore equal to its slant height J-P i+r Its lateral area
i
t

be found by ele Let the coordinates

%P

N

T

1^PP
But

=x

80

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY

Therefore the lateral area of the frustum of the cone equals

\

This

is

an infinitesimal which

differs

from

= 2 Trx.ds
by an infinitesimal of higher order, and therefore the area gener ated by A B is the limit of the sum of an infinite number of these terms. Hence, if we represent the required area by S we have y
,

/(
\

xds.

(1)

J(A)

To evaluate the
x, or express x

integral,

we must

either express ds in terms of

and ds in terms

of y, or express both

x and ds in

terms of some other independent variable. Similarly, the area generated by revolving
yds.

AB

OX is
(2)

XCB)
.
[&amp;gt;

Ex. Find the area of the ring surface of the Ex.,

37.

The equation

of the generating curve
(x

is
2

-

2

6)

+
2

z/

=

a2

,

and

ds

= Jl + (^} dy = V /
the

a
2

-

dy.
2

LFK (fig.

The required area is 24). Hence

sum

of the areas generated

by the arcs
dii y

LEK &nd

Sy

=

27T

va(xi +

ra

CL

a;*)
-v//-2

_ 1/2

dy

=

fa
4 irab
I
&quot;

= 4 7T2 a6.
0/2

a

-&amp;gt;Jri^.

PROBLEMS
1
.

2.

Find the area bounded by the axis of x and the parabola x 2 - 16 x + 4 y = 0. Find the area included between a parabola and the tangents at the ends
(The equation of the parabola referred to these tangents
(I,

of the latus rectum.

as axes
3.

is

x*

+

y*

=

a*

69).)

3

Find the

total area

bounded by the witch y

= ~7 2

2 ^~

and

its

asymptote

PROBLEMS
a Find the area bounded by the catenary y - (e 4- e h. lines x = the 2 4 = a 2& 2 x 2 4 2 5. Find the total area of the curve a y + &

81
n
f

x

-\
j,

4.

the axis of x,

and

.

6.

2 2 Find the area bounded by the curve x i/

x,

7. Find the area bounded by the curve and the axis of y.

+a 2 62 = a 2 y 2 and its asymptotes. 2 2 - ), the axis of 2 y(x + a = a (a
)

8.

units

Find the area of a segment of a from the center.
Find the area contained

a cut

off

by a chord h

9.

in the loop of the curve
2 2

y2
2

= X 2 (a its

x).

10.
11.

Find the area bounded by the curve y

(x

+

a

2
)

=

a x2 and

asymptotes.

Show

that the area bounded

by the hyperbola
is

^ ^
log f
I

-

=

1,

the axis of x,

and the diameter through PI (Xi, y t ) on the curve
Find the area bounded by the tractrix y the axis of x, and the axis of y.
12. 13.

+
-^j.
y-|2

= - log -*y

-y

_

J&quot;2

-

^ 2-z
i

2
&amp;gt;

x

= +
y
i

a(&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

Find the area between the axis of x and one arch of the cycloid - sin0), y = a (I cos&amp;lt;).

14. Find

the areas of each of the two portions into which the circle
is

X2

=

8

divided

2 by the parabola y

-

2x
2

15.

Find the area bounded by the parabola x

= -

0.

4y

=

and the straight

line

3x-2y

- 4=0.
bounded by the parabolas
y*

16. Find the area of the figure

=

18 x

and

2 17. Find the area between the parabola x

18. Find the total area of the lemniscate

8o3 = 4 ay and the witch y = 4 a8 ga r2 = 2 a2 cos 2 6.
,

and two

19. In the hyperbolic spiral r6 = a show that the area bounded by the spiral radii vectors is proportional to the difference of the length of the radii.

20. Find the area traversed
r

of the spiral of

Archimedes
from

=

first

revolution.
r=asec&amp;lt;9

21

Find the area described by the radius vector of

22. Find the total area of the cardioid r

23. Find the area of the Iima5on r 24.
25.
26. 27.

+ cos0). + 6 when b a. Find the area bounded by the curves r = a cos 30 and r = Find the area of a loop of the curve r2 = a2 cos nO. Find the area of a loop of the curve r = a sin n0. Find the area of a loop of the curve r cos0 = a cos 20.
a(l

=

=

a cos0

&amp;gt;

a.

82

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
=
2 2
)

by

28. Find the area of the loop of the curve r2 the initial line. 29. Find the total area of the curve (x 2

a2 cos 2

cos

which

is

bisected

+

y

=
+

4 a 2x 2

+

4 6 2 ?/ 2

.

(Transform (Transform

to polar coordinates.)
2 30. Find the area of the loop of the curve (x 2 3
?/
)

=

4 a-x 2 y 2

.

to polar coordinates.)

31. Find the volume generated by revolving about OY the surface bounded by the coordinate axes and the curve x* + yl = ai 32. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about OF the plane surface bounded by OF and the hypocycloid x* + y\$ a*.
33. Find the volume of the solid formed

OX the
OF

figure

bounded by the catenary y

=

-

(e

+

e~

),

the axis of x, and the lines x

=

h.

34. Find the volume of the solid
figure

bounded by the witch y

=

x2

--

the plane

+

and the

line

4 a2

y

=

a

35. Find the volume of the solid formed
figure

bounded by the

cissoid

2
?/

=

2a -

OX the

plane

,

the line x

=

x

a,

and the axis

of x

36. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about of the circle x2 + y 2 = a2 cut off by the chord x = h.

OF a segment

37. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving a semicircle of radius a around an axis parallel to the boundary diameter of the semicircle, (1) when the arc of the semicircle is concave toward the axis; (2) when the arc is convex toward the axis.
38. Find the volume of the solid formed

by revolving an

ellipse

around

its

major

axis.

39. Find the volume of the ring surface formed

by revolving the

ellipse

a2

+

=
62

1

around OY(d

&amp;gt;

a).

40. Find the volume of the solid generated
face bounded

line

OX the
OF the
=

sur

by the hyperbola

^L

=

i

and the

a2

62

x

=

a

+

h.

41. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about
face

sur
y.

bounded by the hyperbola

a2
62

=

1,

the lines y

=

h.

and the axis of
line
,

42. Find the volume of the solid formed the figure bounded by the curve y
line

x=

y

a

= sin x,

the lines

and x = -

and the

y=

a.

43. Find the volume generated by revolving about the axis of x the figure bounded by the parabola y 2 = 4 px and the line x = h.

44. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about OF the bounded by the parabola y 2 = 4_px, the axis of y, and the line y=h.

figure

PROBLEMS
the figure bounded

83
a
h.

45. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about the line x 1 by that line, the parabola y = 4 px, and the lines y =
&quot;by

46. Find the volume of the solid formed the figure bounded by the parabola y 2 47.

= Ipx and

revolving about the line x the line x = h(a h).
&amp;gt;

=

a

A right circular cone has

its

vertex at the center of the sphere.

Find the

volume of the portion of the sphere intercepted by the cone.
48.

A steel band is placed around a cylindrical boiler. A cross
a semiellipse,
of the
its

section of the

axes being 6 and Vc in. respectively, the greater being parallel to the axis of the boiler. The diameter of the boiler is 48 in. What is

band
the

is

volume

band

?

r

=

49. Find the volume of the solid generated a(l + cos0) about the initial line.

by revolving the cardioid

50. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about bounded by the axes of coordinates and the tractrix. 51. Prove

OY the

figure

by the method

of

38 that the volume of a cone with any base

is

equal to the product of one third the altitude by the area of the base.
52. Prove that the volume of a right conoid is equal to one half the product and its altitude. (A conoid is a surface generated by a moving straight line which remains parallel to a fixed plane and intersects a fixed straight line.
of its base

moving line is perpendicular to the fixed line, the conoid is a right conoid. The base is then the section made by a plane parallel to the fixed line, and the altitude is the distance of the fixed line from the plane of the base.)
If the

53.

On

the double ordinate of the ellipse

x2
\-

y2 -

=1

an

a2

ft

2

isosceles triangle is

constructed with its altitude equal to the length of the ordinate. Find the volume generated as the triangle moves along the axis of the ellipse from vertex to vertex.
54. Find the volume cut

the center of the base

from a right circular cylinder by a plane through making an angle with the plane of the base.

55. Find the volume of the wedge-shaped solid cut from a right circular cylinder by two planes which pass through a diameter of the upper base and are tangent to the lower base. 56. Two circular cylinders with the same altitude have the upper base in common. Their other bases are tangent at the point where the perpendicular from the center of the upper base meets the plane of the lower bases. Find the volume common to the cylinders. 57.

Two

parabolas have a

common vertex and

a

common

axis but

lie

in per

moves with its center on the common axis, its plane perpendicular to the axis, and its vertices on the parabolas. Find the volume generated when the ellipse has moved to a distance h from the com
pendicular planes.
ellipse

An

mon

vertex of the parabolas.

58. cylinder passes through great circles of a sphere which are at right angles to each other. Find the common volume.

A

84
59.

APPLICATIONS TO GEOMETRY
A
variable circle moves so that one point
is

always on

OY

its

center

is

always on the

x2
ellipse
\-

y2
-

=

a2 b2 Required the volume of the solid generated.

1,

and

its

plane

is

always perpendicular to OY.

60. Two equal four-cusped hypocycloids are placed with their planes per pendicular and the straight line joining two opposite cusps of one in coinci dence with a similar line in the other. A variable square moves with its plane

perpendicular to this line and
of the solid generated.

its

vertices in the

two curves.

Find the volume

61.

Two

equal ellipses are placed with their major axes in coincidence and

their planes perpendicular. straight line moves so as always to intersect the ellipses and to be parallel to a plane perpendicular to their common axis. Find

A

the volume inclosed
62.

variable rectangle other in the circle x 2 + y2 =
,

by the surface generated. moves so that one side has one end in OY and the a?. The ratio of the other side of the rectangle to the one mentioned is - and the plane of the rectangle is perpendicular to OF.

A

Required the volume of the solid generated.
63. The cap of a stone post is a solid of which every horizontal cross section a square. The corners of all the squares lie in a spherical surface of radius 8 in. with its center 4 in. above the plane of the base. Find the volume of the cap.
is

64. Find the length of the semicubical parabola y 2 the point for which x = h.
65. Find the length of the curve y

=

x 3 from the vertex to

=

e

log

ex

from x
I

=

1 to

x

=

2.

66. Find the total length of the four-cusped hypocycloid x 5 67. Find the length of the catenary from x
68. Find the length of the tractrix y

+

y*

= at.

=
a

to

x

=

h.

=

2

log

~
\b,

x

= htox =

a.

- Va 2 -

x2

69. Find the entire length of the curve
70. 71.

f-V + (-\*=1.
(aj
(x

Find the length of the curve

2
y&quot;

=

2 p) 3

from x

= 2p
=
a(0

to

x

=

h.

Find the length from cusp
cos0).

to cusp of

the cycloid x

y

=

sin0),

a(l

72. 73.

Find the length of the epicycloid from cusp

to cusp.

y

=

Find the length of the involute of a = to = 0i. a sin a0 cos from

circle

x

=

a cos

+ a0

sin 0,

74.
If the

From a
is

spool of thread 2 in. in diameter three turns are

unwound.

held constantly tight, what

is

the length of the path described

by

its

end

?

of a suspension bridge hangs in the form of a parabola. The lowest point of the cable is 50 ft. above the water, and the points of suspension are 100 ft. above the water and 1000 ft. apart. Find the length of the cable. 75.

The cable

PROBLEMS
is

85

76. Show that the length of the logarithmic spiral between any two points proportional to the difference of the radii vectors of the points.
f\

77.

Find the length of the curve r

=

a cos 4 - from the point in which the
f\

curve intersects the
78.

initial line to the pole.

Find the complete length of the curve r

a sin 8 -.
3

Find the length of the cardioid r = a (I + cos0). 80. Find the area of a zone of a sphere bounded by the intersections of the sphere with two parallel planes at distances ^i and h from the center.
79.
2 portion of the parabola y

81. Find the area of the curved surface formed by revolving about = 4 px between x = and x = h.

OX the

82. Find the area of the curved surface of the catenoid formed

by revolving
h and x

OX the portion of the catenary y =
. ,

(e&quot;

+e

a

)

between x

=

=

h.

83. Find the area of the surface formed

=

log 2 a
.

u.

a

a
u,

x2 fr + Va - - v a2 2 - x2 - Va
-f *
i*

-

OY the

tractrix

2

/

;

x2 .

84

Find the area of the surface formed by revolving about

OY the hypocycloid

x

by revolving an arch of the cycloid sin0), y = a (I a(0 cos0) about OX. 86. Find the surface area of the oblate spheroid formed by revolving an ellipse about its minor axis.

85. Find the area of the surface formed

=

87. Find the surface area of the prolate spheroid formed
ellipse

by revolving an
initial line

around

its

major

axis.

88. Find the area of the surface formed the cardioid r
89.

=

a

(I

+

cos 6).
initial line

Find the area of the surface formed by revolving about the

the lemniscate r 2

=

2 a 2 cos 2

0.

CHAPTEE V
APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS
44. Work. The application of the definite integral to determine the work done in moving a body in a straight line against a force 21. Problems for the in the same direction has been shown in

student will be found at the end of this chapter. The case of a body moving in a curve, or acted on by forces not in the direction of the motion, is treated in Chap. XIV.
45. Attraction.

Two

particles of matter of masses

m

x

and

m

2

respectively, separated
(YY)

by

a distance
is

r,

attract each other with a

force equal to

Jc

^
wyi

&amp;gt;

where k

a constant which depends upon

the units of force, distance, and mass. units are so chosen that k = 1.

We

shall

assume that the

Let
of

it

now

mass

m

be required to find the attraction of a material body upon a particle of unit mass situated at a point A. Let

the body be divided into n elements, the mass of each of which may be represented by Am, and let J? be a point at which the mass of

one element

may

be considered as concentrated.

Then the
&amp;gt;

attrac

tion of this element

on the particle

at

A
of

is

where r
cos

{

= P A,
L

and
6[

its

component in the direction

OX

is

it

where

the angle between the directions JF*A and OX. The whole body, therefore, exerts upon the particle at A an attraction whose
is

component in the direction

OX is

equal to
-*
{

Lim
7i

= co

V
i=\

Am.

If

now

cos 6[., r

.,

and

Am may
\

be expressed in terms of a single

independent variable,
-.-

we
^

have, for this
COS
i
C7.

Lim
W=C

.

tr=l

V ^ Am = J
80

/

|

component, COS0 7 v^-v/o v am, 5

ATTRACTION
where the limits

87

of integration are the values of the independent variable so chosen that the summation extends over the entire

body.

The manner

in

which

this

may

be done in some cases

is

illustrated in the following example.

Find the attraction of a uniform wire of length I and mass on a par unit mass situated in a straight line perpendicular to one end of the wire and at a distance a from it.
Ex.
ticle of

m

Let the wire OL (fig. 32) be placed in the axis of y with one end at the origin, and let the particle of unit mass be at A on the axis of x where A Divide OL into a.

n

parts, 03fi, 3fi3f2 , 3f2 3f3

,

,

3fn _ i i, each equal to

-

Ay.

Then,

if

p is the

mass per unit
3/4
,

of length of the wire, the mass of each element is pAy A?M. shall consider

=

We

//.

the mass of each element as concentrated at
this
its

/

,-

^

,

first

point,

and

shall

in

way

obtain

an approximate ex-

_

pression for the attraction due to the element, this approximation being the
better, the smaller
is

A
l

Ay.

The

attraction of the element 3/ -3/,- + i on

A

is

then approximately

The component

of this attraction in the direction

OX is

and the component

in the direction

Y is
i

m sin
Then,
the total
if

rMir = (JAM
(a
2

X

is

the total

component

parallel to

component of the attraction OF, we have i=n-l

parallel to

OX, and

Y

y
To
verify this

^Ay
2

=
)

l

+

2 3
2/

p

r

^o(

we may show

that the true attraction of

MiM

i

+l
,

differs

from

the approximate attraction, which we have used, by an infinitesimal of higher order. Let I be the true x-component of the attraction of 7X the approx { Mi + 1 imate attraction found by assuming that the whole mass of 31,-3/i .V,. 1 is at

M

+

88

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS

and J2 the approximate attraction found by assuming that the whole mass of I /i; that is, -2 1. But is at Jfi + i. Then, evidently, I2
&amp;lt; &amp;lt;
&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

M

*1

Ay
-

pato
,

and

(a

2

+

Vi 1

Ay )2] |

^= [
Jj

2

+

*t
J + Ay )2]!

Therefore

La2

4&quot;

(Vi

Lim

=

and Lim

=

1.

Hence

Ii differs

from I by an

infinitesimal of higher

order ( 2), and may therefore be used in place of I in finding the limit of a sum (3). A similar discussion may be given for the y-component. To evaluate the integrals for X and F, place y = a tan 6. Then, if

a = tan- x - = OAL.
a

X
since
If

cos a Jo
i I

dd

=

- sin a
P

a

at

7

sin

or,

P T=a
Zp

=
is

ra sin0d0 Jo

-(1 av

cos a)

=

wi
:(! ar

cos a),

m.
the magnitude of the resultant attraction and
/3

R

the angle

which

its

line of action

makes with OX,

/3

=

tan- !

,

X

F=

tan- 1

t

1

-

cos

a

=

sin

a

- a. 2

1

46. Pressure. in a liquid at a

uniform depth

Consider a plane surface of area A^4 immersed The of h units below the surface.
of liquid of

submerged surface supports a column the weight of which is wh&A, where liquid) is the weight of a unit volume is the total pressure on the immersed
unit of area
is

volume h&A,

w

(a

of the liquid.

constant for a given This weight

surface.

The pressure per

then

which

is

independent of the

size of

AA We

may

accordingly

think of

&A

as infinitesimal

and define

wli as the pressure at a

point h units below the surface. By the laws of hydrostatics this pressure is exerted equally in all directions. may accord

We

ingly determine the pressure on plane surfaces which do not lie parallel to the surface of the liquid in the following manner. Let be in the surface of the liquid, and OH, for which (fig. 33)

OX

the positive direction is downward, be the axis of li. Consider a surface bounded by a portion of OH, two horizontal

ABCD

PRESSURE
lines

89

Divide

and BC(h

= b),

x=f(h).

AB

and a curve with the equation

into
-

n segments,

AMV

M^M^

MM
Z

S,

-,

M

n

_l

B

)

each equal to

n

= AA,

and

draw a Hue
parallel
to

M^ through
OX.
Consider
i

each point

M

i

now

the ele
i

ment

of area

M

{

I?J?+ l

M + v where M^ = x
i+l

=/(/*,).

Its area is
{

tangle with base
line

between
is

M P and M
t

MM
{

equal to that of a rec

and

altitude

some
24),

i+l l*+1 (5,

and
&amp;lt;

therefore equal to (xt

+ ej AA, where

c Ax. The pressure on the element would be wh (x + e.) AA, if all points of FIG. 33 =h the element were at the depth and would be w(k -\- Ah)(x -j-e^AA, if all points were at the depth Consequently, the pressure on J^Jf+1 i} 1 is plus an infinitesimal of higher order. Therefore the total pressure P on the area ABCD is
i

i

i

M

i

t,

{

i

M

i

M

_

P = Lim Y
==

=n-l

s*b

s*b

=

/

^ajrfA

=w

I

/

7if(h)dh.

*/a
it

The modification

of this result necessary to adapt

to areas
is

of slightly different shapes is easily

total pressure

exemplified in the following example.
Ex. Find the

on a verti

cal circular area, a being the radius of the circle and 6 the depth of the center.

In 34 let OC =6, CA = CK = a, OM = h, MN = Ah. Then OA = b - a, OB = b + a, LK=2 MK= 2 ^a?-(h - &)
fig.

2

,

and the pressure on the strip LKIG is 2wh\/a 2 -(h -6) 2 AA, except for an infin
itesimal of higher order. Therefore the total pressure on the circle is

_a

Va 2 -

(h

b

2

6)

Mh.
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

To

integrate, place h
JT

=

a sin

;

then

= 2w C ^

90
If the

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS
equation of the curve
c

CD

(fig.

33)

is

x =f(y), referred to

an origin at a depth OY perpendicular parallel and on ABCD may be shown to be
pressure

below the surface

the liquid, being to the surface of the liquid, the
of

OX

of A and B respectively. being the y coordinates the circle formula is used in .the example, the center of If this of coordinates, we have being taken as the origin

a and

I

=2w f
J
a

(6

47

m

of masses z lt Center of gravity. Consider n particles P (%2 y z ), P (x 8 y s ), -, 8 at the points P^(x v y^ 2 -, n placed form 35 ) respectively. The weights of these particles fi 20 ( gof parallel forces equal to a system
,

m m

m

,

,

,

Pi

p

where g is -, n g, s g, 2 g, mtf, the acceleration due to gravity. The resultant of these forces is the total
weight

m

m

W of the n
&amp;gt;

particles,

where

H-----h

mg
n

ff

=a

m...

FIG. 35

This resultant acts in a line which about tion that the moment of

is is

determined by the condi
equal to the

W

sum

of the

moments

weights. that gravity acts parallel to OY, and thatthe line in a point the abscissa of which is x. Then cuts of action of and the moment of one of the is about the moment of f

of the
first

n

Suppose

W
g

OX

W

gx^ m

i

n weights Hence

is

m^.
g*^&amp;gt;i=*9

to OX, the line of action of the Similarly, if gravity acts parallel in a point the ordinate of which is y, where resultant cuts

OF

CENTER OF GRAVITY
These two lines
of

91

of action intersect in the point G, the coordinates

which

are

Furthermore,
to either

OX

gravity acts in the or OY, the line of action of
if

XO Y plane,
its

but not parallel

through G.

This

may

be shown by

resultant always passes resolving the weight of eacli

and respectively, two components parallel to particle into the resultant of each set of components in the manner just finding
shown, and then combining these two resultants. plane, it may still If gravity acts in a direction not in the acts through G, but the proof requires be shown that its resultant

OX

Y

XOY

a knowledge of space geometry not yet given in this course.

of gravity of the n imrticles. If it is desired to find the center of gravity of a physical body, the problem may be formulated very roughly at first by saying that of an infinite number of particles of matter is made the

The point

G

is called the center

body

up

each with an infinitesimal weight hence the formulas for the co ordinates of G must be extended to the case in which n is infinite.
;

More

in question

solution of the problem is as follows. The body precisely, the is divided into n elementary portions such that the

weight of each within it. If m

may
is

be considered as concentrated at a point the total mass of the body, the mass of each
t ,

element

coordi may be represented by Aw. Then if (x ?/,) are the nates of the point at which the mass of the iih element is concen the equations trated, the center of gravity of the body is given by

x

= Lim and

i

y

= Lim

Am

can be expressed in forms of a single inde these values become pendent variable,
In case x it
y.^
I

Am

L_,
I

x dm

I

dm

y^-dm
I

y

dm
(2)

92

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS

of integration are the values of the independent so chosen that the summation extends over the entire variable body.
It is to

where the limits

be noticed that

it
i

is

not necessary, nor indeed always
3,

possible, to

determine xi9 y exactly, since, by

Lim 2* (#i +

.)

Am = Lim V x

--j3

-ns
zero.

i

Am,

if e^

approaches zero as

Am

approaches

The manner in which the operation thus sketched may be car ried out in some cases is shown in the following articles. Discus sion of the most general cases, however, must be postponed until
after the subjects of double

and triple integration are taken up. 48. Center of gravity of a plane curve. When we speak of the center of gravity of a plane curve we are to think of the curve as
the axis of a rod, or wire, of uniform small cross section.

Let

(fig. 36) be such a curve, and let p be the amount of matter per unit of

LK

length of the wire which surrounds LK. That is, if s is the length of the wire

and
o

m

is its

mass,

we have

for a

homo-

Am = = a p
As
for a

constant

;

and

nonhomogeneous wire

Lim -T
.

Am = dm = = a - p
As
ds

.

.

.

function of

s.

The curve may now be divided
each being As and
applied by placing
I

into elements of arc, the length of
(2) of

its

mass Am, and formulas

47 may be

whence

x = --I

pxds

I

&amp;gt;

---y=
I

py ds
p ds

(1)

pds

The
for

limits of integration are the values of the independent variable

L

and K.

CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A PLANE CURVE
If

93

p

is

constant, these formulas

become

sx

=

I

x ds,

sy=

\

y ds,

(2)

where
Ex.

s is

the length of

LK.
circle

1.

Find the center of gravity of a quarter circumference of the
a 2 which
,

x2

+

y

2

=

lies in

the

first

dy*

We

have

ds

= Vdz2 +
x ds

= -dx =
I

-dy.

/r /n
=
(I

Jm

a dy

a2

,

yds=
s

a dx

=

a2

,

I

and

=

ira
i

a quarter circumference.

Hence

x

=

y

= 2a
of the

The problem may
circle

also be solved

by using the parametric equations
7T

x

=

a cos 0, y

=

a sin

0.

Then

fx ds

a2 f

2

cos

d0

= =

a2

,

f y ds = a2 f
Therefore
x

a2

.

=

y

=
7T

,

as before.

Find the center of gravity of a quarter circumference of a circle when of matter in a unit of length is proportional to the length of the arc measured from one extremity. We have here p = ks, where k is constant. Therefore, if we use the para
Ex.
2.

the

amount

metric equations of the circle,

__

/r
pxds
I

_

sxds = = = J__ _ a
!

c
J_o

2

a 3 0cos0d0

_

(* TT

-

8)

a

b

/.Csyds
|

/;
2

ipyds

a
**

fpds

fsds

94

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS

49. Center of gravity of a plane area. By the center of gravity of a plane area we mean the center of gravity of a thin sheet of

matter having the plane area as its middle section. We shall first assume
is of the form of fig. 37, bounded by the axis of x, the being curve yf(%), and two ordinates. Divide the area into n elements by n l ordinates which divide AB into n parts each equal to A#. We de

that the area

note by p the mass per unit area. That is, if A is the area and the

m

mass,

we have

for a

homogeneous sheet of matter

Am = = a p
and
for a

constant

;

nonhomogeneous sheet
.Lim
T
.

of

matter
.

Am = dm = = a p
dA

,,

variable.

Hence

in (2),

47,

we

place

dm = p dA = py dx,
since for the area in question

dA = y dx

((1),

35).

Consider

now any one

of the

elements

MNQP,

where
lines

OM = x,
PR
&amp;gt;

ON = x + Aa?, MP = y, NQ = y + Ay,
QS
parallel to

and draw the

and

OX. The mass

of the rectangle

MNRP
x
-

may
y\ }

be con-

+ (A
Accordingly the mass of
at a point

x
-

)

and the
A?/\

(A^c
MNQP may be considered
2&amp;gt;

#H

- vH

f

-

)

as concentrated

nates

MP

which lies above G v below G and between the ordi and NQ. The coordinates of any such point may be
(

expressed as

x

-f-

p&x,

+

q

where
-)&amp;gt;

0=^&amp;gt;=1,

0=^ =
/ \
?/

1.

But the coordinates
an infinitesimal

of this point differ

from those

of

G

(x,

~) by

of the

same order

as A#.

CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A PLANE AREA
Therefore
centrated at
it is

95
as con

sufficient to consider the

mass

of

MNQP
become

G

(x,

|Y

Hence formulas

(2),

47,

r
I

pydx

If

p

is

a constant, these formulas become

=

\xydx

-

\
,

I

(2)
\

I

y dx

ydx

which can be written

Ax = Cx dA,
If it is

Ay =

\y dA.

(3)

of gravity of a plane area of required to find the center that just discussed, the preceding method may be other shape than modified in a manner illustrated by Ex. 2.
If

the area has a line of symmetry, the center of gravity evi
lies

dently

upon

it,

and

if

this line is perpendicular to

one of the coordinates

of the center of gravity

may

OX or OF, be written

down
Ex.

at once.

Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the parabola the axis of x, and the ordinate through a point (h, k) of (fig. 38), ?/ the curve. Here
1.

= 4px

Ax = f xydx =
Jo
r Ay =i Jo *
I

h

y^dx

2p

c Jo
t

and

A=

Jo

f ydx = 2p* Jo x*dx= ^p^A- =
\

r!

/

/i

Therefore

x

=

;3

h,

y

=

|

fc.

96
Ex.
(fig.

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS
2.

Find the center of gravity of the segment of the

ellipse

a2

+

^=1
b2

by the chord through the positive ends of the axes of the curve. Divide the area into elements by lines parallel to OF. If we let y 2 be the ordinate of a point on the ellipse, and y l the ordinate of a point on the chord, we
have as the element of area

39) cut off

dA =
may be

(y z

-

2/1)

dx.

The mass

of this element

considered as concentrated at (x
\

r
Hence

n

x = ^
I

/.a

/ Jo

(yz

&quot;*&quot;

-

yi)xdx
y\)

(2/2

-

dx

y
FIG. 39

=

From
2/i

the equation of the ellipse y 2

=

-

b

&quot;^a

2

-

x 2 and from that of the chord
,

=

-

M

(a

- x).
nO,

The denominator
ellipse

J

(y z

- y\$ dx

is

equal to the area of the quadrant of the equal to

minus that

of a right triangle,

i.e. is

--

.

Hence

.

E_l\
2/

3(:r-2)

50. Center of gravity of a solid or a surface of revolution of

OF

Consider a solid of revolution generated by re the plane area bounded by OF, a curve x =/(y),

Y. The solid may be resolved into elements by passing planes perpendicular to at a distance dy apart (37). The same planes divide the surface of revolution into elements ( 43). If the density of the solid is uniform, it is

and two

lines perpendicular to

OY

evident from the symmetry of the figure that the mass either of an element of the solid or of the surface may be considered as Y at the point where one of the planes which fixes the lying in element cuts OY.

CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A SOLID
Consequently, the center of gravity
lies in

97

O Y,

so that

Now
face,

if

V is

the volume of the solid and

S

the area of the sur

we

have, by

37 and
7TX
2

43,

dV=

dy

and

dS=2Trx ds.
we have

of gravity of the solid Consequently, to find the center 47 (2) by p-jrtfdy with the result to replace dm of

\

piracy

dy

7rI

-=-TT\

j

x*y dy
(1)

p-n-rfdy

x*dy

and to find the center of gravity 47 (2) dm = have to place in 2 Trpx ds with the result
I

of the surface of revolution

we

2 Trpxy ds

I

xy ds
(2)

I

2 Trpx ds

x ds
I

Find the center of gravity segment of one base generated by revolving the area BDE OF. (fig. 40) about
Ex.
1.

of a spherical

Let

tion of the circle

OB = a and OE = c. The is x 2 + y 2 = a 2

equa

,

and

Ex.
of Ex.

2.
1.

Find the center of gravity of the surface of the spherical segment
1,

Using the notation and the figure of Ex.

we have

ds

=

,

and therefore

_

JI c

xyds

Jc

\

ydy
ft

Xa
The center
of gravity lies half

way between

E

and

7&amp;gt;.

98

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS

of a

The pressures acting on the elements area form a system of parallel forces perpen submerged plane dicular to the plane. The resultant of these forces is the total
51. Center of pressure.

pressure

P( 46) and
To

the point at which

it

acts is the center of

find the center of pressure of an area of the type pressure. considered in 46, we may proceed in a manner analogous to that

used in finding the center of gravity of a plane area, only we have now to consider, instead of the weight of an element, the weight
of the

column

of liquid

which

it

sustains.

be the coordinates of the center of pressure. Then (x, h) the moment of the total pressure about OX is Ph, and the moment Also the pressure on an is Px. of the total pressure about
Let

OH

force equal to wh^Ah plus an 33) is infinitesimal of higher order ( 46). By symmetry this force acts at the middle point of the element, the coordinates of which are

element J^^. +1 Jf+1 ^

(fig.

a&quot;

and h if except
Zi

for infinitesimals of higher order

(

49).

Hence

the

moment

of this force

OX is whfx^h
Hence
s*l)

and the moment

Now

of higher order. ^wli^f^li, except for infinitesimals the momentj of the resultant must be equal to the sum of the

ON is

moments

of the

component
t

forces.
1

=M
i

Ph = lAm^whfXi&h = w I n=a = Ja
&amp;gt;

h x dh,
,rb

2

j

i

= n-l
t

Px = Lim Vl- wh x?&h =
n

= oo =
i

J-

w

I

hx2 dh.
46.

Ja

Find the center of pressure of the circular area of the Ex., By symmetry it is evident that x = 0.
Ex.

Erom

the discussion just given,
ra

TT

= 2w

C
t/

2
7T

a 2 cos2
7T

(6

+

a sin 0) 2

d(f&amp;gt;

(where h
7T

b

=

a sin 0)
7T

2

C cos 2 J _n
&quot;&quot;

2

dtp

+

4 a s bw

J _1L

C

2

cos 2

sin

dQ

H

-- w
2

4

2
\

sin 2 2
d&amp;lt;}&amp;gt;

v_2E

But

P = vaPbw

(Ex.,

46).

Therefore h

=

b

+

a2
.

46

PROBLEMS
PROBLEMS
1.

99

A

positive charge

m

of electricity
is

is

fixed at 0.

The

repulsion on a unit

charge at a distance x from

Find the

work done in bringing a unit charge

from

infinity to a distance

a from 0.

2.

A rod is stretched from its natural length a to the length a + x.
is

Assuming

that the force required in the stretching
3.

proportional to

,

find the

work done.

A =

piston
is

on the piston
ing pv
4.
fc,

Find the work
(2)

free to slide in a cylinder of cross section S. The force acting p is the pressure of the gas in the cylinder. as the volume of the cylinder changes from vi to u 2 (1) assum
is

equal to pS, where

,

assuming pvy

=

k,

y and k being constants.

of area.
to

bag of radius a contains gas at a pressure equal to p per unit Assuming that the pressure per unit of area is inversely proportional the volume occupied by the gas, show that the work required to compress the
& is 4 7ra 3p log .

A spherical

bag into a sphere of radius
5.

The

resistance offered

by any conductor

to the passage of a current of

in the con electricity is proportional to the distance traversed by the current ductor and inversely as the area of the cross section of the conductor. If a

source of electricity is applied to the entire interior surface of a cylindrical shell, and the current flows radially outward, what resistance will be encountered ? The length of the shell is h, the right circular section of the interior surface is

and

of the exterior surface
is

is

6,

and a unit cube
k.

of the

substance of which the shell

offers

a resistance

6. A particle of unit mass is situated at a perpendicular distance c from the and length 2 I. Find the force center of a straight homogeneous wire of mass of attraction exerted in a direction at right angles to the wire.

M

7. Find the attraction of a uniform straight wire of mass upon a particle of unit mass situated in the line of direction of the wire at a distance c from one end.

M

8.

of unit
lines

Find the attraction of a uniform straight wire of mass upon a particle mass situated at a perpendicular distance c from the wire and so that drawn from the particle to the ends of the wire inclose an angle 6.

M

9.

upon a
10.

Find the attraction of a uniform circular wire of radius a and mass particle of unit mass situated at a distance c from the center of the ring

M

in a straight line perpendicular to the plane of the ring.

upon a

Find the attraction of a uniform circular disk of radius a and mass particle of unit mass situated at a perpendicular distance c from the center of the disk. (Divide the disk into concentric rings and use the result of Ex. 9.)

M

Find the attraction of a uniform right circular cylinder with mass Jf, its base a, and length Z, upon a particle of unit mass situated in the axis of the cylinder produced, at a distance c from ono end. (Divide the cylinder into parallel disks and use the result of Ex. 10.)
11.

100
12.
circle

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS
Find the attraction of a uniform wire of mass bent into an arc of a with radius a and angle a, upon a particle of unit mass at the center of

M

the circle.
13. Prove that the total pressure on a plane surface is equal to the pressure at the center of gravity multiplied by the area of the surface. 14. Find the total pressure on a vertical rectangle with base 6 and altitude a, submerged so that its upper edge is parallel to the surface of the liquid at a distance c from it.

Find the center of pressure of the rectangle in the previous example. Find the total pressure on a triangle of base 6 and altitude a, submerged so that the base is horizontal, the altitude vertical, and the vertex in the surface
15. 16. of the liquid. 17.
lies in

Show that the center of pressure of the triangle of the previous example the median three fourths of the distance from the vertex to the base.
Find the
total pressure
is

18.

so that the base
19.
lies in

on a triangle of base 6 and altitude a, submerged in the surface of the liquid and the altitude vertical.

Show
the

that the center of pressure of the triangle of the previous example

2 b and alti submerged so that the base is horizontal, the altitude vertical, and the vertex, which is above the base, at a distance c from the surface of the liquid. 21. A parabolic segment with base 26 and altitude a is submerged so that its base is horizontal, its axis vertical, and its vertex in the surface of the liquid. Find the total pressure.

median half way from the vertex to the base. 20. Find the total pressure on an isosceles triangle with base
a,

tude

22. Find the center of pressure of the parabolic segment of the previous

example.
23.
its

A

base

is

parabolic segment with base 26 and altitude a is submerged so that in the surface of the liquid and its altitude is vertical. Find the

total pressure.

24. Find the center of pressure of the parabolic segment of the previous

example.
25. Find the total pressure on a semiellipse submerged with one axis in the surface of the liquid and the other vertical.

26. Find the center of pressure of the ellipse of the previous example.
27.

An

immersed
is

8

ft.,

with its base horizontal and vertex downward is Find the pressure on the triangle if the length of the base the altitude 3 ft., and the depth of the vertex below the surface 5 ft.
isosceles triangle

in water*.

28.

The centerboard
sides are 1
is

of a yacht

two parallel

and 2
3
ft.

dicular to these two

is in the form of a trapezoid in which the respectively in length, and the side perpen in length. Assuming that the last-named side is
ft.

parallel to the surface of the water at a depth of 2 sides are vertical, find the pressure on the board.
*

ft.,

and that the

parallel

The weight

of a cubic foot of water

may

be taken as 62|

Ib.

PROBLEMS

101

29. Find the moment of the force which tends to turn the center-board of the previous example about the line of intersection of the plane of the board with the surface of the water.

is

30. Find the pressure on the centerboard of Ex. 28 if the plane of the board turned through an angle of 10 about its line of intersection with the surface

of the water.

31.

A dam
ft.

is

in the

form of a regular trapezoid with

its

two horizontal

sides

respectively, the longer side being at the top and the height 20 ft. .Assuming that the water is level with the top of the dam, find the total pressure.

300 and 100

32. Find the

moment
its

of the force
line.

which tends

to overturn the

dam of

Ex. 31

by turning

it

on

base

33. A circular water main has a diameter of 6 ft. One end is closed by a bulkhead and the other is connected with a reservoir in which the surface of the water is 100 ft. above the center of the bulkhead. Find the total pressure on the bulkhead.

pond of 10 ft. depth is crossed by a roadway with vertical sides. whose cross section is in the form of a parabolic segment with horizontal base on a level with the bottom of the pond, runs under the road.

34.

A

A

culvert,

Assuming that the base
its

of the

altitude 4

ft.,

find the total pressure

segment of the parabolic segment is 6 ft. and on the bulkhead which temporarily

closes the culvert.

35. Find the

x2

+

y

2

=

a2 which

center of gravity of the semicircumference of the circle is above the axis of x.

x*

+ y* =

36. Find the center of gravity of the arc of the four-cusped hypocycloid a* which is in the first quadrant.

x\$

+ y* =

37. Find the center of gravity of the arc of the four-cusped a 3 which is above the axis of x.

hypocycloid

38. Find the center of gravity of the arc of the curve 9 ay 2 - x (x between the ordinates x = and x = 3 a.
39. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded

- 3 a) 2 =

by a parabola and a

chord perpendicular to the
parabola ay 2

axis.

40. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded = x s and any double ordinate.

by the semicubical

41. Find the center of gravity of the area of a quadrant of an ellipse. 42. Find the center of gravity of the area between the axes of coordinates and the parabola x* + y^ = a*.

43. Find the center of gravity of the area contained in the upper half of the loop of the curve ay2 = ax 2 xs
.

44.

Show

that the center of gravity of a sector of a circle

lies

on the

line

2 bisecting the angle of the sector at a distance a is the angle and a the radius of the sector. 3

a Sm ~9
.

a

from the vertex, where

102

APPLICATIONS TO MECHANICS
= sinx
e- h

45. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the curve y and the axis of x between x = and x = TT. 46 If the area to the right of the axis of y between the curve y =

^
?

VTT

and the

axis of x

is

,

what

is

the abscissa of the center of gravity of this area

47. Find the center of gravity of a triangle.
2 48. Find the center of gravity of the area between the parabola y
-

= 4px

and the straight line y 49. Find the center of gravity of the plane area bounded by the two parabolas = 4 px, and x 2 = 4 py. 7/2 50. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the two parabolas _ 6) = 0, x2 4py = 0, the axis of y, and the line x = a. X2 _ 4_p

=

mx.

^

51. Find the center of gravity of the plane area 2 2 32 p 2 = 0. X 2 _ 4.py = o and the circle x + y 52. Find the

common

to the parabola

center of gravity of the surface bounded by the ellipse

a2

+

y
62

=i

the circle x 2

+

y*

=

a2

,

and the axis

of y.

53.

Find the center

of gravity of half a spherical solid of constant density.

54. Find the center of gravity of the portion of a spherical surface bounded from the center. by two parallel planes at a distance hi and h^ respectively 55. Find the center of gravity of the solid formed by revolving about OX 2 line x = a. the surface bounded by the parabola y = 4px, the axis of x, and the 56. Find the center of gravity of the solid formed by revolving about 2 = 4px, the axis of y, and the line y plane figure bounded by the parabola y

OF the
=
k.

the 57. Find the center of gravity of the solid generated by revolving about the parabola line x = a the surface bounded by that line, the axis of x, and 58. Find the center of gravity of the solid formed by revolving about bounded by the parabola x 2 = 4py and any straight line through 59. Find the center of gravity of the solid formed

OY

the surface

the vertex.

lines

OF

the surface bounded by the hyperbola
60. Find

~jp

=

l

and the

y=

and

y=b

the center of gravity of a hemispherical surface.

61. Find the center of gravity of the surface of a right circular cone. 62. Find the center of gravity of the surface of a hemisphere when the

density of each point in the surface varies as the circular base of the hemisphere.

its

perpendicular distance from

CHAPTEE VI
INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
52. Introduction.

The sum

each term of which

is

a rational fraction in

its

lowest terms with
is

the degree of the numerator less than that of the denominator,

known by elementary
.

algebra to be a fraction of the form

^-\&amp;gt;

J?

where
F(x)

(X)

and

= (a^x 4 \) = A^(a x + 1 f(x)
z

+

(A 3

+ b x + c^+A^x + \) (a x + B,} (ap + \) (a x + &
2)

(a s x

2

s

s

x2 + l z x + c 3 )

2

2 ).

Again, consider the

sum

Here the linear polynomial a^x + & x appears both in the first and the second powers as denominators of fractions which have the same form of numerator, a constant also the quadratic polynomial 2 a^x 4- b 3 x + c 3 appears both in the first and the second powers as
;

denominators of fractions which have the same form of numerator,
a linear polynomial.
If this

sum
(a,x

is

denoted by
bz)

&amp;gt;

then

F(x)

= (a,x + ^)

2

+

(aj*

+ b,x + c,)\

and f(x), when determined, will be of lower degree than F(x). In both examples, f(x) and F(x) have no common factor and
f(x)
is of

lower degree than F(x).
103

104

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
proceed in the following articles to consider, conversely, the
fix] ^-~

We

possibility of separating
is of

any rational fraction

in

which f(x)

F(x)

we have
53.

lower degree than F(x) into a just added.

sum

of fractions of the types

Separation into partial fractions.
fix) J v
&amp;gt;

Consider

now any rational

fraction

where f(x) and F(x)
If

are

two polynomials having

no common

the degree of f(x) is not less than that of F(x), we can separate the fraction, by actual division, into an inte of the numera gral expression and a fraction in which the degree
factor.

tor is less

than that of the denominator.
division,

For example, by actual
2 x*+ x*
3

+ x +x - 18 x 2

6

_

x*+ x*+

3

Accordingly,
of f(x) is less

we

shall consider only the case in
of F(x).

which the degree

than that
is

Now
(I,

always equivalent to the product of linear factors F(x) which are not necessarily real and if the coefficients 42),
;

of F(x) are real, it is

equivalent to the product of real linear shall limit ourselves in this and quadratic factors (I, 45). to polynomials with real coefficients and shall assume chapter

We

that the real linear and quadratic factors of F(x) can be found.

We

shall

make two
Case
I,

cases

:

where no factor where some

is

repeated.

Case

II,

of the factors are repeated.

CASE

I.

As an example
F-(x)-= (a^x

of this case let
& t ) (a 2 x

+

+

& 2 ) (a 3 x*

+

lzx

+c

3 ).

May we

then assume, as suggested by the work of the previous
/(a)

article, that

=

A
,

A
,

F(x)

where

A lt A v A and B
3
,

z

are constants

?

SEPARATION INTO PARTIAL FRACTIONS
It is evident that the

105

sum
is

of the fractions in the right-hand

member

of (1) is a fraction the

denominator of which

is

F(x) and
t

the numerator of which

a polynomial, which, like /(#),

is

of

lower degree than F(x). It will be proved in 55, 56 that A v A 2 A s and B s exist. As suming this, we may multiply both sides of (1) by F(x) with the
, , t

following result

:

f( x )

= A(

V+
+ (A
z

& 2)

(

a if*?+ \K + C s )+ A i( a i x +
3)

b i)

(

a ^*+

\ x + c a)
(2)

x

+B

(a,x
all

+ bj (,* + 6
values of
x,

2 ).

As

(2) is to

hold for

the coefficients of like

powers of
left-hand

x on the two
is

The right-hand member

sides of the equation must be equal.* of degree three, and by hypothesis the

member

of degree
x*,

the coefficients of

x2

,

x,

no higher than three. Hence, placing and the constant term on the two sides

of the equation respectively equal,

we have

four equations from
2, 3,

which

to find the four

unknown

constants

A v A A By
,

Solving these equations and substituting the values of A lt A 2 A 3 and 3 in (1), we have the original fraction expressed as the sum of three fractions, the denominators of which are the factors
,

B

of the denominator of the original fraction. said to be separated into partial fractions.

The

fraction

is

now
way

It is evident that the

number

of the factors of

F(x) in ho

affects the reasoning or the conclusion,

and there

will always be

the same

number of equations as the constants to be determined.
* If the

number

of the

unknown

two members of the equation

_jz

+ an = b
,

xn

+

1
bix&quot;

+

+ & M _ ia; + b n

(1)

are identical, so that (1) is true for all values of x, the coefficients of like powers of x on the two sides of (1) are equal, i.e. a Q 6 a 1 an i n Writing (1) in the equivalent form

=b

,

,

=b

.

(a

-

6

)

xn

+

(&amp;lt;*!

1
&!)*&quot;-

+

4- (a B

_1

- &_!) x + (a n - &) = 0,

(2)

we have an

-,=&
ai

algebraic equation of degree not greater than n, unless a

=b

,

a^

= bi,

Then (2) is true only for a certain number of values of x, since the number of roots of an algebraic equation is the same as the degree of the equation. But this is contrary to the hypothesis that (1), and therefore 6 (2), is true for all values of x. Hence a

= &i

=

&amp;gt;

n

&n

& s was stated.

106
Ex.
1.

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
Separate into partial fractions
(x
is less
.

+

3) (x

4)

Since the degree of the numerator

than the degree of the denominator,

we assume

..**_.(x

A
x

+

3) (x

2

-

4)

-

2

+

B
x

r&amp;gt;

.

+

2

x

n C +3
2

where A, #, and C are constants. Clearing (1) of fractions by multiplying by
x2
or

(x -f 3) (x

4),

we have
(2) (3)

x2

+ +

11 x
11
a;

+

14
14

+

= A (x + 2) (x + 3) + B(x - 2) (x + 3) + C(x - 2) (x + 2), = (A +B+ O)x 2 + (5 A + B)x + (QA -6J5-4C).
all

Since

(3) is to

hold for

values of x, the coefficients of like powers of x on

the two sides of the equation

must be equal.

Therefore

A + J5 + C = 1,

whence we

find

A

2,

B=

1,

and C
(1),

=
2

2.

Substituting these values in

we have
1

x2
(x

+ 11 x + 14 _ ~ + 3) (x 2 - 4)

2
2

x

-

2

x

+

x

+

3*

If the factors of the

denominator are

all linear

and

different, as in this

ex

ample, the following special method is of decided advantage. In (2) let x have in succession such a value as to make one of the factors of the denominator of
the original fraction zero,

When
comes whence

= 4 = C=
x

2, (2)

4
2.

,

= i.e. x = 2, x = 2, x becomes 40 = 20^4, whence A whence B = 1; and when x =

3.

=

2

;

when x =
becomes

2, (2)

be
5 C,

3, (2)

10

just used may seem to be invalid in that (2) apparently holds for all values of x except 2, 3, since these values make the multi 2, and

The method

plier (x
is

+

2

3) (x

4),

by which

(2)

was derived from

(1), zero.

This objection
(2)

met, however, by considering that the two polynomials in and therefore equal for all values of x, including the values 2,

are identical
2

and

3.

Ex.

x3
2.

-I-

4 x2

-f-

x

1 x3 Since the degree of the numerator is not less than that of the denominator, we divide until the degree of the remainder is less than the degree of the

Separate into partial fractions

divisor,

and thus

find

x3

1

=1+
1

x3
2

x

1

The

real factors of

x

3

-

are x

-1
x

and x

+
x2

+
x

1.

Hence we assume

Bx+ C
x3

-

1

-

1

+

-I-

1

SEPARATION INTO PARTIAL FRACTIONS
Clearing of fractions,

107

we have

4x2

+

x

+ 1 = A (x 2 4- x + 1) + (Bx + C) (x - 1) = (A + 5)x2 + (A - B + C)x + (4 powers of x
in (3),
4,

C).

(3)

Equating

coefficients of like

we

obtain the equations

A +B=

whence

A=
4 X2

2,
1

5=
2

2,

C=
2x +
X2
l

1.

Hence

+

X

+

X3

-l
2

X-l
x x
2

+

X

+ +

1

and

f4x + x3 - 1

2x4
1

-

x2

x

+

1

The values of A, 5, and C may also be found by assuming arbitrary values Thus when x = 1, (3) becomes 6 = 3 A when x = 0, (3) becomes l = A C; and when x = 2, (3) becomes 19 = 1A+2B+C; whence A = 2, C = 1, B = 2.
of x.
;

54.

CASE

II.

We

will

now
2
1)

consider the case in which some of

the factors of the denominator F(x) are repeated.

For example,
2
3)
.

let

F(x)

= (ajc + &

(a z x

+ 6 (a^ + \x + c
2)

We

assume

+

\

,

+

2
,

+

ff+VH-y
(i)

by the work of 52. Multiplying (1) by F(x), we have an equation of the 6th degree in x, since the degree of f(x) is, by hypothesis, less than that of F(x). & b 2 Equating the coefficients of x x x*, x*, x x, and the constant term on the two sides of the equation, we have seven equations from which to determine the seven unknown constants, A v A[,
as suggested
,
,

,

It is evident that, granted the existence of these constants, the above method for determining them is perfectly general.

108
Ex.
1.

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
X4
Separate into partial fractions

_

6 x2

-}-

16

we

Since the degree of the numerator find by actual division

We now

assume

X*-6X2

is

not

less

than that of the denominator,

+

16

2X2

2)(x2-4)
2
3*2

(x

+

2) (x

2

-

=

----- --A
7?

(z

+ 2)(x2 -4)
C
1

1

4)

(x

+

2)2

x

+

1

2

x

-

2

(2)

Clearing of fractions,

we have
2)

2x 2 =

A (x (E

=
Equating the

+

C)x2

+ B(x 2 - 4) + C(x + 2) 2 + (A + 4 C)x + (- 2 A - 4 B +
powers of
x,

4

Q.

(3)

coefficients of like

we

obtain the equations

B+C-

2,

whence

J.

=-

2,

B=
2x2

f

,

C=

.

Therefore substituting in

(2),

we have
2

2 (x + 2) (x

4)

(x

+

2)2

-+
x
2

2

^

T

x

-

2

so that finally
x*

-6x 2 +

16

_^

3
2)2

1

2
(x

(x+2)(x2-4)
Ex.
2.

+

2(x

+

2)

2(x-2)

3 x7

Separate into partial fractions

+

6_4-21

By

division

we

first find

_

3

~2
We now
assume

X
2

x3

-4x2 -7x +
x3-l2

4

B
3

Cx
1
2

(X

-

2

I)

(X

-

2

I)

X

-

(X

+

X

+D + I) 2
(2)

X2

Ex + F +X+1

and

clear of fractions.

The

result is

-E +
-B- 2C + D- E)x*
)

(3)

SEPARATION INTO PARTIAL FRACTIONS
Equating the
coefficients of like

109

powers of x

in (3),

we

obtain the equations

B+#=

0,

A+B-E + F=0,
2A+B+C -F=l, 3A-B-2C + D-E = - 4,
A
(4)

whence

--,# =
(X-l)2

0,

C=

3,

D=

4,

E=

0,

F=

jj.

Substituting these values in

(2),

we have

3(X-1)2

so that finally

2 (x 3

-

2

I)

2

2

3 (x 2

-

2

+
(x

3x
2

I)

+

x

+

a

l)

55. Proof of the possibility of separation into partial fractions.

we have assumed that the given fraction can be separated into partial fractions, and proceeding on this as sumption we have been able to determine the unknown constants which were assumed in the numerators. We will now give a proof
In the last two articles
that a fraction can always be broken the types assumed in 53, 54.
&amp;gt;

up

into partial fractions of

f(x) Let the given fraction be J ^ where f(x) and F(x) are polyF(x) nomials having no common factor.

Let x

and F^(x) be the product = (x r^F^x) and

r be a linear factor of F(x) which occurs ra times, of the remaining factors. Then F(x)

F(x)

Now

the equation

(x
is

- r) m F^x)
A

(x

- r) m

(x

- r)

identically true,

being any constant.

110
If

INTEGKATION OF EATIOXAL FE ACTIONS
we can determine A
so that
1

f(r)~AF (r)=0,
then f(x) noted by (x

(3)

AF (x)
l
=

is divisible

by x

r

(I,

40) and may be de

r)fv (x).
t

But by hypothesis neither f(x) nor F^(x) is divisible by (x-r) and hence f(r) and FJr) 0. Therefore, from (3),
=

a constant,

which

is

not zero.

With

this value of

A we

have

Applying

this

same method
i()

to

- ^_
yi r
y

&amp;gt;

y-i^^
,

n

we have

A
(f-

/.(^

where

A=
;

and

be zero

however, that A l may be zero, since f^(r) cannot be infinite since F^(r) = 0. t times in succession, we have Applying this method
It is to be noted,

may

but

A

m
r)

A
m

A
m-1
(x
-

A
(x

*
1

A
2

F(x)

(x
y

r)

x

r

r)&quot;

F^x)

where

A Av A

z,

Am

are all finite constants, of

which

A

is

the

only one which cannot be zero. By the above reasoning it is evident that corresponding to any times we may linear factor of the denominator which occurs

m

assume

fractions, the numerators of which are constant, and the denominators of which are respectively the mth, the (m l)st,

m

1st powers of the factor. After these fractions have been removed, the remaining frac,

tion,

i.e.

f (x} J mV
&amp;gt;

may

be treated in the same way.

FAx)

SEPARATION INTO PARTIAL FRACTIONS

111

In the above discussion r and the coefficients of f(x) and F(x) may be real or complex. Consequently, the method may be applied successively to each factor of F(x), thus making a complete separa
tion into partial fractions.
coefficients
If, however, /(#) and F(x) have real and we wish to confine ourselves to real polynomials, we apply the method to real linear factors only, and proceed in

will

the next article to deal with the quadratic factors. 56. Proceeding now to the case of a quadratic factor of F(x) of 2 the form (x +b 2 which cannot be separated into real linear a)
y
,

factors,let

Then

/()
the equation
/(*)
2

Now

- a) + tifF^x) [(x
is

- of + b [(x
and

Ax + B

f(x)-(Ax + B)F
2

m
]

&quot;*&quot;

[(x

- a) + VfF^x)
2

l

(x)

identically true,
If

A

B

being any constants.

we can determine
f(a

A

and

B

so that
0,
0,

and
then f(x)
(I,

- U) - [A (a - bi) + B} F^a - U) = f(a
40),

+ U) -[A(a + bi) + B} F^a + li) =

a (Ax + B)Fl (x) is divisible by x and hence is divisible by their product
2
2

U and x
2

a

+U
and

(x

a)

+b

2
,

we can

place

f(x)

- (Ax + B}F (x) = [(x - a) + I ]f,(x).
l

By

hypothesis neither f(x) nor F^x)
=

is

divisible

2

by

(x

a)

+

b

2
;

hence f(a

bi)

and

F^a
by

bi)

^ 0.
and

Doting
shall

have

&+
^i( a

P+

Qi)

^)

=*\$F^a-li)
Qi,

by

P - Qi,

we

and
where

A(a

bi)

+

J&amp;gt;=P

P

and

Q

zero at the

same

are finite quantities, both of time.

which may not be

112

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
aA

Therefore

+ B = P,

two equations from which A and values which cannot both be zero.

B

are found to have real finite

With

these values for

A
2

and

B

we have

f(x _ l
F(x)

Ax + B

- a) + &}** [(x

- of + tf} m [(x

f,(x)

l

FJx)

and repeating have finally
/(a) _

this process as in the case of the linear factor

we

F(x)

Ax + B - af + tf] m [(x

Ax+B - of + [(x
l

l
*&quot;

fm (x)

time,

added that A and B may not be zero at the same and that any or all of the other constants may be zero. The same method may evidently be applied to each one of the
It should be

To sum

up,

if

F(x)

= (x

m r 1 ) (x

-r

n
z)

[(- a) + tf]

2

1

.
.&quot;.,

and we apply the above methods to the linear factors in succession and then to the quadratic factors in succession, we have finally
f(*)

f(x)

Cx + D _ a )*+ V]
2

+D [(x- a) + 6
C^x
2

l

2

-1
]

(x

a)

+b

2

where / is either zero or an integral expression in x. But if the degree of f(x) is less than that of F(x), and we
always reduce the fraction to this case by actual division,

shall

f(x\ z--*-

and

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
all

113

the fractions on the right-hand side of the equation are zero when x = co hence I is zero and the fraction is separated into
;

the partial fractions noted. 57. In the discussion of the last article the quadratic factors of the denominator are only those which represent the product of two

conjugate imaginary factors,

all

the real linear factors having been

factors may be previously removed. But some of these real linear in which case the algebraic work of the determination of the surd,

numerators
tor is of the

(

53, 54)

is

burdensome.

If,

however, the surd fac
b are rational, this

form x

a

Vb, where a and
:

work
I,

may

(1)

be avoided in the following manner It may be shown by a method similar to that used in
if

is

a ^/b F(x) has only rational coefficients, and x a + V& is also a factor, and hence that a factor of F(x), then x
44, 45, that

F(x) contains (x
(2)
If
2

of
n

b as a factor.
is

[(#

a)

b]

a factor of the denominator F(x), the

other factor being F^(x), then

Then the

rational fraction

f(x]
&quot;-^

may

be proved equal to

F(x)

[(a-

_ of- b]

,

n

[(x

- of- by^F^x)
to

The

proof, being similar to that of the last article, is left

the student.

Accordingly,

if all

the coefficients of the denominator are rational,

and the surd

type just noted, the fraction will be separated into partial fractions, the denominators of which 2 n 2 2 n n shall be of the forms (x and [(x a) b] a) + & ] r) [(x
factors, if any, are of the
,

,

.

58. Integration of

rational fractions.

rational fraction in general consists of ration of the fraction into partial fractions

The integration of a two steps: (1) the sepa
;

the integration of each partial fraction, and the subsequent addition of the integrals. There will then be four types of integrals to consider
(2)
:

f(Ax + B}dx

(*

(Ax+B}dx

114

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
Turning

The first three, however, have already been discussed. then to the fourth, we may put that in the form

which

is

equal to the

sum

of the

two
2

integrals

A r
and
(

_n

+ a^)f
J
\(

x

-a
,

The

first of

these integrals

is

1

A
2{

n+1) &quot;[(*)+ Mp.-i

The second may be evaluated by -a placing x

= I tan 6.

Then

/dx +y -)
[ (a!

=

I

y
3,

When n =
case
n&amp;gt;2

2, this integral is

evaluated as in Ex.
practice,

13.

The
occur,

rarely

occurs

in

but

if

it

does

cos*

n

-2

C
gral

6d0 may be evaluated by methods
dx

of

65, or the inte-

a)*+l*\* of the reduction formula
\(x

J

may

be evaluated b )7 successive applications

f du J (u*+c?r
which
Ex.

!
\

2( n

__
73.
8

,,

-la&amp;lt;u&amp;gt;+&amp;lt;t&amp;gt;-^

will be derived in

1.

Find the value of f jgJL * J z 3 + 2x 2

+

3)

&amp;lt;*

-z-2
l)(x
7?

.

Since x*

+

2x2

-x-f

2

=
3

(x

-

1) (x

+

+

2),

we assume

8x

+
x

2x2

-

-

~
2

x-1 + aT+T

^L

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
Determining A,
x2
72,

115
we have

and

C by

the methods of the previous articles,
2
4- 1

&quot;

2 + 8 x 4- 3 + 2z2 -x-2~x-l x + 8s + 8)cto = rl 2 f (* J x 3 + 2x2 -x-2 J \x-l
z3

3

x4-2*
2
3 3
\

dx
2/

x

+

l

x

+

=

2 log(x

-

1)

+

2 log(z

+

1)

-

31og(x

+

2)

+ C

T, * Ex. o T- i .1 value of T 2. Find the J
i

( J

8ic

4-

2 x2

{

4- Ox + 18)dx 8x 3 4-27

By

8 x4
division,

4-

2 x 2 4-

6x4- 18
27 27 are

8x 3

+

= x4
3

2 x2

- 21x4-

18
(1)

8x 3 + 27
and 4x 2
1

The
assume

real factors of

8x 3 +

2x+

- 6x +
^t

9.

Therefore,

we
(2)

~
8x 3

+

t 27

=
2x +
3

4x

iJ

-6x +
3z

9

Determining A, B, and

Cby

the methods of the previous articles,
18 2

we have
(8)

2z 2 -21x + 8x 3 + 27
&quot;

2x +

3

4x 2
2

J

4 /(8x*4-2z 2 + 6x + 18) dx (8x + 2z 4-6z4- 18)dx_ rl ~ 8x3 4-27 \

V

2x +

___
3 9 r 4 4J

-6x +

9

3z 4x 2 - 6x4-

9

But
/

Cxdx =
/

\x*, z

r
/

/x

4-

&amp;lt;5

and

3 X dx x

_

3 r (8 x

-

6)

dx
9

J 4x 2

-6x + 9~
=

J 4 x 2 - 6x44?log(4x
2

+

dx

4x 2 _

-6x +

9) 4-

4

V3
finally

3

V3

Substituting the values of the integrals in

(4),

we have

r J

(8
&quot;

x4

4-

2

x2

4-

6x

4-

18)

dx

8x 3 4-27

= -x 2 41 = -x2
,

log(2x

+ 3)-?log(4x 2 -6x +
2x +
3

9)

-4
-

-tan-*

4
*&quot;!

8
4-

C

V3
4-

3
C.

V3

4-log

-

--^tan- ,4z-3
3
1

-

(4x

2

-6x4-9)

4V3

3V3

116

INTEGEATION OF BATIONAL FRACTIONS
of

Ex.3. Find the value

C
J

+

X*

~

6 **

~
3

~ Ux +
54,

2(x -l)2
as that of Ex. 2,

The fraction being the same the work completed.
Hence
/

we have

the

first

step of

(3a?

7

+

x6

J

- 6x*-8x 2 -llx 3 2 2(x -I)

J2
Now
4
rrtan- 1
the
first,

r dx- c

l

J3x-l2 + Jr

2dx

(8x+4)dx
x2

+ x+l2

+ Jr

uated by

the second, the third, and the fifth integrals are readily eval8 1 2 previous methods, their values being respectively -x 2 -x, ,

9^0-1

423
,

(x

1)

and
3

V3

V3
^

There remains the fourth integral C J

X
2

^-

,

(x

+

x

+
2J

I)

2 2

which may be reduced
dx

to

(x

2

+x+

2

I)

The

first

integral

is

\

o

2 (x2

,

+
-f-

x

+

while the second integral

may

be

1)
,

written in the form 40
2x

v

[(2

X

and can be evaluated by placing

1)2

-(-

3]2

+ = V3 tan 0.
1

The

result will be

40

J

2x

^

2

+

3

,=
&quot;

3

V3

^
3

V3

3\/3

V3
l)

6 x2

+

x

+

l

Hence

J

C

(x

^++ ^ +
2

dx
l)2

=

___tl
2(x2
6

x

+x+
2x

+ J! ton -i?fLt! 3V3 V3

6 x2

+

x

+

1

Finally, substituting the values of the integrals in (1) and simplifying, have, as the value of the original integral,

we

Vs

PROBLEMS
PROBLEMS
Separate the following fractions into partial fractions
1
-f x - 4 6x3 + 6x 2 -6x*
:

117

a2

x2

-x +

2x 3 + x 2
1Q

2

x*

+ 2x * + x

-1-

3x 2

-4x

4x 8 + 8x 2
4 x3
x8

-x-2
12
&quot;

3x 4
2x
x5
8
2

-2x 2 -l
5x

- llx-1

-x +
4

+
4

2

+ 2x 2
x4

3x2
x2

-5x-6 -x-3
+
7

x4

+ 3x 2 +
x3

-x

-2
3 x2

2

x3

x4

+

+
6

2

x

+

2

x4

+ 5x2
x4

2x
4 x2

x3

-x2 -12x-8
x(x

+ x3 +x+

-

6x

+

8 8

+

2)3

x5 x3

-2x4 -4x3 + 8x2 + 4xx2
3

8x4

-4x3 -2x2 + 7x

Find the values of the following integrals
1 vj

:

C (14x J 4x 2 + r (3x

lg

+ 3)cZx 4x-15 + 4)dx

/

6

J
/-

x3

-

x

27
2g

(6-12x)dx
2

19

f

(8

g- 10) dg

/^(3x

-10x-

3x

22

j ^

3-2x-x

2

23.

-8

24.

J
25.

p

9x 2 4-12x + a + 2x 2 + 3x
x2
2

-2x-l

dx

r2*

-Hx-6^ 6x

+ 17x 3 _3x 2 -Ox B J 2x 3 + 7x2 -f 2x-3 x + + L rJ 4x 3 + 8x 2 -9x-18 + * r J 4x 3 -4x 2 + x 2 (x + 2x + 33 J x 3 + Ox 2 + 1 + 10x + 9)d ^(fix2
/*6x 4

x-x-x x-x

^

/.

J 4x 3

+ 8x 2 -3x-

118
,*

INTEGRATION OF RATIONAL FRACTIONS
(3-2z-4z )dz
+ 12 z 2 +
9z
2

J 4 z3

45
2

r (15z 2

+

J

(3

z2

+

- 29z - 17)dz 2 - 2 z + 3) 2) (z

J z3
37 38

+2z2 -4z-8*
x4

J

(x

2

+3)(2z 2 +
x

z+

5)

J
9

+ 2z 3 +

ic

2

^
-

47.

J4x4

~ dx
&quot;4^4&quot;

-

/ ^-6^ r^- 2 ^-^- ^ 39. J X
2&amp;lt;to

-

4x3

48.

+

x2

+

13x

-

8
dz.

/
r r 9z 3

z(z-l) 3 (x-l)3
16z4

T 2_

49
i

J

(z (

X2
2

+ 20z 2 + 21z_ 3) (3 2 + 3z + -3)(3z
1

-8z2 +
6
dx.

l
-

4i.

r
r
I

xZ

+ Qx ~
2

/i*
51.
-

K
(to.

9 42.

(*

-13z)dz
J

j ^

^z +
z

i)^

z4
44.

-12z + - 16
(a

8^
ab

52.

/z

4

+

-

53.

6)

z2

CHAPTEE

VII

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
59. Rationalization.

By

a suitable substitution of a

new
is

vari

able an irrational function

may

said
is

function of the

new

variable.

In this case the integrand
discuss in

to be rationalized, of Chap. VI.

and the integration
shall

We
this

performed by the methods

now
is

60-63 some

of the

cases in

which

method

possible, together

with the appropri

ate substitution in each.

60. Integrand containing fractional

powers x can be rationalized by assuming
a

sions involving fractional

of

a

powers of a + bx. Expres +- bx and integral powers of

+

bx

= zn

,

where n
For
if

is

the least

common denominator
then x

of the fractional

expo
Also,
,

nents of the binomial.
if

a

+ bx =
one

z&quot;,

= \ (z* - a]
x,

and dx

=-z
b

n~l

dz.

(a

+

p bx) is
is

of the fractional

where pn

an

integer.

Since

a bx can all be expressed rationally in terms of z, it follows that the integrand will be a rational function of z when the substitution has been completed.
Ex.
1.

+

p powers of a + bx, (a +- bx) = z pn and the fractional powers of dx,

Find the value of
let 1

J

C
(1

X * dx
.

+

2 3)*

Here we

+

2x

=

z*

;

then x

=

J-

(z

-

1),

and dx

= *z z dz.

Therefore

C
J
(1

X * dx

=
J

+

2x)

? f 27 ( %J

_

2 z*

+

z)

dz

~
uitf
z&amp;lt;2

(

5 z6

16 2 3

+

20)

+

C.

Replacing z by

its

value (1

+
3

2x)* and simplifying, we have

x*dx
^J

320
119

120
Ex.2.

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
Find the value of
&amp;lt;*

+

2
&amp;gt;*
&amp;gt;

-&amp;lt;*

+
2

*)*

f
(x

+
2,

2)^

+

Since the least

common denominator
z*
;

of the exponents of the binomial

is 4,

we assume x +
integral

2

=

then x

=

z4

and dx

4z 3 dz.

On

substitution, the

becomes

=

4

/(
4

z3

-

- 2z +

2

2)

3

- - tan-iV V2

+

C.

Replacing z by

its

value (x

+

2)*,

we have

(x

+
x

2)*

=

+

2

+2 - * (x +

2)3

-

4(x

+

2)4

+

8 (x

+

2)*

+ 8 log(Vx +

2

+

2)

V2
61. Integrand containing fractional

powers of a

+ bxn

.

If

the

integrand

is

the product

where q and r are
ization
is

integers, there are

two cases

in

which

rational

possible.

CASE

I.

When

n

-

is

an
a

integer or zero.
+-

Let us assume

lxn

=z

r

and observe the
x

result of the substitution.
I

Then
--i
H

=

1

(

z

r-a)

n
,

and

dx

=

r

(sra)
rib*

z

r

~l

dz.

l

n

Therefore

x

=

r
sf&amp;gt;

+ r -l

sr

a

5il-i n

dz.

But

if

n

rib*
is

an integer or
2,

zero, this

new

integrand
is

is

a

rational function of
ive one.

and the assumed substitution

an

effect

RATIONALIZATION
Ex.
1.

121

Find the value of

fx 5 (l + 2x 3 )*dx.
,
k

Since

The new

= 2 we assume 1 + 2 x 8 = z 2 whence x 3 =: -(z 2 - 1), and x 2 dx=-zdz. - z*)dz, which reduces to integral is ^ z 3 (3z 2 _ 5) + C
^

&V

.

Replacing z by

its

value,

we have
1)

yV(l +
CASE assume
II.

JFfte^

--

2x 3 )*dx = ?i5 (i + 2x 3 )*(3x 3 (-

+

C.

*

^

^^
n

integer or zero.
n

Here we

will

+ bx = x
*

z

r
.

Then

=

and

Therefore

This
Ex.
2.

new

expression

is

a rational function of
x2 )

z.

Find the value of

f (2 +
J

dx
let 2

x2

Here
stitution

^~n~ +
we

=
r

lj

and accordin S lv we

+

x2

= x 22 2
,

.

After the sub
is

have, as the

new

integral,

-2

f

Z * dz

the value of which

Replacing z by

its

value,

we have

62.

Integrand containing integral powers of ^/ a + bx + x2 If the integrand contains only integral powers of x and of Va + bx + or it may be rationalized by the substitution
.
2

_

,

V +
for

fa?

+x =z-x
2

;

from this equation

The

result of the substitution is

evidently a rational function of

z.

122

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION

Ex. Find the value of
2 x, we have as the new integral 2 Letting Vl + x + x = z which, by the method of Chap. VI, is

\

j-

dz,

Replacing

z

by

its

value x

+ Vl +

x

+
x

x2

,

we have

as the value of the

original integral
1

f(

+

x

+

x 2) 2

-

3 (x

+ Vl +
2

+

x2 )
(

_

log

2x +

l

+

2

Vl +

x

+

x2)

+

C.

is any positive than unity, we may factor it out, thereby bringing constant other the expression under the case just discussed.

If the coefficient

of

63. Integrand containing integral powers of

Va +

bx

x*.

In

this case the substitution of the previous article fails, as

x could not

be expressed rationally in terms of

z.

a

+

Ix

x

=

a

,

2

,

.

(x

lx)

We may now, however, write a --+W

-

an expression which can be factored into two linear factors ^ when the form (7^+ x) (r 2 x), which are real except

of
0.

But then
values of

it is

evident that

-x2
is

(x

-}

is

negative for

all

x,

and hence

a

+ Ix

always imaginary.

Now

place

Va +

bx

x2

= vVi +
x,

x) ( r 2

x)

= z (r

z

x}.

Solving this equation for

we have

After the substitution the
function of
z.

new

integrand

is

evidently a rational

TRIGONOMETKIC FUNCTIONS
Ex. Find the value of f
J
Since 2

123

dx

-

x

-

x2

=

(2

V2 The
to
=

+ x) (1 - x), we assume z - z 2 = V(2 + z) (1 - x) = z(l-x).
is

result of the substitution

the integral 2

f/

,

which

is

za

2

equal

2

iog^- +c. Z+V2
its

2

Replacing z by

value

V2 + Z+V2 -2z
64. Integration of trigonometric functions. There are certain types of trigonometric functions for which definite rules of pro

cedure

may
is

be stated.

The simplest
3

case

is

that in which the

integrand

any power of a trigonometric function multiplied by
I

its differential, e.g.

sin

x cos x dx, which

may

be integrated by one

of the

fundamental formulas.

It is evident that this class requires

no further consideration here. To deal with the more complex cases
usually necessary to make a trigonometric transformation of the integrand, the choice of the particular transformation being guided by the formulas for the differentials of the trigonometric
it is

functions.
65.

Some

of these transformations are given in

65-70.

Integrals of the forms distinguish three cases.

lsm n xdxand.

lcos n xdx.

We may

CASE
place

I.

n an odd
sin

integer.

In the integral

I

sin

n

xdx we may
n-l

xdx =
d(cos

sin

x sin x dx.
1
sin&quot;&quot;

7

Now
is

sin

x dx

=

x),

and

a rational function of cos x since

n_ -

^

=
is

(1

cos ^)
integer.

2

2
,

which

i

an
2

Then

/

8ii\

n

xdx

=

I

(1

cos

In like manner

/P
we may
n

prove
n-l
(1
I

cos

xdx=

sin

2

#

2

124
Ex.
1.

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
Find the value of f sin 5 xdx.

fsm^xdx =

C(l

+

cos2 x) 2 d(cosx)
cos 3 x

=
Ex.
2.

cos x

1 cos5 x

+

C.

Find the value of

f-*L.
J COS 3 X

/dx x = J cos
3

C
(1

d (sin x)

I

-

s

To

sin 2 x) 2

integrate, place sin x

=
1

z.

Then
1 1

J

/_d(smx)_ = r

dz
(1

- Bin**)* (1

J

x

=

1

g
1

22)2

2
1

1

z2

4

^
&

-

g
z

+

_ ~
CASE
II.

1 sin

~

sin

x

2 cos 2 x

I

g
1

+

sinx

n a positive

even integer. In this case

we may

evaluate

the integral by transforming the integrand by the trigonometric formulas Sm2 = J (1 cos 2 x),
cos x
as
2

=

1(1

4-

cos2#),

shown
Ex.
3.

in the following example.

Find the value of Ccos*xdx.

Applying the second formula above, we have
|

cos4 x dx

=

\

I

dx

+

^

cos 2 x dx
|

+

^

/

cos 2 2 x a?;,

Applying

this

formula a second time, we have

Tcos 2 2 x dx

=

^ C(l

+

cos 4 x) dx.
finally

Completing

all

the integrations,

we have

|x

+

1 sin 2 x

+ ^L sin 4 x +

C.

CASE
sin

III.

n a

negative even integer.

In this case we replace
as in
68.

x by

CSCX

and cos x by

SQCX
I

and proceed
x
cos&quot;

66. Integrals of the

form

sin

x dx. There

are

two

cases

in

which an

integral of this type

may

If

CASE
is

I.

Either ra or n a positive odd integer.
1
&quot;

m,

for example,

a positive odd integer, we place 1 m n ^ cos n #(sin x dx) sin # cos # dx =
sin&quot;

m-l
2

=

(1

cos #)

2

cos

n

# d (cos

x).

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Since by the hypothesis
that the

125
it is

-

is

a positive integer,

evident

new

if

Similarly,

n
x.

is

an odd integer we express the integrand as a

function of sin
Ex.
1.

Find the value of C Vsinx cos8 xdx.
\

Vsinx cos 3 xdx

= f Vsinx(l

sin 2 x)d(sinx)

C.

Sometimes when one of the exponents is a negative integer the same method is applicable, but it is apt to lead to functions the
integration of
Ex.
2.

which

is

laborious.

Find the value of C J cosx
(where z

2x rsm 2 xd(s mx) r z 2dz - ~dx= I I 1 J cosx J J 1 1 sm 2 x -=/- z 2
/&quot;sin

=

sin x)

= - sm x +
CASE
II.
is

- log
,

1

1
1

+ sin x
:

2

- sm x +

C.

integrand of the last article and the additional formula
sin
Ex.

even integers. In this case the transformed into functions of 2 x by the two formulas

Both

m and n positive

x cos x

= \ sin 2 x.

3.

Find the value of f sin 2 x
sin 2 x cos4 x sin 2 xcos4 x

cos* xdx.

Placing

= = =

(sin

x cosx) 2 cos2 x,
2

we have
Therefore

^sin 2x(l

+

cos2x).

f sin 2 x

cos 4 x dx

2 J f sin 2 x dx +

f sin 2 2 x cos 2 x dx.

Applying the same method again, we have
2

Jsin
Completing
all

2 x dx

=
J*(l

we have
T*g.

cos 4 x) dx.
finally

the integrations,
2

ysin

x cos4 x dx

=

x

+ \ sin 3 2 x -

^

sin 4

x

+

C,

126

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGKATION
forms
I

67. Integrals of the

tan n * dx and

/

ctn&quot;

x dx.

Since tan x

and ctn x are reciprocals of each other, we need consider only the case in which n is a positive quantity. Accordingly, if n is a
positive integer

we may
tan
w
a?

proceed as follows.

Placing

= tanw ~
2

2

x tan 2 ^,

and substituting

for tan

#

its

value in terms of SQCX,
&quot;

we have

tan #
Therefore
I

n

= tanw
= =
n
I

2

2

^(sec
n~2

ic

1).

tann x dx

tan

x sec x dx
w -1

2

I

tan
~2

n

~*xdx

tan
I

x

J

|

tan&quot;

x dx.

It is evident that the original integral

may
ctn&quot;

be completely evalu

ated by successive applications of this method.
is

The same method

evidently applicable to the integral
Ex.
1.

I

x dx.

Find the value of
tan 5 a;

ftan*x&amp;lt;tc.

Placing

=

tan 3 x tan 2 x

=

tan 3 x (sec 2 x

1),

we have

ftan 5 xd5x

= f tan 3 xsec 2 xdx =
4 J tan x

ftan 3 xdx

2

ftan 3 xdx.

Again, placing

tan 3 x

=
=

tan x (sec x
2

-

1),

we have

ftan xdx
3

= Ttanxsec
2 \ tan x

xcZx

-J^tanxdx

+

log cosx

+

C.

Hence, by substitution,

Ttan 5 xdx
Ex.
2.

=

1 tan 4 x
4

2 ^ tan x

log cosx

+

C.

Find the value

of

|ctn

2xdx.

Placing

ctn 4 2 x

= =
= = =

ctn 2 2 x (esc 2 2 x

-

1) ,

we have

fctn 4 2xdx

fctn 2 x

2

esc 2

2xdx

fctn 2 2 x dx

3 ^ ctn 2 x

fctn 2 2 x dx.

Again, placing

ctn 2 2 x

esc 2 2 x

1,

we have

fctn 2 2xdx

T(csc

2

2x - l}dx
x

=
Hence
Tctn 4 2 x dx

l ctn 2 x
3 J ctn 2 x

+

C.

=-

+

^-

ctn 2 x

+

x

+

C.

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
68. Integrals of the

127

forms

/

sec&quot;

x dx and lcsc n xdx.

We
an

shall

consider these integrals only for the case in which

n

is

integer.

CASE

I.

If n
/

is

a positive even integer,
n

we

place

SQc

xdx =

I

/
where the integrand
is

a rational function of tan x, since

-

-

is

a positive integer. In the same manner,
csc
n

/r
xdx=
I

we may show
(1-f

that
n

~2
2

ctii ^)

2

d(ctnx).

Ex.

1.

Find the value of fsec 4 3xdx.

j*sec*3xdx

= =

i f(l

+

tan 2 3x)d(tan3x)
(3

tan 3 x

+

tan 2 3 x)

+

C.

CASE
is

II.

If n

is

any

evident that the integral falls under the case of
replaced by
or

integer oilier than a positive even integer, it 65 when sec x

is

when

esc

x

is

replaced by
sin

,

maybe.
Ex.
2.

*

as the case

Find the value of Csecxdx.

fsecxdx= J cosx J

f-

dX

-=

J

cos 2 x
1

d (sin x)

1

sin x

**
}

2
.

1

sin 2 x
sin x\ 2
/

1 /I = rlog(-+

2

\

cosx

- +C
+
C.

=
In like manner
it

log (sec x

+

tan x)

may

be shown that fcscxdx

=

log (esc x

-

ctnx)

+

C.

128
69
.

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
Integrals of the forms
I.
/

tan x sec n x dx and
777

/

ctn m x esc&quot; x dx.

CASE

If n

is

a positive even

integer,

we may
2

write

1

tan m x SQcn x
w w ctn x csc x

dx=
dx

I

m tan #(l m ctn x (1

+ tan x)~d (tan x)

t

and
where -

/

=

I

+ ctn

2

x) ~*~d (ctn x),

is
Zi

a positive integer.

Ex.

1.

Find the value of f tan* 2 x sec 4 2 x dx.

4 Placing sec 2 x

=

sec 2 2 x sec 2 2 x,

we have

f tan* 2 x

sec 4

2 x dx

= =

^ f tan^ 2 x (1 i tan*2x

+

tan 2 2 x) d (tan 2 x)
C.

+

tan2x +

CASE

II.

If

m

is

a positive odd

integer,
1
&quot;

we
1

place

/

tanm # secn x

dx=

1

i
(tan&quot;

^

sec&quot;&quot;

^) (tan
2

x sec x dx)

and

/

m ctn x cscn x

dx

=

where

m2
2.

1

/m-l /m-l
sec
n~1
2

ic(sec

^

1)

d(sec#),

&quot;&quot;

1

I

(ctn

^

1

csc&quot;&quot;

^) (ctn

a;

esc

# c?a;)

csc

w~1

^(csc ^

2

2

1)

.

is

a positive integer.
f

Ex.

Find the value of Ttan 3 3 x sec* 3 x dx.

ftan 3 3 x

sec*

3xdx=

2 f(tan 3 x

sec&quot;

*

3 x) (tan 3 x sec 3 x dx)

-

I)d(sec3x)

C.

CASE

III.

If
,

m
.

is

an even
sin x = --

integer

and n

is

an odd

integer,

the integral
sec

x

=

1

may

be thrown under the cases of
cos x

66 by placing

and tan x

cos

x

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
70.

129

The
1
tan&quot;

substitution
z,

tan=z.
if

The

substitution tan -

= z,

or

x

=

2

is

of considerable value in the integration of trigo

nometric functions, since

powers of the trigonometric functions, the result
tion is a rational function of
z.

the integrand involves only integral of this substitu
For,
if

tanthen
,,
.

x

= 2,
= =
.

sin

x

2 sin

x - cos x
2 2
1

=
1
i

2z
-&amp;gt;

+z
t

2

cos x

2 cos

2

y&amp;gt;

=

&amp;gt;

m
and

2tan
, tan

x

=

i

=

2,
-&amp;gt;

When
it is

these values for sin

x, cos

a?,

tan

x,

and d# are substituted,
is

evident, as stated above, that the result Find the value of
dx
2 cosx

a rational function.

Ex.

Placing tan ?
*

= z,

or x

= 2 tan&amp;lt;**

1

z,

we have

cos x

=

1

+
Z2

,

and dx

=
1

2dz

+

Z

Therefore

/

f1

=_

+

2

f_^.
J
z2

2 cos x

2V3
tan

= i,log

l

+v^
+ C.

This method
t

is

applicable to an integral of

es

C J a

dx
-h b

cos

x

C J a+

dx
b

sinx

C J a cos x + b sin x

any one dx

of the three

130

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
It

71. Algebraic reduction formulas.

was shown

in
is

61 that
a rational
zero or an

an integral

of the

form
,.

I

xm (a
j
.

+
n

number, can be rationalized
integer.

m+1

l^ydx, where p
or

if

m+1
n

\-

p

is

In general, however, an integral of this type is evaluated use of the so-called reduction formulas, by means of which the by original integral is made to depend upon another integral in which
the power either of x or of the binomial a decreased.

+

lxn

is

increased or

The four reduction formulas
x m (a

are

:

+ lxn
(np

)

p dx

a

r
\

+ m + l)b

(np

b + m + 1)1 J
)

xm

n

(a

+ o^ydx,

(1)

Cxm (a
&*)

npa

r

,

np
(a

H

+
n

1

np + m + 1 J

+

lx

ydx
(m

(m

+ 1) a

1

n m l + np + + + T + l)fl J W(^
;

be verified by differentiation their deriva tion will be given in the next article. but in that case Formulas (1) and (2) fail if np -\-f 1 =

These formulas

may

m

;

we proved
Formula
Formula

in

61 that the integrand can be rationalized.

(3) fails if

m+1=
;

;

and in that case

also the inte

grand can be rationalized.
(4) fails
if

p+1=

and in that case

it is

evident that
60.

the integration

may

be performed by the method of

ALGEBRAIC REDUCTION FORMULAS
we
72. Proof of reduction formulas. ~ nbxn l dx, bxn ) note that d(a

131
71,

+

=

To derive formula (1), and accordingly place

x m (a

+ bx

n
)

p dx

=-

-

(a

nb

+ bx

n
)

p nbxn - 1

dx

and integrate by
~,m

parts, letting

n

4- 1

nb

= u,

and

(a

+ bx

n
)

p nbx&quot; ~ l

dx
v

= dv.
+l

Then

du

1 = m-n+ -xm ~ n dx,

,

and

=

nb

p+

1

As

a result,

fxm (a

*_m-n+l C^- n(a
nb(p+l)J
To bring
this result into the required form, we place ~ ~ n xm n (a bx ) (a bxn ) p+l xm n (a

+

=

+

ixm - n (a

=a

I

xm

~n (a

+ btf) p dx + b

f

xm (a

+ bxn p dx.
)

Substituting this value in (1),
I

we have

xm (a-\-bxn ) p dx

=x

m - n+l

s

(a

+ bx

n
)

m-n+l{ --p+l
J
p

a

C
I

nb(p+l)
I

nb(p+l) \ J
It?)

^

&quot;(a

+

bxn ) p dsc

+b

x m (a

+

dxlp

(2)

Solving (2) for fat* (a
If

+

bx&quot;)

dx,

we have formula

(1),

71.

we

solve the equation defining formula (1),

71, for

and then replace

m

n by m, the

result is formula (3),

71.

132
and xm dx

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
(2),

To derive

71,

we

integrate

= dv.
du

by

parts, letting (a

+ bxn p =u,
)

Then
l

= pnbxn ~ +

(a

+ bxn

p ~l
)

dx,

and

v

=

Then
/

xm (a

bxn ) p dx

m+
To bring

1

m+ 1J
form we place

this result into the required

=J

x m (a

+ lxn
n

p
)

axm (a

whence

r m+n

p

_l

J
-

ir
i
/v&amp;gt;

m

/

i

hyf } P dx
1

a

C
I

x

(a

I

bxn } p

~

dx

t&amp;gt;J

bj
(3),

Substituting this value in

we have

/m
np
[&quot;

r
a

m+
a

1

+ \J
1

r
I

V
Solving (4) for
If

xm (a

+ bxn

)

p - l dx

~]
-

(4)
J

J

|

x m (a

+

bxn ) p dx,

we have formula
71, for

(2),

71.

we

solve the equation denning (2),
1

r
I

x m (a + bxn ) p
71.

~l dx,

and replace p
73.

by p, the result
apply
these

is

formula
reduction
of

(4),

We

will
of

now
a

formulas can
the

to also

the

evaluation

few

integrals.

Many
the

these
of

be

evaluated
formulas.

by

substitution, without

use

reduction

ALGEBRAIC REDUCTION FORMULAS
Ex.
1.

133

Find the value of f x 3 Va2
(1),

+ x 2 dx.
the given integral depend

Applying formula

71,

we make

upon

f x Va
mulas.

2

-f

x dx, an integral which can be evaluated by the elementary for
2

The work

is

:

fx

3

VoM^dx =

i

x 2 (a 2

+

x 2 )*
)

-

2 I a
J&quot;

x (a 2
44-

+
C.

x 2 )* dx

= I x 2 (a 2 + x 2 - ^ a 2 (a 2 = TV (3 x 2 - 2 a 2 (a 2 + z 2 )*
)

x2 )*

+C

Ex.

2.

Find the value of C
71,

* x2
l

Va2 - x2
a2
x2 )*

Applying

(3),

we have

dx r J x 2 Va2 - x 2
Ex.
3.

_ x~

(a

2

~

_

/*

dx
2

^Va
- dx

^

_ _ Va 2 a 2x

x2

2

Find the value of f-

J

x2

Applying

(3),

71,

we have
a2 a2 J
right-hand

J
Applying

x2
(2),
2

71, to the integral in the

member

of (1),

we have
(2)

/(a
Applying
J

-

x 2 ) 3 dx

=

2 i x (a

-

x 2 )^

+

1

a2 /(a 2

-

x 2 )* dx.

(2),
2

71, again,

we have

f (a r
I

x2

)*

dx

= =

-x 2 (a 2
.

x

x2 )*
C.

+ - a 2 /f
2

A/ a 2

== _

,

(3)

X2

and

dx

sin-i -

J

Va2 _
X 2\i

x2

a

+

Substituting back,

we have
dx

finally

=

(^2

_
2

X 2~j

//(j2 x 2
2

x
C.

a2 a

dx

/C/T
Applying
(4),

,

where n

is

a positive integer.

71,

we have

/dxa +
2

=
2
)&quot;

x(x
&quot;

2

4-

a2

+1
)~&quot;

(x

2(-n+
1 _i

l)a
T r
l(x2

2

+
2(x
n
)

2n4-3

r

dx

n+
,

2 2 l)a J (x

+

2(n-l)a2
This formula
fractions.
is

+ a2

-1

(2n

_

&amp;gt;x

3)

r J (x 2 4-a2

a2 dx

1

)&quot;-

1
)&quot;-

.

the one which

is

sometimes

used in integrating rational

134
Ex.
5.

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
Find the value
of

J V2 ax -

^

xdx
x2

If

we

becomes
ing
(1),

V2a-x
71,

divide both numerator and denominator of the integrand by x*, it x* 1 a form to which we can apply a reduction formula. Apply-

=

we have

f
V
-x/O

&quot;&quot;

=f,&amp;gt;(2g-

T

0-2

/

Ex.

6.

Find the value of f ^
x as
2

&amp;lt;

(2

ax
a)
2

,

x2 ) 5

Writing 2 ax
apply
(4),

a2

(x

and noting that dx
is

= d(x

a),

we

can-

71, to

The
2

result

dX
J

f^ ax (2

~ 3
x2 ) 2

= f ^

[

-

(x

-

a) ]-

2

MX
r
^ [a
.

2 = _(x-a)[a -(x-an^ + 2

2

-a

_

(x

_ a)Tidx

&amp;gt;

x a2

a x2

V2 ax

74. Trigonometric reduction formulas.

It

was proved in
-2

67

that
n

^^ =
71

1
tan&quot;-

^

Ct&n n

xdx.
~2

/tan
Similarly,

1

J
ctn n
~1

(1)

/ctn n xdx=

x

fctn&quot;

x dx.

(2)

(1) and (2) are evidently reduction formulas for the of this particular type of integrand. There are four integration

Formulas

others

which we

shall derive,

i.e.

TRIGONOMETRIC REDUCTION FORMULAS
3in

135

m

*

cos&quot;

* dx
1

sin

7&quot;-*-

*

1
cos&quot;&quot;

*

n

l

//

sin

m

*cos n *d*
sin m+1 *cos&quot;

+
i

2

r

n
sin

J

sin

^

* n+2 xd*,

(4)

m

*cos&quot;*

sin

7&quot;&quot;

1

* cos n+1 *

m1
-s
m m
and n are
m

m+n
/

sin

m

* cos n xdx
sin m+1 a;cos n+1 ^

xcosx

(6)

These formulas are useful when
tive or negative, or zero.

integers, either posi

(3) and (5) fail if + % = 0; but in that case the can be placed under integral or (2), by (1) expressing the integrand in terms of tan x or ctn x. Formula fails when =

Formulas

formula

(5) fails

when

m+1=

(4)

n

+

1

and

;

tion can be performed by the methods of To derive (3) we place sm m x cos&quot; xdx

but in these cases the integra
66.

= cos n -

l

and

let

1
cos&quot;-

*

= u and sm m x cos xdx = dv for
n

m x(sm x

cos x dx)

As

a result
/

integration by parts.

cos

xdx
1
cos&quot;&quot;

in m+1 *

*

nl
form we place
2

To bring
14 2
&quot;

this into the required

sin&quot;

*

2
cos&quot;-

*
2

= sin m *(l-cos
I hen

*)

cos&quot;-

*=sin m *

2
cos&quot;-

*-sin w *cos n *

J

sin

m

*

2
cos&quot;-

* dx

jsin

m

x cos n xdx.

136

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION
(1),

Substituting this value in
I

we have

siu

mx

cos

n

xdx

=

smm+l xcos*~ l x

nl
1

m+
^

1
^
s* /

m H- 1J
n

/

r. m sm x

co\$

n

~2

xdx
(2)

m+ 1J
Solving (2) for
If
I

smm x

cos xdx.

sin

m

x

cos* x dx,
I

we

obtain formula

(3).

we

solve formula

for (3)

r sin w ^ cos n ~ 2 ,^^

and then replace

n by n + 2, the result is formula (4). The derivations of formulas (5) and
Ex.
1.

(6) are left to the student.

Find the value of fsin 3 x cos2 xdx.
(5),

By

formula

sin 3 x cos2 x
|

dx dx

=
=

^

sin 2 x cos 3 x

+

f

(

sin

% cos 2 xdx,

and
|

sin x cos2 x
integrals.

3 ^ cos x,

by the elementary
Therefore
I

sin 3 x cos 2 x

dx

=

1 3 2 y ^ cos x (3 sin x

-f 2) -f

C.

Ex.2. Find the value
Applying formula
/

of

fcos4 xcZx.

(3),

and noting that
I

m=

0,

we have
f
cos 2 xdx.
/

cos4 x dx

sinx cos 3 x

+

Applying formula
|

(3)

again,

we have

cos 2 x dx

=

^

sin x cos x

+

^

I

dx

=

^

sin

x cos x

-f

^ x.

Therefore, by substitution,

/cos
75.

4x

dx

=

i sin x cos 3 x 4

+

sin x

cosx

+

ft

8

x

4-

C.

Use of tables of integrals. In Chap. II we have evaluated simple integrals by bringing them under the fundamental formulas collected in 17, and in Chaps. VI and VII methods of

many

dealing with more complex integrals have been discussed. But in the solution of problems involving integration it is found that

PROBLEMS
some
integrals occur frequently.

137

If these integrals are tabulated

with the fundamental integrals, it is evident that the work of inte gration may be considerably Lightened by reference to such a table.
a table of integrals.
table of integrals will be inserted here, but the reader is referred to Professor B. 0. Peirce s Short Table of Integrals.&quot;
&quot;

is

advised to acquire facility in the use of

No

PROBLEMS
Find the values of the following integrals
:

14.

l.f-jj*L.
2.

C^dx
^ x
r
I

15

*
&amp;gt;

-1 Vx +

r
16.
1
I

dx

t/

*/~T

dx.
/~

4.

J

n-2)*-(,-g)_&amp;gt; fa

x-2i--

5.

7.

x

- Vl

25.
12.
/

.

/(2

-3x-

2x2 ) 3

-.
x 2 (3

+

x 8)

26.

r
|

sin*x cos 3 xdx.

-

J

138

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION

+ a2

PROBLEMS
87. Find the area

139
X2
2

bounded by the hyperbola

=

V2 y

= I and the chord x = h.
a) (x
x).
2

88. Find the area of the loop of the curve cy
89. Find the total area of the curve a y 2
2

(x

6)

,

(a

&amp;lt;

6).

=

x 3 (2 a

-

90. Find the area of the loop of the curve 16 a 4 ?/2
91. Find the area of a loop of the curve y 2 (a 2

=
)

92. Find the area of the loop of the curve (x

+ + y) 2

x2

62x 2 (a2 - 2 ax). = x2 (a2 x 2 = y 2 (y -f 1).
).

93. Find the area inclosed by the four-cusped hypocycloid x*

+

y%

=

cfi.

94. Find the area inclosed by the curve
95. Find
the

W+W=
(

-

~

)

(

|

1

.

area included

between the cissoid y 2

=
2 a

x3

.

-

and

its

asymptote.
96. Find the area of the loop of the strophoid y 2
97. Find the area

x

=

x*

^ + x)
a x

bounded by the strophoid y2

and
a cos n9
)

its

asymptote,

excluding the area of the loop.
98. Find the area of a loop of the curve r

=

+
(

b sin nd.

99. Find the entire area bounded by the curve (-

W +W=
)

1.

100. Find the area of the loop of the Folium of Descartes, x 3 by the use of polar coordinates.

+ y3

3 axy

= 0,

101. Find the length of the end of the first revolution.

spiral of

Archimedes, r

from the pole

to the

102. Find the length of the curve 8 a?y
point x

=

x4

+

6 a2x2

from the origin

to the

=

2 a.

103. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about OX the figure bounded by OX and an arch of the cycloid x = a(0 sin0), y = a (I cos0). 104. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the surface formed by revolving the witch y

=
x2

8 a3
-|-

its

4 a2

asymptote.

of the cissoid y 2

105. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about the asymptote 3 = x the plane area bounded by the curve and the asymptote.

first

A right circular cylinder of radius a is intersected by two planes, the which is perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder, and the second of which makes an angle Q with the first. Find the volume of the portion of the cylinder included between these two planes, if their line of intersection is tan gent to the circle cut from the cylinder by the first plane.
106.
of

107.

An

ellipse

distance between which

and a parabola lie in two parallel horizontal planes, the is ft, and are situated so that a vertex of the ellipse is

vertically over the vertex of the parabola, the major axis of the ellipse being parallel to and in the same direction as the axis of the parabola. trapezoid,

A

140

SPECIAL METHODS OF INTEGRATION

having for its upper base a double ordinate of the ellipse and for its lower base a double ordinate of the parabola,generates a solid, whose upper base is the ellipse, by moving with its plane always perpendicular to the two parallel
planes.

Find the volume of the

solid, the

semiaxes of the

ellipse being
.

a and

6,

and the distance from the vertex

to the focus of the parabola being -

4

108. Find the center of gravity of the arc of the cycloid x

=

a(0

sin0),

y

a(l

cos0), between the

first

two

cusps.
first

109. Find the center of gravity of the plane surface bounded by the arch of the cycloid and the axis of x.

circles,

110. Find the center of gravity of the plane surface bounded by the two x 2 + ?/ 2 = a 2 and x2 + 2/ 2 - 2 ax = 0, and the axis of x.

111. Find the center of gravity of that part of the plane surface bounded by the four-cusped hypocycloid x\$ + y\$ a-, which is in the first quadrant. 112. Find the center of gravity of the surface generated by the revolution about the initial line of one of the loops of the lemniscate r2 = 2 a 2 cos 26.

CHAPTER

VIII

INTEGRATION OF SIMPLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

A differential equation is an equation which con Such an equation can be changed into one which contains differentials, and hence its name, but this change is usually
76. Definitions.

tains derivatives.

not desirable unless the equation contains the

first

derivative only.

of y equation containing x, y, with respect to x, is said to be solved or integrated when a relation between x and y, but not containing the derivatives, has been

A

differential

and derivatives

found, which,
it

if

substituted in the differential equation, reduces

to

an

identity.

tice

The manner in which differential equations can occur in prac and methods for their integration are illustrated in the two
:

following examples
Ex.
1.

to its intersection

Required a curve such that the length of the tangent from any point with OF is constant.
(fig. 41) be any point on the required the equation of the tangent at is

Let P(x, y}
curve.

Then

P

where (X, Y) are the variable coordinates of a moving
point of the tangent, (x, y) the constant coordinates of a fixed point on the tangent (the point of tangency),

Q
FIG. 41

and

is

derived from the, as yet unknown, equa

tion of the curve.

The coordinates

of U,

where the tangent intersects OF,

are then JT

=

0,

Y=y

-x, and the length of dx

PR

is

-\/z

2

\

Representing by a the constant length of the tangent, we
~ Xf

xz ( \dx have

+

+
,

X

Jdy\* =a
(dx)

or

dy

Va2 - x2
(1)

141

142
which
is

SIMPLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
the differential equation of the required curve.
Its solution is clearly

y=
=

r
J

^

1

-

x2

-f

a 2

.

a a

log

T v a2 Va2 -

x2 x2

+

C.

(2)

The arbitrary constant C shows that there are an infinite number of curves which satisfy the conditions of the problem. Assuming a fixed value for C, we see from (1) and (2) that the curve
is

symmetrical with respect to OF, that x 2 cannot be greater than a2
that

,

and y = C when x = a, dx dy becomes infinite as x and that

=

dx.

approaches zero.

From these facts and

the defining

property the curve is easily sketched, as shown in fig. 42. The curve is
called the tractrix
(I, p.

299).

y=0

X

uniform cable is sus pended from two fixed points. Re quired the curve in which it hangs.
Ex.
2.

A

Let
point,

A
and

(fig.

43)

be the lowest

any point on the re quired curve, and let PT be the
tangent at P.
Since the cable
is

P

in

equilibrium,

we may
forces,

consider the

portion
t

AP

as a rigid

body acted
the

on by three
at

tension

P

acting along

PT,

the ten

sion

h at

A

and the weight
tically.

acting horizontally, of acting ver

AP

is ps, where s is the uniform, the weight of of and p the weight of the cable per unit of length. Equating the length horizontal components of these forces, we have

Since the cable

is

AP

AP

t

cos

=
=

h,

and equating the

vertical components,
t

we have

sin

ps.
-

From

these

two equations we have
P

A

or

dy dx

~

FIG. 43

where P

=

a,

a constant.

DEFINITIONS
This equation contains three variables, with respect to x we have (I, 105, (4))
x, y,

143
and
s,

but by differentiating

(1)

the differential equation of the required path.

To

solve (1), place

ax

= p. Then

(1)

becomes

dx

dp

*
-

whence

log

(p

+ Vl + p 2 ) =

+

C.

(2)

Since ^4

is

the lowest point of the curve,

Hence, in

(2),

C=

0,

and we have

p + Vl + p 2 = e,
*

_
v

we know

that

when x =

0,

p =

0.

X

or

p=

(

Ve

+

_\
e
&quot;J,

whence, since

= -*,
dx
of

=

2

\e&quot;

e~

&quot;J

4-

C

.

The value
x

C depends upon
if

=

0.

We

can,

we

wish, so take

the position of OJT, since y that OA = a. Then

=
x

a

+ C when
0,

OX
x

C =

and we

have, finally,
2/

=

a( -Ve

+

-*\
e
/,

the equation of the catenary

(I, p.

281).

The order
first

of a differential

equation
it.

is

derivative of the highest order in

Hence

equal to that of the (1), Ex. 1, is of the
first

order, and (1), Ex. 2, is of the second order. The simplest differential equation is that of the

order and
is

of the first

degree in the derivative, the general form of which

or

Mdx + Ndy =

Q

t

(1)

where

M and N are functions

of

x and

y, or constants.

144

SIMPLE DIFFEKENTIAL EQUATIONS
shall consider three cases in

We
solved.
1.

which

They

are

:

2.

When the variables can be easily When M and N are homogeneous
degree.

separated.

functions of x and y of the

same
3.

When

the equation

is linear.

77.

The equation Mdx

+ Ndy =
(1),

when

the variables can be

separated. If the equation

76, is in the

form

it is

said that the variables are separated.

The solution

is

then

evidently

where c is an arbitrary constant. The variables can be separated if If and can each be factored into two factors, one of which is a function of x alone, and the other a function of y alone. The equation may then be divided which contains y multiplied by the factor of by the factor- of which contains x.

N

M

N

Ex.

1.

dy=f(x}dx.
this follows

From

y

= C f(x) dx +
may

c.

Any

indefinite integral

be regarded as the solution of a differential

equation with separated variables.

Ex.2.

Vl -

2
7/

dx

+ Vl -

x 2 dy

=

0.

This equation rnay be written dx

dy
x2
1
a;

VI whence, by integration,

sin-

VI + sin\f/

y
1

2

?/

=

c.

(1)

This solution can be put into another form, thus: Let sin- 1 x = sin- 1 ?/ = + = c, whence sin(0 + ^) = sine Equation (1) is then
\j/.

and
;

that

is,

sin

cos

\f/

-f

cos
,

sin
\f/

^

cos

= Vl
In

x2 cos

= Vl

&,

where k
2
?y
;

is

a constant.

But

sin

=

x, sin

\f/

=

y,

hence we have
2

xVl-^ + T/Vl-x ^.
(1)

(2)

and

(2)

we have not two

of the differential equation. ential equation Mdx + Ndy

solutions, but two forms of the same solution, It is, in fact, an important theorem that the differ

=

constant.

The student must be prepared, however,
solution.

has only one solution involving an arbitrary to meet different forms of

the

same

THE HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION
Ex.
5.

145

(1

-

x2 )

^ + xy
(1

=

ax.

This

is

x 2 ) dy

or

+ x (y dy ~ r

a) dx x dx
--

= _ =

0,

_
-

2

&quot;\

whence, by integration,
log (y

-

a)

- %

log (1

x2 )

c,

which
and

is

the

same as
be written

log

this

may

The homogeneous equation Mdx + Ndy = 0. A polynomial sum of the expo in ,c and y is said to be homogeneous when the 2 letters in each term is the same. Thus ax + bxy + cf nents of those
78.

+ bx*y cxf ef homogeneous of the second degree, in such a polynomial, we homogeneous of the third degree. If, = vx, it becomes x&quot;f(v) where n is the degree of the poly place y nomial. Thus as * + C = 3*(a + bv + cv*),
is

ax*

+

+

is

+ lxy y* ax* + lx*y + cxf + ef =x*(a +

lv

+

cv

2

+

ev

s

).

to This property enables us to extend the idea of homogeneity functions which are not polynomials. Representing by f(x, y) we shall say that/(ar, y) is a homogeneous a function of x and
y,

function of x and y of the nth degree,

j^ y^ = x
since
2

n

F(v).

Thus

W+
2

if is

vx, place y of the first degree, homogeneous
if,

when we

=

V^ + if = #Vl
log

4- v

2
,

and log x
v.

is

homogeneous

of

degree

0, since

-

= log v = x

log

When

M and N are homogeneous functions
Mdx

of the

same

degree,

the equation
is

said to

be homogeneous and can be solved as follows

:

Place y
tion
or
If /!
(i?)

= vx.

Then

becomes

^
z

dy = vdx + ^^

and

the differential
0,
0.

equa

^ ^^ + x = ^.^ ^ + = [A (v) 4- t/ (r)] ^ + xf (v) dv
a

^

^

t

(1)

+ vf

(v)

^

0,

this can be written
,

146

SIMPLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
77.
z

where the variables are now separated and the equation may be
solved as in
If /! (v)

+ vf
)

(v)

= 0,

(1)

becomes dv =
0.

0,

whence v = c and y = ex.

Ex.

(x

2

Place y

- y2 = vx.

dx

+ 2 xy dy =
v 2 ) dx

There results
(1

+

2 v (x dv

^+^ = +
X
1

+

v dx)

=

0,
0.

V2

Integrating,

we have

logx

+

log (1

+

v2 )
2

whence
or

x(\ + v ) x2 + y 2
(aix

= = =

c
c,

,

ex.

79- The equation

+

biy
it

+

Ci)

dx

+

(a 2 x

+

b2 y

-f c 2 )

dy

=
:

(1)

is

not homogeneous, but
Place

so, as

follows
k.

x
(1)

=x +

A,

y

=

y

+

(2)

Equation

becomes
(aix

+ +

x

&i2/
(agx&quot;

+ aih + &ifc + ci) dx + & 2 y + a^h + &2^ +
so that
&ifc

c 2 )dy

=

0.

(3)

If,

now, we can determine h and k

+ +
(3)

b2 k

+ +

ci c2

= =
+

(H

0j
62 2/0

becomes
is

(aix

+
if

b\y

}

dx

+
2 &i

(a2x
in
0.

^

r

= 0,

which
k
is

homogeneous and can be solved as
cannot be solved
a\b 2
(1) is

78.

Now

(4)

In this case,
ttl

=
1

= k, where
(5)

some constant.
(aix

Equation

then of the form
[k

so that,

if

we

place

+ biy + ci) dx + dx + biy = x
,

fax

+

biy)

+

c2 ]

dy

=

0,

(x

+
+

which

is

dx

- ~
ci)

(5)

dx

(61

+ c2 kx/ + Cg - aik)x + &!Ci (

+

becomes ^X/
)

ai(Zx

=

0,

Ol

dx

0,

aic 2

and the variables are separated. Hence (1) can always be solved.
80.

The

linear equation of the first order.

The equation
(1)

!;
where f^ (x) and
y, is called

+ /,(*)*=/,&amp;lt;*),
first order.
2

/

2

(x)

may

reduce to constants but cannot contain

a linear equation of the
Q,

of

Mdx + Ndy =

where

M=f (x)yf
1

(x),

N=

It is a special case
1.

LINEAR EQUATION OF THE FIRST ORDER
To
solve the equation

147

we

will try the experiment of placing

y

= uv,
later

where u and v are unknown functions of x to be determined in any way which may be advantageous. Then (1) becomes
dv

du
f

,

.

_
av dv

,

.

.

au
or
\
,

t

\

v\

+/i(J5)^|

+ ^ dx =/
i

-P

i

2 (

a5

\ )-

/o\ 2
( )

Let us
be zero.

now

deter mine

u

so that the coefficient of v in (2) shall
-

We

have

or

U
which the general solution
is

of

I

f

l

(x)dx

=

c.

Since, however, all

we need

is

a particular function

which
c

will
0.

make

the coefficient of v in (2)

equal to zero,
I

we may take

=

Then

log

u=
u

/, (x) dx,

or

=e

J

(3)

With

this value of u, (2)

becomes

and
Wlience, finally, since y
I

v

=

l

f

z

(x)dx

+

c.

(4)

= wv,
j

/*

ff^d
(5)

148
Ex.
(1

SIMPLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
x2 )

^+
dx

x?/

=

ax.

Rewriting this equation as

dy
dx
r-

+
,

x
T-

y 1-&*
t

- =

ax

1-x2

we

recognize a linear equation in which

Then
Hence

f/i (x)dx

=y

log

Vl x2

z2

,

and

eJ

fl(x)&amp;lt;lf

=

= Vl -

J

f
(1

2.

eZx

+ cVl-x 2

_
e

- log

VT^ _

1

Vl -

x2

x2 )*

=
This example
is

a

+ Vl
c

x

3, 77, showing that the methods of solving an equation are not always mutually exclusive.

the same as Ex.

81.

Bernoulli! s equation.

The equation
while not linear, can be

+ /i (x) y = /2 (x) y n
so, as

,

follows

:

Dividing by

?/&quot;,

and placing y l ~ n

= z,

and multiplying by

1

n,

we have

a linear equation.

That

is,

y-4_, -3 dx x
/
I

z,

x2

or

=
x

3^2

where

z

=

dx

y~ s

.

We

have now

JCfi(x}dx

= f J
= =
x*.

=
x

Iogx3,

whence

Jf^

dx

Hence
and

z

x3 J

C(- 3x 5 )dx +
.

,

x8

v3

= --x +
2

x3

CERTAIN EQUATIONS OF THE SECOND ORDER 149
82. Certain equations of the second order. There are certain equations of the second order, occurring frequently in practice, which are readily integrated. These are of the four types
:

We
&amp;gt;

proceed to discuss these four types in order

:

3 -A*
direct integration

By

This method

is

equally applicable to the equation

^
Ctd}

=/(#).

Ex. 1. Differential equations of this type appear in the theory of the bend ing of beams. Each of the forces which act on the beam, such as the loads and the reactions at the supports, has a moment about any cross section of the beam equal to the product of the force and the distance of its point of application from the section. The sum of these moments for all forces on one side of a given section is called the bending moment at the section. On the other hand, it is shown in
the theory of

beams that the bending moment

is

equal to
I,
its

,

where E, the
of inertia

elasticity of the material of the beam, of the cross section about a horizontal line

modulus of

and

the

moment

and

R is

through

the radius of curvature of the curve into which

center, are constants, the beam is bent Now

by

I,

191,

[
where the axis of x
is

O
in

horizontal.

But

most cases arising
:

in practice

~y

is

very small, and if we expand -

by the binomial theorem, thus

150
we may

SIMPLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
neglect all terms except the
is

first

without sensible error.

Hence the

bending moment

taken to be

EI^
CIX

This expression equated to the bending

moment as defined above gives

the differential equation of the shape of the beam.

We

will apply this to find the shape of a

ported at its ends. Let I be the distance

Take the
metry,
is

between the supports, and w the load per foot-run. of coordinates at the lowest point of the beam, which, by sym origin at its middle point. Take a plane section C (fig. 44) at a distance x from O and consider the forces at the
right of C. These are the load on CB and the reaction of the support at B.

x
FIG. 44
the center of gravity of

CB

is

w I- l__ x
2

x\

,

acting at

CB, which

is

at the distance of
2

-

from

C.

Hence

the
acts

moment

is

--

downward. The support B

taken negative, since the load wl The moment supports half the load equal to
-

\

-

which

is

-

C

is

therefore

I

-/
]

Hence we have

2 \2

EI Vy_wl(l rl

5?

TVS

/

/Z_ x SVS I
is

Y_^_ ~iU

The general

solution of this equation

But

in the case of the

beam,

since,

when x

=

0,

both y and

are 0,

we have

=

0, c 2

=

0.
is

Hence the required equation

2

y

dx2

fix ^
\

dx/
is

The essential thing here
but does not contain
if
?/

that the equation contains

dy

^

and

^

d 2y
&amp;gt;

,

Hence except implicitly in these derivatives.
have
the

we

place

= p, we
which

^-f
first

=
-j-

&amp;gt;

and the equation becomes

-^

=/(, p),

is of

order in

p and
76.

a?.

If

we can

find

p from

this equation,

we can then

find
2,

y from -^

= p.

method has been exemplified in Ex.

CERTAIN EQUATIONS OF THE SECOND OKDER 151

The

essential thing here is that the equation contains
x.

but does not contain
&amp;lt;ry

As

before,

we

d
place
)

~ and dx
dp

dx2

^,

= dpdpdy =
is

dp

u

_*

-^-=p but now

write

which

of the first order in

p and

y.

If

we can

find

p

from this

equation,
Ex.
2.

we can

find

-~ y from

= p.

to the length of the portion of the

Find the curve for which the radius of curvature at any point is equal normal between the point and the axis of x

The length of the radius of curvature equation of the normal is (I, 101)

is

-

-^
X

X/ J
(I,

y

192).

The

This intersects
therefore

OX at the point
of the
,_

(x

+

y

,

oV

The length

of the

normal

y\ 1 + ( V. \ \dx/
problem are /JAO -, 3
satisfied

The conditions
equations

by

either of the differential

/

/rfi,\ 2

(1)

or
(2)

Placing

dx

=p

and
dx 2

=p
dy

in (1),

we have

whence

dy

The solution

of the last equation

is

y

=

Cl

whence

p=

^

c ~^
&quot;

152

SIMPLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
,

Replacing p by
This
is

we have

Cl

y
c
2

dx

dx

Vy2~

most neatly solved by the use
Cl

of hyperbolic functions.

We

have

(

15)

cosh-iy

y

= x-c 2
=
Cl

,

or

cosh

X

~

2

i

+

e

ei

)

.

This
If

is

the equation of a catenary with

its

vertex at the point

(c 2 ,

we place -^
cZz

= p,

and ^-= p -^ dx 2 dy
1

in (2),

we have
,

dp + p2 _ _ py -. dy y

whence

= ^pdp

The

solution of this equation

is

y

whence
Replacing

p

1
2/

p by

,

we have

dx

Vc
.

2

-

dx.
7/2

Integrating,

we have
.

V&amp;lt;

or

(X

c2 ) 2

+

2/2

_

C

2
8

This

is

the equation of a circle with

its

center on

OX.

&amp;gt;\$-

&amp;lt;*

If

we multiply both

sides of this equation

t by 2 dx dx, we have -/-

Integrating,

we have

V/
(

)

=

/

&amp;lt;

J
M

whence, by separa separating the variables, we have

J

f_ V2

dy O

i

CERTAIN EQUATIONS OF THE SECOND ORDER 153
Ex.
(fig.

3.

45) of

Let the angle AGP and let AP s. By
direction

Consider the motion of a simple pendulum consisting of a particle mass m suspended from a point C by a weightless string of length

P
I.

=

6,

I,

the vertical, 108, the force acting in the
is

where

AC

AP

is

equal to

m

;

but the only force

The weight
Hence the

acting in this direction is the component of gravity. of the pendulum being mg, its compo

nent in the direction

AP
=

is

equal to

mgs m6.
is

differential equation of the

motion

m
We shall
sis

mg sin 6.
on the hypothe

treat this equation first

that the angle through which the

pendulum swings

is

so small that

we may

place sin 6

=

6,

without sensible error.

Then

since 6

=

,

the equation becomes

ds

Multiplying by 2

at

dt,

and

integrating,

we have

where a2

is

a

new

arbitrary constant.

Separating the variables,

we have

whence
where
t

sin-i -

=

J.(tg

t

),

is

an arbitrary constant.
s

From

this, finally,

=
8in*/|

(*-*,).

The physical meaning

maximum

value of s
t

;

it is

of the arbitrary constants can be given. therefore the amplitude of the swing.

For a

is

the
t
,

When t =

s=0;

hence

is

the time at

which the pendulum passes through the

vertical.

We

will next integrate the equation
m (ft =

mg sin 6
is

without assuming that the arc of swing

small.

Placing

s

=

10,

multiplying

by

2

dt,

and integrating, we have

H

=

2 g cos 6

+ GI.

\dt)

154
If,

SIMPLE DIFFEKENTIAL EQUATIONS
now, the pendulum does not make a complete revolution around the point of

support C, port

=
dt

for some v value of 6

which we will

call a.

Hence C

=

2 g cos a,

and our equation becomes

whence
/

2 (cos 6
t

cos a)

where

to is

the value of

for

which
,

=
cos

0.

To bring
1

iar form, place cos 6

=
e

1

2 sin 2 2

a=

-

2 sin 2

have, then,

^

r
Jo

22
- and
,

the integral into a famil
let

k

= sin

.

We

T
=
r^
,

2
/A:

-sin 2 2

Place, now,

sin -

k sin 0.

There

results

^0

^]
If

V1

k2 sin 2

\Q = = V7 n

* \
*&quot;
*&amp;lt;&amp;gt;)

(*

we measure

time from the instant in which

=

0,

we have

t

=

The integral can be evaluated by expanding (1 A; 2 sin 2 0)~^by the binomial 2 2 1, and a table for the value theorem, the expansion being valid since & sin of this series is found in B. O. Peirce s Tables, p. 118.
0&amp;lt;

The pendulum makes one fourth
a, and

of a complete swing

when

varies

from

to

from

to

If 4

T is

the time of a complete swing, then

as

may

be verified by the use of Ex.

2,

27.

PROBLEMS
Solve the following equations
:

x dx
&quot;

y dy
l

_
0.
-

4. sec 2 x
5. 6.
7.

dx

+

tan x tan y dy

0.

1

+y

+ x~
dx
8.

x*
(x

2

2.

2xsinydx + cosydy =

3.

x^l + y-

2

+ yVl + x*dy = Q.
(

+ y)dx - xdy = 0. 2 dx - x 2 dy ) (y + Vz +
2/

0.

Vx2 -

y2

-

y sin-i - dx
x/
)

+

\

x sin-i - dy x

=

0.

9. sin

x sin y dx

cos y cos xdy

=

0,

PROBLEMS
10.
(

155

\

x sin X
Q

y cos - ) dx
X/
x)

+

x cos - dy X

0.

11. \Q x

_j_

(x

dy

y dx) x2

+
y

\e x
2

e
2/ )

x) x

dx
0.

= 0.

12. (2 y
13.
(

2

2

3 xy) dx
?/

X

+

-

3)

dx

+ (3 + (2 x y

-

xy

+ dy - 1) dy = =
0.

=
0.

14.
15. (x 16.

35. _^

_

2

?/

= x2
e&amp;lt;

.

+
\-

2/)

dx

+

(x

+

+

1)

dy

dx
36.

dy dx

y
1)

=
dy dx

sin x.

^ - ay =
dx
-

17. (x

+

-

2y

=

37.

=

sin ax.

18.

dx 2
19.

x (x-ycos^i

x

-ycos)dx + +
y

xcos-cfy x

=

39.^ =
40
y -^ dx 2 dx

dy 20. x dx
21. (y
22.

=

xex

.

+ (x xy 2 dy = 0. - ydx + Vx 2 + y 2 dx = 0. xdy +
x2 y) dx
x
1
)

41

x

d *V

23.

dy
d.x

+
l

x2

y

=

^

_

^_
dx

2

x.

24.

1

+

x2

l

+

x2

25.

dx
26.
27. _fL

+

y tan x

=

sin 2 x.

_|

dx
28.

x2

-

f

1

dy_tf
dx
S

dx 2

dx

29.

dx
30.

dx
31. 32. (x 2 \/z 3 4- y 3
3
7/

)dx

-f x?/

2

dy = 0.

49

(

x !l^__Li)^

dx 2

dx/dx

33.

dy
dx

.

ex

e

+

1

dx 2

34. 3

dx

dx2

156
52. Solve

SIMPLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
-

u&
|

=8

2
7/
,

under the hypothesis that when x

=

1,

y

=

1

and
dx

=
y

3

.

53. Solve

=

- sin 2

y,

under the hypothesis that when x

=

1,

=

and

^dx

1.

54. Solve

= sin 2
dx 2

?/,

under the hypothesis that when y

=

0,

-dx

=

0.

55. Solve 2

dx 2

=
y
2
-

,

under the hypothesis that

=
dx

when y =

&amp;lt;x&amp;gt;.

56. Solve

dx 2

= y+ 1, under the hypothesis that when x = 2, y =

and
dx
is

1.

5 7. Find the curve in which the slope of the tangent at any point the slope of the straight line joining the point to the origin.
that the load on the chain

n times

58. Find the curve in which the chain of a suspension bridge hangs, assuming is proportional to its projection on a horizontal line.
59. Find the curve in which the angle between the radius vector and the is n times the vectorial angle.

tangent
of

60. Find the curve such that the area included between the curve, the axis a fixed ordinate, and a variable ordinate is proportional to the variable cc,

ordinate.

61.

Show
is

that, if the
circle.

normal

to a curve

always passes through a fixed point,

the curve

a

the curve and the axis of x

62. Find the curve in which the length of the portion of the normal between is proportional to the square of the ordinate.

tangent

63. Find the curve in which the perpendicular from the origin is equal to the abscissa of the point of contact.

upon the

64. Find the curve in

which the perpendicular upon the tangent from the
is

foot of the ordinate of the point of contact

constant.

65. Find the curve in which the length of the arc from a fixed point to any is proportional to the square root of the abscissa of P. point

P

66. Find the curve in which the area bounded

a fixed ordinate, and a variable ordinate arc which is part of the boundary.
67. Find the deflection of a
other.

is

by the curve, the axis of x, proportional to the length of the
at one end

and weighted

at the

68. Find the deflection of a 69. Find the deflection of a
ends.
70. Find the curve 71.

beam

fixed at one

at its center

and supported at

its

in

is

constant.

Find the curve

the cube of the length of

which the radius of curvature at any point varies as the normal between that point and the axis of x.

PROBLEMS
A

157

72. particle moves in a straight line under the influence of an attracting force directed toward a fixed point on that line and varying as the distance from
the.

point.

Determine the motion.

particle moves in a straight line under the influence of an attracting force directed toward a point on the line and varying inversely as the square of the distance from that point. Determine the motion.

73.

A

74.

friction,

Find the velocity acquired by a body sliding down a curve without under the influence of gravity.

75. Assuming that gravity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the center of the earth, find the velocity acquired by a body falling from infinity to the surface of the earth.

CHAPTEE IX
FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
more than one variable. A quantity z is said a function of two variables, x and y, if the values of z are determined when the values of x and y are given. This relation is
83. Functions of
to be

= F(x, y), etc. expressed by the symbols z =f(x, y), z u is a function of three variables, x, y, and Similarly,
values of
given.

z, if

the

u

are determined
is

when

the values of

x, y,

and

z are
y, z),

This relation
y, z), etc.

u

= F(x,
Ex.
1.

expressed by the symbols u =f(x,

If r is the radius of the

base of a circular cone, h

its altitude,

and

u

its

2 volume, v = ^ Trr h, and v is a function of the two variables, r and h. Ex. 2. If /denotes the centrifugal force of a mass m revolving with a velocity

v in a circle of radius r,
u,

/=

,

and

/ is

a function of the three variables, m,
gas,
t

and r. Ex. 3. Let
its

v denote a

volume of a perfect
k
,

its

absolute temperature,

and p

pressure.

Then

where k
:

is

a constant.
t

This equation
1
t
-pt&amp;gt;,

may

be

written in the three equivalent forms
of the quantities,
_p, v,

p = k-,

v

=

t

k-,

by which each

and

,

is

explicitly expressed as a function of the other two.

tion

function of a single variable is denned explicitly by the equa y =f(x), and implicitly by the equation F(x, y) = 0. In either case the relation between x and y is represented graphically by
Similarly, a function of
t

A

a plane curve.

denned explicitly
t

= 0. In either case the graphical representa equation F(x y, z) tion of the function of two variables is the same, and may be
84.
of space coordinates. coordinates in space. To locate a point in Rectangular space of three dimensions, we may assume three number scales, ZZ mutually perpendicular, and having their
r

two variables may be by the equation z=f(x y), or implicitly by the

XX YY
,

(fig. 46), zero points coincident at 0.
,

They
158

will determine three planes,

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
XOY, YOZ, ZOX,
two.
lines,

159

each of which

is

perpendicular to the other

The planes

XX YY
,

,

are called the coordinate planes, and the three and ZZ , are called the axes of x, y, and z

respectively, or the coordinate axes, origin of coordinates.

and the point

is

called the

and through P pass planes perpen and ZZ intersecting them at the points L, M, and respectively. Then if we place x OL, y = OM, and z = ON, as in I, 16, it is evident that to any there corresponds one, and only one, point and that to set of values of x, y, and z any set of values of x, y, and z there cor responds one, and only one, point. These values of x, y, and z are called the coordi nates of the point, which is expressed as
Let be any point in space, dicular respectively to
,

P

XX YY

,

,

N

;

P(x,

y, z).

From
and

the definition of x

it

follows that x

is

equal, in

magnitude
coordinate
It follows

direction, to the distance of the point

from the
z.

plane YOZ.

Similar meanings are evident for y and

that a point may be plotted in several different ways by construct ing in succession any three nonparallel edges of the parallelepiped (fig. 46) beginning at the origin and ending at the point.
In case the axes are not mutually perpendicular, we have a system of oblique In this case the planes are passed through the point parallel to the coordinate planes. Then x gives the distance and the direction from the plane

coordinates.

YOZ
to

to the point,
z.

measured parallel

to

OX, and

y and

It follows that rectangular coordinates are

similar meanings are assigned a special case of oblique

coordinates.

85.

Graphical representation of a function of two variables. y) be any function of two variables, and place
,

Then the locus of all points the coordinates of which satisfy (1) is the graphical representation of the function f(x, y}. To construct this locus we may assign values to x and y, as x x l and y y lt

=

and compute from

(1)

the corresponding values of

z.

There will

160

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
z,

be, in general, distinct values of

and

if

(1) defines

an algebraic
points all
at the point

function, their

number

will be finite.

The corresponding

an d these points alone of this line are points of the locus, and the portions of the line between them do not belong to the locus. As different values are assigned to x and y new lines parallel to OZ are drawn on which there are, in general, isolated
i&amp;gt;

on a pi( x
lie

line parallel to

OZ

and intersecting

XOY

2/i)&amp;gt;

y

It follows that the locus has extension in only two dimensions, i.e. has no thickness, and is, accordingly, a surface. Therefore the graphical representation of a function of two variables is a surface.* If

points of the locus.

f( x y)
&amp;gt;

is

corresponding line parallel to

indeterminate for particular values of x and OZ lies entirely on the locus.

y,

the

and

Since the equations z =f(x, y} and F(x, y,z)=Q are equivalent, their graphical representations are the same, it follows that

the locus

of any single equation in

x, y,

and

z is
if

a surface. we demand
that the

There are apparent exceptions to the above theorem, surface shall have real existence. Thus, for example,
x2
is satisfied

+

y

2

+

z2

=-

1

by no
it

real values of the coordinates.
&quot;

It is

convenient in such cases,

however, to speak of

imaginary
lie

surfaces.&quot;

Moreover,
tion

may happen

For

give points which example, the equation

may

that the real coordinates which satisfy the equa upon a certain line, or are even isolated points.

x2

+
_i_

v2
(0, 0, z)

is satisfied

in real coordinates only

by the points
2

which

lie

upon the

axis of z

;

while the equation

x2

,

zz

_

n

is satisfied, as far as real points go, only by (0, 0, 0). In such cases it is still con venient to speak of a surface as represented by the equation, and to consider the part which may be actually constructed as the real part of that surface. The

imaginary part is considered as made up of the points corresponding to sets of complex values of x, y, and z which satisfy the equation.

86.
its

The appearance of any surface can be thus determined from equation by assigning values to any two of the coordinates and

computing the corresponding values of the third. This method, however, has practical difficulties. In place of it we may study
* It is to be noted that this method of graphically representing a function cannot be extended to functions of more than two variables, since we have but three dimen
sions in space.

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
any surface by means
of the sections of the surface
If, for example, we place z parallel to the coordinate planes. the equation of any surface, the resulting equation in x and

161

=

in

y is the equation of the plane curve cut from the surface by evidently the plane XOY. Again, if we place z = z l9 where z l is some fixed finite value, the resulting equation in x and y is the equation of the plane curve cut from the surface by a plane parallel to the new plane XOY and z^ units distant from it, and referred to
axes

and O Y which are the intersections of the plane z = z with the planes XOZ and YOZ respectively for by placing z = z instead of z = 0, we have virtually transferred the plane XOY,

X

f

,

l

;

1

parallel to itself,

through the distance z r In applying this method it is advisable to find = plane sections made by the coordinate planes x
of the surface,

first 0,

the three
0, z

y=

=

0.

These alone will sometimes give a general idea of the appearance but it is usually desirable to study other plane sec tions on account of the additional information that may be derived.

The following
it is

surfaces have been chosen for illustration because

important that the student should be familiar with them.
1.

Ex.

Ax + By +

Cz

+D=
(fig.

0.

Placing z

=

0,

we have

47)
0.

Ax + By + D =

(1)

Hence the plane XOY Placing and then x = 0, we find the sections of this surface made by the planes and YOZ to be respectively the straight lines
cuts this surface in a straight line.

y=

ZOX

and
Placing z

Ax + By + =
Zi,

Cz Cz

+D= +D= +D=

0,
0.

(2)

(3)

we have
Czi
0,
(4)

Ax + By +
which
is

the equation of a straight line in the plane z = z\. The line (4) is parallel to the
line (1), since

they

make

the angle tan- 1

/

j

and lie in parallel planes. To find the point where (4) intersects the plane XOZ, we place shows that this point is a point of the y = 0, and the result Ax + Cz\ + D = linn (2). This result is true for all values of z\. Hence this surface is the locus
with the parallel lines

&X

and

OX

162

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
which moves along a fixed straight
;

of a straight line

line

always remaining

parallel to a given initial position

hence

it is

a plane.

Since the equation
three coordinates,

Ax + By+ Cz + D =
a
0, 6

we have proved
,

is the most general linear equation in that the locus of every linear equation is a plane.

Ex.

2.

z

Placing

= ax 2 + by z where z = 0, we have

&amp;gt;

&amp;gt;

0.

ax2

+

by

2

0,
(fig.

(1)

and hence the

XOY plane

cuts the surface in a point

48).

Placing y

=

0,
(2)

we have
which
rabola
is

z

=

ax ^

the equation of a pa with its vertex at
axis along OZ.
0,

and

its

Plac

ing x

=
is

we have
z

=

by

2
,

(3)

which
and

also the equation of a parabola with its vertex at
its

axis along OZ.
&amp;gt;

Placing z = z\, where z\ 0, we may write the resulting equa
tion in the

form

which is the equation of an ellipse
i

with semiaxes

-\

/

and
a

\

6

As

the plane recedes from the origin, i.e. as z\ increases, it is
in magnitude.

FlG 48
-

evident that the ellipse increases

If

we

place z
is

Zi,

the result

may be written

in the

form
Zl

x2

-\

y2 =
Zi

1,

and hence there

no part of

this surface

The surface
moving an
ends of
its

is

called an elliptic paraboloid,

on the negative side of the plane XOY. and evidently may be generated by
.

ellipse of variable magnitude always parallel to the plane XOY, the axes always lying respectively on the parabolas z = ax2 and z = by 2 While the appearance of the surface is now completely determined, we shall, nevertheless, find it of interest to make two more sections. In the first place, we

note that both the coordinate planes through OZ cut the surface in parabolas and their axes along OZ, and hence arises the question, with their vertices at

Do

all

planes through

OZ

this question

cut the surface in parabolas ? we shall make a transformation of coordinates by
&amp;lt;

through an angle revolving the plane , of transformation will be x = x cos _

XOZ

0&amp;gt;

OZ as an axis. The

formulas

y, sin

y

=

x sin

&amp;lt;

+

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
for z will not be changed at all, and x and y will be changed in the ner as in I, 115. The transformed equation is
z

163
same man

=

a (x cos

&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

y sin 0) 2

Placing y

=

0,

we have

z

=

(a

cos 2

+ b (x sin + + b sin 2 0) z 2
,

y cos 0) 2

.

(5)

which

a parabola with its vertex at and its axis along OZ. But by chang we can make the plane OZ any plane through OZ, and hence every ing and its plane through OZ cuts this surface in a parabola with its vertex at axis along OZ.
is

X

y

we will place and write the result ing equation in the form
Finally,
y\
=.

which
allel

is

parabola with
to

the equation of a its axis par
its

OZ and

vertex

at a distance by*

from the

plane

XOY.
a2

Ex .S.
Placing z

+

_
&2
0, c2

=

=

we have
(1)

FIG. 49

a2

which
y

is

the equation of an ellipse with semiaxes a and 6
2

(fig.

49).

Placing

=

0,

we have

22

which
its

is the equation of an hyperbola with its transverse axis along conjugate axis along OZ. Placing x = 0, we have

OX

and

62

(3)

which
its

is the equation of an hyperbola with its transverse axis along conjugate axis along OZ. If we place z = z\ and write the resulting equation in the form
,

OY and

.1
OM 1 +
we
see that the section
is

(4)

-=.

an

ellipse

with semiaxes a

X

c2

&amp;gt;

c2

which accordingly increases in magnitude as the cutting plane recedes from the origin, and that the surface is symmetrical with respect to the plane JTOF,
the result being independent of the sign of
z\.

164
of one sheet,

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL. VARIABLES

Accordingly this surface, called the unparted hyperboloid or the hyperboloid may be generated by an ellipse of variable magnitude moving and with the ends of its axes always lying always parallel to the plane

XOY
and

on the hyperbolas
If

=
a2
c2

1

=
62
c2

1.

now we

revolve the plane

XOZ
sin 0,

OZ

as

an axis by making the trans-

x

=

x cos
is
/

y

=
+

x sin

+

y cos 0,

the transformed equation
/

(x

cos0

-y
a2

sin0)

2

/

(x

sin0

y cos0) 2

/

z2
&quot;c

_
&quot;

62

2

Placing ,

= 0, we

have

+

x

,_

=

1,

(6)

and have thus proved that the section made by any plane through OZ
hyperbola with
Finally,
its

is

an

we

conjugate axis along OZ. place y = y, and write the resulting equation in the form
a

a2

?_ 2l-l_^l ~
c2

52

whence we

see that the surface

is

To

discuss the equation further the value of y im
If yi
&amp;lt;

we

symmetrical with respect to the plane XOZ. shall have to make three cases according to

6,

we put

the equation in the form

=

*!

(-I) -(-59
which
2 a
is

the equation of an hyperbola with

its

transverse axis equal to

^

1

- and

parallel to

OX. Hence

the vertices will approach coincidence

as the cutting plane recedes from the origin. If y\ = 6, the equation may be put in the form

which

is

If yi

&amp;gt;

the equation of two straight lines which intersect on 6, we write the equation in the form
*&quot;

OY.

=

1.

which
2 c
is

the
1

equation of an hyperbola with
to OZ. 0:

its

transverse axis equal to

Ca

V-l v--

and parallel

Hence the

vertices separate as the cutting

plane recedes from the origin.

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
.?*&quot;-*
This surface
cone, with
its
(fig.

165

50)

is

a

OZ

as

its

axis

and

vertex at 0.

This surface
ellipsoid.

(fig.

51)

is

the

Ex

.

2

62
(fig.

c2

This surface

52) is the

biparted hyperboloid or the hy
perbola-id of two sheets.
~Fio.

50

The discussions

of the last

three surfaces are very similar to that of the unparted hyperboloid, that reason they have been left to the student.

and for

Ex.

7.

z

=

ax 2

-

by

2
,

where a

&amp;gt;

0, b

&amp;gt;

0.

Placing z

= 0, we

obtain the equation

ax 2
i.e.

=

by

2

=

0,
(fig.

(1)

two straight

lines intersecting at the origin

53).

Placing y

=

0,

we have
(2)

z

ax 2

,

the equation of a parabola with

its

vertex at

and

its

axis along the positive direction of OZ.

Placing x

= 0, we
2
,

have
z

=-

by

(8)

the equation of a pa rabola with its ver tex at

O and

its

axis

along the negative direction of OZ.
Placing x

=
by
2
,

Xi,

we have
z

=

ax?

-

FIG. 51
b
l

a parabola with
the plane

its

axis parallel to

OZ and

its

vertex at a distance ax* from
is

XOY.

It is evident,

moreover, that the surface
.

symmetrical with

respect to the plane FOZ, and that the vertices of these parabolas, as different values are assigned to xi, all lie on the parabola z = ax 2

166
Hence
always

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
this surface

may

parallel to the plane
is

be generated by the parabola z=-by2 moving 2 FOZ, its vertex lying on the parabola z = ax
.

The surface

called the

hyperbolic paraboloid.

Finally, placing z = Zi,

where

z\

&amp;gt;

0,
2

we have
by 2
,

zi

=

ax

an
to

hyperbola
axis

with

its

transverse

OX and length as the cutting plane recedes from the
origin.
If z

parallel increasing in

--

zi,

we may

write the equation in the

form

JV-

=

1,

(0)

an hyperbola with

its

as the cutting plane recedes

transverse axis parallel to from the origin.

OF and

increasing in length

/r\

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
Ex.
8.

167

z

=

kxy.

As

XOY
(fig.

the algebraic sign of the constant k merely shows which side of the plane we take as the positive side, we will assume fc&amp;gt;0, and discuss the surface

on that hypothesis. = 0, we have xy = 0, which is the equation of the axes OX and OF. Placing y = 0, or x = 0, we have z = 0, and gain no new information about
54)

Placing z

the surface.

Placing z

=

z\,

where

z\

&amp;gt;

0,

we have

an hyperbola referred to we have the hyperbola

its

asymptotes as axes

(I,

117, Ex.).

Placing z

=

z,

Hence all sections made by planes parallel to are hyperbolas with OX and OF as their asymptotes, and lying in the first and the third quadrants or in the second and the fourth quadrants according as the cutting plane is on the
positive or the negative side of the

XOY

XOY plane.
z

Placing x

Xi,

where x\

&amp;gt;

0,

we have

=

kx iy

,

(3)

which

the equation of a straight line intersecting plane FOZ. If x = Xi, we have the straight line
is

OX

and

parallel to the

z

=&amp;gt;

kxiy.

(4)

Similarly, placing y

y\,

where y\
z

0,

we have
(6)

fc?yiz,

168
which
is

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
If

ZOX.

the equation of a straight line intersecting we have the straight line y = ?/i,

OF and parallel to the plane
(6)

As

the cutting plane recedes from the origin

it is

evident that these straight

lines revolve

about OX and OY respectively as they move along them, but remain parallel to the planes YOZ and ZOX respectively. always
Finally, we will revolve the plane OZ as an axis, the transformed equa

XOZ

tion being
?/

cos0).

Placing y

0,

we have
z

kx

2

cos0

sin 0, (7)

the equation of a parabola with its vertex at and its
axis along OZ.

Hence

all

planes through OZ cut this surface in parabolas with
their axes along OZ.

The surface is a special case of the hyperbolic pa for if raboloid of Ex. 7
;

we keep OZ
swing OX
FIG. 55

in its original position

and

and

OY into
I,

new

the formulas of

117,

by and choose the
positions

assumes the form z
but
if

=
2 a.

4ab
a

6

=

+

xy.
b

as in the illustrative example of angle 2 that article, the equation z = ax2 by Here the coordinates are oblique unless b = a
;

a, the

coordinates are rectangular and

we

have the case just con

sidered,

where k

=

of this surface on which the coordinates are all positive shows the relations between the pressure, the volume, and the tempera graphically ture of a perfect gas ( 83, Ex. 3). This part of the surface is shown in fig. 55.

The portion

87. Surfaces of revolution.

If the sections of a surface

are circles with by planes parallel to one of the coordinate planes on the axis of coordinates which is perpendicular to the their centers

revolution (37) with that cutting planes, the surface is a surface of coordinate axis as the axis of revolution. This will always occur

= the equation of the surface is in the form F^x^+y*, z ) in the which means that the two coordinates x and y enter only
when
&amp;gt;

combination

^x + y
2

2
;

for

if

we

place z

=z

l

in this equation to

CYLINDEES

169

find the corresponding section, and solve the resulting equation for 2 e have, as a result, the equation of one or more circles, aj -f y*
t

W

the equation F(y, z) = 0, which is the equation of the generating curve in the plane YOZ. = 0, we have F(x z) = 0, which is the Similarly, if we place y XOZ. It should be equation of the generating curve in the plane noted that the coordinate which appears uniquely in the equation shows which axis of coordinates is the axis of revolution.

according to the

number
place

of roots of the equation in
0,

x2 + y 2

.

Again,

if

we

x=

we have

t

= Conversely, if we have any plane curve F(x, z) XOZ, the equation of the surface formed by revolving
an axis
2

it

in the plane about OZ as

is

F(^/x?+ y

,

z)

=

0,

which
by

is
2

formed by simply replacing
2
.

x in the equation
Ex.
,
.

of the curve

V# + y
a2

1.

Show
this

that the imparted hyperboloid

-^L + 2
o

=
a2

1 is

a surface of

revolution.

Writing

equation in the form

a2

,

b*

we

see that

it is

a surface of revolution with

OF as the axis.
curve.

Placing z

=

0,

we have - -

= 1,
its

an hyperbola, as the generating

Ex.
y
2

conjugate axis.

2.

Find the paraboloid of revolution generated by revolving the parabola
its axis.
2

= 4tpx
=
88.

Replacing y by ~Vy

+

z2

,

we have

as the equation of the required surface

4px.
If a

= 0, given equation is of the form F(x, y) involving only two of the coordinates, it might appear to represent a curve lying in the plane of those coordinates. But if we are
Cylinders.
dealing with space of three dimensions, such an interpretation would be incorrect, in that it amounts to restricting z to the value 2 0,

=

any simultane ous values of x and y satisfying the equation F(x, y} = may be anything whatever. Hence, corresponding to every point of the curve F(x, y} in the plane XO Y, there is an entire straight line,
whereas, in fact, the value of z corresponding to
parallel to

OZ, on the surface F(x y)
t

=

0.

Such a surface

is

a

170

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

in the cylinder, its directrix being the plane curve F(x, y) 2 0, and its elements being parallel to OZ, the axis of the plane

=

=

coordinate not present.

= a* is the equation of a circular cylinder, elements being parallel to OZ, and its directrix being the circle its = a 2 in the plane XOY. x*+ 2 In like manner, z = ky is a parabolic cylinder with its elements
2 For example, x -f-

2

2/

f

parallel to
If only

OX.
one coordinate
is

present in the equation, the locus

is

a

2 =Q (a + l}x + ab planes. For example, the equation x = 0, which represents be written in the form (x I) a) (x may a = I = 0. Similarly, any equation and x the two planes x

number of

involving only one coordinate determines values of that coordinate only and the locus is a number of planes.

Regarding a plane as a cylinder
straight line,

of

which the

directrix is a

we may

say that any equation not containing all the

coordinates represents a cylinder. If the axes are oblique, the elements of the cylinders are not perpendicular to the plane of the directrix.
89. Space curves. The two surfaces represented respectively by the equations /x (x, y,z)=Q and /2 (x, y, z)=Q intersect, in general, in a curve, the coordinates of every point of which satisfy each of

the equations. Conversely, any point the coordinates of which satisfy these equations simultaneously is in their curve of inter
section.

in

x, y,

and

Hence, in general, z is a curve.
the locus

the locus

of two simultaneous equations
.

In particular,

of

the two

simultaneous linear equations,

is

a straight

line,

since

it

is

the line of intersection of the two

planes respectively represented by the two equations. = 0, fz (x, y, z) = 0, If, in the equations f^(x, y, z}

we

assign a

value to one of the coordinates, as x for example, there are two equations from which to determine the corresponding values of y and z, in general a determinate problem. But if values are
assigned to two of the coordinates, as x and y, there are two

SPACE CURVES

171

a single unknown z, a prob equations from which to determine Hence there is only one independent lem generally impossible.
variable in the equations of a curve.

the independent variable and place the equations of the curve in the form y = &amp;lt;M#) z = \$z( x by curve for y and z in terms solving the original equations of the

In general, we

may make x

}&amp;gt;

of x.

The new
(

surfaces, y

are cylinders
tively.

= fa (x), z = 2 (x), determining the curve, with elements parallel to OZ and OY respec 88),
&amp;lt;

The equation y

= ^(z)
=
&amp;lt;

interpreted in the plane

XOY is

the equation of the projection ( 92) of the curve on that plane. in the plane ZOX, is 2 (x), interpreted Similarly, the equation z
the equation of the projection of the curve on that plane. In particular, if we solve the equations

for

y and

z in

terms of

x,

we have two
z

equations of the form
s,

y

= px + q,
same

= rx +

as the equations of the

straight line that

was represented by

the original equations.

any variable parameter, and we make x a function of t, as x=fl (t), and substitute this value of x in the equations y ==&(*), * = &(*) (89), we have
90. If
t

is

*=A(0&amp;gt;

y =/,(

),

*=/.(

)&amp;gt;

as the parametric equations of the curve.

More

generally, the three equations

in represent a curve, the equations of which may be generally put the form y = \$ 1 (x),z eliminating t from the first and 2 (#), by

=

&amp;lt;

the second equations, and from the

first

and the third equations.

Ex. The space curve, called the helix, is the path of a point which moves around the surface of a right circular cylinder with a constant angular velocity and at the same time moves parallel to the axis of the cylinder with a constant
linear velocity.

172

FUNCTIONS OF SEVEEAL VARIABLES
o&amp;gt;

Let the radius of the cylinder (fig. 66) be a, and let its axis coincide with and the constant linear velocity OZ. Let the constant angular velocity be be v. Then if 6 denotes the angle through which the plane Z OP has swung from its
initial position

ZOX,

the coordinates of

any point P (x, y, by the equations
x

z) of the helix are

given

=
6

a cos

0,

y

=

a sin

0,

z

=

vt.

But
x
t

=

wt,

and accordingly we may have
y
r\

as the parametric equations of the helix

=

a cos u,

=

a

sin at,

z

=

vt,

being the variable parameter.
Or, since
t
,

w

we may

regard 6 as

the variable parameter, tions are

and the equa
z

x

=

a cos 0,
is

y

=

a sin

0,

=

kd,

where k

the constant -

91.
~

Ruled surfaces.

x

A

surface

generated by a mov ing straight line is called a ruled surface. The plane, the cone, and
\vhich

may be

FIG. 56

of ruled surfaces,

and

in

the cylinder are simple examples 8 6, Ex. 8, it was shown that the hyper

bolic paraboloid is a ruled surface.

Ex. 1. Prove that the ruled surface generated by a straight line which moves so as to intersect two fixed straight lines not in the same plane and at the same time remain parallel to a fixed plane is an hyperbolic paraboloid. Let the fixed straight lines have the equations y = 0, z = 0, and y = c, z = kx, and let YOZ be the fixed plane, the axes of coordinates being oblique. Then the = mz is a straight line which is parallel to the plane YOZ straight line x = a, y and intersects the line y = 0, z = 0, for all values of a and m. If this line
intersects the line

y

=

c,

z
a,

=
y

kx, evidently

m

-

Therefore the equations of

the required line are x

=

=

z.

ka k c equations satisfy their product xy = -z, or z = -xy. Hence the line always ^ k lies on the surface z = -xy, an hyperbolic paraboloid ( 86, Ex. 8). z2 x2 y2 = lisa ruled sur Ex. 2. Prove that the unparted hyperboloid ~^+^ ^
face having two sets of rectilinear generators,
i.e.

Any

values of x, y, z which satisfy these

two straight

lines

may be drawn, each

of

which

shall lie entirely

that through every point of it on the surface.

RULED SURFACES
If

173

we

write the equation of the hyperboloid in the form
T2
72
? /2
&amp;lt;

I-?- 1 -*
it is

evident that (1)

is

the product of the two equations

any value of ki. But (2) are the equations of a straight line ( 89). More over, this straight line lies entirely on the surface, since the coordinates of every point of it satisfy (2) and hence (1). As different values are assigned to k\, we
for

obtain a series of straight lines lying entirely on the surface.

Conversely,

if

PI (xi,

yi z\)
t

is

any point

of

(1),

Therefore PI determines the same value of ki from both equations every point of (1) lies in one and only one line (2).

(2).

Hence

We may

also regard (1) as the product of the

two equations

(3)

whence

it is

evident that there

is

the surface, one the surface.

and only one

of

a second set of straight lines lying entirely on which may be drawn through any point of

Equations (2) and (3) are the equations of the rectilinear generators, and every point of the surface may be regarded as the point of intersection of one line from each set.

Ex. 3. The conoid (Ex. 52, p. 83) is evidently a ruled surface, since it is gen erated by a straight line moving always parallel to a given plane and at the same time intersecting a given curve and a given straight line.

Ex.

4.

Another example of a ruled surface

is

the cylindroid,

i.e.

the surface

generated by a straight line moving parallel to a given plane and touching two given curves.

Ex. 5. Show that the prismoidal formula ( 39) applies to the volume bounded by a ruled surface and two parallel planes. The equations x = pz + q, y = rz + s represent a straight line. If p, q, r, and
s are

functions of a single independent parameter

,

the line generates a ruled

surface.

174
If

FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES
we
place z

=
g,

0,

we have x
rzi

q,

y

tion of the ruled surface

by the plane

= s, the parametric equations of XOY. Similarly, if we place z

the sec
Zi,

we

have x

the parametric equations of a section parallel to XOY. Suppose now when t varies trom t to ^, the straight-line generator of the surface traverses the perimeter of the section z = z\. Then the area of this

= pzi +

y

=

+

s,

section

is

dp
t

dt

Jto \

dq ^+ ^
r
dt

r tl da
Jt

dt

dt

is a quadratic polynomial in z\. Hence the prismoidal formula holds for a portion of a ruled surface bounded by parallel planes. The prismoid itself is a special case of such a surface.

This

PROBLEMS
1.

Show
is
T/,

that the surface lfi(x,

?/,

z)

+ fc/2 (x,

?/,

z)

=

0,

where

I

constants, faces /i (cc,

a surface passing through
z)

all

the points

common

to the

and k are two sur

=

and /2

2. Discuss the surface 3.
its

Show

that the

= 0, and meeting them at no other points. = a 3 by means of plane sections. xyz surface z = a Vx 2 + y* is a cone of revolution, and find
(x, y, z)

vertex and axis.
4.

Prove that the surface ax

+
-f-

by

= =
2

cz 2 is a cylindroid,

and discuss

its

plane sections.
5.
6.

Discuss the surface x

+ y*

z*

a?

by means
cz
is

of plane sections.
its

Prove that the surface (ax
Discuss the surface x

+ +

6y)

=
eft

a cylindroid, and discuss

plane sections.
7.
-f

y%

z%

=

by means

of plane sections.
is

Find the equation of a right circular cylinder which plane XOZ and has its axis in the plane YOZ.
8.

tangent to the

9.

planes

XOZ

Find the equation of a right circular cylinder which and XOY.

is

tangent to the

10. Describe the locus of the equation z 11. Describe the locus of the equation

+

(y

+
by)

2

I)

=
3

0.

2y 2

5y

=

0.

12. Describe the locus of the equation (ax 13.

+

2

c 2z 2

=

0.

an

ellipse revolving

Find the equation of the oblate spheroid, about its minor axis.
of

i.e.

the surface generated

by

14.

Find the equation

a biparted hyperboloid of revolution with
the surface generated

OY
by

as

its axis.

15.

Find the equation of the prolate spheroid, its major axis.

i.e.

PROBLEMS
16.

175

y

2

= 4px
17.

Find the equation of the surface generated by revolving the parabola about OF as an axis. Find the equation of the ring surface generated by revolving about + (y - b) 2 = a 2 where a 6.
,
&amp;lt;

OX

the circle x2
18.

xy

=

c

Write the equation of the surface generated by revolving the hyperbola about either of its asymptotes as an axis.

Find the equation of the surface formed by revolving the four-cusped 8 an axis. hypocycloid x + y* =a* about OF as
19.

20. 21.
22.

What

surface
surface
is

is

represented by the equation x*

What What
Show

is

represented by the equation
represented

+ (y2 + z 2 )* = a* ? x 2 + z 2 - y6 = ? +
z2

the

line

2 by the equations y

- 6x = =

0,

z-3=0?
23.
is 2 that the line of intersection of the surfaces x

+

y

2

=

a2 and y

z

an

ellipse.

OX through 45.)

24. Show that the projections of the skew cubic x = t, y = P, z = t* on the coordinate planes are a parabola, a semicubical parabola, and a cubical

parabola.

- a cos0, y = asinfl, z = kd 25. Prove that the projections of the helix x and YOZ are sine curves, the width of each arch of on the planes

XOZ

which

is

k-rr.

26. Prove that the projection of the curve x the plane

=

e{ ,

y=e~

f
,

z

= tV%,

on

XOY
is

is

an equilateral hyperbola.
f

27. Turn the plane XOZ about OZ as an axis through an angte of 45, and e~ z = t V2 on the new show that the projection of the curve x = e, y
,

XOZ plane
28.

a catenary.
that the curve x
2
,

Show

y

=

2

1,

z

=

t

is

a plane section of a para

bolic cylinder.

29. Prove that the skew quartic x = t, y = 3 z = t* is the intersection of an hyperbolic paraboloid and a cylinder the directrix of which is a cubical
,

parabola.
30.
its

The

vertical angle of a cone of revolution

is

90,

its

vertex

is

at 0,

and

starting from the vertex, moves in a spiral path along the surface of the cone so that the measure of the distance it has traveled parallel to the axis of the cone is equal to the circular measure of the
axis coincides with OZ.

A point,

angle through which

it

has revolved about the axis of the cone.

Prove that the
t

equations of its path, called the conical helix, are x

=

t

cos

,

y

=

sin

t,

z

=

t.

CHAPTEE X
PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE
92. Projection. The projection of a point on a straight line denned as the point of intersection of the line and a plane through the point perpendicular to the line. Hence in fig. 46

is

are the projections of the point M, and and z respectively. The projection of one straight line of

L,

N

P on

the axes of

x, y,

second

straight

line

is

the
of the

part

of

finite length upon a the second line included
first line, its

between the projections

ends of the

direction
of the

being from the projection
initial

point of the first line to the

projection of the terminal point of the first line. In fig. 57, for ex

ample, the projections of

A

and

B

M
R
FIG. 57

_ N on

being A and B respec the projection of AB on tively, is A B and the projection of

MN
on

MN
BA

,

MN

is

A

.

If

MN and

AB

denote the positive directions

lows that

and

is

respectively of these lines, it fol is positive when it has the same direction as negative when it has the opposite direction to MN.

AB

MN
and

In particular, the projection on

OXoi the
z 2 ) is
I,

straight line

from P^x v y^ zj

OL 2 = x2

.

But

P (x L L =x
to
2 2
1

2&amp;gt;

2

y2 x 1 by
,

L^L zt
13.

where

OL = x
1

2 P^P drawn
l

Hence the

projection

of

im
If

on

OX

is

x2

x1

-

and

and

OZ are
we

yl respectively y 2 define the angle between
parallel to

similarly, its projections and z2 z r

on

OY

any two

lines in space as the

angle between lines

them and drawn from
176

a

common
is

point, then the projection of one straight line on a second

the

PROJECTION
product of the length of
angle between
the first line

177
the cosine
lines.

and

between the positive directions of the two

of the angle Then if is the
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

AB

and

MN

(fig.

57),

To prove
by
I,

this proposition,

ing the plane
14,

ST

at C.

draw A C parallel Then A C = AB, and
f f

to

A B and meet A B = A C cos

&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;,

whence the truth

of the proposition is evident.

Defining the projection of a broken line upon a straight line as the sum of the projections
of

segments, we may prove, as in that the projections on any straight 15, line of a broken line and tht
its

I,

straight line joining its ends are the same.

We

will

now
*
^fe^o

show that
projection

the

of any

FIG. 58

plane area upon another plane
the cosine

Let
&amp;lt;

X

is the product of that area and of the angle between the planes. OY (fig. 58) be any plane through OY making an angle

with the plane

XOY.

Let

AB

1

be any area in
intersects its

X OY such
boundary

that

any more than two

straight line parallel to
points,

and

OX let AB
f

in not

be
r

its

projection on

XOY.
(1)

Then

(

35)

area

AB =

C(x2

- x[) dy

t

the limits of integration being taken so as to include the whole area.

In like manner,

area

AB =

I

(x2

x^

dy,

(2)

the limits of integration being taken so as to cover the whole area.

178

PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE

of y are the same in both planes, since they measured parallel to the line of intersection of the two planes and hence the limits in (1) and (2) are the same. Since the x

But the values

are

;

coordinate

is
&amp;lt;,

x2 = x2 cos

measured perpendicular to the x 1 = x[ cos and (2) becomes
&amp;lt;,

line of intersection,

area

AB =

I

(x2
I

x[) cos

&amp;lt;

dy dy
).

cos
&amp;lt;p

r
(x2
x^)
(/&amp;gt;)

= (cos
93. Distance

(area

AB

yz

,

z 2 ) (fig.

between two points. Let P^x^ y v zj and P^(x2 be any two points. Pass planes through P^ and P 59) 2
,

parallel to the coordinate planes, thereby

z

forming a rectangular parallelepiped having the. edges parallel

to

a diagonal.

OX, OY, and OZ, and having Pfc as Then the edges are equal
x v yz

respectively to x2
(

y v and

z2

zl

92), being equal to the projections of

on OX, OY,

Hence
59 If the
2/ 2

PI

%=

(*2

,)

+ (y
as, for

two points have two coordinates the same, z2 = z v the formula reduces to yv
1.

example,

Ex. Let

Find a point Vl4 units distant from each of the three points

(1, 0, 3), (2,

-

1, 1),

(3, 1, 2).

P (x,

y, z)

be the required point.
(x (X (X

Then

- 1)2 + - 2)2 + - 3)2 +

(y

(y

- 0)2 + + 1)2 + - 1)2 + (y

( (

Z Z

(

Z

_ -

3)2
1)2

=

14,

= 14j 2)2 = 14.
(0, 2, 0)

Solving these three equations,

we determine

the

two points

and
its

(4,

2, 4).

Ex.
If

2.

Find the equation of a sphere
y, 2) is

of

center at

Pi(*i, y\, zi).

P (x,

any point
(x

of the sphere,

-

xi)2

+

(y

-

yi )2

+

(

Z

_

Zl )2

=

r2.

(i)

P

Conversely, if P(x, ?/, 2) is any point the coordinates of which satisfy (1), is at the distance r from P Therefore 1? and hence is a point of the sphere. (1) is the required equation of the sphere.

LENGTH OF A SPACE CURVE
94.

179

Length of a space curve in rectangular coordinates. The method of finding the length of a space curve is similar to that of 40 may finding the length of a plane curve, so that the proof of
be repeated. the given curve, we assume n l points between A and B, and connect each pair of , JJ_j JJ, JJ, JJ consecutive points by a straight line. The length AB is then
If
(fig.

AB

60)

is

defined

as

the

limit

of

the

sum
Al[,

^
|J

of the lengths of the

n chords
is

~^~*-^5^

Pf^

-

,

I^_ 1 B, as

n

increased

without limit
each chord
limit
(I,

and the length of approaches zero as a
(#.,
i
i

FIG 60

104).

Let the coordinates of If be
(# .+ A#,
t

y it
l

zt)

and those

of 7? +1 be
2
(

y

-

t

+ Ay,

z.-f Az).

Then

PP +
&amp;gt;

= ^/~Kx*+ Ay V Az
t
2 ( 2

93).

Now

if

x, y, z are

functions of a variable parameter
&amp;gt;

90),
2

and

have the derivatives -~
cw

-/

infinitesimal which differs by an infinitesimal of higher

then vAa? + Ay + Az is an a a 2 2 2 from the infinitesimal ^/dx + dy + dz
order.

^

For we have

A,

rf^y dt)
Since
t

/^y
\dt)

/dz*
(dt
(

is

the independent variable,

A = dt
,

4)

;

also

_ ~
dt

etc

Hence
Therefore

T Lim

.

y

=

1.

(

3), in

finding the length of the curve,

we may
denotes

Aa/^Hreplace the length of AB,

V

A^+A/

by

V^

2

+

2
cZ?/

+ dz

2
.

Hence,

if s

we have

=/

J(A)

180

PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE
of

where (A) and (B) denote the values for the points A and B respectively.
follows
(

From

the independent variable this formula for s it

9) that

Ex. Find the length of an arc of the helix x corresponding to an increase of 2 TT in e.

=

a cos0, y

=

a sin0, z

=

kd,

Here dx

=

a sin e

dd,

dy

=

a cos Odd, and dz
f&amp;gt;01

= k dd.

+ 2TT

Therefore

95.

Direction of a straight line.

The

direction of

line in space is

determined by means

of the angles

any straight which it makes

with the positive directions of the coordinate axes OX, OY, OZ, We denote these angles by a, /3, and

7 respectively
cosines,
i.e.

(fig.

61).

Then
of

their

cos a,

cos

/3,

cos 7,

are

called
line.

the

direction

cosines

the

It

is

to

be noted that the same

straight line av 7 X or TT

makes the angles a^, j31} 7r/3 lt TT 7 X with the
according to the di
line is drawn.

coordinate
rection in

.axes,

which the
coso^,

Hence
coscTj,

its

direction

cosines
cos

are

either

cos^,

7r

A

straight line in

cos^, cos 7 X or which the direc

tion

is

The

fixed has only one set of direction cosines. three direction cosines are not independent, for they satisfy
Cos
2

the equation
that
is,

+ cOS /3 + cos
of

2

2

7

=

1;

the

sum of

the squares

the

direction cosines of

any

straight line is always equal to unity. To prove this theorem, let the line
line

make the OZ respectively. Then
and
let it

angles

a, j3,

Jf^ (fig. 59) be any straight and 7 with OX, OY, and

PP *-*

cos

7

DIRECTION OF A STRAIGHT LINE
cos
2

181

we have

a

-f cos /3

2

+

cos

2

7

=

But
2 Therefore cos * 4- cos
2

/S 4-

cos

2

7

=

1.
(fig.

96. If Pt(x v

y v z x ) is

any

fixed point

59), the coordinates of

z any second point P may be denoted by where Arc, Ay, and Az are arbitrary.

(x^-\- Arc,

y x 4- Ay,

z x 4-

Az)

?

If cos *, cos

y8,

cos

7 are the direction cosines
article,

of the straight

line P^P^

we

have,

by the work of the last
Arc
n
~&quot;

cos

*

Ay

for

and
Hence,
rection
if Aa?,

+A
Ay, and Aa; are given, the direction of a straight but the particular straight line having that di

line is determined,

is not determined, for the values of A#, Ay, and Az in no determine x v y v and z v the coordinates of the initial point of way the line. Moreover, the ratios of Are, Ay, and Az are alone essen tial in determining the direction of the line. Accordingly we may

speak of the direction A# Ay Az, meaning thereby the direction of a straight line, the direction cosines of which are respectively
:
:

Arc

Ay

Az

Furthermore, if A, B, and C are any three given numbers, we may speak of the direction A\B\C. For we may place Arc = A, Ay = B, Az = C, and thus determine a direction, the direction
cosines of

which are

+ B* + C

A + 7/ + C
2

2

2

A + B + C*
2 2

182

PLANE AND STEAIGHT LINE
If

97. Direction of a space curve.

we

point P (x, y, z)

of a curve as

determined by

regard the position of a its distance s, along
as in
I,

the curve from some fixed point of the curve, y, and z are functions of s, i.e.

105, x,

Then

if

s

is

Q(x+ A#, y

+ Ay,

increased by an increment As, a second point z -f Az) of the curve is located, and the direc

tion cosines of the chord

PQ
2

are

VA + Ay + Az
2

2

2

vA + Ay + Az
As
A

2

2

VA^+ Ay + A/
are the direction cosines of

2

The

limits of these ratios, as

=

0,

the tangent to the curve at P. \
/yi

,-yt

Now
whence

\

o

for

lim

_ way with

=L
the other two

(I,

104)

Proceeding in the same

ratios,

we have
point,

dx &amp;gt;

dy
&amp;gt;

dz ds

.

,.

as the direction cosines ot the curve at

ds

ds

any

since the directions of the tangent

and the curve

at

any point are
of the

the same.
Instead of giving the direction cosines,
direction of the curve as the direction

we may speak
dz, since

dx:dy.
dz
2
.

ds

= \^dx + dy +
2 2

(

94)

Ex. Find the direction of the helix
x
at the point for

=

a cos 0,

y

=

a sin 0,

z

=

A:0,

which 0=0.
asin0d0, dy

Here dx
for which

=

=

a cos0d0, dz

=

kde.
:

0=0,

the direction ^ a

is

the direction

Therefore, at the point A:d0, and the direction
:

cosines are 0,

=

Va 2 +

A;^

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO STRAIGHT LINES
: :

183

98. Angle between two straight lines. Let the directions of any two straight lines be respectively A^ A^ AjZ and A 2 # A 2 ?/ A 22, where the subscripts are used merely to distinguish the two direc tions. If two straight lines having these directions are drawn from any point P(x, y, z) they
: :

will

pass
z x y,

through the two points P^(x

4-

A^,
2

y +A
(fig.

+A

X

2)

and ^(a;

+A

2 ^,

y+A

z 2 y,

+ A z)
FlG 62
-

62) respectively.
if

Then

is

the angle between these two lines,

we

have, by

trigonometry,
x
-

But

- A,*)
whence, by
substitution in (1) and simplification,

2
,

(

93)

a v cos ^, cos y l are the direction cosines of any straight first direction, and cos a cos /32 cos y 2 are the direc 2 tion cosines of any straight line with the second direction, the above formula becomes
or
if

cos

line

with the

,

,

cos 6
If the
(2)

= cos

1

cos

a2

+ cos /3

l

cos

/32

+ cos 7
:

1

cos

72

.

(3)
:

two directions are given as

A

l

:J^ i

Cv and A Z :BZ C2

,

evidently becomes

If the lines are

perpendicular to each other,

A^A 2 + B^B2
since cos 9
;

+&=

0,

(5)

and

if

they are parallel to each other,

since

cos a^

= cos a

2

,

cos

:H=t =
/3 1

cos

2,

cos7

1

=cos7

2

.

184
If

PLANE AND STBAIGHT LINE
6 represents the angle between any two curves,
97,

we

have,

from

99. Direction of the

P (x + A#,
2
l

yv +

A?/, z l

+

to a plane. Let l (x v y v zj and be any two points of the plane Az)

normal
.

P

Substituting their coordinates in

(1),

we have
(2)

+
Subtracting (2) from
(3),

Z&amp;gt;=0.

(3)

we have
-

A
whence, by
tion
:

A^c

(5),
:

98,

+ B &y + C A = 0, the direction A B C is
: :

(4)

normal
is

to the direc

Ax Ay

A2.

But the
to the

latter direction

the direction of

any straight

line of the plane.

Hence
plane

the direction

direction of the

normal

Ax + By +

Cz

A B C is + D = 0.
:
:

the

that the equation of any plane is a linear For let the given plane pass through equation of the form (1). a fixed point JfJ (x v y v 2^ and be perpendicular to a straight line C. having the direction A

We may

now show

:

B

:

Now

the equation

Ax + By +

Cz

+D =
A B
: :

to the direction represents a plane perpendicular plane will pass through P^ if

C.

This

whence
Therefore

D=- (Ax^ + By
A(x
x^)

l

+

CzJ.
zl

+ B(y

y^)

+C(z

)=Q

(5)

and to the direction represents a plane perpendicular But only one plane passing through the fixed point : (x v y v zj. these conditions hence the given plane has the equa can

A:B:C

P

satisfy

;

tion just determined.

Any

plane

however, and hence every plane
equation.

may be determined in this way, may be represented by a linear

NORMAL EQUATION OF A PLANE
Ex. Find the equation of a plane passing through the point 1. normal to the straight line having the direction 2 3
: :

185
(1, 2,

1)

and

The equation
or

is

2(x

_

l)

+

o

(y

_

2)

3y

1

(

z z

-

1)

2x

+

1

= =

0,
0.

100. Normal equation of a plane. Let a plane be passed through the point J^(x v y v 2^) perpendicular to the straight line OP (fig. 63). l 96, the direction By z
of

OP^

is

the

direction

x^. y^. z v

and hence the
by
99,

equation of the required
plane
is,

(5),

+ *,(*-

*,)=&amp;lt;),

(1)

which may be put form

in the

~( x i+yi+Zi)=Q

(-)

If the direction cosines of

r/

FIG. 63

n

01^ are denoted respectively by I, m, and n, i.e. / = cos a, = cos 7, and the length of OP^ is denoted by p, then

m = cos

and
Accordingly,
if

2 p = V#

2
-f- ?/

+ zf.
V,/2

we

divide equation (2) by
Ix

-f

y*

+2

2

,it

becomes
(3)

+ my 4-

nz

p=

0,

which

is

known
(3)

as the

normal equation

of the plane.

Equation
Let P(x,
is

may

y, z) (fig.
z.

LM=y,MP =
m&amp;gt;

OP and the projection of the broken V l-OL + LM+ n MP 92). Hence
-

be derived geometrically as follows: 63) be any point of the plane, and let OL = x, Draw OP. Then the projection of OP on OP l
also
line

OLMP

on

OP
l

is

(

I-

OL + m

.

LM+ n MP - OP^= 0,

186

PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE
of the plane

The general equation

may

evidently be

2

+^ equation by the plane is the direction
2

V^

assume the normal form by dividing the +(7 since the direction of the normal to
to
2
,

The sign of the radical must in order that the constant term be taken opposite to the sign of may be the negative of the distance of the plane from the origin,

A\B\C.

D

as in (3).

Ex Find the direction cosines of the normal to the plane 2x-3i/ + 6z+14=0,
.

also its distance

from the

origin.

Dividing by

- V2 2 +

32

we have
Hence the direction
the plane
is

+ 6 2 i.e. - 7, - fx + %y - f z ,

2

=

0.

cosines of the normal to this plane are

f

,

^

,

f and
,

2 units distant from the origin.

101. Angle between

two

planes.

Let the two planes be
&amp;gt;-0,

(1)

0.

(2)

is the same as the angle between the directions of which are respectively their respective normals, C2 Hence if is the angle the directions A 1 B l Cl and A 2 2

The angle between these planes
:

:

:

B

:

.

between the two planes,
cos

=

.i

.

VJ + Bl + C?
A

b

(4)

9g)

T/

The conditions
are respectively

for perpendicularity

and parallelism

of the planes

^
^L

+BB
l

+(7(7=0

and

*S l

A

^B

=

V.

c
any
straight line.

102. Determination of the direction cosines of

Let the equations of the straight line be in the form
= 0, =

(1)

0,

(2)

LINE THROUGH
and
let its direction cosines

TWO POINTS
n.

187
lies in

be

/,

m, and

Since the line

both planes (1) and (2), Therefore (by (5), 98),

it is

perpendicular to the

normal to each.

also

2

/

+m

2

2 +7i =l.

(95)
of
/,

Here

are three equations

from which the values

m, and n

may

be found.

From

the

first

two equations we have

(I,

8)

.

l:m:n

= B #

l

C\ C,

C,

A

l

2

B.
line

Ex. Find the direction cosines of the straight + y-z + 7r=0.

2x-f3y +

z

4

=

0,

The

three equations for

Z,

m, and n are
2
I

+
Z

4

m +n= +m-n=
3

0,
0,

the solutions of which are

l=
V38
or

5

38

V38
5

r=~
=

9.

V38

V38

V38

Since cos (180 cos0, it is evident that if the angles corresponding 0) to the first solution are a\, /Si, 71, the angles corresponding to the second solu tion are 180 nrj, 180 y lt Since these two directions are each the ft, 180

-

-

-

negative of the other,

it is

sufficient to take either solution

and ignore the

other.

103. Equations of a straight line determined by two points. Let P(x, y, z) be a point on the straight line determined by
&quot;

*( x v Vv z 2 so situated that P^P &(%%). Then, 18, there are three cases to consider according to the If is between and v P^P and JJJJ position of the point P. JFJ

-?(#!

y\&amp;gt;

z i) a nd

p

=

)&amp;gt;

as in

I,

P

P

have the same direction, and P^P P^ accordingly k is a posi tive number less than unity. If P is beyond P from JJ, Pf 2 and P^ still have the same direction, but P P&amp;gt;P P there 2 1 1
&amp;lt;

;

;

fore

k

is

a positive

number

greater than unity.

Finally,

if

P

188
is

PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE

beyond
is

P
l

k

a negative number,
to co.
fig.

from P^ P^P and P^ have opposite directions, and its numerical value ranging all the way
first case,

from
In
7^,

64,

which represents the
2

pass planes through

P, and

P% perpendicular to

the points

Mv M, and M
= k(PP
1

OX; and

let

respectively.

them intersect Then OM=
1

OX

at

and since 7JP

2))

by geometry

M^M = k(M M

z ).

whence, by substitution,
(1)

By

and perpendicular

passing the planes through the points perpendicular to to OZ, it may be proved in the same way that

OF

y

= 2/i+fe/ z = z +k(z -zj.
2
1

-2/i)&amp;gt;

(2) (3)

z

The construction and the proof for the other two cases
are
FIG. 64

the

same,

sults are the
cases.

and the re same in all the

By assigning different values to k we can make equations (1), on the straight line determined (2), and (3) represent any point
by the points
P^PV
7J

and

three equations, the point

Hence
line

(1), (2),

Conversely, if x, y, and z satisfy these must be a point of the straight line and (3) are the parametric equations of the
P^.

straight

determined

by two

points,

k being the variable

parameter.
104.

By

eliminating k from the three equations

(1), (2),

and

(3)

of the last article,

we have
(1)

result proves

two independent equations in x, y, and z. This 89, that two linear equations a straight line for we have any straight line always represent

Here

are but

the converse of

;

TANGENT TO A SPACE CUKVE
represented by two linear equations. x 1 :^/ 2 y l z 2 z l is the direction x2
:

189

The
(

direction of the line

96).

be noted that, if in the formation of these fractions any denominator is zero, the corresponding direction cosine is zero, and
It is to

the line

is

perpendicular to the corresponding axis.
line

(1, 5,

Ex. Find the equations of the straight - 1) and (2, - 3, - 1).

determined by the points

x-\ _

y

-

5

2_1~

_3-5&quot;

z + 1 -1 + 1
is

Hence the two equations of the line are z + 1 = 0, since the line the JTOFplane and passes through a point for which z = 1, and 8 x formed by equating the first two fractions.

+y

parallel to 13 0,

=

is is

any

105. Equations of a tangent line to a space curve. If (x v y v z^ of a space curve, and P^ (x 1 A#, y l Ay, z^ Az) any given point are second point of the curve, the equations of the secant

%

+

+

+

7^

xl

y

A#
or Aa?

Ay
A//

(

104)

A3

As
where As
tions
is

As

As

the length of the arc P^P V
at P^ as in
I,

Denning the tangent

59,

we have

as its equa

/dy\
ds /i (dx\
\ ds A

/dz&quot;

\

dx

dy

dz
at the point

where dx, dy, dz are to be computed
Ex. Find the equations of the tangent
x
at the origin.

P r

to the helix
0,

=

a cos

0,

y

=

a sin

z

=

k

Since dx

=

a sin

0(Z0,

dy
2/

?

=

? a

= ?, or(104)z =
A;

0,
.

= a cos0d0, = ?.
k

dz

=

kd6, the required equations are

a

190

PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE
line

106. Equations of a straight

in

terms of

its

direction

and a known point upon it. a known point of the line, and let
cosines
cosines.

Let
/,

P (x v
l

y v zj

(fig.

m, and n be
line.

its

65) be direction
as a

Let P(x, y, z) be any point of the diagonal construct a parallelepiped as in denote by r, we have

On P^P
Then
if

93.

we

Pf

= mr,
But

= nr.
z

whence

x

=x

l ~\-

lr,

y

= y + mr,
l

= z + nr.
l

(1)

These are the parametric equations

of the line, the variable

param

eter being r, r being positive if the point is in one direction from P^ and negative if it is in the other direction

from

j^.

By

eliminating r

we have
n

/

m

FIG. 65

which are but two independent linear
equations.

Problems on the plane and the straight line. In this article we shall solve some problems illustrating the use of the equations of the plane and the straight line.
107.

Plane determined by three known points. Let the three given and -?J(#8 y 3 zs ), and let the points be J^(xv y v zj, I(x v y v ), of the plane determined by them be equation
1.
, ,

Ax + By +
Since

Cz
of

+D =

0.

(1)

P P v

2,

and

P
%

are points

the plane, their coordinates

satisfy (1).

Therefore

Ax2 +

%+
2

Cz 2 +

D = 0,
the ratios of the
(1),

(3)

We may now solve

(2), (3),

and

(4) for

unknown
eliminate

constants A, B, C, and D, and substitute iu

or

we may

PROBLEMS
A, B, C, and
either

191

D from

method the equation

the four equations (1), (2), (3), and (4). By of the required plane is found to be

y
2/1 2/2 2/3

Ex.

1.

(1, 1, 1),

Find the equation of the plane determined by the three points - 3, - 1). (- 1, 1, 2), and (2,
is

The required equation

1111 = 21 -1
x y
1

z

1

0,

2-3-11

is

no plane given points are on the same straight line, and the above equation reduces to = 0. determined,
If the three
2.

Distance of a point
2 X ),

from a

P^(x v y v

and

at first let

Let the given point be the equation of the plane be in the
plane.
(1)

normal form

^ + my + ^ _ p = Q
of a plane

Then the equation
/

through
)

P^ parallel to (1)

is,

by

(5),

99,
(2)

(x

- x^ + m (y - yi + n(z- zj = 0,
in the

which may be put
Ix

form
(Ix^

+ my + nz

+ my + nz^ =
l

0.

(3)

Since equation (3) is in normal form, it tance of this plane from the origin is lx^
distance between the two parallel planes

is

evident that the dis

+my^+ nz r
in

Hence the

is

magnitude
(4)

Ix^+my^+nz^
this result being positive
if

p,

the plane through l is beyond plane is on if the plane through origin, (1) the same side of plane (1) as the origin. But the distance between the two planes is the same as the distance of l from

P

from the

and negative

^

P

the given plane. Hence tance in magnitude.

lx v -\-my^-\-nz^

p

is

the required dis

192
If the

PLANE AND STKAIGHT LINE
equation of the plane
is in

the form

finding the values of

I,

m,

n,

and p, and substituting in

(4),

we have

magnitude of the required distance, being positive points on one side of the plane and negative for all points other side. If we choose, we may take the sign of the always positive, in which case we can determine for which
the plane the above result preferably the origin.
Ex.
2.

as the

for all

on the
side of
point,

is

positive

by

testing for

some one

Find the distance of the point

(1, 2, 1)

from the plane 2x

+

6z

+

14

=

3y

0.

The required distance

is

7

Furthermore the point is on the same side of the plane as the origin, for if (0, had been substituted, the result would have been 2, i.e. of same sign as 2|.
3.

0, 0)

tion.

Plane through a given line and subject Let the given line be
1
It/

to

one other condi

1

1

*

\

/

Multiplying the left-hand members of (1) and (2) by l\ and & 2 respectively, where \ and k z are any two quantities independent of x, y, and 2, and placing the sum of these products equal to zero,

we have

the equation
&amp;gt;,)=0.

(3)

Equation (3) is the equation of a plane, since it is a linear equa tion, and furthermore it passes through the given straight line,
since the coordinates of every point of that line satisfy (3) by

virtue of (1) and (2). Hence (3) is the required plane, and it may be made to satisfy another condition by determining the values of

\

and &2 appropriately.

CHANGE OF COORDINATES
Ex.
3.

193
(0, 1, 0)

the line

4z + 3y + 2z -

Find the equation of the plane determined by the point 4 = 0, 2z - lly -4z -12 =0.
of the required plane
2

and

The equation

may
(2

be written
11 y

^ (4 x + 3 y + 2 z - 4) + k
Since
(0, 1, 0) is

x

its

-

4z

-

12)

=

0.

(1)

a point of this plane,
ki

coordinates satisfy

(1),

and hence

+

23 k 2

=

0,

or ki

=-

23 k 2

.

Substituting this value of k\ in equation

(1)

and reducing, we have as the required

Ex.
4

4.

= 0, + 1 = 0.

2z

Find the equation of the plane passing through the line 4z + 3?/ 12 = 0, and perpendicular to the plane 2 x + y 4z lly
be written
0,

+ 2z
2z

The equation
fci(4z

of the required plane

may

+ 3y + 2z -4) +
+
(3fc 1

fc 2

(2z-lly-4z-12) =

(1)

or

(4fc 1

+

2fc 2 )z

_Hfc 2 )y +

(2fc 1

Since this plane

is

to be perpendicular to the plane

2x + y

2 z

+

1

=

0,

2 (4 ki

+

2 k2 )

+

1 (3

fc!

-

11

fc 2

)

2 (2

fci

-

4

fc 2

)

=

0,

whence

^3

=

7 &i.
(1)

Substituting this value of & 2 in

and reducing, we have as the required

equation

z-8?y-3z-8 = 0.

108. Change of coordinates. 1. Change of origin without change of direction of axes. Let (x Q y z ) be taken as a new origin of coordinates, the new axes being parallel respectively to the original
, ,

axes,
to

i.e.

OX

parallel to

OX,
and

Y

parallel to

OY, and O
z
1

Z

parallel

OZ.

Let

x, y,

and

z

be the coordinates
let

of

any point

P

with

respect to the original axes,
of the

x y
,

t

and

be the coordinates

same point with respect

to the

new
,

axes.
Z

Then
Q
,

= Z +Z

(1)

the proof being similar to that of
2.

I,

112.

Change of direction of axes without change of origin. Let OX, OY, OZ, and OX OY OZ be two sets of rectangular axes and making angles with each other, whose cosines meeting at
,
,

194

PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE
where
is

the cosine of the angle ^ the cosine of the angle between 2 etc. Let x, y, and z be the coordinates of any point with respect to the axes OX, OY, OZ, and let x y and z be the

are given in the following table,

between and OY

OX

and

OX

,

1

is

,

OX P

1

1

,

,

y

ra 3

It,

to the axes OX Y drawn, the projection of OP on OX is x, and the projection on OX of the broken line and P, formed joining by constructing the coordinates x y z is Ijc + I 2 y + I 3 z (

coordinates of the

same point with respect

,

,

OZ

.

Then

if

OP

is

f

f

,

,

,

92).

But these two projections are

equal.

Hence

in like

manner,

y
z

m^x

= n-^x

+ m y -f m z +ny+nz
r

f ,

2

s

(2)

j

r

z

s

.

In like manner

we may

derive the formulas

(3)

=
Formulas

l

s

x

+

(2) and (3) may be expressed concisely by the above table. Since both systems of coordinates are rectangular, we have, by

and

m + m + m = 0, m % + m + ^ = 0,
l
l

l

/

2

2

/

3

3

1

1

2

7i

2

??i

3

3

PROBLEMS
Also,

195
1,

by

95,

/*

+m +
2

n* =

and
2
1

J

+Z
2 2

+^l,
2 3

m +m +m

=l,

&amp;lt;+&amp;lt;+&amp;lt;=!.

All these formulas are easily remembered by aid of the above table.

PROBLEMS
1.

Find a point of the plane
(0, 0,

three points

-

1), (3, 1, 1),

(-2,

2x4-3^ + 22 = - 1, 0).
z
1,

equally distant from the

2. Find a point on the line 3 x y distant from the origin and the point
3.

5

=

0,

x

y

+

z

5

=
(

equally

(2,

-

2).
1, 4, 4),

Find the equation of the sphere passing through the points
1,3), (4,0, 7),

(-5,
4.

A

(-1,1, -5). point moves so that its distances from two
k.

constant ratio
k

Prove that

its

locus

is

fixed points are in the a sphere or a plane according as

*

1

or k

=

1.

Prove that the locus of points from which tangents of equal length can be drawn to two given spheres is a plane perpendicular to their line of centers.
5. 6.

Find the length of the curve x
t

=

t

2
,

y

=

2

1,

z

=

t

from the origin

to the

point for which
7.

1.

for which

Find the length of the curve x t = and t 1.

=

e*,

y

=
=

e~*, z

= tVz
=

between the points

8. Find the length of the conical helix x the points for which t = and t = 2 TT.

tcost, y

tsint, z

=

t

between

9.

Prove that a straight line can make the angles GO

,

45, 00 respectively
of the

with the coordinate axes.
10.

Show

that the helix
it is

makes a constant angle with the elements

cylinder on which

drawn.

11. Find the angle between the conical helix x the axis of the cone.
12.
z
t

=

tcost, y

=

sin, z

=
=

t

and

Show

that the angle between the conical helix x
is

=

tcost, y

tsiut,

and the element of the cone

tan-

1

=.

V2
13. Find the equation of a plane three units distant from the origin and per pendicular to the straight line through the origin and (2, 3, 0).

196
14.

PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINE
The equations
x y
z
7

and

intersection

and

32 3 ?/ + 5 z = 3, of three planes are x -}- 2y 1, 2 x Find the equation of the plane through their point of equally inclined to the coordinate axes.

=

=

2.

15. If the

cepts a,
1

6,

normal distance from the origin and c respectively on the axes

to the plane

which makes inter
z
is

of x, y,

and

p, prove that

_
=

1

+

1

+

1

^~&amp;lt;*2

&2

c2

16.
z

Find the equation of the plane normal

to the helix x

a cos 0, y x

a sin

0,

kd at the point

=

0.

17.

Find the equation of the plane normal
,

to the conical helix

=

tcost,

y

t

sin

z

=

t

at the point for

which

t

=
to the curve

18.

Find the equation of the normal plane Find the equation of the normal plane which t = 1.

x

=

e*,

y y

e-

( ,

19.
z

to the

skew cubic x

=

,

=

&,

=

ts

at the point for

20. Find the direction cosines of the line

-f

4

21. Prove that the three planes = are the lateral faces of a triangular prism.
22. Prove that the two lines

+ 3z 7=0. 3x-2?/-l=0, 4y-3z + 2 = 0, z -2x
2x +
3y
z
6,

=

x

x

2X

+ y- 7z + 11 = 01 + 4y + z-3 = 0j

a

+ 17 y + 26z-48 = 01 \4x -2y- 16z + 26 = OJ
f

x

are coincident. 23. Prove that the lines

+i = oi
intersect at right angles.
1

r

2z/-3z +

5

=

o^i

=

OJ

\7x-4y-*-10 = OJ
two given straight

24. If
lines,

Z]_,

mi, n\ and ^,

m2

,

n% are the direction cosines of

and

/,

m, n are the direction cosines of a normal to each of them, prove

I

that

=

m

n

25. Find the equation of the plane passing through

(1, 4, 1)

perpendicular to

26. Find the angle between the line

x-2y-8 = 0,

3^ +

z

+

8

=

and the

(0, 1, 0)

27. Find the coordinates of a point on the straight line determined by and (2, 3, 2) and 1 unit distant from (1, 1, 1). 28. Find the equation of a plane perpendicular to the straight line joining and (4, 3, 2) at a point one third of the distance from the first to the

(1, 3, 5)

second point.
29. Find the equations of a straight line passing through
(1, 2,

-

1) parallel

PKOBLEMS
30. Find the foot of the perpendicular

197
(1, 2,

drawn from

1)

x

3y-|-z

7

=

to the plane

0.

z

=

31. Find the equations of the tangent to the skew quartic x 4 at the t point for which t = 1.
32. Find the equations of the tangent to the curve x

=
2
1,

,

y
z

=
t

3
,

=
ef,

t

2
,

y

=

at

the point for which

t

=

1.

33. Find the equations of the tangent to the curve x 34. Find the direction of the conical helix x
origin,

=

y

=

e~ f z
,

=
t

tV%.
at the

=

t

cos, y

=

tsin

t,

z

=

and the equations of the tangent.

35. Find the equation of the plane determined by the three points
(3,

-

1, 2), (2, 1,

-

(1, 2,

4),

2).

36. Find the angles made with the coordinate planes by the plane deter mined by the three points (1, 2, 0), (4, 1, 2), ( 2, 2, 2).

3 7. Find the point of intersection of the lines
(

2x-y-3 = 01
5

i37/-2z +

= 0/

a

1

\

r3x-2Vy-5 = 01 2x-z-l = o|
by the
lines

38. Find whether or not a plane can be determined

39. Find the equation of the plane determined by the two lines
r

+ +

1 l

= 01 = 0/

a

straight line passing through the point nate axes.

40. Find the equation of the plane determined by the point (2, 4, 2) and the (1, 2, 3) equally inclined to the coordi

2x + y + 3z =
x

41. Find the equation of a plane passing through the line x - y and perpendicular to the plane + 2z + 1=0.

+z=

0,

x-y

+ 2y +
1)

42. Find the equations of the projection of the line x 2 = z 1 = 0. upon the plane 3x + y + 3z
(2,

+

y

+ z-2 =
and (-

0,

43. Find the equation of the plane passing through 3 y -f 2 2 perpendicular to the plane 2x 6 = 0.

-

1, 2)

1, 2,

2x

-

44. Find the equation of a plane passing through the line + 3 y 2z 1 = and parallel to the line 3x + y + 2z z + 5 = 0. 45. Prove that the plane
(x

x-2y + z-3 = 0,
4

=

2x

3y

-

2)2

4z-f3y + 5z = 47is tangent + (y - 3)2 + Z + 4)2 = 50.
(

to the sphere

46. Find a point on the line x-z + 3 = 0, from the planes 3x + 3z-5 = and x + 4y + 47. Find the center of a sphere of radius
(2, 4,

4x-y-6 =
z=7.
7,

equally distant

-

4)

and

(3,

-

1,

-

passing through the points

4)

and tangent

to the plane

3x-6y + 2z+51=0.

CHAPTER XI
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
109. Partial derivatives.

Consider f(x,
if

may, independent variables. We thus reduce f(x, y) to constant. vary, holding y temporarily a function of x alone, which may have a derivative, defined and as for any function of one variable. This derivative is

We

we

where x and y are choose, allow x alone to
y),

computed

called the partial derivative of f(x, y} with respect to x,

and

is

denoted by the symbol

^

V ex

Tnus b 7
&amp;gt;

definition,

_ Lim
ex
Similarly,
if

(1)

function of

y,

x is held constant, f(x, y) becomes temporarily a whose derivative is called the partial derivative of
to y,

f(x, y) with respect

denoted by the symbol
&amp;gt;

dfix y}

Tnen
(2)

- Lim f(x
dy
Graphically,
tion
if

y

~
Ay

)

A-/=O

z=f(x,

y) is represented

by a

surface, the rela

between z and x when y is held constant is represented by the curve of intersection of the surface and the plane y = const., and
is

the slope of this curve.
is

Also, the relation between z

and y

dx

when x

constant

is

of represented by the curve of intersection

the surface and a plane x

= const., and
dy

is

the slope of this curve.

Thus, in
z

fig.

66,

=f(x, y}, PQ

is

the curve y

Let

P

be the point

PQSR represents a portion of the surface = const., and PR is the curve x = const. and L K = PK = Are, LM = PM = Ay. (x, y, z),
if
r

198

PARTIAL DERIVATIVES
Then

199
y

LP=f(x,
,

y),

KQ=f(x + bx,
y),

y)-f(x,

M R=f(x,

y),

MR=f(x,

+ Ay),
and

y+Ay)-/&amp;gt;, y),

FIG. 66

Ex.

1.

Consider a perfect gas obeying the law v

=

.

We may

change the

temperature while keeping the pressure unchanged. The relation between the volume and the temperature is then represented by a straight line on fig. 65. If A and Au are corresponding increments of t and v, then

A,
and
dt

=

Or, we may change the pressure while keeping the temperature unchanged. relation between the volume and the pressure is then represented by an hyperbola on the surface of fig. 55. If Ap and Aw are corresponding increments

The
of

p and

v,

then
ct

ct&p

P + Ap
and
dv
ct

dp
So, in general,
if we have a we may have -,),

function of any

number

of variables

#
y&amp;gt;

a partial derivative with respect to

200

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
These derivatives are expressed by the sym
or sometimes

each of the variables.
bols J-

J&amp;gt;

&amp;gt;

y

&amp;gt;

dx
&amp;gt;

dy
&quot;
&amp;gt;
&amp;gt;

dz
z)-

by fix, y,--,z), fy (x,
derivatives,

y,

,

z),

fz( x

y&amp;gt;

To compute these

we have

to

of one variable, apply the formulas for the derivative of a function as constant all the variables except the one with respect regarding

to

which we
Ex.
2.

differentiate.

/=
dx

x*

-

3 x*y

+

y3

,

Ex.

3.

/=
d

sin (x 2

+

y 2 ),
2

^ = 3x2 _ Qxy
-

-L
dx
.

=

2xcos(x

+

2
2/ ),

= - 3x2 + 3y2

Ex.

4.

/=

log

Vz 2 +

y

2

+ z2

,

x2

+ y2 +

z2

110. Increment
variables.

and

total differential of a function of several
y),

Consider f(x,

ments

A# and

Ay.

Then /

x and y be given any incre takes an increment A/, where

and

let

A/ =/( + Aaj,
In
fig.

y

+ Ay) -/(a;,
and

y).

66,

NS=f(x + kx,y + ky}

N S = bf.

If

a;

and y

are independent variables, A# and Ay are also independent. the position of S in fig. 66 depends upon the choice of

Thus LK and

LM, which can be taken
The function f(x,
if A/ approaches as a limit in any

at pleasure.

x and y y} is called a continuous function of a limit when A# and Ay approach zero zero as
whatever.

manner
if z is

Thus

in

fig.

66,

a continuous function of x and y, the point

S

will approach the point

P

as

LK

matter what curve the point
point

N traces

and approach zero, no on the plane XO Y or the

LM

S on

the surface.

INCREMENT AND TOTAL DIFFERENTIAL
The expression
for

201

A/ may

be modified as follows
t

:

A/ =f(x + &x,y + Ay) -f(x y) =f(x + &x,y + Ay) -/(a?, y + Ay) +f(x y + Ay) -/(,
t

y).

But

x Lim f(

+ Aa;,

y

+ Ay) -/(a;,

y

+ Ay) = 3/(a?,

y

+ Ay)

Therefore

or

/(a + Ax, y
e

+ Ay) -/(, y + Ay) =
\
7)f

OX
a

+
J

fix,

where Lim
Ax=o

=

0.

Also,
&amp;gt;

since

is

OX
,

continuous function,

= V( x ^ +
dX
,

where Lim
Ay=

e&quot;

=

0.

Therefore

y
/A
.

+ Ay) -f(x,

y

+ Ay) = =

where

el

=e +e
=

Similarly,

/(*, y
0.

+ Ay) -f(x,

y)

i^^l +
e 2 Ay.

,\

Ay,

where Lim
Aj/=0

e2

Hence we have

finally

A/ = ^ A* +
In like manner, y, .-.,, then
if

^ Ay + 6.A* +

(1)

/
-

is

a function of any

number

of variables

x,

A/= ex A^ +

Ay +
cy

-

+
cz

A^

+ A^ + e Ay +
l

2

-..+

en Az.

(2)

tion of one variable

In a manner analogous to the procedure in the case of a func ( 4), we separate from the increment the

terms

e^x + e Ay +
2

+ en Az,

call

the remaining terms the dif

The differen ferential of df. tials of the independent variables are taken equal to the increments, as in 4. is a function of Thus, we have by definition, when
the function,

and denote them by

/

two independent variables x and

y,

202
and
if

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
/
is

a function of the independent variables
..*

x, y,

-&amp;gt;

z,

+

d
dz.

ox

oy

dz

(4)

be given any values whatever. one equal to zero, we have the If, in particular, we place all but Thus, partial differentials, indicated by dj, d y f, etc.

In

(3)

and

(4) dx, dy, etc.,

may

dx
in the partial differential expresses approximately the change function caused by a change in one of the independent variables the total differential expresses approximately the change in the function caused by changes in all the independent variables. It
;

A

appears from (4) that the total differential
partial differentials.

is

the

sum

of the

Ex. The period of a simple pendulum with small oscillations

is

(Ex.

3,

82)

r=s
Small errors
dl

and

dg, in determining

I

and

g, will

make an

error in

T of

The

ratio of error is

dT

I dl

1

dg

r
111. Derivative of f(x, y)

i

i

2 ?

when x and y

are functions of

t.

We

have been considering f(x,

variables.

We

shall

now

y) as a function of two independent suppose that x and y are functions of a

of x and y are single independent variable t, so that the variations caused by the variations of t. Graphically, if z=f(x, y) represents

and x and y are independent, the point P(x, y) may tne entire surface. If, however, x = \$\$), y = \$ 2 P is restricted to a curve on the surface, whose projection on point the plane XOY has the parametric equations x = ^(0* V = The equations of the curve on the surface are, therefore, x =
a surface

move over the

(0&amp;gt;

&amp;lt;MO-

&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;i(t),

DERIVATIVE OF A COMPOSITE FUNCTION

203

In this way, f(x, y) is now a function of t and may have a derivative with respect to t, which may be found as follows
:

Give
Ay, and

t

an increment

Atf.

Then x and y take increments A# and
an increment A/, where
2

f

A/= ^ A^ + ^ Ay + e^ + e Ay. 0#
tfy

Then

A/ =
A&amp;lt;

y^ + /^ + ^ +
4 4
&amp;lt;teA&amp;lt;

e2

^.
A&amp;lt;

fyA&amp;lt;

A&amp;lt;

By
limits,

allowing

A
d*

to approach zero as a limit,

and taking the

we have

=y
&e

^ y^
ott

ay dt
of (1)

If

we multiply each term
dt dt

by the

differential dt,

we have
.

f dt= v^ dt+ dy d, v^ dx
dt

...

:

But
by

since /, x
4,

t

and y are functions
,
, ,

of a single variable
,

t,

we

have,

,
7
,

,

a/

df=^-dt, dt
Hence we have
df = -^-dx
dx

dx

,

= cfe dt,
7a

dt

dy

= -fdt.
&amp;lt;iy

7j

dt

+
dy

dy,

(2)

110, made on the hypothesis that showing that formula (3) of x and y were independent, holds also when x and y are functions
of
t.

In a similar manner, if we have f(x,y,---,z), where are all functions of t, then

x, y,

-

,

z

=
dt

dx dt

dy dt

dz dt

*-*+**+!*
Ex. Let F(x,
field,

w

y, 2)

be the electrical potential at a point in an electrified

that

is,

let

^

= - X,

~=-

F,

=-

Z,

where X, F, Z are the com

ponents of force in the directions of the coordinate axes. Required the rate of change of F in a direction which makes the angles or, /3, 7 with the axes.

204

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
straight line
106,

A
by

making the given angles with the axes has the equations,
x

(1),

= Xi + r cos a, y = yi + z = zi -f r cos 7.
?/,

If these
r,

values are substituted for x,

and
is

z in V,
.

it

becomes a function

of

and

its

rate of change with respect to r

By
dz

(3),

dV__8Vdx
dr dx dr

cV

dy

dV
/3

cy dr

dz dr

=

X cos a Y cos

Z

cos 7.

By the principle of the composition of forces this force in the given direction.

is

minus the component

of

z

112. Tangent plane to a surface. Let x y) be a curve on the surface z =/(#, y), and let =/(#,

(f&amp;gt;M&amp;gt;

y

=

&amp;lt;

2

(0&amp;gt;

^ (x v y v zj

be a point on the curve. Then the tangent line to the curve at the point JJ has the equations ( 105)

x

xl

=y

y

t

=z
dz

zl
^

dx
or

dy

The

line (1) is perpendicular to the straight line

x-x _y-y1 = z-z1 ~1 d
l

l\

dxl

m

}&quot;

by

(5),

98,

and therefore

lies in

the plane

Equations

(2)

define the curve,

and (3) are independent of the functions which and therefore the tangents to all curves through

PI lie hi the plane (3). This plane is called the tangent plane to the surface, and the line (2), which is normal to it, is called the normal line to the surface at the point J^. The tangent plane

TANGENT PLANE TO A SURFACE
may simply touch
ellipsoid, or it

205

may

the surface, as in the case of the sphere or the intersect the surface at the point of tangency,

as in the case of the hyperboloid of

one sheet.

In order that the function f(x, y) shall have a maximum or a minimum value for x = x v y = y v it is necessary, but not suffi
cient, that the

tangent plane to the surface z =f(x, y) at the point should be parallel to the plane XO Y. This occurs when (x v y v z^
-^-

=
)

0.

These are therefore necessary conditions for

mum

maximum or a minimum, and in case the existence of a maxi or a minimum is known from the nature of the problem, it may be located by solving these equations.
a

z

=

Ex. 1. Find the tangent plane and the normal line ax 2 + by 2
.

to

the

paraboloid

Here
dx

=

2 ax

and
cy
(x

=

2 by.

Hence the tangent plane
(y
y\] 2 by {
(z
Zi)

is

Xi) 2 axi

+

=
=

0,
0.

or

But since 2 ax}

+ 2 byiy 2 ax} 2 by} z + + 2 by} = 2 z l5 this may be written
2 axix

z\

The normal
Ex.
in the

x
is

- Xi _

y

-

yi

_z1

2axi
2.

2 by i

It is required to construct

out of a given amount of material a cistern
top.
if

form of a rectangular parallelepiped open at the

dimensions in order that the capacity

may

be a

maximum,

Required the no allowance is

for thickness of the material or waste in construction.

x, y, z be the length, the breadth, and the height respectively. Then the 2 xz 2 yz, which may be placed equal to the given superficial area is xy

Let

+

+

amount

of material, a.

If v is the capacity of the cistern,

Then
dx

(a

~

2 xy

~
y)
2

2(x

+

dy
it is

x

=

For the maximum these must be zero, and since 0, y = 0, we have to solve the equations
a
2 2

xy

x2

a

xy

y

2

= 0, = 0,

206

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
positive solutions

which have for the only
It is

z=y=*p,
;

whence

z^-

Consequently, very evident that a

if

there

is

maximum capacity, it must be for these dimensions. maximum does exist hence the problem is solved.
a

in a

The graphical interpretation of the differential can now be given manner analogous to that in the case of one variable ( 5).
fig.

In

67

let

PQ S R
z

be the tangent plane at P(x,

y, z).

Then,

FIG. 67
if

z

and LM=dy, the coordinates of S are (x + dx, y + dy, and the value of z corresponding to S is found by replacing x by x-\-dx and y by y + dy in (3). There results

LK=dx

+ A),
z,

for

*

z

+ /dz\
(

7

I

efcc

+

/02
(

Therefore

Vay

\0y
-ZV fl

=
&amp;lt;fe,

whereas

N S = A*
and and may have the
an increment As.
takes an incre

and and

113. Derivatives of /(*, y) when * and y are functions of s If # and y are functions of two t. independent variables s
t,

then /(a?, y)

is
Q-/
1

also a function of s
CH -/*

t

derivatives

~
ds

o^

and
dt

To

find
3s

we

will give s

Then x and y take increments Az and Ay, and ment A/. As in 111, we find
T As

/

=
a^c

As

h

T-

^y As

-r

1-

+

,

As

+

2

As

A

DEKIVAT1VES OF A COMPOSITE FUNCTION
Now
let

207

As approach
df
&amp;gt;

zero

and take the
&amp;gt;

limit,

remembering that

A/ = Lun
As

Lim

Az =
As

dx
etc.

^, , We have

ds

ds

/
ds

= 3/^ + ^^.
d#
ds

dy ds
-

df
Similarly,
-J-

dt

dy = df dx + df -~ ff-

dx

dt

dy

dt

So, generally, the partial derivatives of f(x, y, u t are z are functions of s, t, , , y,

-,), where

x,

/
ds
df_

=

^
dx ds
dt

+^
d

a

l

+...

+

^,
dz ds

cy ds

= df_dx
dx

dfty
dt

tf^,
dz dt

/2)

dt

dw

d^c

du

dy

die

dz

du

A
t

x where x

special case worth noting is that in which u. Then is a function of s, t, ,
-

/

is

a function of

= ^??,
ds
cfo ds

5/
a5

= ^^,
c?aj

^ = *^.
du

a^

dx du

(3)

If we multiply the equations (2) by the differentials ds, dt, 110, we have du, add the results, and apply the definition of

,

df=*dx + &dy +.. + dz ex
dy
-

&;&amp;lt;&

(4)

This shows that the expression for the differential df z are independent variables or not. whether x, y,
,

is the

same

Ex.

1.

if z

=f(x-y,y- x),
= u,y
x

prove
z

+
ex

=
dy
u),

0.

Place x

y

=

v.

Then

=/(M,

and

a2_^awa/aw_^_^
dx du dx
dv dx

du

dv

fo__tf_fa.tf_to____3f_
dy du dy
is

tf
dv

dv dy

du

By

obtained.

208
Ex.
2.

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Let
it

polar coordinates

be required to change from rectangular coordinates = r cos 0, y = r sin 0. (r, 0), where x
ax
dr
dr

(x,

y) to

Then

dy
dd

(1)

and consequently,

if

/

is

a function of x and

y,

dr

dx

dy
(2)

dd

dx
6

dy

Also, since r

= Vx 2

-f

y 2 and

=

tan- * X

,

= sin 0,
(3)

whence

Equations
It is to

(4)

may

also be obtained

from

(2)

by solving for

and
dx
in

.

dy
(3).

be emphasized that

in (1) is not the reciprocal of

In (1)

means
dr

the limit of the ratio of the increment of x to an increment of r

when

u
FIG. 69
e is constant.

Graphically

(fig.

68),

PR = Ax
Also

is

thus determined.
in (3)

Then

OP = r = Lim

is
-

increased by

PQ =

Ar,

and

=

cos

9.

means the

limit of the ratio of the increment of r to that of x
(fig.

when y

is

dx constant.

Graphically

69),

OM=x is increased

by MN=PQ=Ax,

PROPERTY OF THE TOTAL DIFFERENTIAL
-,
T&amp;gt;

209

r\

iii

RQ = Ar is thus = But that
id

determined.
in (1)

Then
dx

= Lim - =

cos

6.

It

happens here

and
is

in (3) are neither equal

nor reciprocal.

dr

dx

d6

In cases where ambiguity
in a partial derivative, the

likely to arise as to

symbol for the derivative
is

which variable is constant is sometimes inclosed in a
/

parenthesis and the constant variable

written as a subscript, thus
(x, y).

jfirst

Ex.

3.

Consider f(x, y,

z)

when z =

We may find
Then
two
1

Pf

from the
1.

of formulas (2) in that

we

place s

=

x and

t

=
pf ex

y.

=1 -=

Direct

substitution in (2)
left of the

would yield the symbol
it

in

Cl CS different senses.

On

the

equation

means the

y

constant, and attention is derivative of / with respect to x on right of the equation it means the partial the assumption that both y and z are constant. Ambiguity is avoided by the
is

partial derivative of / with respect to x when given to the fact that z is a function of x. On the

use of subscripts as suggested at the close of Ex.

2.

Thus we have

\W\
dX/y
\dX/yz

+ Wte.
CZ dX

114. Property of the total differential.

An

of the total differential is expressed in the following

important property theorem
:

If f( x
then
1.

&amp;gt;

&amp;gt;

y&amp;gt;

z)

= c for
first

a ^ va ^ ues

f

th e independent variables

t

df=

0.

Let us suppose

that x, y,
,

,

z are

the independent
-

variables.

Then f(x,
f(x
/(a?

y,

=c z)
,

for all values of x, y,
.
y&amp;gt;

-

,

z.

Hence

+4^
+ Aa;,

y&amp;gt;

...,*)
-

_ /(aj)

,

z)
z}

= 0,

y,

z)-f(x, y,--,

for all values of x.

Taking the limit as
-

A# =

0,

we have ir

fif

=

Similarly,

^=
dy

0,

.,

^=
dz

0,

and hence

dx
2.

dy
9

cz
y,
-

Suppose, secondly, that x
-

,

z are functions of the inde
-

pendent variables
f(x,y,
first

s,

t,

,

u.

Then

if x, y,

,

z are replaced in
,

-

-,z)

case again,

by their values in terms %-f and hence as before -cs

of

s, t,

u,
0,

we have
,

the

=

%-f

0, -f-

=

ct

%f ^cu

= 0.

210
Hence

PAKTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
df

= ^-dx + ^-dy +
dx
1

.

.

.

+ &dz
dz

dy
dt

=
ds It is to

& + |* -K...+gte-0. du
-

be emphasized that the coefficients of dx, dy, not equal to zero.
115. Implicit functions.
defines

,

dz are

CASE

I.

/(#, y)

=

0.

The equation

f(x, y)=Q y as an implicit function of x, or x as an function of y, since if one of the variables is given, the implicit values of the other are determined. Then, by 114,

whence

dy -/-= dx

dx T?df

(1)

ay
Ex.
1.

Find the tangent and the normal

to the curve /(x, y)

=0.

By I,

100, 101, the equations of the tangent and the normal are respectively

and

y
(1)

_ 1/1 =
become

By use of

these equations

_X
\dx/i

+ (y -y ,)
\dy/i

=0

and

CASE

II.

/(#, y,

2)

=

0.

The equation f(x, y,z)=Q
variables.

defines

any

one of the variables
will take

x, y, z as

a function of the other two.

We
114,

x and y as the independent

Then, by

-dz=0. df=y-dx + y-dy + dz dx
dy
-r,

But
Therefore

,

dz

7

=

dz

dx

7

-\

dx

dz -- dy.
,

K+

*WW

dy

+&

^W =

IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS
This
is

211
dx

true for all values of the independent differentials

and

dy.

Therefore

dx

+

*_
dz dx

and
dy

+ #*-*
dz dy

dz

whence

_ ~ =

dx
df

dz
(2)
~ty

dx

dz

Ex.

2.

Find the equations of the tangent plane and the normal
z)

line to the

surface F(x, y,

=

0.

By

112 the required equations are

~ (x-xo Vi ~
and

7

+ (yi
i

yi )i^\

W/i
z

-(*-*i) =
zi

o

y

y\

Using

(2)

and reducing, we have

and
(**.}
**.
i

=r

**
(**)
\d*Ji

vex/i

CASE
f^x,

III. f^(x, y,

y, z)

=

z)=Q,

0,

/

2 (a;,

y, z)

=

f (x,

The two equations 2 y, z)=Q. taken simultaneously define any two

of the variables as functions of the other one.

By

114,

dx

cy

cz

dx

Therefore

dx:dy:dz

=

(3)

212
Ex.
3.
)

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
y,

/,(,

=

Find the equations of the tangent
0.

line to the space curve /i(x, y, z)

=0,

By

105 the required equations are

dx

dy
(3)

dz

where the values of

dec,

dy, dz given in

may

be substituted.

116. Higher partial derivatives. The partial derivatives of are themselves functions of x and f(x, y) y which may have
partial derivatives called the second partial derivatives of /(a?, y).

sslST/ j-(/ 57(37] But it may be shown dx\dx/ dy\dx/ dx\dy/ dy\dy/ that the order of differentiation with respect to x and y is imma
They
1

are

%-{)&amp;gt;

)&amp;gt;

terial

(

117), so that the second partial derivatives are three in

number, expressed by the symbols

dxdx

=
da?

,
Jm&amp;gt;

x

&quot;

Similarly, the third partial derivatives of

f(x

t

y)

are four in

number, namely

:

2
?

/2 /\

_ a/
a?

3

~
dy \dx*}
,

dx \dxdy)
a / a
8

dx \dy)
a
8

2

~
dx*dy
a
.

/

3

\

Sy \8xdy /

dfx

/a/\ =

/

}

dxcf

So, in general,

dxp dyq

signifies

the result of differentiating/(^, y)

p

times with respect to x and q times with respect to y, the order

of differentiating being immaterial.

The extension

to

any number

of variables is obvious.

HIGHER DERIVATIVES
117. To prove the relation ^-^dxdy consider the expression
_

213
y=
ft,

=

-^- for

any particular values x = a,

dycx

*)-/(a,

(a, 6)

where for convenience h and
1

fc

are taken as positive.
to
^j
)

We

shall prove

I equal

to

on the one hand, and

on the other hand, where (1,
70.

771)

asedy/c.f,

\dydx/ x= \$,
are two undetermined points within the rectangle of
fig.

and

(

2 , 172)

In the

first place,

let/(x

+

h, y)

-/(x,

y)

=

F(x,

y).

Then

_

1

&quot;

F(a,

ft

+

~~
fe)

F(a,

&quot;

6)

whence, by

30, (2),

!

2*v(

)

fv (a +

h,

171)

-/y (a,

where
ing

Fy (a,

171)

=

(

.

\a?//x=a
=iJi

)

Apply-

30, (2), a second time,

we have
FlG 70
-

j-fit
In the second place,

\

if

we

let/(x, y

+

k)

-/(x, y)

=
&amp;lt;I&amp;gt;(x,

y),

we have

fc)-/x(^6)_

Therefore /^(d, ^) ^ 2 ), since each is equal to 7. y;r (| 2 Now let A and fc approach zero as a limit. The points (&, ;!) and (^ 2 172) both approach the point (a, 6) as a limit; and since the functions are continuous
,

=/

,

,

77!)

= Lim/yx

(

2

,

772),

or
/*&amp;lt;,&) =/(&amp;lt;!, 6).

This result being proved,
differentiations.

it is

easily extended to

any number

of variables or

Thus, for example,

cx*cy

dxdydx

214

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION

of

118. Higher derivatives of /(*, y) when x and y are functions t, or of s and t. By 111, if x and y are functions of t,
d^&amp;lt;^dx

dt

dx dt

3f_dy^ dy dt
t,

To

differentiate again

with respect to

we must

notice that

each term on the right-hand side of (1) is a product and must be handled by the law of products (I, 96, (4)). We have,
then, in the
first

place

dy = df^xdxd_/df\,^fd^,dyd/df\
dt
2

dx dt

2

dt dt \dx)

2 dy dt

dt dt \dy)

Now
(

and
j
(

)

may

be found from

(1)

by replacing / by

fif

fif

and
dx
d

respectively.

Hence
d
2

dt

2

=
dx dt

dx/d 2fdx
2

/

dy \

dt \dx dt

2

dxdy dt)

dfd y dy df

2

dy/dy
=
dx\dt)

dx

d*fdy\
dy*

dt \dxdy dt
_,

dt)
.
&amp;gt;

^_
if

/ON

dxdy dt dt

df\)

dx dt

2

dy dt

2

(

In a similar manner,
_

x and y are functions
_
2

of s

and
.

t,

=

s*

dx \ds)
2

2

__
dxdy dt
d
2

dxdy ds ds

dy \ds)

dx ds

2

dy

ds*

dt

2

dx \dt
2

dt

2

dy \dt

dx
d
2

dt

2

dy dt

2

d

2

/ = d fdxdx
dx ds
2

f

/dxdy
dt

dxdy\
dt

fdydy
2

dsdt

dt

dxdy\ds

ds)

dy ds dt

dx dsdt

dy dsdt

The extension
obvious.

of these formulas to

any number

of variables is

HIGHER DERIVATIVES
V

215
function of x and y,
i

Ex.

1.

Required to express

y
2

+
1

fix a

2

F y -

,

where

F is a

polar coordinates. Since r
8r

^y

= Vx 2 +
x

y 2 and
&r_

=

tan-

(
)

,

_

_ ~
(x
2

y

2

a0

_ ~&quot;

y y2

d26

dx

Vx 2 +
y

y2

Sx *
fPr

+
x2

y 2 )*

ax

x2

+
x
-f

_ ~
(x
2

2 xy

ax 2
a 2^

+ +

y2 ) 2

^_
y
Plence,
a2
2

_
2

aj?

_
x2

_ (x
2

2 xy

Vx +
from

y

2

^2/

2

(x

+

y

2

)^

cy

y

2

ay

2

y2 ) 2

(3),

F

a2

F
+

x2

dx 2

cr2 x 2

+

y

2

2 n a r ara0

F

r?/
&quot;^y

x2 (

+

y2 )*

dff2

(x

2

+

y2 ) 2

8r

(

x2

aF_^xy_
c6 (x 2

+

?/ )

2 2

a2

F_aF
2

y2
x2

a2

F
(

xy
x2

aF

x2

aF

x2

+

y* 2

drdB

aF

xy

Hence
ax 2

+
a?/

=
2

ar2

x2
i

+
&quot;a^

y2
&quot;

w
+
i

_a F
2
&quot;

Vx^Ty2
aF
&quot;a7

dr

a^F
2

ar2

r2

r

Ex.

2.

If z

=/i(*

+
.

o&amp;lt;)

+/

2

(x

a&amp;lt;),

where

/i

and

/2

are any two functions,

show that
dt 2

=
erf

a2
ax 2

Let x

+

=

11,

x

-

ai

=v

;

then

ax

-- -= -= ^=-a
1,

a,

ot

ax

1,

,

and

a

^2_^A du^dfo to_dfi ~ ax dw
ax

dfz

dv ex

du

du

~ =
dt

du

dt

dv

ct

du

_^
^dv

Differentiating these equations a second time,
&amp;lt;Pz

we have
d2

=

d 2/! /aw\ 2

d%

/av\ 2

dx2

du 2 \ax/

=

^
JM
dw 2

dfc
dv 2

du 2 \ax/

du2
&quot;

S s ffiM%.m/aiy dw \a/
a
2 2

-M
d
2

du 2 \ae/

By

inspection the required result

is

obtained.

216

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Consider

119. Differentiation of a definite integral.

f(x, a)dx,

where a is a parameter independent of x. In the integration a is considered as constant, but the value of the integral is a function of a. Let a be given an increment Aa. Then u takes an increment AM, where

Aw =

Now

by

31, (1),

r.
s&amp;gt;b

r*b

I

f(x, a -f Aa) dx

I

f(x, a) dx

&amp;lt;J

a

*J a

[f(z,

a

+ Aa)

f(x, a)] dx.

Hence

A, =
Ja

a

+

Dividing by Aa, and taking the limit as
limit,

Aa

approaches zero as a

we have

The proof assumes that a and

6 are finite.

It is not

always

infinite possible to differentiate in this way an integral with an limit. The discussion of this lies outside the scope of this book.

The

integral
25,

u

is

also a function of the

upper limit

6,

and we

have, by

rr
f(x,

).

(2)

a

a)dx

=

I

f(x, a)dx,

Jb

= -/(,).

(3)

PKOBLEMS
Suppose now that Then, by 111, (3),
a,
b,

217
t.

a are

all

functions of a single variable

du

_ du db
\

du da
^a

du da
da dt
x

~di~~db~dt

dt^
s;

db

da
,

da C b df(x,

a}

,

Ex.

If

u

= flog (1 Jo
du da

2 a cos x

+

a 2 ) dx,

_ ~

P*
Jo
1

2 cos x

+

2a

-

2 a cos x

+

a2

+

a)

2

tan 2 -

=
=
Therefore u
In this

TT

a
0.

2T + a tan X\IT 1 tan- ,/1 al \i- a 2/Jo
(
)

= const.

But when a

= 0,

w

=

/

f
o

(log 1)

dx

=

0.

Therefore u

= 0.

way the value of a definite integral can sometimes be found direct integration is inconvenient or impossible.

when

PROBLEMS
1.

Given z

= =
4-

log(x

2

+

y

2
),

prove y

dx

x
dy

=

0.

2.

Given z
Given x 2 Given y

x4

+
2

x 2 y2

+

y4 prove x
,

5x

+y
Sy
ex

= +

4 z.

3.

y

-

.2

xy

+

2 z2

=

c,

prove

=
ay
.

4.

=

eax sin6x,

prove x
ax

=

a
aa

-f

6

a&

5.

Given z

=
=

(x

2

+
+

y

2
)

tan- 1 x
,

,

prove x
ax

+

y
ay

=2z.

6.

Given

z2

xy
ev

tan- 1 x
1

prove zx
dx

+
-f

zy
dy

= xy.
z

7.

Given z Given z

=
=

sin-

(x

y),

prove
ax

=
ay

8.

y

2
-f-

2 ye*, prove x2

+
ax

y
ay

=

2 y2

.

218
9. If z

PAliTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
=
xy, illustrate the difference
y.

between Az and dz by constructing a

rectangle with sides x and
10.

A
is

angle

30.

triangle has two of its sides 6 and 8 in. respectively, and the included Find the change in the area caused by increasing the length of

each of the given sides by .01 in. and the included angle by 1, and compare with the differential of area corresponding to the same increments.
11.

A

angle

is

60.

triangle has two of its sides 8 and 12 in. respectively, and the included Find the change in the opposite side caused by making the given
12.1 in., the angle being unchanged,

sides 7.9

and

ential of area corresponding to the

and compare with the same increments.

differ

right circular cylinder has an altitude 12 ft. and the radius of its base Find the change in its volume caused by increasing the altitude by .1 ft. and the radius by .01 ft., and compare with the differential of volume corre sponding to the same increments.

12.

A

is

3

ft.

13.

The distance

of

measuring a base
in

line

BC =

an inaccessible object h and the angles

A

CBA = a

from a point B is found by and BCA = p. Find*

caused by errors of cZ/i, da, dp the expression for the error in the length of measuring h, a, /3, assuming that higher powers of the errors of measurement

AB

may

be neglected.
,

Verify the formula
14. z

dz
dt

=
y
,

dz dx

dx dt

--h dz dy m each of the following cases -.
-&amp;gt;

:

dy dt

15. z
16. z

= = = =

x2

+

2
?/
,

x

=

t,

sinxy, x

e2

= P. y = e st
cos
t.

.

V
ex2

x

= sin
,

,

y

=

17. z

+ v2 x

=

sin, y

=

cost.

18. Find the tangent plane to the cone z 19.

=

a

Vcc 2

-f

y2

.

that the tetrahedron formed by the coordinate planes and any 3 tangent plane to the surface xyz = a is of constant volume.

Show
Show

20.

that
lines.

any tangent plane

to the surface z

=

kxy cuts the surface in
nearest the origin.

two straight
21
.

Find the point in the plane ax

+

by -\- cz + d =

which

is

22. Find the points on the surface xyz

=

a which are nearest the origin.

3

23. Find a point in a triangle such that the from the three vertices is a minimum.

sum

of the squares of its distances

24. Of all rectangular parallelepipeds inscribed which has the greatest volume.

in

an

ellipsoid find that

25. Find the point inside a plane triangle from which the sum of the squares of the perpendiculars to the three sides is a minimum. (Express the answer in the area of the triangle, a, &, c, the lengths of the three sides, and terms of
JK&quot;,

x, y, z,

the three perpendiculars on the sides.)

PROBLEMS
26. If z
^./x\ =/(-), prove x ax \y/

219

az

az
\-

y
ay

=

0.

27. If f(lx

4 my
(ly

4- nz,

x2
4-

4

y

2

2 4- z )

=

0,

prove
\-

mx)

(ny

mz)

-ex

(lz

nx)

= 0.
dy
-

28. If z

=

y2

4 2/(- 4 \x
is

log

A
/

prove

- = 2y - - ay
n,

y ax
a/ prove x dx
-

29.

If

/(x, y)

a homogeneous function of degree

4y

a/

=

nf.

dy

30. Given x

=

r

,

y

=

r

,

prove

/ax\

=

/8r\

\ar/

W/
\Sx/ v
2
,

(dy\

w/
\ce/ r

=_

/er\

W/
\dy

d0Jr

31. Given u

-

log

Vx +
2

y

u

=

tan-

1

,

prove

32. Find the tangent plane to the ellipsoid
*

+
CL

?

/

^+

=
C

1

at the point

(*1,

2/1,

l)-

33. Show that the sum of the squares of the intercepts on the coordinate a* is constant. axes of any tangent plane to x 4 y* +

\$

34.

Show

that the

sum

gent plane to x^

4
if

y^

+

of the intercepts z* a is constant.

on the coordinate axes of any tan

=

35. Prove that the plane
?L

Ix

+ !^4.^
2

=

1

p = Va2

Z

2

2 4- b

+ my 4 nz = p m 2 + c%2
.

is

tangent to the ellipsoid

36. Prove that the plane Ix

4 my +

nz

=p

is

tangent to the paraboloid

ax

4

by

2

=

z

if

p =

bl 2

4 am 2

straight line
is

37. Find the cosine of the angle between the normal to the ellipsoid and the drawn from the center to the point of contact, and prove that it
,

equal to

where p

is

the distance of the tangent plane from the center

and

r the distance of the point of contact

from the

center.

38. Find the angle between the line drawn from the origin to the point = a 3 and the normal to the surface at that point. (a, a, a) of the surface xyz

(x

-

39. Find the angle of intersection of the spheres x 2
2

4

y

2

4

z2

=

a2 and

6)

4

y

2

4

2

=

c2 .

220

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
+
z 2x 2

40. Prove that the families of surfaces x 2 y 2
intersect everywhere at right angles.

= c\
z}

and x2

y2

z2

= c^

41. Derive the condition that two surfaces /(x, y,
intersect at right angles.

=

and 0(x,

y, z)

=

42. If /(x, y,

z)

=

0,

show that
z)

(\ (^} (?*} = _ L \ax/j,\c?// W*
2

43. If /(x, y}

=
*

and 0(x,

= 0,

and z

is

taken for the independent variable,

how ttat*

=
g2

dx dy dz
2j2

?*. dx dz

44. Find the equations of the tangent line to the curve of intersection of the
ellipsoid

-a2

y2
-{

f-

=

1

o2

c2

and the plane

Ix

+ my +

nz

=

0.

45. Find the equations of the tangent line to the curve of intersection of the
2 cylinders x

-f

y2

=

a 2 y2
,

+

z2

=

b2

.

46. Find the highest point of the curve of intersection of -^

x2

and
xa

Ix

+ my +

nz

=

+ ^H

y2

z2

=

1

0.

-f

47. Find the highest point of the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid z 2 = 1 and the plane x + y + 2z = 0. y%

48. Find the angle at which the helix x 2
the sphere x 2

+

y2

=

a2 z
,

=
=

k tan-

1

- intersects

+

y2

+

z2

=

r 2 (r

&amp;gt;

a).

49. Find the angle at which the curve y 2 the surface x2 4- 2 zy = c.

z2

=

a,

x

b (y

+

z) intersects

Verify

- =
dxdy dydx

in each of the following cases

:

~
51. z
52. z

x

+

y

= =

log

Vx 2 +

_
y2

53. z
.

= =

8111-!-.

x

KA 54. z

ex

smy.

55. If z

=

Iog(x2
(e

+

y2 )

+ tan-i, x

prove
-\

gx2
2

+

= 0.
cy
5

56. If z
57. If z

= =

x

-

e~ x ) cosy, prove

--- = 0.
dy

dx2
at),

sec (x

58. If z

CO

-rr

/ = Vx

y

at)
5

+

tan (x
3*

+
Z

prove
dZ Z

y 2 prove
,

& & -- = --dx dxdy
y),

^ = a -|
2

.

dc 2

Sx-4

dy dx*

59. If z

= =

sin

+

e~

cos (x

prove

-

H

----

(-

= 0.

60. If z

4
61. Given x

+
.

logx

-

ev\ prove

=
cxcy

V with

= e cosu, y respect to x and y.
u

=

eM sinu, find

-

xy.
in terms of the derivatives of

PROBLEMS
62. Given x

221 +
=
c2
2 i

=

e

cos

,

y

=

e

sin

,

prove
a2

_L +

M-D
63. Gi
,

F

F

c2

F

64. Given x

= re

o

jf.

e -e

-,

J
a2

y

e = r-

e

e~Q
^

-,

prove

F ~ a2F _ 82F ~ ~~
5^2

1 g2

F

1

8F
cr

&quot;^2

~^2
v)

^

02

r

65. If x
tions

=/(w,
,

u)

and y
,

=
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;(u,

are two functions which satisfy the equa
of

^ = ?*
aw
du

-8u

and

F

is

du

any function
a2

x and

y,

prove

&v
&quot;

ew2

+

d*v
av 2

=

/a

2

F

F
2

2 \ ax

a?/

.

67. If z

=

0(x

+

iy)

+

t(x

-

iy),

where
find

i

=
.

V/

1,

az
prove

+

a^ =

0.

68. If u =/(x, y) and y

= F(x),
d 2 ?/

d*u

_

69. If /(x, y)

n

=

0,

prove

_=

-- -ax 2 \ay/

axay ex Sy

2 ay \gx

\cy)
70. Differentiate

w

=

/**
|

log (1
o

+

a cos x) dx with respect to

a,

and thence

find

/

the value of the integral.

Q*+A

77

L&amp;lt;r

~
71. Differentiate
of the integral.

f
Jo
lo %

x

dx with respect

to a,

and thence

find the value

M

CHAPTEE

XII

MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
120. Double integral with constant limits. Let f(x, y) be any function of x and y which is single valued and continuous and posi tive for all pairs of values of x and y for which a^x^b and c^y^d.

Divide the interval
Aa?,

b a into n equal parts, denoting each part by thus forming the series of values of x, x v x 2 xs ,xn _ l where
&amp;gt;

,

,

,

c into m equal parts, Similarly, divide the interval d denoting each part by Ay, thus forming the series of values of y, y v y 2
-&amp;gt;-

,

where

The above values
allel to

of

x determine a
of

OY, and the values

series of straight lines par determine a series of straight lines y

parallel to

OX

(fig.

71).

Every

line of either set intersects

every line of the other set, and any one of these points of intersection
ya

may
to
l

where

be represented by ^-(^, y^-), i has all integral values from

n

1

and j has
to
c.

all integral
1,

&amp;lt;r-x

values from

m

XQ being a

FIG. 71

and y being

Taking the value
each point of intersection,
f(a,

of f(x, y) at

we form

the series

c)kxky +f(a,
c)

+f(xv
,

A^Ay +/(^,

y,

c

.

(I)

222

DOUBLE INTEGRAL WITH CONSTANT LIMITS 223
This series can be expressed more concisely by the notation

~

where two

s

are used, since there are

two elements

i

and j

which vary. The limit

of (2) as

m

called the double integral of f(x, y) over the area lines x d. a, x b, y c, and y

and n are both increased indefinitely is bounded by the

=

=

=

=

of the terms in (2) may evidently be made in ways, but there are two which we shall consider in par ticular: (1) when the sum of the terms of each row is found, and

The summation

many
these

sums added together (2) when the sum of the terms in each column is found, and these sums added together. It will appear from the graphical representation ( 121) that these two methods
;

same

result;

and

it

may
it is

be shown that the result

is

always
If

independent of the order of

summation.
to be noted that the value

the
is

of

x

method is followed, the same in all the terms
first

of

any one row, and hence each

row

is

exactly the series used in defining a definite integral

(21)
let

with y as the independent variable.
increase indefinitely, (2)

Accordingly,

when we

m

becomes

(jf

/(,

y)dy^
/to,

+

Qf f(x v
+ +
(jf
/(&quot;V-*
&amp;lt;

+
But

3
&amp;gt;

( jf

y)dy)**

I).*)**

(3) is the series

used in defining a definite integral with x

Letting

n

increase indefinitely,

/af(x y)dy we have
}

as the function of

x.

which represents the double integral on the hypothesis that and then n is made to increase indefinitely.

first

m

224
Another way

MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
of writing (4) is

nd
where the summation
right to left,
i.e.

f(x,y)dxdy,

(5)

first

is made in the order of the differentials from with respect to y and then with respect to x,

limits of

and the limits are in the same order as the differentials, i.e. the y are c and d, and. the limits of x are a and b.* If the second method of summation is followed, we have

b

f(x )y )dydx.

(7)

Ex. The moment of inertia of a particle about an axis is the product of its mass by the square of its distance from the axis. From this definition let us determine the moment of inertia of a lamina of uniform thickness k about an

v

axis perpendicular to its plane. Let the density of the lamina be uniform and de noted by and let the plane coin cide with the plane of the lamina, the axis
/&amp;gt;,

XOY

being perpendicular to the plane at 0.

Let

the lamina be in the form of a rectangle (fig. 72) bounded by the lines x = a, x = &,

y
.

=

c,

y

=

d.

Divide the lamina into reclines

y-

.tangles

by the

Then the mass

of any element, as PQ, is pkAxAy. If this mass is regarded as concentrated at P(X;, %), its moment of inertia would be (x? -f yj)pkbxby. If the mass is regarded as concentrated at Q(x t + Ax, 2fr + Ay), its moment of
-

* Still another form of writing

(4)

is

f
/a

dx

t/e

f f(x,

y) dy, in
x.

which the order of

summation

is first

with respect to y and then with respect to

f(x, y)dydx, which is merely (4) with the parenthesis removed. In this form it is to be noted that the limits and the differentials are in inverse orders, and that the order of summation is the order of the differentials from left to right, i.e. first with respect to y and then with respect to x. In this text this last form of writing the double integral will not be used. In other books the context will indicate the form of notation which the writer has
chosen.

nd

GKAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
inertia

225

would be

-

[(x t

+

Ax)

2

+

(j#

+ Ay) 2 ]pkAx&y.
we have
1
t

Letting

M

represent the

moment

of inertia of the rectangle,

=n
i=0

j=

m

1

i=0

.7

=

j=Q and

The

limits of these

sums as n=oo,

Lim
Hence we
define

[(*

= cc, + A*) 2 + (x? +
ra
2

Ax= 0, Ay =

are the same

(

3),

for

M by the equation M= vC JC
a
c

(x

+

y*)pkdxdy.
is

If p

and k are each placed equal

to unity, the result

often referred to as the

moment

of inertia of the plane area

bounded by the

lines

x=a, x=6, y=c, y = d.

121. Graphical representation.

the equation of a surface

which

is

Placing z=f(x, y), we have the graphical representation

of f(x, y) (fig. 73). d a, x b, y c, y Through the lines x Then the volume bounded by the pass planes parallel to OZ.

=

=

=

=

FIG. 73

the planes x a, x = b, y = c, y d, and the surface =f(x, y) is a graphical representation of the double integral of 120. For if the planes x xv x x2 x xv y y v y ya are constructed, they divide the above volume, which y = y3
plane

XOY,

=

=

z

=

=

,

=

-

-

,

=

=

,

,

we

will denote

by V, into columns such as

MNQP,

each of which

226

MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

in the plane XOY. If the stands on a rectangular base coordinates of are (xit y^, the corresponding term of (2), the term/(^, ^.)Aa!Ay is/(^, %.)A^Ay, and since f(x{) i/j ) =

M

AAy

120&amp;gt;

MP

)

is

MNQP,

the volume of a prism standing on the same base as the column and the volume of this prism is approximately the volume

of the column. Hence (2), 120, is the sum of the volumes of such prisms, and is approximately equal to V\ and as m and n both increase indefinitely, the limit of the sum of the volumes of these prisms is evidently V.

The significance For if the integral

of the
is

two ways
(5),

of

summation

is

now

clear.
first

written as

120, the prisms are

added together, keeping x constant, the result being a series of slices, each of thickness A#, which are finally added together to include the total volume and if the integral is written in the form
;

120, the prisms are first added together, keeping y constant, (7), the result being a series of slices, each of thickness Ay, which are
finally
(5)

added together to include the total volume. and (7) are equivalent, as was noted before.

It follows that

122. Double integral with variable limits. may now extend the idea of a double integral as follows Instead of taking the integral over a rectangle,
:

We

as in

120,

\

we may

take

over an area bounded by any closed curve (fig. 74)
it

such that a straight line
parallel to either

OX or OY
more

D

intersects

it

in not

A

\

than two points.

Drawing

straight lines parallel to

Y

and
to

straight lines parallel

OX, we form rectangles
area Aa;Ay,

of

some

of

M
FIG. 74

which

are entirely within

the area bounded by the

curve and others of which are only partly within that area.

Then
(1)

DOUBLE INTEGRAL WITH VARIABLE LIMITS 227
where the summation includes
all

the rectangles which are wholly

or partly within the curve, represents approximately the

volume

bounded by the plane XOY, the surface z =f(x, y], and the cylinder standing on the curve as a base, since it is the sum of the volumes
121. Now, letting the number of these prisms of prisms, as in and A# increase indefinitely, while A# 0, it is evident that

=

volume described above. (1) approaches a definite limit, the
If

we sum up

first

with respect to

y,

together terms of
.

Then if is of x, such as x (1) corresponding to a fixed value xit the result is a sum corresponding to the strip the line x ABCD, and the limits of y for this strip are the values of y corre
{

ME

sponding to x

=x
),

and

MB =/ (#
2

i.e. in the equation of the curve the limits of y are/^aj,.) and /2 (# ).
i
; f

if

MA =f (x^
l

As

different

integral values are given to i, we have a series of terms correspond ing to strips of the type ABCD, which, when the final summation
is

respect to x,
if

must cover the area bounded by the

the least and the greatest values of x for the curve are the constants a and b respectively, the limit of (1) appears in the form
curve.

Hence,

I

I

Ja
where the subscript

f(x,y}dxdy,

(2)

Jfi(x)

On
to x,

i is no longer needed. the other hand, if the first summation is made with respect the result is a series of terms each of which corresponds to a

strip of the
4&amp;gt;i(y)

type
(y),

A B C D*

,

and the

limits of

x are

of the

form

in

and terms of
&amp;lt;

2

y.

found by solving the equation of the curve for x Finally, if the least and the greatest values of y for
c

the curve are the constants

and d

appears in the

form

.

^
/

respectively, the limit of (1)

J/c

f(*,y)dydx.

(3)

i/fi(r)

While the limits of integration in (2) and (3) are different, it is evident from the graphical representation that the integrals are
equivalent. 123. In

120-122, f(x, y) has been assumed positive for all the values of x and y considered, i.e. the surface z =/(#, y} was If, however, entirely on the positive side of the plane XOY.

228
f(x, y)
is

MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
negative for
is

all

the values of x and y considered, the

reasoning
integral
is

exactly as in the first case, but the value of the

Finally, if f(x, y) is sometimes positive sometimes negative, the result is an algebraic sum, as in

negative.

and
22.

Furthermore, be equal and

it is

all

not necessary that all the values of A# should the values of Ay equal also in place of f(xit y^
;

we may use /((-.,
The work
of
is

17,),

where x

i

&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

xi+l and yj

&amp;lt;

^

&amp;lt;

yj+r

2223,

it

making these extensions being similar to that of not repeated here, but the student is advised to
The method
meaning
of

review those

articles.

124. Computation of a double integral. ing a double integral is evident from the

comput

of the notation.

n2
As
this integral
is

xydxdy.
nZt
/&amp;gt;2

\

written,

it is

equivalent to

I

I

I

Jo

Vo

xydy)dx, the integral
.

/

in parenthesis being

computed

first,

on the hypothesis that y alone

varies.

Ex.

2.

Find the value of the integral

/
J

xydxdy over the

first

the circle x2
If

+

y2

=

a2

.

we sum up

first

with respect to
(fig.

y,

we
is

to strips of the type

ABCD

75),

and the

find a series of terms corresponding limits of y are the ordinates of the

points like

A

and B.

The ordinate

of

A

evidently 0, and from the equation

of the circle the ordinate of

B is Va2

x2 where
,

OA = x.

Finally, to cover the

x are

and

a.

quadrant of the circle the limits of Hence the required integral is
2

B
n&quot;^

-*2

xydxdy=

^ j

r a P x ?/ T
2

i[-Yl
2
&amp;gt;&amp;lt;

dx

te

=fl&quot;-*

_
A D
FIG. 75

1

rq

x&quot;

x 4

~2l

2

Since the above computation of a double integral is simply the repeated computation of a single definite integral, the theorems of

24 may be used

in simplifying the work.

DOUBLE INTEGRAL IN POLAR COORDINATES
125. Double integral in polar coordinates. the double integral of f(r, 6) over any area,
If

229
to find

we have

we

divide that area

up

into elements, such as

ABCD
of

(fig.

76),

by drawing

at distances

A0

apart,

and concentric

which

increase
is

by

AT*.

The area

ABCD
if

the difference of the areas of the

sectors

OB C

Hence,
2

OA = r,
area

AB CD =

\ (r

+ Ar) A0 2

J-

r

A0

Therefore any term of the sum cor 120, is, responding to (1), at first sight, of the form
f(r, #)

(rArA0+J- Ar

2
-

A0).

FIG. 76

in taking the limit, r Ar A0 rArA0 ( 3), for

But

+

J-Ar

A0 may

be replaced by

_.

Lim /(r, 0).(rArA0

+ lAr
is

2

-A0)_ Lim / =

;

Hence the required

integral

Lim
A0Zo

2}

V /(r,

0) r

ArA0 =

/

/

f(r, 0) rdrdd.

(1)

-fp&amp;lt;-

If the summation in (1) is made first with respect to r, the result a series of terms corresponding to strips such as A 1 1 C1 V and the limits of r are functions of found from the equation of the
is

S

D

bounding curve.
all

The summation with respect
i.e.

to

these terms, and the limits of

taken so as to cover the entire

area will be constants,

the least and the greatest values of
is

on

the bounding curve. If, on the other hand, the summation
to 0, the result
is

A 2 B2 C2 D2

,

made first with respect a series of terms corresponding to strips such as and the limits of are functions of r found from the

equation of the bounding curve. The summation with respect to r will then add all these terms, and the limits of r will be the
least

and the greatest values

of r

on the bounding curve.

230

MULTIPLE INTEGKALS

Ex. Find the integral of r2 over the circle r = 2 a cos 0. and 2 a cos 0, found If we sum up first with respect to r, the limits are from the equation of the bounding curve, and the result is a series of terms cor
responding to sectors of the type A OB To sum up these terms so as (fig. 77).
to cover the circle, the limits of

are

and !

The

result

is

a cos

J

rsdedr
TT

=

2 a cos

de

JO

=11 4a*cos
FIG. 77

4

0d0

The graphical representation may be made by the use
drical coordinates defined in

of cylin

127.
(fig.

126. Triple integrals.
respectively to

Let any volume

78) be divided into

rectangular parallelepipeds of
lel

volume A,xAyA2 by planes paral Z the coordinate

planes,

some

of the parallelepipeds

extending outside the volume in a

manner

similar to that in

which

122 extend out the rectangles in side the area. Let yjt zk) be a
(x.&amp;gt;

point of intersection of

any three

of

these planes and form the i=n j=m k = p
_[&amp;gt;,

sum

.\

A-.A-.A-i

W

&quot;\

-X
i=0 j=Q k=0

as

in

122.

Then the

limit of this

sum

as n,

m, and

p

increase

in
== 0,

definitely,

while
0,

Ax

Ay =
f(x
t

0,

Az =
all

FIG 7g
is

so as to
called the triple integral of

include

y, z)

points of the volume, throughout the volume.

It is denoted

by the symbol

f(x, y, z}dxdydz,

CYLINDRICAL AND POLAR COORDINATES
the limits remaining to be substituted.

231

If the summation is made x and y remaining constant, the result is to first with respect to z, extend the integration throughout a column of cross section A^Ay if next x remains constant and y varies, the integration is extended so as to combine the columns into slices and finally, as x varies,
;

;

the slices are combined so as to complete the integration throughout the volume.
127. Cylindrical and polar coordinates. In addition to the 84, we shall consider two other rectangular coordinates defined in

systems of coordinates for space of three dimensions,
drical coordinates, (2) polar coordinates.

(1) cylin

Cylindrical coordinates. If the x and the y of the rectangular coordinates are
1.

replaced by polar coordinates r and 6 in the plane XOY, and the z coordinate is re tained with its original significance, the new
coordinates
coordinates.
r, 6,

and z are called cylindrical The formulas connecting the

two systems of coordinates are evidently x = r cos 0, y = r sin 6, z = z.
Turning to
to the plane
fig.

M
FIG. 79

79,

we
that

see that z

=z

1

determines a plane parallel

XOY,

=

l

determines a plane

MONP,

passing

through

and making an angle l with the plane XOZ, and that r = r l determines a right circular cylinder with radius r x and OZ as its axis. These three surfaces inter
sect at the point P.
2.

OZ

Polar coordinates.

In
are

fig.

80 the cylin-

.

x

drical coordinates of

P
If

OM=r,
of

MP =

z,

and

Z L OM =

9.

r,

as the polar sin

OM = r we place OP = angle NOP by \$, we shall have coordinates of P. Then, since ON= OP cos
r,
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;,

placing and denote the
(/&amp;gt;,

and and
(f&amp;gt;

OP the following equations evidently express the con nection between the rectangular and the polar coordinates of P:
z

OM=

= r cos
cf&amp;gt;,

x

= r sin
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

cos 0,

y

= r sin
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

sin 0.

232

MULTIPLE INTEGEALS

The polar coordinates of a point also determine three surfaces which intersect at the point. For 6 = l determines a plane (fig. 81)
through OZ, making the angle = with the plane XOZ; l
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

^

determines a cone of revolution, the axis and the vertical angle of

which
2

are respectively OZ and and r r^ determines (/^
;

a sphere with
at

its

center

In both

tems
nates

of

sys coordi
varies

6

-X

from
dinates

to

2

TT,

and in polar coor
varies
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

from
FIG. 81

to

TT.

The
r
is

coordinate

in both systems, but
off

usually positive be negative, in which case it will be laid on the backward extension of

may

the line determined by the other two coordinates, as in I, 177.
128. Elements of
cylindrical and

volume

in

in polar coordi

nates.

If it is desired to

express

the triple integral of

126 in

either cylindrical or polar coor dinates, it is necessary to know

the expression for the element of volume in those coordinates.
1.

The element

of

volume
(fig.

in

cylindrical
is

coordinates

82)

bounded by two cylinders of radii r and r+Ar, two planes corresponding and + A0. corresponding to
the volume

/

FIG. 82

to z
It

and z+Az, and two planes
is

accordingly, except

for

ELEMENTS OF VOLUME
infinitesimals of higher order, a cylinder with

233
altitude
is

&z and

base

rArA0(

125).

Hence the element

of

volume

dV=rdrd0dz.
2.

(1)

The element of volume in polar coordinates (fig. 83) is the volume bounded by two spheres of radii r and r + Ar, two conical
surfaces

correspond

ing to

and
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;+Ac/&amp;gt;,

and two planes cor and responding to

+ A0.
amid
its

The volume
pyr
is

of the spherical

0-ABCD

equal to the area of
base

tiplied

ABCD mul by one third
altitude r.*

of

its

To

find the area of

ABCD

we

note

first

that the area of the

zone formed by com pleting the arcs

&amp;lt;

FIG. 83

and

BC

is

equal to
r cos
is to

its altitude,

area of

ABCD
vol

r cos + multiplied by 2 irr. Also the the area of the zone as the angle A0 is to 2 TT.
(&amp;lt;

A&amp;lt;),

Hence
and

area

ABCD = r A0 [r cos \$ r cos 0-A BCD = r A0 [cos \$ - cos
3 3

((/&amp;gt;

+ A\$)],

Similarly,

vol

0-EFGH = 1 (r + Ar) A0 [cos - cos

Therefore
vol ^4 J?

CDEFGH = 1 [(r + Ar) - r
3

3

]

A&amp;lt;9

[cos

- cos
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

But mal

this expression differs
of higher order.

2 from r sin

\$ArA&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;A0

by an

infinitesi
is

Accordingly, the element of volume

(2)
*
its

The volume
is to

base

of a spherical pyramid is to the volume of the sphere as the area of the area of the surface of the sphere.

234
It
is

MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
to

be noted that

dV

is

equal to the product of the
are respectively
rd(f&amp;gt; )

three dimensions
rsm(f&amp;gt;d0,

and

dr.

129.
in the

Change
form
I

of coordinates.

When

a double integral

is

given

/

f(x, y) dxdy, where the limits are to be substituted
it

so as to cover a given area,
of the integral
if

may

be easier to determine the value

coordinates.
of r

the rectangular coordinates are replaced by polar Then f(x, y) becomes f(r cos 6, r sin 6), i.e. a function
the other factor, dxdy, indicates the element of area, of 121 and the work of

and

0.

As

in

view of the graphical representation
125,

we may

replace

are not equivalent, but the
lent,

dxdy by rdrd0. These two elements of area two integrals are nevertheless equiva

provided the limits of integration in each system of coordi nates are taken so as to cover the same area.

In like manner, the three
f(x,y, z)dxdydz,

triple integrals

f(r cos f(r sin
are equivalent
total

0,

r sin 0,

z)

rdrdddz,
2

(f&amp;gt;

cos 0, r sin

&amp;lt;p

sin 0, r cos \$) r sin fydrdfydO

when

the limits are so taken in each as to cover the

volume

to be considered.

PROBLEMS
Find the values of the following integrals
/&amp;gt;;:

:

,X2 /io;z

i.

r r
Ji Ji

7X -dxdy. y

5.

Jo Jo
&quot;

re
n-n

/rt~vsin

*

L*r\$ dXdy
X

+

6-

f

**UOr.
-

a
r
j

n
3.

C
Jit
2

Joy
/~

C^sin-dydx.

7.

C f^ J
i/

&quot;rdrdd.
i

cos1

4.

f T ^xlog
*/2 t/i

y

dydx.

8.

f C
t/

e

*C
/

y

*

e*-*y+ s dxdydz.

o

/

o

o

PROBLEMS
r a /Vaz-x2

dxdydz

Jo Jo

Va2

x2

y2

_

235

z2

11.

JJood()
C
2

drdZ

.

13.

r

2

a

f
/asin&amp;lt;J&amp;gt;

r sin

cos

cos

6d6d&amp;lt;j&amp;gt;dr.

Jo J

15. Prove that

f ff(*)

-f(y)dxdy

=

CHAPTER

XIII

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
130.

Moment

of inertia of

a plane area.
product of

of a particle about an axis of
its

is the

its

The moment of inertia mass and the square
inertia of a
of the

distance

from

the axis.

The moment of same axis is the sum

number moments of

inertia

of

we

derive

the particles about that axis. From this definition (120) a definition of the moment of inertia of a

homogeneous rectangular lamina of thickness k and density p about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the lamina. The
result

may

be written in the form

M =pk
where
If

(*
i/a

rd
I

(&+f)dxdy
of inertia.

t

(1)

c/ c

M represents the moment
Jc

p and

are both replaced

by

unity, (1)

becomes

M:=

Uf \J\(&+f)dxdy, a c

(2)

which, as was noted in 120, is called the moment of inertia of the rectangle about an axis perpendicular to its plane at O. Reasoning in the same way, we may form the general expression

(3)

where the integration

is

XOY. Then

(3) is

the

moment

to extend over a given area in the plane of inertia of that area about the

axis perpendicular to the plane at 0.

Ex. Find the moment of
the origin, of the plane area y = 2 a, and the axis OF.

inertia,
(fig.

84)

about an axis perpendicular to the plane at bounded by the parabola y 2 = 4 ax, the line
236

MOMENT OF INEKTIA OF A PLANE AREA
If the integration is

237

first

with respect to
is

x, the limits of that integra-

tion are

and
due

y2

4a

,

since the operation

the

summing

of elements of

moment

of inertia

to the

strip corresponding to
is

found from the axis of y, and the limit found from the equation of the parabola. Finally, the limits of y must be taken so as to include all the strips parallel to OX, and hence
is

elementary rectangles in any a fixed value of y the limit w2
;

y

must be

and 2

a.

Therefore

M = Jo

C&quot;

Jo

f

4a
(z

2

+

y*)dydx

192
FIG. 84

131.

If

the plane area

is

of polar coordinates, (3) of

more conveniently denned by means 130 becomes

(1)

for,

the

129, in place of dxdy as the element of area we take by z 2 element of area rdrdO, and the factor x + y evidently 2 becomes r
.

Formula

(1)

may

also be de

rived directly from the fundamen tal definition at the beginning of
130, and the student
to
is

make

that derivation.

Ex. Find the moment of inertia, about an axis perpendicular to the plane at 0, of the plane area (fig. 85) bounded by one loop of the curve r = a sin 2 6.

M
FIG. 85

We
the

shall take the loop in

first

of inertia of all the

moments

loops about the chosen axis are the same by the symmetry of the curve. If the first integration is made with respect to r, the result is the moment of
inertia of a strip

hence the limits for r are

bounded by two successive radii vectors and the curve and and a sin 2 6. Since the values of 6 for the loop of
;

238

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
to

the curve vary from

-

,

it is

evident that those values are the limits for 6
/*asin20

in the final integration.

Therefore

vo M = Jo Jo
I
\

In the two preceding articles we have found the moment of inertia of a plane area about an axis perpendicular to the plane, which, with the exception of a constant factor, is the moment
132.
of

inertia of

a corresponding
shall

same
the
axis.

We

now

find
of

moment

of

inertia

a

axis in its plane.

Let the lamina be bounded

\

by the closed curve (fig. 86), and let its density at any point be p and its thickness be k.
Let OX be the axis about which

~x
FIG. 86

the

moment

is to

be taken.

Divide the area into rec

tangles of area A^A^/. Then the mass of any corresponding element of the lamina, as PQ, is pk&x&y. If this mass is regarded as concentrated at P, its moment about is pky^&x&y and if the mass is regarded as concen 2 trated at Q, its moment about is pk (y + Ay) Aa;Ay.

OX

;

Therefore,

if

M

OX

x

represents the required moment,
(i)

the summations to cover the entire area.

Since

Um P k (y+y?y = l
(3), and

the double

sums

of

have

the same limit

accordingly
t

&*=ffphfdax!y
where the integration
is

(2)

to cover the entire area.

AREA BOUNDED BY A PLANE CUKVE
If

239 moment
manner
(3)

of inertia of the plane area
If

p and k are each replaced by unity, (2) defines the about OX.
of inertia

M denotes the moment

Y, in similar

Ex. Find the moment of inertia about
parabola y
2

OY of

the plane area bounded by the

4 ax, the line y
is

=

2 a, and the axis

OY.

Since the above area
integration will be the 2 2 changed in that x + y

the

same
is

130, the limits of as there determined, but the integrand will be
.

same as that

of the Ex. in

2 replaced by x

_

Hence

M

y

= -

C&quot;

C
Jo

4a

Jo
1

x 2 dydx
&quot;

__
I

r2
/

192a3Jo

y*(ly *

If it is desirable to

use polar coordinates, (2) becomes

M=
x

ph* sin
s

2

OdrdB,

(4)

and

(3)

becomes

M = CCpkr
y

cos

2

6drd0
to

9

(5)

the substitution being
133.

129.

Area bounded by a plane curve.

The area bounded by an

arc of a plane curve, the axis of x t and the ordinates of the ends of the arc has been determined in 35 by a single integration. By tak

ing the algebraic sum of such areas any plane area may be computed. The area bounded by any plane curve may also be found by a

double integration as follows

:

Draw

straight lines parallel to

OX

and
of

to

OF respectively,
fig.

forming

rectangles of area A:rAy,

which, as in

74, will be entirely

some of within the curve, and others

which

will be only partly within the curve.
of these rectangles,

Form

the double

sum

^^A^Ay

and then

let their

increase indefinitely while
integral

A# =

and

Ay =

0.

number Then the double
(I)

rr

JJ
is

dxdy

the required area.

240

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

2 = 4 Ex. Find the area inclosed by the curve (y x x 2 (fig. 87). 3) The element of area is the rectangle AxAy. If the first integration is made with respect to y, the result is the area of a strip like the one shaded in fig. 87, and the limits for y will be found by solving the equation of the curve for y in

v

terms of

x.

Since y

=

x
2

+

3

the lower limit

-V4-x
the upperjimit
is
?/ 2

and

=x+3

ViT^ x For the integra tion with respect to x the limits are 2 and 2, since
2.

+

the curve
lines

is

bounded by the

2 and x x = Therefore

=

2.

area

=

\

C *dxdy

J-&amp;lt;zJ

-

2/i)

dx

= 2 f V4 -x2 dx
J-2

/-

This example
35.

is

Ex.

3,

Comparing the two

solutions, we see that the result of the first integra

tion here
&quot;*

is

grand in

35.

exactly the inteIt is evident

FIG. 87

that this will be the case

in all similar problems, and hence many areas may be found by single integration. The advantage of the double integral consists in the representation of the area of a figure for which

the limits of integration cannot easily be found.

134. In like manner, the area

bounded by any curve

in polar

coordinates

may

be expressed by the double integral

rdrd6,

(1)

the element of area being that bounded by two radii vectors the angles of which differ by A0, and by the arcs of two circles the
If

which
first

differ

by Ar.

integration of (1) is with respect to r, the result 2 before the substitution of the limits is ^ r d@. But this is exactly

the

AREA OF ANY SURFACE

241

the integrand used in computation by a single integration. Hence many areas may be computed by single integration in. polar
coordinates.

135. Area of

any

surface.

Let

C

(fig.

88) be any closed curve

on the surface /(#, y, z) = 0. Let its projection on the plane XOY We shall assume that the given surface is such that the be C
.

at any point within the curve C perpendicular to the plane meets the surface in but a single point. In the plane and QF, draw straight lines parallel to
1

XOY

XOY

OX

forming rectangles of area A#Ay, which
in

lie

wholly or partly
lines

the area bounded by
to

C

.

Through these
z
in

pass planes

parallel

OZ.

These planes
the
surface

will

intersect

curves which intersect in points the projections of which on the
are the vertices of plane the rectangles for example, is the projection of P. At every
;

XOY

M

such point as

P draw

the tan

gent plane to the surface,

each tangent plane there
will be cut a parallelo

gram

*

by the

planes

drawn
OZ.
F
FlG 88
-

parallel to

We shall now
define the area

of the surface /(#, y, z) 0, bounded by the curve C, as the limit of the sum of the areas of these parallelograms cut from the tan

=

gent planes, as their number is the same time that A# = and

Ay = 0.

to increase indefinitely, at This definition involves

the assumption that the limit is independent of the manner in which the tangent planes are drawn, or of the way in which the small areas are made to approach zero. This assumption may be

proved by careful but somewhat intricate reasoning.
* This parallelogram is not

drawn

in the figure, since

it

coincides so nearly with the

surface element.

242
If

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

A^4 denotes the area of one of these parallelograms in a tan gent plane, and 7 denotes the angle which the normal to the tangent plane makes with OZ, then ( 92)

Aa?Ay
since the projection of

= A J. cos 7,

/I)

A^

on the plane
are,

XO Y is A#Ay.
(2),

The

direc

tion cosines of the
dz
1
&amp;gt;

normal

by
1

112,

proportional to

1

v,
;

hence
cos

7

=

and hence

and
According to the definition, to find = and Ay = that is
;

A we

must take the

limit

of (3) as Aa;

where the integration must
be extended over the area in
the plane XOFbounded

by the curve

C

1
.

Ex. 1. Find the area of an octant of a sphere of
a.

If the center of

the sphere is taken as the origin of co

ordinates

(fig.

89),

the equation of the

sphere

is

= a2
Y
area on the plane

,

(1)

XOY

is

the area in the
2

first

and the projection of the required quadrant bounded by the circle
(2)

and the axes

OX and OF.

+

2
2/

=

2

AREA OF ANY SURFACE
From
(1),

243

by(i)

=
3.

na

iTra
7ra2.

|

dx

/o

Ex.

2.

The center

cular cylinder of radius by the sphere.

of a sphere of radius 2 a is on the surface of a right cir Find the area of the part of the cylinder intercepted a.

Z

FIG. 90

Let the equation of the sphere be

the center being at the origin
2
2/

(fig.

90),

and

let the
0,

equation of the cylinder be
(2)

+ z2-2a?/ =

the elements of the cylinder being parallel to OX. To find the projection of the required area on the plane it is necessary to find the equation of a cylinder passing through the line of intersection of (1)

XOY

and

(2),

and having

its

elements parallel to OZ.
2
2/

+

+

z2

-

4 a2 )

+ Ml/ 2 +

z2

Now - 2ay) =

(3)

244

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

represents any surface through the line of intersection of (1) and (2), and hence Accord it only remains to choose k\ and k% so that (3) shall be independent of z.
ingly let ki

=

1

and k 2

=

1,

and
x2

(3)

becomes

+
dx

2 ay

-

4 a2

=

0.

(4)

From

(2),

_

A

_
cy

by

(2)

-

A

f*2a

p

=L /
=
8 a2
.

limits of integration were determined from (4), which is the projection bounding line of the required area on the plane XOY. As an equal area is intercepted on the negative side of the plane JTOF, the above result must be multiplied by 2. Hence the required area is 16 a 2

The

of the

.

The evaluation

of (4)

may sometimes

be simplified by trans

forming to polar coordinates in the plane

XOY.

Ex. 3. Find the area of the sphere x2 + y2 + z 2 = a 2 included in a cylinder having its elements parallel to OZ and one loop of the curve r = a cos 2 6 (fig. 91) in the plane as its directrix.

XOY

Proceeding as in Ex.

1,

we

find the integrand

.

Va2 - x2 - y2
(

Transform-

ing this integrand to polar coordinates,

we have

129)
~ a cos 20

A=

ardddr

for the first integration with respect to r covers a
sector extending

from the

origin to a point on the curve a cos 2 0, since the cjurve r

=

passes through and the final

the origin
6
is

;

integration

with respect

to

from

-FIG. 91

to

4
is
,

since

the loop

4 chosen

bounded by the
is

=
4
is

and

=4

The

factor 2 before the integral

necessary

because there

an equal amount

of area on the negative side of the plane

XOY.

CENTER OF GRAVITY
Therefore

245

A=2 f Vj

20

If the required area is projected

on the plane YOZ, we have

where the integration extends over the projection of the area on YOZ] and if the required area is projected on the plane XOZ, we have
the plane

where the integration extends over the projection
the plane

of the area

on

XOZ.
In
all of

136. Center of gravity.

system of particles ing formulas being

of a

47 we denned the center of gravity which lie in the same plane, the result

If

the particles do not

all lie in

the same plane,
^-\

we

are obliged to

z

m 2i = ~^ &
2^ra.

to define the third coordinate of the center of gravity, the deriva tion of which is not essentially different from that given in 47.

To determine the center of gravity of a physical body, we divide the body into elementary portions, the mass of any one of which
be represented by Am. Then if (#., y., z.) that the mass of one of the elementary portions

may

is

any point such
be considered

may

as concentrated at that point, we define the center of gravity (x, y, z) of the body by the formulas

246

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS

The denominator of each of the preceding fractions is evidently M, the mass of the body. Formulas (1) can be expressed in terms of definite integrals, the shall here evaluation of which gives the values of x, y, and z.

We

take up only those cases in which the definite integrals introduced are double or triple integrals.
137. Center of gravity of a plane area.
of a plane area in the plane

The center

of gravity

From we have immediately that z = 0. To determine x and y we divide the area into rectangles of area A^Ay (fig. 86), and if we denote the density by p, Am = /aAzAy. If we consider the mass of an element, as PQ, concentrated at P, we have, by substituting in (1), 136,
been defined in
49.

XOY has

that definition

(1)

an expression which is evidently less than x and as concentrated at Q, we have the mass of
;

if

we

consider

PQ

an expression which

is

But the

Limits of (1)
...
.

evidently greater than x. and (2) are the same ( 3), for
4- Aa?
-

(x. Lim ^-^-

The

limit of (1) is

^I

\pxdxdy

-

,

both integrals being taken over the

entire area.

iipdxdy

\\pxdxdy
Therefore

x

=

~^~

~&amp;gt;

^

=

\\pydxdy
&quot;

(3)

&quot;77^

tjpdxdy
y being derived in the same manner as

jjpdxdy
x.

CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A PLANE AREA
If

247

p

is

constant,

it

can be canceled

;

and in any problem in

which p

is not denned, it will be understood that it is constant. In that case the denominator of each coordinate is the area of the

plane figure.
Ex. Find the center of gravity of the segment of the
off

x2
ellipse

--

?/
1-

2

=

1

cut

a2

62

n
I

f\
I

by the chord through the positive ends of the axes of the curve. is Ex. 2, 49, and the student should compare the two solutions. The equation of the chord is bx -f- ay = ab. To determine x and y we have to compute the two integrals CCxdxdy and JJ ydxdy over the shaded area of fig. 39, and also find that shaded area.
This

The area is the area of a quadrant of the ellipse less the area of the triangle formed by the coordinate axes and the chord, and is accordingly

For the integrals the
and y%

= - v a2

_
b

|(7ra6)- la&

=

|a6(7r-2). y are y

limits of integration with respect to

=
and

x2 y\ being found from the equation of the chord, and y 2 being
,

found from the equation of the

ellipse.

The

limits for

x are evidently

a.

Jo Jah-bx

r/6 f r l^xtofr = Jo \a z va^ - te +
_ 3-2

n-

~\/2

- bx

ydxdy

=-

1

/
(

-

6 2x 2

a 2 Jo

+

a62 x) dx

x

=
3

2a
(TT

26
2)

-

3

(TT

-

2)

138.

If the

equation of the bounding curve of the area

is

in

polar coordinates,

we

have, by transforming equations

(3),

137,

by

129,

rr
x

=

pr-cos0drd0
I

CprdrdO
(i)
2

pr

sin

OdrdO

prdrdO

248

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
circles
(b

Ex. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the two
r
It is evident

=

a cos

0,

r =

b cos

6.

&amp;gt;

a)

As

from the symmetry of the area (fig. 92) that y = 0. is the area, the denominator of the fractions, after canceling
/&amp;gt;,

it

is

equal to

444
r2 cos edddr

= - TT (W -

a*).

The numerator

for x

becomes
1
3
(ft

=

-

a3 )

r2
|

cos*0d0

_ FIG. 92

_

62

+

ab

+
a)

a2

~2 (6 +
139. Center of gravity of a solid.
of

To

find the center of gravity

any

solid

we have merely

to express the

Am

of formulas (1),

136, in terms of space coordinates

and proceed as in

137.

For

example,

if

rectangular coordinates are used,

Am = /aA^AyAz,

and

I

I

\

pxdxdydz

I

\

\pdxdydz

I

I

\pydxdydz

JJ-J_ y=

\\ \pdxdydz

\\\pzdxdydz
z

=
I

/

\

pdxdydz

137. the work of derivation being like that of If desired, formulas (1) may be expressed in cylindrical or polar
coordinates.
Ex. Find the center of gravity of a body of uniform density, bounded by one nappe of a right circular cone of vertical angle 2 a and a sphere of radius a, the
center of the sphere being at the vertex of the cone.

VOLUME

249

If the center of the sphere is taken as the origin of coordinates and the axis of the cone as the axis of z, it is evident from the symmetry of the solid that 0. To find z, we shall use polar coordinates, the equations of the sphere x = y

=

and the cone being respectively

r

a and

&amp;lt;

=
.

a.

C

C
nllf
I

C
{

r cos
nO.
I

r2

sin

(j&amp;gt;d6d&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;dr

Then

Jo

Jo Jo
n(X

r 2 sin

Jo

Jo Jo

({&amp;gt;d6d(f&amp;gt;dr

The denominator
of altitude a(l

is

the volume of a spherical cone the base of which
its

is

a zone

cos a); therefore
r3 cos
&amp;lt;

volume equals

3

-|7ra (l

-

cosa)

(

128).

C
Jo

Jo Jo

f f

sin

&amp;lt;pddd(f&amp;gt;dr

=

1 a4 f

sin

Jo
4

Jo

(&quot;&quot;cos

QdBdQ
dt

.-.

= |a (l a) C Jo = l7ra4 (l- cos2 a). z = ! (1 + cos a) a.
cos 2

-

140. Volume.

In

126, 128
of

we found

expressions for the

element of volume in rectangular, in cylindrical, and in polar
coordinates.

The volume

a solid
of these

bounded by any surfaces
elements as their number

will be the limit of the

sum

increases indefinitely while their magnitudes approach the limit zero. It will accordingly be expressed as a triple integral.
Ex.
1.

Find the volume bounded by the
(fig.

Jg2

y2

2

ellipsoid

From symmetry
is

a2

h

62

H

=

1.

c2

93)

it

volume

evident that the required is eight times the vol
in the first octant

ume

bounded by the surface and the coordinate
planes.

In summing up the
rectangular
parallel

epipeds AxAyAz to form a prism with
edges parallel to OZ, the limits for z are

the latter being found from the

equation of the
ellipsoid,

Y/

FIG. 93

250

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
respect to y, to obtain the volume of a slice,

Summing up next with
as the lower limit of y,

we have
is

and 6-1/1

--

-

as the upper limit.

This latter limit

determined by solving the equation
;

+

^=
and

1,

found by letting z

=

in the

that the ellipsoid has the equation of the ellipsoid for it is in the plane z greatest extension in the direction OF, corresponding to any value of x.
Finally, the limits for x are evidently
a.

=

Therefore

Fsgf J
= 8C

&quot;*

o

f* Jo

f Jo
T

a2

b

*dxdydz

pa, /&amp;gt;6\/l-^

/o/o
a

&quot;V

a*

C
Jo

(l--\ dx a2 \
/

=
It is to

| -rrabc.
first

be noted that the

integration,

when

rectangular

coordinates are used, leads to an integral of the form

where
faces.

z2

and

z l are

It follows that

found from the equations of the bounding sur many volumes may be found as easily by
is

double as by triple integration. In particular, if z l = 0, the volume
senting the double integral
Ex.
z
2.
(

the one graphically repre

121).
z

Find the volume bounded by the surface
it

=

ae~( xZ + y-) and the plane

=

0.

nates.

To determine this volume Then the equation of
is
(

will be

the surface becomes z

advantageous to use cylindrical coordi = ae~ 2 and the element of
,

volume
ae~ r2

128) rdrdddz.

first with respect to z, we have as the limits of integration and and oo, for in the integrate next with respect to r, the limits are plane z = 0, r = GO, and as z increases the value of r decreases toward zero as a limit. For the final integration with respect to 6 the limits are and 2 TT.

Integrating
.

If

we

Therefore

V= Jo
I

stZir

/oo
I

s*ae~ rZ
I

rdedrdz

Jo Jo
/.2rr
/&amp;gt;oo

=

a

I

Jo

Jo
de

I

re~ r *dddr

MOMENT OF INERTIA OF A SOLID

251

In the same way that the computation of the volume in Ex. 2 has been simplified by the use of cylindrical coordinates, the com putation of a volume may be simplified by a change to polar coor dinates and the student should always keep in mind the possible
;

141.

Moment

of inertia of a solid.

The moment
:

of inertia of a

an axis may be found as follows Divide the solid into elements of volume, and let Am represent the mass of such an element. Let h and h + AA represent the least and the greatest

distances of any particle of from the axis. Then if is as concentrated at the least distance, its moment of inertia regarded

Am
is

Am

would be
If the

2
7t

Am

;

and
its

if

Am

greatest distance,

moment
2

of

regarded as concentrated at the 2 inertia would be (h -fA/t) Am.

moment

of inertia of the entire solid is

denoted by M,

^ A Am
the solid was divided.
-.

&amp;lt;

M&amp;lt;

^(h + AA) Am,

2

where the two sums include

all

the elements of volume into which

Lim J
/i

-

Am

-=

1

when

the

number
their

of

the elements of

volume increases
the limit zero.

indefinitely while

magnitude approaches

Hence we

define

M by the equation
(1)

It is to

be noted that the cases of
of

130-132

are but special

cases of (1).

The computation
integral in terms of

M requires

us to express (1) as a definite
of coordinates, the choice of a

some system

particular system of coordinates depending
Ex. Find the
a diameter.

upon the

solid.

moment

of inertia of a

homogeneous sphere of density p about

We shall take the center of the sphere as the origin of coordinates, and the diameter about which the moment is to be taken as the axis of z. The problem will then be most easily solved by using cylindrical coordinates.
The equation
is

of the sphere will be r2

+

z2

=

a2 and
,

dm =

the density

;

also h

=

prdrdedz, where p

r,

so that

we have

to find the value of the triple integral

252

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
Va Va
.

Integrating first with respect to z, we find the limits, from the equation of 2 2 the sphere, to be r2 and r2 Integrating next with respect to r, we have the limits and a, thereby finding the moment of a sector of the sphere. To include all the sectors, we have to take and 2-n- as the limits of 6 in the last
integration.

Therefore

M = p Jo C

27r

a

f
J

C

&quot;

2

~ rZ
r*dddrdz.
r2

J - Va2 -

As a

result of the first integration,

M = 2 p Jo C
stitution,

f
Jo

V Va
dd

2

-

f2 dedr.

Making the next we have

integration

by a reduction formula or a trigonometric sub
2n

M=

^Ar

pa5

I

=

-,% Trpa

5
.

142. Attraction.

was

defined,

In 45 the attraction between two particles and the component in the direction OX of the attrac
particle

tion of

any body on a

was derived

as

LirnV

n=oc^ T*
i

^Am,

where

represents an element of mass of the body, r may be considered the shortest distance from any point of the element to the particle, and 6 is the angle between
i

Am

OX

and the

line r {

.

This expression

is

entirely

general, and similar expressions may be de rived for the components of the attraction in the directions

OY and

OZ.

use double and triple the application of these formulas integrals
that
is simplified.

Now

we can

Ex. Find the attraction due

to a

homogeneous

circular cylinder of density p, of height A, and radius of cross section a, on a particle in the line of the axis

^

of the cylinder at a distance 6 units one end of the cylinder.

from

Take the
dinates
FIG. 94
(fig.

94),

particle at the origin of coor and the axis of the cylin-

der as OZ.

Using cylindrical coordinates,
-f

we have dm = prdrdddz and n = Vz2

r2

.

From

the

symmetry

of the figure the resultant

components

of attraction in

the directions

OX

and

OY

are zero,

and cos 0;

=

for the resultant

component

in the direction

OZ.

PROBLEMS
Therefore, letting

253
we have

Az
g

represent the component in the direction OZ,

=

ft

P

.

Jo o

o

Jb

2

(z

+

r2 )*
fig.

dedrdz,
94.

where the

limits of integration are evident

from
.

A, = ,&quot;-

a2
2

-

= =

Zlt

P

f Jo
7jv&amp;gt;

(h

+ V62 +
2

- V(6 +

2
/i)

+
a

a2) e*0
2

2

+ V& +

a

- V(6 +

A)

2

+

).

PROBLEMS
x

=

+

Find the moment of inertia of the area between the straight lines x + y = 1, and y = 1 about an axis perpendicular to its plane at 0. 2. Find the moment of inertia of the area bounded by the parabolas y 2 = 4 ax 4 6x + 4 62 about an axis perpendicular to its plane at 0. 4 a2 y2 =
1.
1,
,

3.

x2 (a
4.

Find the moment of inertia of the area of the loop of the curve x) about an axis perpendicular to its plane at 0.
Determine the moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular

62 ?/ 2

=

to the plane

at the pole of the area included between the straight line r a sec 6 and two straight lines at right angles to each other passing through the pole, one of these lines making an angle of 60 with the initial line.
5. Find the moment of inertia of the area of one loop of the curve r = a cos 3 6 about an axis perpendicular to its plane at the pole. 6. Find the moment of inertia of the area of the cardioid r = a(cos0 -f 1)

=

about an axis perpendicular to its plane at the pole. 7. Find the moment of inertia of the area of one loop of the lemniscate r2 = 2 a 2 cos 2 about an axis perpendicular to its plane at the pole. 8. Find the moment of inertia of the total area bounded by the curve about an axis perpendicular to its plane at the pole. r2 = a 2 sin
9.

r2

= a2 sin 3 6
10.

Find the moment of inertia of the entire area bounded by the curve about an axis perpendicular to its plane at the pole.
Find the moment of inertia of the area of a circle of radius a about an any point on its circumference.

axis perpendicular to its plane at

11. Find the

moment of

inertia of the area of the circle r

=

a which

is

not in

cluded in the curve
12.

r=a sin 2 6 about an axis perpendicular to its plane at the pole.

the hyperbola xy
13.

Find the moment of inertia about the axis of y of the area bounded by = a 2 and the line 2 x + 2 y 5a = 0.
Find the moment of inertia about the axis of x of the area of the loop

of the curve 62 ?/ 2
14.

=

x 2 (a

x).

Find the moment of inertia of the area of one loop of the lemniscate about the straight line through the pole perpendicular to the r2 = 2 a2 cos 2 initial line as an axis.

254

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGKALS
moment
line,

15. Find the above the initial

of inertia of the area of the cardioid r
initial line as

=

a(cos0

+

1)

an

axis.

2

16. Find the moment of inertia of the area bounded by a semicircle of radius a and the corresponding diameter, about the tangent parallel to the diameter. 17.

V

5a

=

Find the area bounded by the hyperbola xy
0.

=

a2 and the

line

2x+2y

18.
2

8 a3

Find the area bounded by the parabola x 2
2

=

4 ay

and the witch

~x +4a
19.

r

=
2

Find the area bounded by the lima^on

r

=

2cos0

+

3 and the circle

2 cose.

y

=-

20. Find the area bounded by the confocal parabolas y 2 4 bx + 4 &2
.

=
0.

4 ax

+

4 a2

,

21. Find the area bounded

by the

circles r

a cos

8,

r

=
+

a sin y
2

22. Find the areas of the three parts of the circle x 2 which it is divided by the parabola y 2 = ax.

e

2 ax

=

into

23. Find the_area cut off from the lemniscate r 2
line r cos

=

2

a 2 cos 2

by the

straight

=
2

a.

24. Find the area of the surface cut from the cylinder x 2
cylinder y

+

z2

=

+

y2

=

a 2 by the

a2

.

circular cylinder of radius center of the sphere.

25. Find the area of the surface of a sphere of radius a intercepted by a right a, if an element of the cylinder passes through the

26. Find the area of the surface of the cone x2
2 cylinder x

+

y2

z2

=

cut out by the

+

y2

2 ax

0.

27. Find the area of the surface of the cylinder x2 by the plane XOY and a right circular cone having along OZ, and its vertical angle equal to 90.

+

y2

2 ax

=

bounded
its

its

vertex at 0,

axis

+

y

28. Find the area of the surface of the right circular cylinder z 2 sin a) 2 = a2 included in the first octant.

+

(x cos

a

29. On the double ordinates of the circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2 as bases, and in planes perpendicular to the plane of the circle, isosceles triangles, each with vertical angle 2 a, are described. Find the equation of the convex surface thus formed,

and
x2

its total area.

30. Find the area of the surface z

-

= xy included

in the cylinder (x 2

+ y2 2 =
)

y

2.

31. Find the area of the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a 2 included in the cylinder with elements parallel to OZ, and having for its directrix in the plane a single loop of the curve r = a cos 3 6. x ~ y

XOY

32. Find the area of that part of the surface z

=

which on the plane

XOY

2
is

the projection of

(I

bounded by the curve

r

2

=

2

CQ0,

PROBLEMS
tion, of the sphere

255

33. Find the area of the sphere x 2 + y 2 -f z 2 = 4 a2 bounded by the intersec and the right cylinder, the elements of which are parallel to
the directrix of which
is

OZ and

the cardioid r

a (cos0

+

1)

in the plane

XOY.

34. Find the center of gravity of the plane area bounded by the parabola #i + yl = at and the line x + y = a. 35. Find the center of gravity of the plane area bounded by the parabola

x2

= 4 ay
=
x3

and the witch y

=
2

36. Find the center of gravity of the plane area bounded
2
2/

by the

cissoid

2a

-x

- and

its

asymptote.

curve a 4 ?/ 2

37. Find the center of gravity of the area of the part of the loop of the = a 2 x4 x6 which lies in the first quadrant.
first

38. Find the center of gravity of the area in the the curves x^

+

y*

=

a 3 and x 2

+

2
?/

=

a2

.

39. Find the center of gravity of the plane area
the curve x^

bounded by OJT, OF, and

+

y%

=

a\$.

40. plate is in the form of a sector of a circle of radius a, the angle of the sector being 2 a. If the thickness varies directly as the distance from the center, find its center of gravity.

A

41.

How

a loop of the curve r

far from the origin is the center of gravity of the area included in = a cos 2 ?

42. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded

by the cardioid

r

=

a(cos0

+

1).

sity in the

43. Find the center of gravity of a thin plate of uniform thickness and den form of a loop of the lemniscate r2 = 2 a 2 cos 2 6.

44. Find the center of gravity of a homogeneous body in the form of an

octant of the ellipsoid

a2

+-+-= 2
b2
c
&amp;gt;

1.

surfaces z
46.

45. Find the center of gravity of the homogeneous solid bounded = k&, z = A- 2 x(fc 2 &i), x 2 + y 2 = 2 ax.

by the
varies

The density

of a solid

bounded by the

/p2

y2
h 62

Z2

ellipsoid

a2

H

=1

c2

directly as the distance from the plane FOZ. portion of this solid lying in the first octant.

Find the center of gravity of the

47. Find the center of gravity of the homogeneous solid bounded by the

surfaces z

=

0,

y

=

0,

y

=

6,

62 z 2
is

=

y (a

2

2

-

x 2 ).

48.

A

homogeneous

solid

bounded by a sphere of radius a and a right
which
is

the vertex of which is on the , 3 surface of the sphere, and the axis of which coincides with a diameter of the sphere. Find its center of gravity.
circular cone, the vertical angle of
sity of

49. Find the center of gravity of a right circular cone of altitude a, the den each circular slice of which varies as the square of its. distance from the

vertex,

256

APPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE INTEGRALS
if

50. Find the center of gravity of an octant of a sphere of radius a, density varies as the distance from the center of the sphere.

the

51. Find the center of gravity of a homogeneous solid bounded by the sur faces of a right circular cone and a hemisphere of radius a, which have the same base and the same vertex.
52. Find the volume

bounded by the surface x*

+

y*

+
y
2

z*

=
2

a*

and the coor

dinate planes.
53. Find the volume of the part of the cylinder x 2 between the planes z k\x, z = k%x(ki kz).
&amp;lt;

+

ax

=

included

54. Find the total volume bounded

by the surface
first

^+^+
=
)

= 1.

55. Find the volume included in the

octant of space between the coor
j

dinate planes and the surface y2
56. Find the volume in the
first

16
[

1

+

8z
[

1

0.

octant bounded by the surfaces z

x2

+

y

2

=

=(x +

y)

2
,

a2

.

5 7. Find the volume bounded by the surface b2 z 2

= y 2 (a2
=
z2

x 2 ) and the planes

y

=

and y

=

b.

58. Find the volume bounded
59. Find the

by the surfaces az

xy, x

+

y

+ z = a,

z

= 0.

volume bounded by the cylindroid
2.
-f

=

x

+

y and the planes

x

=

0,

y

=

0, z

=

60. Find the volume of the paraboloid y 2

z2

=

8 x cut off

by the plane

y

= 2x
61
.

2.

62.

= ax 2 + by 2 y 2 = 2 ex x 2 z = 0. Find the volume bounded by the surfaces x 2 + y2 = ax, x2 + y 2 = bz, z = Q.
Find the volume bounded by the surfaces
z
, ,

63. Find the total volume bounded by the surface x^
64. Find the volume cut

+

y%

+

z*

=

a*.

from a sphere of radius a by a right circular cyl

,

one element of the cylinder passing through the center of the

65. Find the volume bounded by the surfaces z
66. Find the volume

bounded by the surfaces

z

= a(x -f ?/), = 0, z = ar2
(x -f
2

z r

=
=

a(x

2

+
6.

y2 ).

,

b cos

67. Find the total volume

bounded by the surface

y

2

+

z 2) 3

= 27 cfixyz.

(Change to polar coordinates.)
68. Find the volume bounded by a sphere of radius a and a right circular cone, the axis of the cone coinciding with a diameter of the sphere, the vertex being at one end of the diameter and the vertical angle of the cone being 60.
69. Find the total
70.

volume bounded by the surface

(x

2

+

y2

2 2 -f z )

=

axyz.

Find the volume of the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 included in a cylinder with elements parallel to OZ, and having for its directrix in the plane one

XOY

loop of the curve r

=

a cos 3

9,

PROBLEMS
71. Find the

257

volume bounded by the plane JTOF, the cylinder x2 -f y 2 2 ax and the right circular cone having its vertex at 0, its axis coincident with 0, OZ, and its vertical angle equal to 90.

=

72.

Find the

total

volume bounded by the surface r2
inertia of a

-f

z2

=

of

73. Find the moment of density Pl about OX.

ar(cos0 -f 1). x2 z2 y2
(-\

homogeneous

ellipsoid

=

1,

74. Find the

moment
in the
its

of inertia about its axis of a
p,

homogeneous

right cir

cular cylinder of density
75.

height

A,

a.

A solid

is

form

angle 2 a.
ticle is

Find

moment
its

proportional to

of a right circular cone of altitude h and vertical of inertia about its axis, if the density of any par distance from the base of the cone.

76.

The density

diametral plane. to the above diametral plane.
77.

of a solid sphere of radius a varies as the distance from a Find its moment of inertia about the diameter perpendicular

shell, the
its

homogeneous solid of density p is in the form of a hemispherical Find inner and the outer radii of which are respectively TI and r 2 moment of inertia about any diameter of the base of the shell.
.

A

solid is bounded by the plane z = 0, the cone z = r (cylindrical coor and the cylinder having its elements parallel to OZ and its directrix dinates), one loop of the lemniscate r2 = 2 a2 cos 2 in the plane XOY. Find its moment of inertia about OZ, if the density varies as the distance from OZ.

78.

A

79.

altitude h,

Find the attraction of a homogeneous right circular cone of mass and vertical angle 2 a on a particle at its vertex.

Jf,

80.
is

A

bounded by a spherical surface of radius

portion of a right circular cylinder of radius a and uniform density p the center of which coin 6(6&amp;gt;a),

cides with the center of the base of the cylinder. Find the attraction of this portion of the cylinder on a particle at the middle point of its base.

center of
82.

81. Find the attraction due to a hemisphere of radius a on a particle at the its base, if the density varies directly as the distance from the base.

of a hemisphere of radius a varies directly as the distance its attraction on a particle in the straight line perpendic ular to the base at its center, and at the distance a from the base in the direc

The density

from the base.
tion

Find

away from

the hemisphere.

homogeneous ring is bounded by the plane JTOF, a sphere of radius 2 a with center at 0, and a right circular cylinder of radius a, the axis of which coincides with OZ. Find the attraction of the ring on a particle at O.
83.

A

CHAPTEE XIV
LINE INTEGRALS AND EXACT DIFFERENTIALS
Let C (fig. 95) be any curve in the plane the two points L and K, and let and be two func connecting tions of x and y which are one-valued and continuous for all points on C. Let C be divided into n seg
143. Definition.

M

XOY

N

ments by the points P^P^P^..., P _ lt n and let Ax be the projection of one of
these segments on
jection on
Y.
it

OX
is,

and

That

x
FIG. 95

Ay = y i+1 y where the values of Ax and Ay are not necessarily the same
ior all values of
p
-n
i

Ay its Ax = xi+l

pro

xif

o

T-

M

v.

Let the value of

for each of the

n points

L,

P P, v

-

-

,

%_

l

corresponding value of Ax, and the value of by -the corresponding value of Ay, and let the i=n-l

N

be multiplied by the for the same point

sum be formed

The

limit of this

sum

as

n
is

increases without limit and

Ax and

Ay

approach zero as a limit

denoted by

(Mdx + Ndy),
/(C
is called a line integral along the curve C. The point may coincide with the point L, thus making C a closed curve. If x and y are expressed in terms of a single independent vari able from the equation of the curve, the line integral reduces to a

and

K

definite integral of the ordinary type;

but this reduction
is

is

not

always convenient or possible, and it properties of the line integral directly.

important to study the

shall give first a few examples, showing the importance of the line integral in some practical problems.
258

We

DEFINITION

259

Ex. 1. Work. Let us assume that at every point of the plane a force acts, which varies from point to point in magnitude and direction. We wish to find the work done on a particle moving from L to along the curve C. Let C be divided into segments, each of which is denoted by As and one of which is rep resented in fig. 96 by PQ. Let F be the force acting at P, PR the direction in which it acts, PT the tangent to C at P, and the angle

K

RPT. Then
tion
ticle

the component of
to

F in

the direc

PT is F cos 0, and the work done on
moving from P

Q is Fcos 6 As,

a par except for

infinitesimals of higher order.
in

The work done
is,

moving the

particle along

C

therefore,

W = LimVFcos0As = C
**

J C

Fcoseds.

O

FIG. 96
the angle between
sin a.
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

Now

let

a

be the angle between

PR
=
cos

and OX, and
cos
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

PT

and OX.

Then

=
&amp;lt;j&amp;gt;

a and
\

cos 6

cos

a

-f sin

Therefore

W = Jcc\(F cos
&amp;lt;j&amp;gt;ds

a+

F sin

sin a) ds.
is&quot;

But F cos a is the component of force parallel to OX and usually denoted by X. Also Fsin a is the component of force parallel to OY and is usually denoted = dx and sin = dy 42). Hence we have finally by Y. Moreover cos
&amp;lt;pds

(

W=
Ex.
2.

C (Xdx + Ydy).
(C)

Flow of a liquid. Suppose a liquid flowing over a plane surface, the lines in which the particles flow being indicated by the curved arrows of fig. 97. We imagine the flow to take place in planes parallel to. JTOF, and shall assume

^/

C^-^*^~

-

find the

the depth of the liquid to be unity. wish to amount of liquid per unit of time which

We

flows across a curve C.

FIG. 97

Let q be the velocity of the liquid, a the angle which the direction of its motion at each point makes with OX, u = q cos a the component of velocity parallel to OX, and v = q sin a the com ponent of velocity parallel to OF. Take an ele ment of the curve PQ = As. In the time dt the particles of liquid which are originally on PQ will flow to P Q/, where PP = QQ = qdt (except for

infinitesimals of higher order). The the amount in a cylinder with base

amount

PQQ/P and

of liquid crossing altitude unity.

PQ is

therefore

of this cylinder is PQsin0 qdtsm6As, where amount of liquid crossing the whole curve C in the time dt
-

PP

=

=P
is

The volume PQ. Hence the

Liin

V qdt **

sin 0As

=
is

q sin 6As

=

dt

I

q sin 6ds

J(C)

and the amount per unit of time

L

q sin eds.

260
To put
Then
this in the

LINE INTEGEALS
standard form,
sin 6
let

be the angle
cos
sin a.

=

a and
q sin 6ds

=

vdx
-f

sin

cos

a

Hence

=

q sin

q cos

sin

=

udy.
is

Therefore the amount of liquid flowing across

C per unit

of time

L

(

vdx

+ udy).

Ex. 3. Heat. Consider a substance in a given state of pressure p, volume u, and temperature t. Then p, u, are connected by a relation /(p, = 0, so ) that any two of them may be taken as independent variables. For a perfect gas pv = kt, if t is the absolute temperature, and the state of the substance is indi
,

cated by a point on the surface of

fig.

55, or equally well

by a point on any one

of the three coordinate planes, since a point on the surface is uniquely deter mined by a point on one of these planes. shall take t and v as the inde

We

pendent variables and shall therefore work on the

(t,

v)

plane.
is

Now

if

Q

is

the

amount

of heat in the substance
v,

and an amount dQ

there result changes dp, do, dt in p, itesimals of higher order,

and

t

respectively, and, except for infin
Cdt.

dQ = Adp + Bdv +
73,

From

the fundamental relation /(p,

t)

=

0, it

follows that

dp

cv

dt

whence we have

Hence the

total

amount

of heat introduced into the substance
is

by a variation

of its state indicated

by the curve C

Q=f
Ex. x
4.

(Mdt

+ Ndo).

Area.
6,

Consider a closed curve

=
Y

a,

x

=

y

=

d,

and y

=

e,

and

C (fig. 98) tangent to the straight lines of such shape that a straight line parallel to
it

either of the coordinate axes intersects

in

not more than two points.

E

through any point

M

Let the ordinate intersect C in PI and

P
if

2

,

where
is

A

2 = yz y and Then, the area inclosed by the curve,

MPi =

MP
h

.

A=

C\jodx Ja
s&amp;gt;a

- f va

=A

I

M
FIG. 98

-X

Jb

y 2 dx

-

= - f ydx, *JtT\
C
in

the last integral being taken around the hands of a clock.

a direction opposite to the motion of

FUNDAMENTAL THEOEEM
Similarly,
if

201
NQi =
Xi

the line

NQ =
2

NQ

Z

intersects
s*e
/

C

in Q!
r*e \

and Q 2

,

where

and

Xo,

we have

A=

Jd

x z dy

-

x^dy

J.i

~d

Xe%idy + Je
I

xidy

=

f J (C)

xdy,

hands of a clock.

the last integral being taken also in the direction opposite to the motion of the By adding the two values of we have

A

2A = C (-ydx + xdy). J
(C)

If

we apply
(I,

this to find the area of
166).

an

ellipse,

we may

take x

=

a cos 0,

y

=

b sin
HH&amp;gt;

Then

A_
integrals

144.
curves,

Fundamental theorem. In using

we need some means
in

of distinguishing

around closed between the two

directions

which the curve
is

may when

be traversed.
the curve

Accordingly, a portion of
//

the boundary of a specified area, we shall define the positive direction around the curve as that in

^

H

^ Jk
FIG. 99
is

^

JH

H*A

mil

which a person should walk in order to keep the area on his left hand. Thus in fig. 99, where the
is

bounded by two

curves, the positive direction of each curve

indicated by the arrows.
of

With

this convention, the
:

fundamental theorem in the use

line integrals is as follows

If M, N, cij

,

and - - are continuous and one-valued in a
dx

closed

area

A and

on

its

boundary curve

C, then

r r /dM

\\ \^^ jj(A)\vy
where the double integral is taken over taken in the positive direction around

A and
C.

the line integral is

262
To prove
this,

LINE INTEGRALS
we
fig.

shall first
4,

the form described in Ex.
that example and
98.

assume that the closed area is 143, and shall use the notation

of of

Then
1
-,

dM

,

,

dxdy

= C ax C
I I

v iu

7

dy

b

X
= C M(x,
Ja

&amp;gt;

= - C Mdx,
!/&amp;lt;O

rc
2/ 2 )

dx

- C M(x,
Ja
b
I

y^ dx dx

M(x,

7/ 2 )

dx

M(x,

y^)

Ja

(1)

the last integral being taken in the positive direction around C.
Similarly, ^

it

(JJ-\

-,

-.

/

^^

/c\\

(

2)

By

a subtracting (2) from (1) we have the theorem proved for closed curve of the simple type considered. The theorem is now readily extended to any area which can be cut

up

into areas of this simple type.

For example, consider the

area bounded by the curve C (fig. 100). the By drawing the straight line

LK
A

area
r

is

divided into three areas

,

A&quot;,

A&quot;

,

and the theorem applied

to each

of these areas.

By

the
the

equations left-hand side of
~

obtained

we have on the new equation

X

double integral over the area bounded by (7, and on the right-hand side the

line

line integral along C and the straight traversed twice in opposite directions. The integrals therefore cancel, leaving only the integral along the line

LK

LK

around

C.

LINE INTEGRALS OF THE FIRST KIND
The theorem
curve.
is

263

also true for areas

bounded by more than one

Consider, for example, the area bounded by two curves
1

C

and C

(%

101).

By drawing
is

the line
into one

LK

the area

turned

bounded by a single and the theorem may be curve,

applied to it. It appears that the line integral is taken twice
in opposite directions, along and these two integrals cancel

LK
1.1

each other.
1.1

The
i.

result
i

the double integral over the area is equal to the line integral around each of the boundary curves in the positive direction of each. In the same way the theorem is

j

^

is

that
FlG 101
-

shown
Ex.

to hold for areas
If

bounded by any number
x,

of curves.

Jf

=

y and

N=

we have
C(ydx

ff 2 dxdy = agreeing with the result of Ex.
4,

- xdy),

93.

145. Line integrals of the first kind,

are two functions of x
sion is restricted
to

and

y,

such that

2p - =
dy
.

=

|jj
&amp;gt;

If

M and N
the discus-

and

dx

a portion of the
..
.

(x, y]
,

plane in which M, N,
_

aar
&amp;gt;

ana

,dN
dx

are continuous
I

ana

one-valued, t/ien
-f

dy
(1)

The

line integral

(Mdx
x&amp;gt;

Ndy) around any
between

closed curve

is zero.

(2)

The

line integral

I

(Mdx

+ Ndy}

any two points
is

is

a function of
of
(3)

the coordinates

of the points, and
y} such that

independent

the curve connecting the points.

There exists a function

&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;(x,

=M,

=N

.

Conversely, if

any one of the

conclusions (1), (2), or (3) is fulfilled,

then

-

=
dx

dy

264
To prove
is at
,

LINE INTEGRALS
(1),

consider the fundamental theorem of
if

144.

It

once evident that
,

closed curve.

dy

=
ox

&amp;gt;

I

(Mdx+Ndy) = Q around any

j

be any two points, and C and C To prove (2), let L and any two curves connecting them. Let / be the value (fig. 102) of the line integral from L to along C, and I the value of the C Then I is the value of the line integral from L to along

K

K

K

.

line integral

from

K to L along

C

f

Now

by

(1)

Therefore

/=/
(3),
(x, y)

.

To prove

consider the line in

X
FIG. 102

tegral

x
I

(Mdx+Ndy),
a variable point. By (2) and is therefore fully
of a

/&amp;lt;**)

where

(a?

,

y

)

is

a fixed point

and

(x, y)

this integral is independent of the path

determined when (x y}
t

is

given.

Hence, by the definition
write

function of two variables,
/&amp;lt;,*&amp;gt;

we may

(Max + Ndy) = 9 (x,
S*(.x+h, V )

yj.

Then

f(0.+ Ay)-

I
&amp;lt;

/(a*

2/0)

and since this integral is independent of the curve connecting the upper and the lower limits, we may take that curve as drawn first to (x, y) and then along a straight line to (x + h, y). Then
(a-,

= C
**
,

y)

s*(x + h,y)

(Mdx
2/o)

+

Ndy)
Jt

+

I

(Mdx
.

+ -ZV#y)

+

^( x

V)

Xx
since in the last integral y
is

M(x,y)dx,

constant and dy

=

0.

Then, by

30,
&amp;lt;(#

-f-

h, y)

(f&amp;gt;

(x, y)

= liM(%,

y),

d&amp;gt;

whence

(x

+ h,

y}
rf-

LINE INTEGRALS OF THE FIRST KIND
Letting
Ji

265

approach zero and taking the

limit,

we have

%-*&amp;lt;*&amp;gt;

In like manner

we may show

that

and the third conclusion
noted that
is
(f&amp;gt;

of the

theorem

is

proved.

It is to be

may

determined except for an arbitrary constant which be added. This constant depends upon the choice of the fixed
1
&amp;lt;

differs from point L. If another point L is chosen, the value of in using L by the value of the line integral between that obtained

L

and

L

.

We must now show that, conversely, if any one of the conclusions = of the theorem is fulfilled, then dy Let us
first
is

dx

assume that the integral around any closed path
;

whatever
is

zero

we wish
i

4

to

show +1, f that

---- = n
dy

0.

If

----

not zero at

all points, let

us suppose

it is

ox dx dy not zero at a particular

point K.
pothesis,

Then, since

dM dN - -- is
dy

dx

are continuous functions by hydx also a continuous function, and hence has, at

and

dy

points sufficiently near to K, the same sign which it has at K. It is therefore possible to draw a closed curve around K, so that

- has
dy
curve.

dx

the same sign for

all

points in the area bounded by the
this area is not zero,

Then

rr/dM
I I
(

dN\ -

1

JJ\dy
and therefore
/

dx ]

dxdy taken over

(Mdx + Ndy) taken around the bounding curve
is

is

not zero. But this

contrary to the hypothesis that
is zero.

C
I

(Mdx

+ Ndy)
at all

taken around any curve whatever
points.

Hence
*y

=
dx

Let us

now assume that
|

(

Mdx + Ndy) between any two points
is

is

independent of the curve connecting the points. This

equivalent

266
to

LINE INTEGRALS
is

assuming that the integral around a closed curve

zero,

and

Finally, let
cd&amp;gt;

dM = dN
dy

dx
&amp;lt;

us

assume that a function

exists

such that
each
is

*-

dx

=M M,
r
,

d& dy

= N.

Then

,

it

follows that

dM = dN
dy

&amp;gt;

since

dx

equal to -^-^-. dxdy

The theorem
Ex.1.
x2

now
I

completely proved.
Hence

Let3f=-^,
=
0, if

N=^
then

then^=g= ff~^V
These conditions are met
if

y* their derivatives are finite

+

taken around a closed curve within which M. N. and

and continuous.
In fact,

if

the

curve does not inclose the origin.
placing x

we introduce
=-

polar coordinates,

=

r cos

0,

y

=

r sin

0,

f

=

=

Cdd.

Now,
value

for

any path
to the

which does not

inclose the origin,

varies

from

its initial

a back

same value, and therefore
varies

Cdd = 0.

If the path winds once around the origin,
I

from a

to

a

-f

2

TT,

and therefore

dd

2

TT.

The function
Ex.
-,

of the general theorem
If

is,

in this example, equal to 6

=

tan- * -

.

2.
~

Work.
,

X and Y are

components of force

in a field of force,

and
is

-p-

=

-y

dy

dx

then the work done on a particle moving around a closed curve

zero, and the work done in moving a particle between two points is independent of the path along which it is moved. Also there exists a function 0, called a

ponents of force parallel to the axes of x and
of
in

force function, the derivatives of which with respect to x and y give the com y. It follows that the derivative

any direction gives the force
is

as this

called a conservative force.
of

forces

which are a function

111). Such a force Examples are the force of gravity and the distance from a fixed point and directed along

in that direction (Ex.,

straight lines passing through that point.

Ex.

3.

clear that the net

Flow of a liquid. If we consider a liquid flowing as in Ex. 2, 143, it is amount which flows over a closed curve is zero, since as much
enters, there being no points within the area at
off.

must leave the closed area as
which
liquid
is

given out or
;

drawn

Hence f (

vdx

+

udy), taken over

any

closed curve, is zero

and consequently
dy
d\f/

+
v,

= 0.
dx

There

exists also a function,

usually denoted by ^, such that

-

=

o4&amp;gt;

=

u.

ox

dy

LINE INTEGRALS OF THE SECOND KIND
146. Line integrals of the second kind,

267
case

and
gral

N are such functions that
~
I

dM - =. dN
dy

dx

dy

=. j
dx
of the

n

M

&amp;gt;

the value

line inte-

(Mdx+Ndy)

depends upon the path, and there exists no func

tion of which Ex.
1.

M and N are partial derivatives.
(ydx

C
J

(ri

/l)

-

xdy).

(0, 0)

Let us

first

integrate along a straight line connecting
is

and P!
ydx

(fig.

103).

The equation

of the line

y=

z,

and therefore along
is

this line

- xdy = 0,

and hence the value
Next,
let

of the integral

zero.

us integrate along a parabola connecting
is

and PI, the equation of which
parabola
)

y

2

=

yl
x.

Xl

Along

this

(ydx

- xdy} = -^
y-,

O
Next, let us integrate along a path consisting of the

two straight lines OM\ and J/iPi. Along OJ/i, y = and dy = 0- and along J/iPi, x = xi and dx = 0.
reduces to
/*9t
/

Hence the

line integral

Jo

xidy

=
x

x\yi.

Finally, let us integrate along a path consisting of the straight lines

and

NiP

lf

Along

OZVi,

=

ONi

and dx

=
C
Jo

0;

and along

JViPj, y

=

y l and dy

=

0.

Therefore the line integral reduces to

\fidx

= &\y\.

Ex.

2.

Work.
\
&quot;Tp-

If the
*s
T7&quot;

components of force

X and

Y

in a field of force are

such that

-^

,

then the work done on a particle moving between two

points depends upon the path of the particle, the work done on a particle moving around a closed path is not zero, and there exists no force function. Such a force is called a nonconservative force.

Ex.

3.

Heat

If a

substance

is

brought, by a series of changes of temperature,

pressure, and volume, from an initial condition back to the same condition, the amount of heat acquired or lost by the substance is the mechanical equiva lent of the work done, and is not in general zero. Hence the line integral

Q = J (Mdt +Ndv) around a

closed curve

is

not zero, and there exists no function
is

whose partial derivatives are and N. In fact, the heat Q t and TJ, not being determined when t and v are given.

M

not a function of

Ex. 4. Adiabatic lines. The line integral C(Mdt +Ndv)of Ex. 3 along a curve whose differential equation is

is

zero

if

taken

Mdt + Ndv =

0.

268

LINE INTEGRALS
t

We will change this equation by replacing the variable done by means of the fundamental relation /(p, 75, t) = 0.
It is

by

p,

which can be

shown

in the theory of heat that for a perfect gas the equation then

becomes
vdp

+

ypdv

=

0,
is

where 7

is

a constant.

The

solution of this equation

If, then, a gas expands or contracts so as to obey this law, no heat is added to or subtracted from it. Such an expansion is called adiabatic expansion, and

the corresponding curve

is

called

is in the concrete illustration of a line integral being zero along any portion of a certain curve or family of curves.

The mathematical

interest here

In the line integrals of the kind before
still

us,

/

-

^

)&amp;gt;

there

is

a

meaning

to be attached to

M and N.
;

For, suppose the inte
c

gral to be

and

let

taken along the straight line y = Au be the value of the integral that

from x to x

+ Ax,

is,

Au =

f*(x
I

+ Ax,

y)

(Mdx
2/)

+ Ndy)
dx
30)

/(*

X
_

M(x,
,

y)

y),

(

where
Consequently

Lim

=M(x,
-

y).

Similarly,

Lim

= N(x,

y}.

We

shall write these

two equations

as

/rfu\

AfoA

\dx] y
It
is

\dy/ x
these
derivatives are
of

to

be

noticed

that

different

character from the .partial derivatives of Chap. XI, since u is not a function of x and y. The property proved in 117 does

not hold here.

EXACT DIFFERENTIALS
Ex.
6.

269

Heat. Returning to the notation of Ex.

3,

we have

dt/v

\dv

M

is

the limit of the ratio of the increment of heat to the increment of

tem

as sensibly perature when the volume is constant. Therefore, if we consider constant while the temperature changes by unity, may be described as the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature by one unit when the volume

M

M

is

constant.
Similarly,

JVmay be

described as the

amount
is

of heat necessary to change the

volume by one unit when the temperature

constant.

147. Exact differentials.

We
dd&amp;gt;

have seen that

two functions

of

x and y satisfying the condition
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

exists a function

such that
dx

=M

dd&amp;gt;

y

= N.

-= ^
Then

if

M and N are
&amp;gt;

there

^x

Then

cy
d4&amp;gt;,

Mdx + Ndy = ^dx + ^dy =
dx

dy

and

Mdx + Ndy

is

called

an exact differential*
(/&amp;gt;

also

x
b, .vo)

+ Ndy) =

(x v y,)

c/&amp;gt;

(XQ

,

y

),

/ex
c/&amp;gt;

the integral being independent of the curve connecting (# yQ ) and may be found by computing the line inte (x v y^). The function
,

gral along a conveniently chosen path, but
Q
J

it is

usually more cony), it

venient to proceed as follows

:

Since

= M(x,

follows that

M(x, y)dx, where y

is

considered constant, will give that part
all

of

which contains
y.

&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

x,

but not necessarily

the part which

contains

We may

write, therefore,

where f(y)
is

is

a function of y to be determined.
relation

This determination

is

-j^=N.
yy

Then

CMdx +f (y) = N,
fiyj be found.

which
*In

an equation from which f(y)

may

where the emphasis is on the fact that both x and y are varied, is Here the emphasis is shifted to the fact that is exactly obtained by the process of differentiation, and hence it is called an exact differential.
110,
d&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

called a total differential.

d&amp;lt;j&amp;gt;

270
This method
is

LINE INTEGRALS
valuable in solving the equation

=
when
called

0,

the condition

=
dy

is

satisfied.

dx

Such an equation

is

an exact differential equation.

Its solution is

where
the

c is

an arbitrary constant and
just described.

is
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

the function obtained in

manner

Because of the importance of the method of obtaining
it

(/&amp;gt;,

we

give

in a rule as follows

:

Integrate

I

Mdx, regarding y as constant and adding an unknown
;

function of y
the

new result to ; from unknown function of y.
If

differentiate the result with respect to y and equate the resulting equation determine the

N

more convenient, the above
:

rule

may

be replaced by the

following

Integrate

\

Ndy, regarding x as constant and adding an unknown
;

function of x
the

new result to ; from unknown function of x.
Ex.
1.

differentiate the result with respect to x and equate the resulting equation determine the

M
3

(4x

3

+

10x7/

-

3y*)dx

+
,

2 2 (15 x ?/

-

12 xy s

+

5y*)dy
is

= 0.
Pro-

Here
ay

= 30 x?/2

12 y s

=
ax

and the equation

therefore exact.

ceeding according to the rule,

we have

=

(4x3

+

I0xy8 -3y*)dx +f(y)

Then from

*

= N. we
-

have
XT/
3

15 X 2 ?/ 2

12

+ f (y) =
7/

15 X 2 7/ 2

-

12

XT/

3

+

5

7/4,

whence /
therefore

= (?/)

57/

4
,

and/(7/)

=

5.

The

solution of the differential equation

is

X4

+

5 X 2 7/ 3

-

3X7/4

+

2/5

=

C

.

THE INTEGKATING FACTOR
Ex.2,
i

271

---g-- \ dx+

x

Here
dy

=

-(1/2

xV2/ 2

-x
r

2

/

_ X 2)2

=
sx

and the equation

is

therefore exact.

Following

the second rule,

we have

= f J
From

dy
2

-

= log(y + Vy 2 - x 2 ) + /(x).
x2

= Jf, we

have

whence /

(x)

= 0,
to

which reduces

x - x2 (y + V?/ 2 - x 2 ) x V?/ 2 - x 2 and /(x) = c. Hence the solution of the differential equation is 2 - x2 =c log (y + Vy ) 2 2 cy + c 2 = 0. x
,

148.

The integrating

factor.

We
=

have seen that

Mdx + Ndy

is

But in all cases there dx dy exist an infinite number of functions such that, if Mdx Ndy is one of them, it becomes an exact differential. multiplied by any
not an exact differential

when

+

Such functions are
of
fjL

the

called integrating factors. That integrating factors of Mdx Ndy, then,

is, if

//,

is

one

+

by

definition,

(Mdx
Ex.
1.

+ Ndy)

is

an exact

differential.
is

The expression ydx
ydx

xdy

not an exact differential. But

xdy

ydx x2

xdy

+

=

,1 x\ d tan- i , [

.

y

2

)

\

y]

are exact differentials, and the functions

,

x2

x2

+
z/

,

2

are integratine factors

xy
shall

To show that integrating factors always exist, we assume ( 173) that the differential equation

need

to

Mdx + Ndy =
has always a solution of the form

(1)

f(x where
c is

t

y, c)

=

0,

(2) (2)

an arbitrary constant, and that
&amp;lt;M#,y)

can be written
(3)

=

c.

272

LINE INTEGRALS
d(f&amp;gt;

Now

HT

/ox

i

(3) gives

us

dv

dx = -d(f&amp;gt;

,

dx

8y
,

and

X1

.

.

(1) gives

us

M dy = -dx
f-

N

;

and since
the same.

(3) is

the solution of
is,

(1),

these two values of
y-7/v*

must be

That

d&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;ty

M~N
where
ft is

dx

-

dy

-^ ~
IL

some function

of

x and

y.

Consequently

and therefore /n is an integrating factor. To prove that there is an infinite number

of integrating factors,

multiply the last equation by /(\$), any function of

Then
(/&amp;gt;.

x

+

/*/((/&amp;gt;)

Ndy

=/(&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;)

ety.

But Hence
Ex.
path
is

is
d&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

f(4&amp;gt;)

the exact differential of the function

/

is
fJ/((f&amp;gt;)

an integrating factor
has been noticed
(

of

Mdx + Ndy.
3) that

2.

jEeai.

It

146,

Ex.

TdQ around
Hence

a closed

not zero, and consequently
f

dQ

is

not an exact differential.
is

It is

found
is

in the theory of heat that

around a closed path
fin

zero.

an
is

t

exact differential, and called the entropy.

we may

write

=

d&amp;lt;f).

The function

0, thus defined,

149.

No

general method

is

known

for finding integrating factors,

but the factors are

known

for certain cases.

We

give a

list of

the

by simpler cases, leaving it differentiation that each of the equations mentioned satisfies the condition for an exact differential equation after it is multiplied

as an exercise for the student to verify

by the proper

factor.

THE INTEGRATING FACTOR
d_M__d_N
*
=/(&amp;lt;)

273

1.

If

JL

2.

If

JL

_
M.
X

then

e*

is

an integrating factor

of

f.

* =/(;y), then e

V

is

an integrating factor

of

3.

Mdx+Ndy=0.
If

M and N are homogeneous
is

and

of the

same degree, then
0.

xM+yN
4.

an integrating factor
;

of

Mdx + Ndy =

If

M = yf^xy), N = xf^xy)
Mdx+Ndy =
is

then

- is

an integrating

factor of
5.

Q.

e^

an integrating factor

of the linear

equation

--

+

As

factor only after

a practical point, the student should look for an integrating he has tried to integrate by other methods.
(4

Ex.

1.

x2 y

-

3 y 2 } dx

+

3

(x

-

3 xy)

dy
&amp;lt;w

=

0.

dM
Here
^V

1^ =
r^
(4

I

.

X
After multiplication by the

x x is an integrating factor. Consequently e^ the equation becomes factor,

x 3 ?y

-

3 xy 2 } dx

the integral of which

is

x4 y
0.

+ (x4 - 3 x 2 - %x 2 y 2 = c.
it

?/)

dy

=

0,

Ex.

2.

(x

2

-

y*)dx

+ 2xy% =
is

Since this equation

homogeneous,
1

has the integrating factor
1

xM + yN
x2

~
x3

+

x?/

2

After multiplication by the factor, the equation becomes

-

y

2
,

dx-\

2xy --

dy

=

0,

\X 2

+

2
7/

X

the solution of which

is

log (x

2

+

y

2
)

log x

=

c

,

or

x

+

= c.
x

274
For
this equation

LINE INTEGRALS
we have
also

Hence

it

has also the integrating factor

x2

After multiplication by

this,

the equation becomes

the solution of which

is

X

+

=

C.

The equation may

also be solved

by the substitution y
of

=

vx(

78).

150. Stokes s theorem.

The theorems

144-145, which are
:

limited to a plane,

may

be extended to space as follows

If

are three functions of x, y, line integral
I

and

P, Q, R z, the

(Pdx

+ Qdy + Rdz)

x

along a space curve is defined in a manner precisely similar to the
definition of

143.

Let the integral

be taken around a closed curve
FIG. 104
(fig.

C
be

104) and

let

a

surface

S

bounded by
cos a, cos
/3,

C.

Let

dS

be the element of area of the surface and
of its normal.

cos

7 be the direction cosines

Then

dR

dP

~
\cy

= - C (Pdx + Qdy + Rdz),
J(C)

where the double integral is taken over the surface S and the single integral is taken around C, and the direction of the line have the relation of integration and that of the normal to
fig.

104.

STOKES
To prove
this, let

S

THEOREM

275

z=f(x,

y)

be the equation of S, and consider

Then, since P(x,
y,

I

P(x,y,z)dx.
y)]

J(C)

z)=P[x, y,f(x,
on

= I}(x,

y},

the values of

P which

correspond to points
to points

C are

which correspond

on

C&quot;,

the same as the values of JJ the projection of C on the plane

XOY. Hence

-

r
I

Pdx = -

r
I

l}dx.

(1)

J(C)

J(C )

But by
where S

144
is

Cl&amp;gt;dx=

ff

d

j(C )
the projection of

JJ(S)vy

-fdxdy,

(2)

S on

the plane

XOY.

Now

d% = dP
~dy~ dy

dPdz
dz dy
is

where the right hand of this equation Hence from (1) and (2) we have

computed

for points

on

S.

^_rr( + JJu\ty
)

fa ty/
:

fW
and
(

(3)

But

(8

112)

:

:

- 1 = cos a
(3),

:

cos

/3

dx cy

cos 7,

92) dxdy

=

cosy dS.

Substituting in

we have
(
cos

- Cpdx = ff J
(C)

7

dz

cos

JJw\ty

0} dS.
/

Similarly

-

J(o

(Rdz = ff

JJfa

(

cos

{3

dy

cos

a}d&

in these Strictly speaking, the differential dS is not the same three results, since the same element will not project into dxdy dydz, and dzdx on the three coordinate planes. But since in a
t

double integral the element of area may be taken at pleasure with out changing the value of the integral ( 129), we may take dS as
equal in the three integrals.
required result.

Adding the equations, we have the

276
In the above proof
of the surface

LINE INTEGRALS
we have tacitly assumed that only one point over each point of the coordinate planes, and 7 are acute angles. The student may show that these

S

is

that a,

/3,

restrictions are unessential.

151.

From
:

the preceding discussion

we
x, y,

derive the following

theorem

If P, Q, and

R

are three functions of

and

z,

such that

dy

dx

cz

dy

dx

dz

and

the discussion is restricted to a portion of space in which the functions and their derivatives are continuous and one-valued, then
1.

The
The

line integral ine

I

(Pdx + Qdy -\-Rdz] around any closed curve
(Pdx -f- Qdy -f Rdz) between any two points

is zero.
2.

line integral

I

is

independent of the path.
3.

There exists a function
TT~

&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;(x,

y, z),

such that

i

dx

7T~

&amp;gt;

~7~

***

dy

dz

and Pdx

+

Qdy

+ Rdz

Conversely, if

is an exact differential d\$. any one of the above conclusions is

fulfilled, then

ap
dy

= a^
dx

3Q
dz

= dR
dy
is left

a^ = ap
dx
dz

The proof

is

as in

145, and

to the student.

PROBLEMS
1.

cycloid x

Find, by the method of Ex. a cos 3 0, y = a sin 3 0.
4,

4,

143, the area of the four-cusped hypo-

2. Find, by the method of Ex. cycloid and the fixed circle.
3.

143, the area

between one arch of a hypobetween one arch of an

Find, by the method of Ex.

4,

143, the area

epicycloid and the fixed circle.
4.

Show

case, the

that the formula for the area in Ex. formula for area in polar coordinates.

4,

143, includes, as a special

PROBLEMS
5.

277
+
(2

Show that the integral
its

/(!)
/ ^(0, 0)

[2

x (x

+

2 y) dx

x2

-

2
?/
)

iZy] is

independ-

ent of the path, and find
6.

value.
/&amp;gt;(3,

Show

4)

find its

that the integral value.

/

(xdx

+ ydy)

is

independent of the path, and

t/(5 0)

7. Find the force function for a force in a plane directed toward the and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the origin.

origin,

8. Find the force function for a force in a plane directed toward the origin and inversely proportional to the distance from the origin.
9.

Prove that any force directed toward a center and equal to a function of
is

the distance from the center
10.

conservative.

/(!,!)

Find the value of
(1) (2) (3)
(4)

I

[(y

-

x)

dy

+

ydx] along the following curves:

(O.O)

the straight line x = t, y the parabola x = t 2 ,y =
the parabola x=t, y the cubical parabola x
[(x
t

=
t;
;

t;

= 2 =

t,

y

=

t*.

11.

Find the value of f
^(0,0)
(1)

- y*)dx + 2 xydy]

along the following paths
;

:

(2) (3)

a straight line between the limits the axis of x and x = 1
;

the axis of y and y

=
)

1.

12. Find the value of

f
(O, 0)

[y*fa

+

(

Xy

+ x2

dy] along the following paths

(1) (2)

y = 2xy = 2x 2

.

13.

Find the value of f
/(0 2
&amp;gt;

[(l+y z )dx + (l+x 2 )cfy] along

the following

paths:
(1)

(2)

y

y=6x + 2; =-5x*+ 2;
l

+ 2x
them
:

Show

that the following differential equations are exact, and integrate
14.

(2x-y +

l)dx

+ (2y-x-l)dy =

0.

-2

xy

+

3

2
?/
)

dy

_
.

\

dy

=

0.

278

LINE INTEGKALS
:

Solve the following differential equations by means of integrating factors
19. (x 2

+

2

T3

y )dx

2

dy

= +

0.

20.

(1

+
_x
y

y

+

x2 y)dx
/

+

(x
\

x 3 ) dy
Q.

=

0.

21. ye

dx y
3
)

\xe

22. (x
23.

3

2

dx

+y)dy = + xy 2dy = 0.
y
2

_

r

(x?/
3

-y)dx +

(x

?/

+
dx

x)

dy
(2

=
xy
0.

0.

24. (5x 25. dy

-

3

xy

+

2

2
7/

)

+

-

x 2 ) dy

=

0.

(y tan x

cos x) dx

=

26. sin (x

+

y) (dx

+

dy)

y cos

(x 4- y)

dy

27. (y

+

2 xy 2

+

x 2 y 3 ) dx

+

(2

x 2y

+

x)

dy

= 0. = 0.

28.^
dx
1

+

x

CHAPTP:R

xv

INFINITE SERIES
152. Convergence.

The expression

a 1 +a a +a 8 +a 4

+a

5

+.

.

..,

(1)

where the number
series.

of the

terms

is

unlimited,

is

called

an

infinite

An infinite series is
sum of the first n
Thus, referring to

said

to converge,

or

to be

convergent,

when

the

terms approaches a limit as n increases without limit.
(1),

we may

place

Then,

if

Lim sn = A,
n= x

is said to converge to the limit A. The quantity A is frequently called the sum of the series, although, strictly speaking, it is the limit of the sum of the first n terms. The convergence of

the series

(1)

may

be seen graphically by plotting
scale as in
I,

s p s2 ,

,,--,*

on the

number

53.

A

series

which

is
:

happen

in

two ways

not convergent is called divergent. This may either the sum of the first n terms increases
fail to

without limit as n increases without limit; or s n may a limit, but without becoming indefinitely great.
Ex.
1.

approach

Consider the geometric series
a

+

ar

+

ar2

+

ar 3

+

.

Here
less

sn

=
1,

a
r&quot;

+

ar

+

ar2

-f

+

ar&quot;

-1

=

a

.

Now

if

r

is

numerically
;

than

approaches zero as a limit as n increases without limit 279

and

280
therefore

INFINITE SERIES
Lim
n

= oo

sn

=
1

-

If,

however, r

is

numerically greater than
limit;

1,

r n in-

r

creases without limit as

n increases without
the series
is

and therefore

sn

increases

without

limit.

If r

=

1,

a-fa + a-fa +
and therefore
sn

-,

increases without limit with n.

If
,

n

=

1,

the series

is

a

a

+

a

a

+

and

s n is

alternately a and

0,

and hence does not approach a

limit.

Therefore, the geometric series converges to the limit
less

when

r is numerically

than unity, and diverges
2.

when

r is numerically equal to or greater

than unity.

Ex.

Consider the harmonic series
1

+

HH
+
+
l

+

c

+

+

+
^&quot;

;

+

-&amp;lt;

consisting of the

sum

of the reciprocals of the positive integers.

Now

4

+

=

J&amp;gt;l

i,

4

+1

H+

i &amp;gt;f+ 4

+ 1 -H = i.

way the sum of the first n terms of the series may be seen to be than any multiple of l for a sufficiently large n. Hence the harmonic greater
and
in this
series diverges.

153. Comparison test for convergence. If each term of a given series of positive numbers is less than, or equal to, the correspond
series converges. ing term of a known convergent series, the given each term of a given series is greater than, or equal to, the If corresponding term of a known divergent series of positive numbers,

the given series diverges.

Let

!+

2

+

as +

4

+
a positive

(1)

be a given series in which each term

is

number, and

let (2)

\+\+\+\+-be a

known convergent series such that a k = b k Then if s n is the sum of the first n terms of
.

(1), s n

the

sum

of

the

first

n terms

of (2),

and

B

the limit of

s ^ it

follows that

**&amp;lt;&amp;lt;*

since all terms of (1), and therefore of (2), are positive. Now as increases, s n increases but always remains less than B. Hence B. approaches a limit, which is either less than, or equal to,

n
sn

The

first

part of the theorem

is

now proved

;

the second part

is

too obvious to need formal proof.

THE EATIO TEST FOE CONVEEGENCE
term

281

In applying this test it is not necessary to begin with the first of either series, but with any convenient term. The terms before* those with which comparison begins, form a polynomial the
value of which
is

of course finite,

and the remaining terms form
is

the infinite series the convergence of which
Ex.
1.

to be determined.

Consider

Each term

after the third

is

less

than the corresponding term of the convergent

geometric series

Therefore the

first series

converges.

Ex.

2.

Consider

V2
Each term
harmonic
after the first
is

V3

V4

V5
+
1

Vn

series

+
Therefore the
first series

2

1111 + + + +
3
4
5

greater than the corresponding term of the divergent

n

+

diverges.

154.

The

ratio test for convergence.

If in a
the

numbers the ratio of the (n +l)st term to a limit L as n increases without limit :
converges; if
L&amp;gt;1,

series of positive nth term approaches
L&amp;lt;1,

then, if

the series

the series diverges; if

L=l,
-\

the series

may
(1)

either diverge, or converge.

Let

a^ +
2

3

H

h an

+

an + l

be a series of positive numbers, and
three cases to consider.
1.
L&amp;lt;1.

let

lim

= L. We
1.

have

Taker any number such
approaches

that

L&amp;lt;r&amp;lt;

Then, since

the ratio

~
n

L

as a limit, this ratio

must become and
n.

remain

less

than r for sufficiently large values of
all

Let the ratio

be less than r for the rath and

subsequent terms.

Then

282

INFINITE SEKIES
compare the
series

Now

*
with the series

+^*
+
a
is

++*++
3

.

(

2)

V + y+ V +
a convergent series since
it

(3)

Each term
term
series of (3),

of (2) except the first is less
(3)

than the corresponding
a geometric (2) converges by the
is

and

with

its ratio less

than unity.

Hence

comparison
2.
L&amp;gt;1.

test,

and therefore

(1) converges.

Since

-^
this

approaches

L

as a limit as

n

increases

without
terms.

limit, this ratio eventually

than unity.

Suppose

happens

for the

becomes and remains greater mth and all subsequent

Then

Each term
term

of the series (2) is greater

than the corresponding

of the divergent series

Hence
3.

(2)

and therefore

(1) diverges.
is

L = l.

Neither of the preceding arguments
in this case the series

valid,

and ex

amples show that
diverge.
Ex.
1.

may

either converge or

Consider

2345
^
1

n

The nth term

is

3n

and the (n

+

l)st

term is^

The ratio of the

3

(n

-f l)st

term to the nth term

is

-=
&amp;gt;

,

and

3n

=

3

3

Therefore the given series converges.

ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE
Ex.
2.

283

Consider

l

+

|

+

* + * + ...
(r

+

g
is

+ ....
^

The nth term

is

and the
\n

+

l)st

term

n
|n

+

-l

The

ratio of the

(n

+

l)st

term

to the nth

term

is

(

n

(n

+ ^ n+1 = + n
i )

-_,

and

Therefore the given series diverges.

ber

155. Absolute convergence. The absolute value of a real num is its arithmetical value independent of its algebraic sign. Thus the absolute value of both -f 2 and 2 is 2. The absolute

value of a quantity a is often indicated by It is evident that \a\. the absolute value of the sum of n quantities is less than, or equal to, the sum of the absolute values of the quantities.

A

series converges

convergent series,

when the absolute values of its terms form a and is said to converge absolutely.
ai

Let
be a given
series,

+

a z + az +

a^-\

---(1)

and

KI +

a,|

+ K| +

K|+--&amp;lt;

(2)

the series formed by replacing each term of (1) by its absolute value. assume that (2) converges, and wish to show the con

We

vergence of

(1).

Form

the auxiliary series
1

K+|

|)

+ K+|
ak

2 |)

+

(

3

+

|

3 |)

+ K+|a
and a k

4

|)+....

(3)

The terms of (3) of (2). For a k =
positive.

are either zero or twice the corresponding terms
\ \

when a k

is

negative,

=

a k when a k
\

is

Now, by

hypothesis, (2) converges,
8
|

and hence the
2|
4

series

2N+2|,|+2|a +
converges. But each term

|+...

(4)

of (3) is either equal to or less

than the

corresponding term of
parison test.

(4),

and hence

(3)

converges by the

com

284

INFINITE SERIES
let sn

Now
the
first

be the

sum

of the first
s&quot;

n terms

of (1), s n the

sum

of

n terms

of (2),

and

the

sum
,

of the first

n terms

of (3).

Then
and, since
s&quot;

*-&amp;lt;-&amp;lt;

and

sn

r

approach

limits, s n also

approaches a

limit.

Hence the

series (1) converges.

We

shall consider in this
tests of

chapter only absolute convergence.
applied, since in testing for

Hence the
156.

153, 154 may be
all

absolute convergence

terms are considered positive.

The power
aQ

series.

A

power

series is defined

by
,

+
,

a :x
,

+

a z z? + a & x* -\-----\- a n x n -\---are

where a

,

a lt a 2 a s

We
that
\x\

shall prove the following

verges for x
&amp;lt;

=x

lt

it

numbers not involving x. theorem If a power series con converges absolutely for any value of x such
:

XT\.

For convenience,
the series

let

[a;

= X,

an
9

=A
\

n,

x{

\

= Xr By

hypothesis
(1)

aQ +

a^ + a^xl + a xf +
to

.

.

.

+

a n x? H----

converges, and
Q

we wish

show
Z

that

A + A^X + A X* + A
Z

X+
Z

-

-

-

+A X
n

n

+-

.

.

(2)

converges if r Since (1) converges, all its terms are finite. Consequently there must be numbers which are greater than the absolute value of
&amp;lt;

X X

any term

A n Xi

&amp;lt;

M

of (1).

Let

M be

one such number.

Then we have

for all values of n.

Then

Each term
sponding term

of the series
of

(2)

is

therefore less than the corre

the series

But (3) is a geometric Hence, by the comparison

series,

which converges when
converges

test, (2)

when

X X Xr
&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

THE POWER SERIES
From the preceding discussion it may behave as to convergence in one
1.

285

follows that a power series
of three

ways only

:

It
It It

2.
3.

may converge for all finite values of x (Ex. 1). may converge for no value of x except x = (Ex. 2). may converge for values of x lying between two finite

numbers
(Ex. 3).

R

and

+R, and

diverge for all other values of

x

In any case the values of x for which the series converges are together called the region of convergence. If represented on a

number

the region of convergence in the three cases just enumerated is (1) the entire number scale, (2) the zero point only, (3) a portion of the scale having the zero point as its middle point.
scale,

Ex.

1.

Consider

1

The nth term
n of x and
n

is

rpn 1

+

-

+
__
,

+ ?!+... +
the (n
x.

^- + 711
is

.

.

.

.

npn

x Lim - = =

[re

-

+

l)st

term

,

and

their ratio

is

1

[n

n

/j*

for
its

any

finite

value of

Hence the

series converges for

any value

region of convergence covers the entire

number

scale.

Ex.

2.

Consider
1

+

x

+

[2

x2

+
1
,

|_3

x3

+

----h

[n

-

1

xn ~ l

+
,

.

The nth term

is

\n

Ix&quot;-

the (n

+

l)st

This ratio increases without limit for

all

term is |nx n and their ratio is nx. values of x except x = 0. Therefore

the series converges for no value of x except x

=

0.

Ex.

3.

Consider
l

+ 2x + 3x 2 -f4x 3 +
nx&quot;-

----H

nx&quot;

-l
(n

+
+
l)x

.

( n n=m n = ao \ and diverges when |x| 1. |x| ber scale between 1 and + 1.

n
&amp;lt;

The nth term
x.

Lim

=

is

1
,

the (n
1 -f

+

l)st

term

is

n
,

and

their ratio

is

x

=

x Lim

-)
n]

=

x.

Hence the

series converges

when

1

&amp;gt;

The region

of convergence lies

on the

num

A

power

series defines a function of

region of convergence,

x for values and we may write
-f

of

x within the

f(c)
it

a

+

avx

a 2 x2 + a s x s +-.-

+a

n

xn +

.

.

.

,

(4)

sum

being understood that the value of f(x) is the limit of the of the series on the right of the equation. We shall denote

286

INFINITE SEEIES
n(

%

s

x) the polynomial obtained by taking the
(4).

first

n terms

of

the series in

Thus

Graphically,
etc.,

if

we

plot the curves

y

= s^x)

,

y

=s

z (x),

y

=s

a (x),

we

shall

have a succession

of curves

which approximate

to

the curve of the function y=f(x). These curves we shall call the approximation curves, calling y = s^x) the first approximation curve, y = s z (x) the second approximation curve, and so on. The
grapli of

y

= f(x)

we

shall call the

limit curve.

Ex.

4.

Let

The

limit curve
(fig.

is

the portion of the

hyperbola

105)

between z 1 and z = 1. The first ap proximation curve is the straight line y = 1, the second approximation curve is the straight line y = I + z, the third approximation curve is the parabola y = 1 + z + z 2 etc. In fig. 105 the limit curve
,

=

drawn heavy and the first four approxi mation curves are marked (1), (2), (3), (4).
is

It is to

X=-l

be noticed that the curves, ex (1), cannot be distinguished from each other for values of z near zero.
cept

The power
portant property, not possessed by all kinds of very similarly to a polynomial. In particular
:

series

has the im

series, of

behaving

1.

2.

The function defined by a power series is continuous. The sum, the difference, the product, and the quotient

of

two

functions defined by power series are found by taking the sum, the difference, the product, and the quotient of the series.

MACLAURIN
3.

S

AND TAYLOR
ajc

S

SERIES
n

287

If

f(x)=a +
sib
/-*

+ a z? +
2

...

+
+

anx

+

.

.

then
b

s*b

s*b

Xb
4.

f(x) dx

=

/

a dx +
lie in

/

djXdx

+

I

a 2 x*dx

+

/

an

c/a

i/a

t/a

ya

provided a and &
If

the region of convergence.
3 3

f(x)

=

+ a^- + a^H- a
2 az x

H-----h a n a?-\---.
.

,

then

f

(x)

= 0,^+

+

3 asx

2

+

+ na n x

n

~l

+

-

.

.

,

and the

series for the derivative

has the same region of convergence

as that for the function.

For proofs
treatises.*

of these

theorems the student

is

157. Maclaurin s

and Taylor

s

series.

When

a function

is

expressed as a power series, it is possible to express the coeffi cients of the series in terms of the function and its deriva
tives.

For

let

By

differentiating
l

we have
3

f (x)=a + 2a x+ 3a
2

^ 2 +4a 4 ^ 3 H----- na n xn
\-

~l

f

=
&quot;(x)

3

-

2

3

+

4 3 2
.

ap +

+ n(n - l)(n- 2)a n xn - +
3

.

-

.

,

/&amp;gt;(*)=[n(-l)(n-2)...3.2]a.
Placing x

+ ....
we
find

=

in each of these equations,

,=/(0),

o,=/

(0),

2

Consequently we have

^+...
This
is

+

^+....

(1)

Maclaurin

s series

(

31, (6)).

*

See, for example, Goursat-Hedrick, Mathematical Analt/six, Chap. IX.

288
Again,
if

INFINITE SERIES
in the right-hand side of

f(x)

=

+ ajc + a^ + ***?+
2
r

+
to

&amp;lt;*&amp;gt;&

+
of

we

place x

=a+x
=
5

,

and arrange according
2

powers

x we have
,

f(x)
or,

+ &X + &X + &8
its

8

+

+ &X B +

by replacing x by

value x

a,

By differentiating this equation successively, in the results, we readily find

and placing x

=

a

Hence

Taylor s series ( 31, (4)). have here shown that if a function can be expressed as a the series may be put in the form or (2). In 31 power series, (1) we showed that any function which is continuous and has con tinuous derivatives can be so expressed. Usually when a known
is

This

We

expressed by either (1) or (2), the region in which the expression is valid as a representation of the function is coincident with the region of convergence of the series. can be
is

function

Examples
is

given in which this

is

not true, but the student

not likely to

meet them in

practice.

158. Taylor s series for functions of several variables. Con sider f(x, y) a function of two variables x and If we place y.

x

=a+

lt,

y

= b + mt
t

t

where

a, b,

I,

and

m
&amp;gt;

are constants
y}

and

is

a variable,

we have

f( x

= f( a +

lt,1&amp;gt;

+ mt)=F(t).

TAYLOR
Now, by expansion

S

SERIES

289

into Maclauriii s series,

(1)

and, by

111 and 118,

if

When ^ = 0, we have x = a and y = b. Hence ^(0) =/(, &), and, we denote by a subscript zero the values of the derivatives of f(x, y) when x = a,y = b,

By substitution we have
/(*. y)

in (1), noting that

lt

=x

a and

=/(,

)+(* - +(y )

*)

290

INFINITE SERIES
series

Another form of this b = k. Then and y

may

be obtained by placing x

a=

In a similar manner, we

may show

that

The terms

of the

nth degree in this expansion

may

be indicated

symbolically as

159. Fourier s series.

A
2

series of the

form
a n cos
w^c

an
2

-

+ cos + + \ sin +
ctj
as a;

cos 2 x
a?

5 2 sin 2

+ +

-

+

.

.

.

+ + b n sin nx +

(1)

where the

coefficients

P &2

,

do not involve x and are

determined by the formulas derived in 160, is called a Fourier s series. Every term of (1) has the period* 2 TT, and hence (1) has
that period. Accordingly any function denned for all values of x by a Fourier s series must have the period 2 TT. But even if a function does not have the period 2 TT, it is possible to find a

Fourier
of

s

series

x between
f(x)
is

TT

which and

will represent the function for all values TT to TT TT, provided that in the interval
if

called a periodic function, with period k,

f(x

-\-

k)

f(x).

FOURIER
the function
is

S

SERIES

291

single-valued, finite, and continuous except for finite discontinuities,* and provided there is not an infinite number

of

maxima
160.

or

minima

in the neighborhood of

any

point.

try to determine the formulas for the coeffi TT cients of a Fourier s series, which, for all values of x between
will

We

now

and

TT,

shall represent a given function, f(x),

which

satisfies

the

above conditions.
Let f(x)

= -^ -f
2.
&amp;lt;x

a 1 cos x

+ &j
To determine
TT,
,

+ sin x +

2

cos 2 x

+
-j-

& 2 sin 2

x

+ +

a n cos nx
&n

+ sin wa; +

.

(1)
TT

multiply
result

(1)
is

by dx and integrate from

to

term by term.

The

/
whence
aQ
,

7 77

=

T f(x) dx, Vj-n
1
7
&quot;

I

(2)

since all the terms on the right-hand side of the equation, except vanish. the one involving

To determine the
term.

coefficient of the general cosine term, as

an

,

multiply (1) by Since for

cos
all

and integrate from integral values of m and n
dx,

nx

TT

to

TT,

term by

f
u/
1

sin

mx cos nx dx =
mx cos nx dx =
I

0,

T

cos

(m
TT,

=

?i)

and
all

rcos nx dx = ;
2

C/-7T

the terms on the right-hand side of the equation, except the one involving a nJ vanish and the result is
r

f(x) cos
T

nx dx

=a

n 7r,

whence

an

=

I

C
I

n

f(x) cos nx dx.

(3)

* If e) and /(Zi+&amp;lt;0 have different limits as e z, is any value of x, such that/fo approaches the limit zero, then/(z) is said to have a finite discontinuity for the value x = x\. Graphically, the curve y =f(x) approaches two distinct points on the ordinate x = Xi, one point beinj? approached as x increases toward cc,, and the other being approached as x decreases toward x\.

292
It is to

INFINITE SEEIES
be noted that (3) reduces to
,

(2)

when n

=

0.

In like manner, to determine b n multiply (1) by sin TT to TT, term by term. The result is integrate from

nx

dx,

and

=i
For a proof
formulas

f^J-n

;)

sin

nx dx.

(4)

of the validity of the

(2), (3),

is

above method of deriving the referred to advanced treatises.*
development
to hold for all values

of x

Ex. 1. Expand x in a Fourier TT and TT. between

s series, the

By

(2),

(:37r,0)

FIG. 106

Hence only the
coefficients being
1, 2, 3,

sine terms appear in the series for x, the values of the determined by giving n in the expression for b n the values in succession. Therefore 61 = 2, 6 2 = and f 63 =
,

,,

_

sin

x

sin 2

~~
x

sin 3 x

~~~

The graph of the function x is the infinite straight line passing through the origin and bisecting the angles of the first and the third quadrants. The limit curve of the series coincides with this line for all values of x be
tween
vanishes
points
(

TT

and

TT,

when x
TT,

=

for every term of the series TT but not for x = TT and x TT or x = TT, and therefore the graph of the series has the
;

0) as isolated points (fig. 106).

By
1, 2,

TT and TT, and giving k the values taking Xi as any value of x between in succession, we can represent all values of x by x\ 2 for. But the 3,

*

See, for example, Goursat-Hedrick,

Mathematical Analysis, Chap. IX.

FOURIEK
series

S

SERIES

293

2 kir as TT, and accordingly has the same value for Xi Hence the limit curve is a series of repetitions of the part between 2 &TT, 0). TT and x = TT, and the isolated points ( x = It should be noted that the function denned by the series has finite discon tinuities, while the function from which the series is derived is continuous.

has the period 2

for Xi.

not necessary that/(#) should be defined by the same law TT to TT. In this case the integrals throughout the interval from
It is

defining the coefficients break up into shown in the following examples:
Ex. 2. Find the Fourier s and TT, where f(x) = x + ?r if

two

or

more

integrals, as

series for f(x) for all values of
TT
&amp;lt;

x between

TT

x

&amp;lt;

0,

and /(x)
x)

= TT
\

xifO&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;7r.

Here

a

= =

2 irn*
;

f C
(1 v

(x

+ +

TT)

dx

+ f

V+ C

dx

= TT
x) cos

On

(x

TT)

cos nx dx

(IT

nx dx\

=
bn

cos mr)

;

=-

y

(x

+

TT)

sin

nx dx

+

C\TT

- x) sin nx dx

A

O

-A

FIG. 107

Therefore the required series
TT

is

9

+ ^l~l2~ +

4 /cos x

cos 3 x
Q2

+

cos 5 x
r,2

+

\
&quot;)

The graph
(fig.

of /(x) for values of

x between
2

TT

and

IT is

the broken line

ABC
K,
f or

72

o-4 )* ! o limit curve of the series coincides with the

111 +^+
107).

When

x

=

0,

the series reduces to

Tj-2

*

&quot;^+

&quot;-~^

When

x

=
it is

TT,

( 32 52 7T\12 the series reduces to 0.

-+-

+ -^ +

+

.

.

\=
y

Plence the

broken

line
1,

ABC

at all points.

From
is

the periodicity of the series
fig.

seen, as in Ex.

that the limit curve

the broken line of

107.

*

Byerly, Fourier s Series,

p. 40.

294
Ex.
3.

INFINITE SERIES
Find the Fourier s series for /(x), for where f(x) = 0if-?r&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;0, and f(x) =
a
an
1 =7T

all
TT

values of x between
if
&amp;lt;

TT

and

TT,

x

&amp;lt;

ir.

Here

/

r
I

dx

+

rn
I

TT

dx )
/

\

=

TT

;

\J-TT
I

i/O

=

TT

cos nx dx

=

;

1 1 = -|/**IT sin nx dte = - (1
v

cos

r).

Therefore the required series
TT

is

+

/sinx
2

sin3x &quot;~

sinSx

~

\

of x

The graph of from x =

the function for the values of x between
TT

TT

and

TT is

the axis

to

x

=

0,

and the straight
0.

line

AB

(fig.

108), there being a

finite

discontinuity

when x =

J

FIG. 108

The curves

(1), (2), (3),

and

(4)

are the approximation curves corresponding

respectively to the equations

^

=-+

2 sin x,
{sin

(2)

x

hr
2
\
1

sin 3 x\

TT
sin 3

(3)

x

sin 5 x\

3

5
in
I,
1,

/
149, Ex.
5.

They may be

by

the

method used

It

is

to be noted that all the curves pass through the point fO,

which

is

midway

between the points

and 0, which correspond to the finite discontinuity, and that the successive curves approach perpendicularity to the axis of x at that point.

A

INDETERMINATE FORMS
161.

295

The indeterminate form -

Consider the fraction

/M,
4&amp;gt;(

x)

a)

and

let

a be a number such that f(a)

=

and
cf&amp;gt;

(a)

=

0.

If

we

place x

=a

in (1),

we

obtain the expression -, which

is literally

meaningless.

when x=a,
n1

customary, however, to define the value of the fraction (1) as the limit approached by the fraction as x approaches a. In some cases this limit can be found by elementary methods.
It is
T2
.

Ex.

1.

a

x
a, this x,

When x =
fraction

by a

becomes and have

When
2

x

^

a,

we may

divide both terms of the

_
x

2
&quot;

a
for all values of x except x

=

a.

Equation

(1)

is

true as x approaches a,

and hence

Ex.

2.

x

When

x

=
1

0, this

becomes
-

-.

When
2

x
1 1

^

0,

we have
a;2

-Vl-x
Lim

2

l-Vl-z
Vl
x2
.

+ Vl + Vl - X 2
x

1+ Vl-X 2

1

= Lim

=

Ex.3.

sn 2

x = 0, this becomes Maclaurin s series, and have

When

When
(

x
2

^

0,
3

we may expand each term by

sinx

II

iice

Lim
x = o sinx

=

1.

296

INFINITE SERIES
into series, used in Ex. 3, suggests a to determine the limit approached
will place

The method by expansion
general method.

Since

we wish

by

f&L
\$(x)

a s x approaches a,

we

x

=a+h

and expand by

Taylor

s series.

We
+h

have

(

31, (5))

f(a)

x

a

+ hf (a) + /() + ,^/
[g

&quot;(a)

+

.

.

.

II

But by hypothesis f(a)

/(a)

_

^^
Now
as
a;

__ _ _+/+
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;()

=

and

= 0.

Therefore, since A

=

0,

/

.

(&amp;gt;+

,|/&quot;(*)
[

[

(2)

&amp;lt;#&amp;gt;

() +

+

*&quot;

|^
,

&amp;lt;)+

||

= a,
(2)

A

===

0,

and hence, unless

/ (a) =
-

and
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

(a)

=

0,

we have from

Lim
x

f(x} 9&amp;gt;()

= f (a)
f

=a
(a)

(o)

cp

(a)

If,

however,

/

(a)

=

and
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

=

0,

the right-hand side of (3)

becomes -

In this case

(2)

becomes

whence
unless

/&quot;(a)

=

and

=
&amp;lt;&quot;()

0.

In the latter case we

may go back

again to (2)

and repeat the reasoning. Accordingly we have the rule
:

To find
x

the value the

- when of a fraction which takes the form
the

= a, replace
and

numerator and
x

denominator each ly
is also

its

deriv

ative

substitute

= a.

If

the

new fraction

-&amp;gt;

repeat

the process.

INDETERMINATE FORMS
pX

297
= 0.

Ex.

4.

To

g

X

find the limit
pX

approached by
p

when x
2 =- =
1

sinx
X~\

X

By
Ex.
If

the rule,

Urnx=o

=

f~f&amp;gt;X

_1_

p

sinx

\

2.

L

cosx

Jz=o

5.

To

find the limit

approached by

when x =
xsinx
e~ x ~\

0.

we

apply the rule once,

we have

Lim
x=o

e*

2 cos x

+

e~ x

Ve*

+

2 sin x

=

-

.

xsinx

L
:

sinx

+

x cosx

Jx=o

We

therefore apply the rule again, thus

Lim
x

6^

2 cos x

+

e~ x

Ver

=o

xsinx

=|- 2
L

+

2 cos x

-f

e~ x ~\
Ja:=o

4 =- = 2. 2

cosx

xsinx

\

162.

of the expansion of f(x)
ever,

161 assumes the possibility power series. It is, how sometimes necessary to consider functions for which this
of the rule in

The derivation

and

into

&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;(x)

assumption

is

not valid.

We

shall accordingly give the following

new

proof of the rule.
(3),

Consider formula

30, namely,

From this
where f
is

it follows that if F(b) = and F(a) = 0, then F some number between a and b. Let us apply

(^)

= 0,

this to

the arbitrarily formed function

where F(b)
tion.

=

and F(a)

=

0, as

may

be seen by direct substitu

Then

whe nce
Now,
in (1), let/(n)

= 0,

&amp;lt;#&amp;gt;()

= 0,
+ h)

and place

6

= a + h. We

have

f(a

/ ()

298

INFINITE SEKIES

As h

=

0,

f

= a,

since

&amp;lt;&amp;lt;

+ &.

Hence

which may be written
If

Lim

^- = Lim
L
f

*

v

-

(3)

f (a)

and
&amp;lt;j&amp;gt;

(a) are

not both zero,

(3) gives

Lim 4^-f
however,

f(x)

f (a) = :L-^-L

-

If,

f

(a)

=

and

&amp;lt;ft(a)

0, (3)

gives

Lim fix)
The
163.
rule of

= Lim fix)
results.
f|.

fix)

161 thus

The indeterminate form

If

/(a)

=00 and

=
&amp;lt;(a)

oo,

the fraction ii-2 takes the meaningless form
fraction
is

||.

The value

of the

then defined as the limit approached by the fraction as
limit.

x approaches a as a

We

shall

now

prove that the rule for

- holds also for a finding the value of a fraction which becomes which becomes ~fraction

To prove

this,

we

shall take first the case in
a?

which the

fraction

becomes

when

= 00. By placing

b = x, a = c

in (1),

162,

we have
which
is

/()-/() _ / (?)

tw-wrw)
~

/-.... ,.
v

equivalent to

/

Now we assume that
,

^

approaches a limit ^ as x
f (} and therefore ^-y^

co.

Hence
from

we may

take

c

so great that

f (c) ^-^
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

&amp;gt;

differs

(6 )

INDETERMINATE FORMS
k by as
little as

299
take x so

we
c

This fixes

c

;

we may then
each
c

much
by as

greater than
little as

that

-- and
4&amp;gt;(x)

~- may
f(x)

differ

from zero
then,

we

By
\

proper choice of

and

x,

we

have, from

(1),

f/ ff

where

e1

and

e2

may be

as small as

we

Hence

To extend

this result to the case in
a;

which

4rr
4&amp;gt;(*)

becomes

^

when

= a,

WQ

place

= a H--y

1

Then

Then

becomes

g

when y

=

oo.

Therefore, from (2),

Lim
r ..

^=
4&amp;gt;(7/)

Liin
r

..

&(
1

Now
lUld

J
p&quot;(

2/

)=/

W g = -i
=* (#)
= Lim
.*.
&amp;lt;#

dv

*
* (y)
=
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

=
and Li m
r

Hence

,

-

Hence we have

(*)

()
(3)

From

(2)

and

(3) follows the proposition that
^

we wished
infinite.

to prove.

Ex. To find the limit approached by
1

as x

becomes

xn
T*

By

the rule,

x =*

Lim

iQff n

O*

= Lim
x=
x

xn

-

nx n ~ l

= Lim

-=

0.

a-=*nx

300

INFINITE SERIES
There are other indeterminate

164. Other indeterminate forms.

forms indicated by the symbols
O-oo,

oo-oo,

0,

00,

r.
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

The form and f(a) =
&amp;lt;

oo arises
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;(a)

(x),

= oo. we have f(a) = oo,
may

when, in a pro duct f(x) (x), we have oo arises when, in /(#) The form oo
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

(a)

oo.
/(#)&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

These forms are handled by expressing
as the case
be, in the

(x)

OT/(X)

\$(x),
or

H

when x
Ex.
1.

= a.
.

The

rule of

form of a fraction which becomes 161 may then be applied.

x 3 e-*2
x
oo,

When
becomes

this

becomes
oo.

co

0.

We

z xZ have, however, x e~

=

Xs
,

which

when x =

Then

Lim

xs

Lim

3x2

3x = Lim -- = Lim

3

=

0.

In the same manner
for

Lim x n e~ xZ =
X=
00

any value
Ex.
2.

of n.

secx

tanx.
this is oo
oo.

When

x

=

We

have, however,

sec x

tan x

=

1

sin

x
,

cosx

which becomes - when x

TT =-

Then

2

Lim
;

(sec

x

tan x)

= Lim
c
_._

1

sin

x

= Lim
^_ ~
rr

-- =
cos x
sin

_

0.

^_ ~ TT

TT

cos x

x

2

~2

2

The forms 0,

00

00, I

may

arise for the function

when x = a. If we place

Wf
M
log

=

[f(x)]* \

(x

we have
If

u

= \$(x) logf(x).
by the previous methods,
found.

Lim
x=a
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;(^)

log/(a;) can be obtained

the limit approached by

u can be

PROBLEMS
i

301

Ex.

3.

(1

-

x}*.

When

x

=

0, this

becomes

1*.

Place

then

Now, by
Hence
log

161,

u approaches the limit

1

and u approaches the

limit -

PROBLEMS
1.

Prove that the series
1

i 1 i L 2a2^4^4448
l l
,

where there are two terms of the form
terms of the form
l
,

four terms of the form

2

&quot;

and 2^ terms

of the

form

1

,

4a
,

eight

when a
2.

&amp;gt;

1.

(

2

a

= 1, (k

2, 3,

),

converges

)

By comparison
152),

with the series in Ex.

1

or with the harmonic series

(Ex. 2,

prove that the series

converges

when a

&amp;gt;

1,

and diverges when a^l.

Test the following series for convergence or divergence
23
25

22

&quot;-

1

1

1

1

6-

1-2

3-4

6.6

(2n-l)2n

S

1-2

2.3

34

nn+

302

INFINITE SERIES
10.

*+++-*+-.
11.

-. 1.2-3

2.3.43.4.5

--

n(n

+

1)

(

+

2)

Find the region of convergence of each of the following

series

:

14., +
15.
1

^+l
2 2a;

+

+S
2

3

2-4

5

+

+
2.4.6...(2n-2)

2n-l +

&quot;

21. log(x

+ Vl +

x*)

=

x

-

X
.

I 2

lo

+ ll?
2
2

.

4

5

.

22.

a

^ -=
7 bx
:

4

6
1

(2

n

-

2)

2n-l

.

1

a

+ Ax + 2
a

^
a3

+

...

+

^,a&quot;

+

....

Expand each
four terms
23. sees. 24.
er

of the following functions into a

Maclaurin

s series,

obtaining
-1
*.

25. log(l
26. e sina;
.

+

sinx).

27.

e 8111

secx.

28. log cos

x.

Expand each
x between
29. x 2
.

of the following functions into a Fourier s series for values of
TT
:

TT

and

30.

e.
=
TT if
&amp;lt;

31. /(x), where /(x)
32. /(x), where /(x)

33. /(x), where /(x)
34. /(x), where /(x)

= - TT if - TT = x if TT = -7rif = Oif

&amp;lt;

x x

&amp;lt;

0, 0,

and/(x)

x x x
&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

TT.

&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

and /(x)
and/(x)

if

&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

TT.

-7r&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;0,

=
x2

x
if

if

&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

TT.

-7r&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;0,

and /(x)

-

&amp;lt;

x

TT.

PROBLEMS
approaches the given value
:

303

variable Find the limit approached by each of the following functions, as the

cosx

cos a

66.

cscx

CHAPTEE XVI
COMPLEX NUMBERS
165.
of the

Graphical representation.

A

complex number
real

is

a

number
defined

form x +

iy,
i*

by the equation
a complex

=

where x and y are
1 (I, 12).
z,

numbers and

i is

number by

the letter
z

In this chapter thus

we

shall denote

= x + iy.
;

is the real part and the number iy is the imagi nary part of z. When y = 0, z becomes a real number and when x When both x = and 0, z becomes a pure imaginary number. and z = when, and only when, a; = and y 0. y = 0, then 2 = To obtain a graphical representation of
;

The number x

o
FlG 109

complex number, construct two axes of OX and OY (fig. 109), take any point P, and draw OP. Then the complex number x + *y is said to be represented
coordinates
either

a

* by the point P or by the vector OP. For if a complex number, z x-\- iy, is known, x and ?/ are known, and there corresponds one and only one point P and one and only one vector OP. Conversely, to a

point
of

x and

this

real

OP corresponds one and only one pair of values and therefore one and only one complex number. In y, connection the axis of x is called the axis of reals, since numbers are represented by points upon it and the axis of
a vector
;

P or

y

is

called the axis of imaginaries, since pure imaginary

numbers
system

are represented
of

by points upon it. If we take as the origin and OX as the initial polar coordinates, we have x = r cos 0, y = r sin
z

line of a
6,

and therefore

=

x-\-iy

= r (cos + i sin 0).
304

*A

vector

is

a straight line fixed in length and direction hut not necessarily in

position.

The number
r

105
is

= ^/x + y\
2

which

is

always taken positive,
is

called the modulus of the complex

number and

equal to the

length of the vector OP.

The angle 6

=

1
tan&quot;

-

is

called the

argu

made ment, or amplitude, of the complex number, and is the angle added to with by the vector OP. Any multiple of 2 TT may be

OX

the argument without altering the complex number, since
r [cos (6 -f 2 for)

+ i sin (6 +

2 for)]

= r (cos + i sin
7
fife

(9).

The modulus is also called the number and is denoted by \z thus
,

absolute value of the
:

complex

iy^

and subtraction.

If

z^_

=x

l

and
*i

22

=
2

a?

2

+ iy^
( ^i

t

then,

by
(2/i

definition,

+* =
110

+

x z)

+*

+

2/2)-

FIG. 110

In

fig.

let I{

and

I* represent the

two complex numbers,
vectors.

and

let

0%

and OP^ be the corresponding

Construct the

has the 3 parallelogram OJ(P^. Then it is easy to see that x 2 y l + y 2 ) and therefore represents the complex coordinates (x l

P

+

,

number z^+z y The

numbers

is

thus seen to

be analogous to the composition of forces or
velocities.

Since 0/f=|^|,
(*!&amp;gt;

OP =
2

z2

|,

and

OP =\z + z
3
l

2

\,

*i+*,N*il+K
the equality sign holding only OP have the same direction. Z

when

and

To subtract z2 from 2 P we first change the sign of z 2 and add the result to z r Graphically,
Fi.
Ill

the change of sign of z 2 corresponds to replacing

Ill) by 1J, symmetrical to 2 with respect to 0, or to turning the vector OP^ through an angle of 180. The corre parallelogram OPJIP^ is then completed, giving the point &
2

P

(fig.

P

P

sponding to

zl

z2 .

306

COMPLEX NUMBERS
and
division.
If
z^

167. Multiplication
then,

= x^+ iy^ and z = x + iy^
2 2

by

definition,

If

we
2

~r ^2

use polar coordinates,
*

we have

zl

=r

l

(cos

X

+

i

cos ^2 (

+ sm ^2)* an(^ = r^ [(cos cos sin sin 2^2 + * (sin cos + cos sin = r,r [cos (^ + + i sin (0 + ^
2 X

sin 0J,

2

l9

1

2)

X

2

X

2 )]

2

6&amp;gt;

2)

l

2 )].

Hence, in the multiplication of two complex numbers, the
uli are multiplied together
ally,

mod

and the arguments are added. Graphic the vector corresponding to a product is found by rotating

the vector of the multiplicand in the positive direction through an angle equal to the argument of the multiplier, and multiplying the length of the vector of the multiplicand by the modulus of the multiplier. In particular, the multiplication by i is represented

by

and the multiplication rotating a vector through an angle of 90 1 is represented a vector through an angle of by by rotating
;

180,

as noted in

166.
is

The quotient
Hence,
if z
1

^
Zo

a
l

number which multiplied by
X)

z

gives 2
2 ),

= r^cos O + i sin

and

z2

=r

z

(cos

2

+ i sin

Graphically, the vector corresponding to a quotient is found by rotating the vector of the dividend in the negative direction through an angle equal to the argument of the divisor, and dividing the length of the vector of the dividend by the modulus of the divisor.
168. Involution
positive integer,
itself.
is

and evolution.

The value

of z

n
,

where n

is

a

obtained by successive multiplication of 2 by Therefore, iiz = r (cos 6 + i sin 0),
z
i

n

=r
is

n

(cos

nO

+ i sin n6).
is

(1)

The

root 2,

where n

a positive integer,
2.

raised to the nth

power gives

number which we have, at first Accordingly
a

INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION
_

307
165) that

skrht, z
z

e\ = r| cos - + i sin -

But

if

we remember
where k
is

(S

= r [cos (0 + 2 &TT) + i sin (0 + 2 &TT)],
we have
2

zero or an inte

ger,

also
1

= r|co8((6
if&quot;

I

2 kir\ /0 -i-f-t8in|
. .

2
I

forY]

\n

n f

\n
i

n yj
by giving
z
n

(2)

There are here n distinct values
the

of z, obtained

to

k
i

n values

0, 1, 2,

,

(n

1).

Since the equation

=c

has only

n roots (I, means the

In this result r 42), (2) gives all the values of z. numerical root of the number r, such as may positive

be found by use of a table of logarithms. By a combination of (1) and (2), we have

= r P\ cos(
L

-

+^
/
1).

/p0 + i sm[* +

2/hwr

-

\f

(3)

?

where ^

=

0, 1, 2,

,

(//

1

cos

Finally,

z z
7.n [

+ i sin
m6)

C os(--

+ i sin(

w0)].

The nth

roots of unity can be

found by placing r
h
*

=

1

and

=

= cos

2 far

sm

tices of a regular

The points which represent these roots graphically are the ver polygon of n sides, inscribed in a circle with and radius unity, the first vertex lying on the axis of center at
Similarly,

T*pO 1 Q

V/- 1 = cos (2 + l)7T + i sm (2/
n

l

+l)7T n

169. Exponential and trigonometric functions. The exponential and the trigonometric functions are defined in elementary work in a manner which assumes that the variable is real. For example,

the definition of sin x requires the construction of a real triangle with an angle equal to x, and the definition of ex involves actual

308

COMPLEX NUMBERS
In order to be able to regard the inde
2

involution and evolution.

pendent variable as a complex number, we adopt the following
definitions
:

Z

3

2

6

When
When
place z

z is real,

each of these functions

is

the corresponding real
31.
this,

function, since these series are those found in
z is

=
/

complex, each of the series converges. To show r(cos 6 4- i sin 0) in (1), for example. We have
r cos 6

(I
\

+

+

r
.

2

cos 2
.

+

r
.

3

cos 3 6
2

-\

---r
.

If

12

+ i (r sin + nr sin 2 +
V
If

/

r

3

sin 3

+

l

Each term of the two series in parentheses is less in absolute value than a corresponding term of the known convergent series
1

+f+

f

,

+

r
,

s

H-

.

Therefore each of these series converges

(

153) and hence (1) converges.

In the same manner
It follows that

it

may

be

shown

that (2) and (3) converge.

each of the

series (1), (2),

and

(3)

may

It is necessary,

however, to give

properly be used to define a function. new proofs of the properties of

the functions, based upon the

new

definitions.

From
which

(1)

we have
fundamental properties
of

are the

the exponential function.

From

(1), also, if

we

replace z

by

iz,

we have

z 1
[2

[3

[4

EXPONENTIAL AND TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 309
From
this,

with reference to
e
iz

(2)

and

(3),

we
2,

obtain the formula
(4)

=

cos z

+ i sin

which establishes a

relation

between the exponential and the

trigonometric functions. By changing the sign of z in (4)
e~
lz

we have
2,

whence

= cos 2 i sin ~ g2 _ e sin z =

2*

iz

:

,

i

(5)

cos z

-iz e = e +-iz

(6)

From (4), (5), and (6) it is easily shown that the trigonometric formulas obtained in elementary work for real variables are true for complex variables also (see Exs. 1 and 2).

We
and

shall use these relations to separate the functions (1), (2), (3) into real and imaginary parts, as follows
:

e

* + iV

_ e x e _ ^ cog y
iy

iy)

=
A
i

ix

~y

(e

=
e
y

v

[e~

(cos

x

-+-

i

sin x)

e

v

(cos

x

i

sin x)]

+e~ y -

sm x +
-f-

.

.e y
i

--

e~ y

cos

x

= cosh y sin x
Similarly,

i

sinh
.e
i
v

y

cos x.

cos (x iy) s(*-Hy)

,

+
,

.

v

y v = e +- e~ cos x

e~ v

.

sin

x

2

= cosh y cos x
If

i

sinh y sin

x.

x

0,

we have

sm

.

.

.e
i

v

e~ y

ly

= i sinh y,
. .

,

cos xy

=
2

= cosh y.

310
Ex.
1.

COMPLEX NUMBERS
Prove
(5)

sin 2z
(6),

+

cos 2 z

=

1.

From

and

sin*.

+

cos*.

=
=
sin z\ cos z 2

Ex.

2.

Prove sin (zi
(5),

+

z2)

+

cos z\ sin z 2

.

From

_

e

=
2

-

2 ?2 2 [e* ie

e~ iz ie~ iz z]

i

= =
170.

2

_ [(cos z\ +
i

i

sin z\) (cos z 2
i

+

i

sin z 2 )
i

(cos Zi
sin z\ cos z 2

sin Zi) (cos z 2
-

sin

2)]

+

cos z\ sin z 2

The logarithmic

function.

If 2
z.

= ew

,

then, by definition,

w = log
The

properties of the logarithmic function,

namely

log 2
are deduced

n

= w log
of a

2,

log

1=0,

log

=

co,

from the
us place
z

definition, as in the case of real variables.

The logarithm
ber.

complex number

is itself

a complex

num

For, let

= x + iy
*=

r (cos 9

+

i

sin 0)

= re

ie
.

Then
log z

= log r + log

log r

+ * - - log (a? + /) + * tan2i

1

y *&

-

log r is the logarithm of the positive 154 be found as in I,

Here

number

r,

and may

if

We may now find the logarithm of a real negative number. For, _ a s such a number, we may write a = a (cos TT + i sin TT) = e whence = log a + log (- a)
l7r

i

,

r.

In particular,

log

(

1)

= *V.

ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS
It is to

311

a logarithm

be noticed that, in the domain of the complex numbers, is not a unique quantity. For

where k

is

zero or an integer.

Therefore

log z

=w+
:

2

kiir.

We may
infinite

express this as follows

The exponential function

is

a

periodic function with the period

2 ITT, and

the logarithm

has an

number of

values, differing by multiple* of

2 ITT.

171. Functions of a complex variable in general. have seen that functions of a complex variable obtained by operating on x 4- iy with the fundamental operations of algebra, or involving the elementary transcendental functions, are themselves complex

We

numbers of the form u + iv where u and v x and y. Let us now assume the expression w what conditions it must satisfy in order that of z = x -\- iy.
t

are real functions of

= u + iv, and inquire
it

may

be a function

In the
of the

first place, it is
&quot;

to be noticed that in the broadest sense 20),

word

function&quot;

(I,

w

is

always a function

of

z,

since

x and y are determined and therefore u and v are determined. But this definition is too broad for our present purpose, and we shall restrict it by demanding that the function shall have
z is given,

when

a definite derivative for a definite value of
restriction is seen as follows
z,
:

z.

The

force of this

we may

respectively and obtain

the point
ical

&z = Ax + iky. The direction in which which corresponds to z + kz in the graph Q (fig. 112), representation, lies from P, which corresponds to z, depends
l\x

In order to obtain an increment of at pleasure increments A# and assign Ay to x and y

then on the ratio

- which may have any value whatever.
,

Cor-

responding to a given increment Az,

w

takes an increment

Aw,

where

(110)

312
Dividing by Az Ay = 0, we have

COMPLEX NUMBERS
= Ax
-+-

iky and taking the limit
/
&amp;gt;dv

as

Ax =

and

3u

du
dy
7

mdv \dy

Lrm

_

-

dy/ dx

*

V

/

Unless special conditions are imposed upon u and v the exprest

nil

sion on the right-hand side of the above equation involves
.

&amp;gt;

and

ctsc

the value of

Lim

depends upon the direction in which the

point

Q

(fig.

112) approaches the point P.
(1),

Now

the value of
,

the right-hand side of

when
-j-

= =

0, is

--

+i
.

V

^
.

and

its

value

du

M dv
:

when
^^

-

oo is

-2

&

Equating these

two values, we have
&quot;

A
=0.
(2)

This, then,

is

the necessary condition
7

that
7

Lim AZ =

- should
It is also
all

A0

be the same for the two values -/ CtOG
the sufficient condition that
7

=
.

and -^ 6t^C

=

oo.

Lim
A =
&quot;

A*

should be the same for
d?/

values of

^&amp;gt;

for

if

from

dx

(1) is simplified

by aid

of (2), -f- disappears ^x

it.

Now

(2) is

equivalent to the two conditions

du _2_v_ dx dy dv du _
dy
.

(3)

dx

the equations (3) are the necessary and sufficient condi iv should have a derivative with respect tions that the function u

Hence
x

+

to

+ iy

which depends upon

the value
satisfies

of x

+ iy

only.
is

A

function u

+

iv

which

conditions (3)

called

an

analytic function

of

x

+ iy.

CONJUGATE FUNCTIONS

313

172. Conjugate functions. Two real functions u and v, which 171, are called conjugate functions. By satisfy conditions (3), 171, with respect to x, differentiating the first equation of (3),

the second with respect to

y,

results,

we have

Also, by differentiating the first equation of (3), respect to y, the second with respect to x and
t

171, with

taking

the

difference of the results,

we have

Bx*

df
is

That

is,

each

of a pair of conjugate functions

a solu

tion of the differential equation

^+
,

*

2&amp;lt;

a?

^~

_

n

Let us construct

now
is

the two families

a point of intersection of two of these y^ curves, one from each family, the equations of the tangent lines at fo, yj are (115, Ex.1)
2
.

and v

=c

(

173) of curves

u

=c

l

If (x v

But from

(3),

171,

intersect at right angles; that is, every curve of one family intersects every curve of the other family at right angles. We express this by saying that the families of curves corresponding to two conjugate functions form an orthogonal system.

Hence the two curves

314
Examples
curves

COMPLEX NUMBERS
may
of conjugate functions and of orthogonal systems of be found by taking the real and the imaginary parts of any function of a com

plex variable.
Ex.
1.

(x

+

2

= x 2 - y 2 + 2 ixy.

iy)

From
x2
x2

this it follows that

2 y and 2 xy are conjugate functions, and that the curves 2 Ci and xy = c 2 form y an orthogonal system (fig. 113). In fact, the system consists of two families of rectangular hy perbolas, the one having the

coordinate axes for axes of the
curves and the other having the
coordinate axes for asymptotes.

FIG. 113

Ex.

2.

log(x
2

=

logVz

+

y

2

+ iy) + tan-i
i

.

Hence

log

tan- 1 - are conjugate funcX 2 2 tions, and the curves x + y Ci and y = c^x form an
orthogonal system (fig. 114). In fact, one family of curves
consists of circles

with their

centers at the origin, and the other consists of straight lines

through the

origin.

FIG. 114

PROBLEMS
Find the sums of the following pairs of complex numbers and the difference obtained by subtracting the second from the first, and express the results
graphically
1.
:

3

+

2i, 4

+
4

5i.

3.
4.

+ 8i

0-10 -8+

i,

3+21
i,

12

6

+

9i.

PROBLEMS
of the first
:

315

Find the products of the following pairs of complex numbers and the quotient by the second, and express the results graphically
TT

5.

cos

-

+

.

7T

7T

i

sin

-i cos
4
7T

6
6.

Msm 4
. .

7T

7.

8.

co8-+tn- ,
g

7T

.

27T

coB-^

+ .Bin--.

27T

9.

^

+ 2 + 1 + x +
1

I

\/3,
i

V3 +
i.

L
._
i

2
i,
.

V.3, 3

3

V2.

?

x

-1+ _
.

Find the following powers and express the results graphically
11. (2

:

+

3

1)2.

12.

(1

- V3) 2
i

.

13. (1

+

i)3.

14. (1

+

i)

4-

Find the following roots and locate them graphically
15. ^1. 16.
&amp;lt;CTI.

:

21.

22.

20. ^8. V^S. 1S+V^1. cos^i cosz 2 sinz\ sinz2Prove, for complex numbers, CQS(ZI + z 2 ) for complex numbers, sin z\ + sin2 2 = 2sin^-(zi+ z 2 cosl(zi z2 Prove,
17. ^T. 19.
)
)-

23. Prove sinh iy

=

i

sin y.

24. Prove cosh iy

=

cos y.

25. log(-2).

26. log(l

+

i).

27.

log(-l

+

i).

28. log

i.

Find the orthogonal systems of curves defined by the
parts of the following functions
:

real

and the imaginary

29.1.
z

30. log &

i^l z a
+

31.

log(-a*).
real
:

Find the orthogonal systems of curves defined by the
parts of the following functions, using polar coordinates 32. z
.

and the imaginary

33.

V.

CHAPTEE XVII
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST ORDER
173. Introduction.

Consider the equation

/(s,y,c)0,
in
is

(1)

which

c is

an arbitrary constant.
;

If c is

the equation of a certain &amp;lt;curve and if c values, the totality of the curves thus represented by (1)
a

given a fixed value, is supposed to take
is

(1)
all

called

family of curves. To determine the curves

of the family

fixed point
(1),

P(x v

y^),

we may

substitute x 1

which pass through any and y l for x and y in

thereby forming the equation

f(x v y v c)=Q.

(2)

The number of roots of (2), regarded as an equation in c, is the number of curves of family (1) which pass through P and their v
equations are found by substituting these values of c in (1). The direction of any curve of family (1) is given by the equa-

tion(115,(l))
dy

8/ ex
3
&amp;lt;
&amp;gt;

~&x=~Jf
Yy

which, in general, involves c. In general, however, we may elimi nate c from (1) and (3), the result being an equation of the form

ft 1J

If

we

substitute the coordinates of P^ in (4), the values of -/ctx

which

satisfy the resulting equation are the slopes of the respec tive curves of (1) which pass through r Hence (4) defines the

P

same family

of curves that is defined

by

(1),

but by means of

the directions of the curves instead of the explicit equations of
316

INTRODUCTION
the curves themselves.
tion of the

317
equa

Hence

(4) is called the differential
(1).

We

family of curves represented ~by have seen how an equation of type

a differential

Conversely, to an equation of form (4) there a family of curves which may be represented always corresponds by an equation of form (1). For if the coordinates of a point I[

equation of type (4).

(fig.

directions through

115) are assigned to x and y in (4), (4) determines one or more Jf. Following one of these directions, we may
to a second point

move

in (4), a direction is

the coordinates of P^ are substituted determined in which we may move to a third
ZJ.

If

point y Proceeding in this way, we trace a broken line such that the coordinates of every vertex and the direction of the following segment at that point sat
isfy (4).

P

The

limit of this

broken
each

line, as the length of

segment approaches
is

the limit zero,

a curve

such that the coordinates
of

each point and the direc

tion of the curve at that

^ ]G

point satisfy (4). Since in this construction JJ may be any point of the plane, there is evi dently a family of curves represented by (4), as we set out to
prove.

The constant

c

in the equation

of

the family

may

be

taken, for example, as the ordinate of the point in which a curve x r Hence of the family cuts the axis of y or any other line x

=

every differential equation of

form

(4)

has a solution of form

(1).

The problem
solution (1)
is,

of proceeding

from a

differential equation (4) to its

however, a

difficult one,

the simpler cases.

Some

of these cases

which can be solved only in have been discussed in this
first

volume for equations in which These are the following
:

-j-

appears to the

power

only.

I.

Variables separable.

(

77)

la.

Homogeneous
Equation

equation.

(78)
2

Ib.

of the

form x

(ap

+ 1\$ + cj dx + (a

+ bjj + r,) dy =

0.

(

79)

318
II.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER
The
linear equation
s

(80)
(

Ila.

Bernouilli

equation.
(

III.

The exact

equation.

81) 147\

Ilia.

Solution by integrating factors.

(

149\

serviceable, the student should appreciate that they may all fail with a given differential equation, since the above list does not contain all possible differen
tial

While the above methods often prove

equations which are of the

first

solution will

ax in general involve integrations of which the

-^ degree in

Moreover, the
results

can be expressed as elementary functions only in the simpler cases. 174. Solution by series. The solution of a differential equation may usually be expressed in the form of a power series.
EX.

^=X
dx
i

2

+

y2.

Assume y = a + a& + we have

a2x2
-\

+

a3z 3

-\

.

Substituting in the given equation,
ix

+

2 a2 x

+ 3 a3

x2

= x 2 + (a +

+

a 2 x2

+ a 3 x3 +
x.

2
-)
,

which the coefficients of like powers of x on the two must be equal, since the equation is true for all values of
in

sides of the equation

Equating

coefficients,

we have
ai

=

a2
2

,

2a 2 =
3 a3

aoi,
af

=I+ = =
2
,

+

whence

a:
2

a

8
,

Hence the required solution
y

is

=

a

+

a 2x

+

a 3x 2

+

^ (1

+

3 a 4 x3 )

+

.

175.

Equations not of the

first

degree in the derivative. If the

differential equation of the first order is of higher degree
first

than the

in

&amp;gt;

new methods
make
1.

of solution are necessary.
:

Denoting

by p, we

shall

three cases

2.
3.

Equations solvable for p. Equations solvable for y.
Equations solvable
for x.

EQUATIONS SOLVABLE FOK

1&amp;gt;

319

176. Equations solvable for p. Let the given equation be an equation of the nth degree in p, and let the roots of the equation, where p v -, p n regarded as an algebraic equation in p, be p v p 2
, ,
P-&amp;gt;

tion

P n are functions of x and y, may be written in the form (I,
&amp;gt;

or constants.

Then the equa

42)

(pPi) (P-P
zero,

Z)

&quot;-(P

~Pn)

=

0.

(1)

But (1) is satisfied when and only when one of the n factors is and hence the solution of (1) is made to depend upon the solutions of the n equations

Let the solution

of

p

p^

=

be f^(x

t

y,
c

cj
v
c

=
2,

0,

the solution of
are arbitrary

p

p =
2

be

f

z

(x, y, c 2

)=

0, etc.,

where

constants.

Since each of these constants

is

arbitrary, however,

and

no necessity of distinguishing among them, we them all by the same letter c. Now form the equation
there
is
A(*&amp;gt;

will denote

c
y&amp;gt;

) -M*&amp;gt;

c
y&amp;gt;

)-

/&amp;gt;&amp;gt;

y,

=
&amp;lt;0

o.

(3)

of x and y which make any factor of (3) zero satisfy by making the corresponding factor of its left-hand member zero. Hence (3) is a solution of (1), since the values of x and which satisfy (3) are all the values of x and y necessary to y and since (3) contains an arbitrary constant, it is the satisfy (1)

The values

(1)

;

general solution.
Ex.
1.

_p3

_

2 p2

+

y^\ Uy _ x _ z p _ 2 (2 y - x2 - z \ = 0.
i

\

2

/

\

2

/

Solving this equation for p,

we have
,

p=
The

2,

y p = JO - x

and

y p = - %, +

x.

solution of the first equation

is

evidently y
is

2z-fc =

0.

The second

equation,
lion,

when
its

written in the form

dx
solution
is

-- y = - x,
x
in the

seen to be a linear equa-

+ x 2 ex = 0. The third equation may also be written its solution is z 3 3 xy + c = 0.
and
y

form of a linear equation, and

Hence the

solution of the original equation
(y

is

-

2x

+

c) (y -f

x2

-

ex) (z

3

-

3 xy

+

=
&amp;lt;)

0.

320
Ex.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIEST OKDEE
_
2.

/dy\
y[ ) \dx/

2

-f

2x dy
n

dx

y

0.

Solving for p,

we have

p=

The
is

equationits

a homogeneous equation, and The equation

solution

is

Vz 2 +
2

2
y&quot;

x

+

c

=

Q.

x

Vx* + y

/-

~y~ ~^
is

also a

homogeneous equation, and its solution is Vsc 2 Hence the required solution is y 2 + 2 ex c 2 = 0.
177. Equations solvable for y.

+

y2

+

x

c

=

0.

Let the given equation be
u&amp;lt;

j

\

&amp;gt;

y P)
&amp;gt;

(J-)

Solving this equation for y,

we have

the equation
(2)

y=F(x,p).
Differentiating (2) with respect to x,

and replacing ^ by p, we

have the equation

in

which
^&amp;gt;

and

a;

are the variables.

Let the solution of

(3)

be
(4)
}

^(x,p,c)=Q.
^&amp;gt;

between (1) and (4), we have a function of #, y Eliminating and an arbitrary constant which is, in general, a solution of (1). But the process of solution may bring in extraneous factors or
otherwise lead to error, and the solution should be tested by
substitution in
(1).

If the elimination

may
(I,

cannot be performed, equations (1) and (4) be taken simultaneously as the parametric representation

163) of the solution,
Ex.
1.

p
y

being the variable parameter.

xp

2

-

2 yp

+

ax

=

0.

Solving for y,

we have

=

??

+

.

(1)

By

differentiating (1) with respect to x,

we

obtain

or

(HK8-*

EQUATIONS SOLVABLE FOR
The
for
first

X

321
found on

p

in the given equation,

factor placed equal to zero gives we have 2 ax

p=
2

Va.
y Va

If this value is substituted
0,

=

which

is

trial

to be a solution of the equation.

constant, and hence 182. discussed in

is

This solution, however, involves no arbitrary of a different type from that already considered. It will be

we

Placing the second factor equal to zero, and solving the resulting equation, find p = ex. Substituting this value of p in (1), we have, as the general

solution,

Ex.

2.

Clairaufs equation, y

= px

+f(p).
y
in

As

terms of x and p, we proceed imme

diately to differentiate with respect to x, with the result

As

in

Ex.

1,

placing the

first

factor equal to zero cannot give us the general

solution.

Neglecting that factor,

we have

dj)
(ZX

=

0,

whence p

=

c.

Substituting

this value for

p

in the original equation,

we

have, as the general solution,

Hence the general solution
solution

immediately by merely replacing p by

of Clairaut s equation may be written down c in the given equation. The ease of this

makes

it

desirable to solve
s

any equation for

y, in the

hope that the new

equation

may
y

be Clairaut a

equation.
.

Ex.

3.

= px +
is

Vl + p 2
in the

Since the equation
its

is

form of Clairaut
y

s

equation, with/(p)
c2 .

= a Vl
i

-f-

p2

,

solution

=

ex

+

a

Vl +
If

178. Equations solvable for x.

the given equation can be

solved for x, with the result

we may form

a

new

equation,

r *(!)
by differentiating
with respect to Let the solution of (2) be
(1)
y,

and replacing

dx
-j-

by

1 -

p
(3)

,c)=0.

322

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER

Then (1) and (3) may be taken simultaneously as the parametric representation of the solution of (1). Or p may be eliminated from (1) and (3), the result being a function of x, y, and an arbitrary constant, which is, in general, a solution of (1), but which should
be tested by substitution in
Ex. x
(1).

2p

logp

=

0.

Solving for x,

we have

x

= 2p +
?/,

logp.

(1)

Differentiating with respect to

we

obtain the equation
(2)
(3)

dy
the solution of which
is

y

= (2p + I) dp, = p 2 + p + c.
we
take
(1).

and

Since the result of eliminating p from (1) and (3) is complicated, (3) as the parametric representation of the solution of

(1)

179. Envelopes.

Let

f(x,y,

c)=0

(1)

be the equation of a family of curves formed by giving different values to the arbitrary parameter c. If any particular value of c is increased by Ac, the equation of the corresponding curve is
f(x,
y, c

+ Ac) =

0.

(2)

The limiting positions of the points of intersection of (1) and (2), as Ac = 0, will be called limit points on (1). We wish to discuss
the locus of the limit points.

One method
Ac
of

is

x and y in terms

of c

= 0,
c.

evidently to solve (1) and (2) simultaneously for and Ac. The limiting values of x and y, as

will be the coordinates of a limit point expressed in terms

c is eliminated from these values of x and y, the result is the Cartesian equation of the locus of the limit points. second method is as follows: Any point of intersection of

If

A

(1)

and

(2) is a

point of

f(x,y,

c

+ Ac)
Ac

/(a, y,

c)

A

so that we may use (3) in place of (2). As it is only the limiting positions of the points of intersection of (1) and (3) that are to be considered, we may take the limit of (3) as Ac 0, i.e.

=

c

ENVELOPES
Then
c

323

(4) is a (1)

between

and

curve passing through the limit points. Eliminating obtain the equation of the required locus. (4), we
lines represented

y

Ex. Find the locus of the limit points on the straight mx a Vl + m 2 = 0, m being the variable parameter.
First method.

by

We

first

solve the equations

with the results

+ m 2 = 0, a Vl + (m + Am) 2 = 0, y _ m 4. A?n) x + m 2 - Vl + (m + Am) 2 x = a Am
y

mx

a Vl

(1)

(

(2)

(3)

y

am
and
(4), as

(4)

Taking the

limits of (3)

Am =

0,

we have
(5)

Vl +
terms of m.

?n 2

the coordinates of any limit point expressed in

Eliminating m,

we have
x2

+

y

2

=

a2

.

(7)

FIG. 116

It is thus evident

(fig.

straight lines represented

116) that the locus is a circle tangent to by the given equation.
(1),
&amp;lt;f

each of the

Second method.

From

=

0.

dm
Eliminating

VT+ m2
(8),

(8)

m

from

(1)

and

we have
y
2

x2
the locus of which
is

+

-

a2

=

0,

the circle found by the

first

method.

180. In the illustrative example of the last article, the locus of

the limit points of the family, as those curves approach coincidence, is a curve tangent to every curve of the family. Hence the question is suggested, Is the locus of limit points always tangent to every

curve of the family ? To answer this question, we proceed as follows Let (x v T/J) be a limit point on one of the curves represented by

:

/(,.

/.

&amp;lt;)=&amp;lt;&amp;gt;.

(i)

324

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER
its

Then

coordinates satisfy (1) and

?=dc

The tangent

to the curve of the family at (x v y^) is

where the meaning

of

I

}

is

as in Ex. 3,

113.

The equation of the locus of the limit points may be found theo of c in terms of x and y from (2) retically by substituting the value in (1). Then the equation of the tangent to -the locus of the limit
points at (x v

y^

is

or

(

113, Ex. 3)

+
But since
~

=

dc

0, (5)

reduces to

which

is
is

the same as

(3).

Hence, in general, the locus

of the limit

tangent to every curve of the family. points There may be limit points, however, which lie

on a locus that
let
i.e.

For is not tangent to every curve of the family. of the family have one or more singular points,
/P/&quot;\

each curve
points for

Z.J-SB 0,
(rl~f\9 fa/

(

)=

0.

Then such
from
(1),

points will be a part of the

\cyjx locus of the limit points

;

for,

we have

But

at a singular point the first terms vanish,
y, c)

and hence the coor-

dinates of any singular point satisfy f(x,
are limit points.

=

ftf

and
c/c

=

0,

and

gent becomes

at a singular point the equation of the tan indeterminate, and hence the locus of the limit points

But

SINGULAR SOLUTIONS
may
is

325
Accord which

or

ingly,

may not be tangent to each curve of we shall separate that part of the locus

the family.

of limit points

tangent to each curve of the family, and give it the special name * is that part of the locus of the limit envelope. That is, the envelope a family of curves which is tangent to every curve of the points of

family.

Hence, in finding the equation of the envelope,

it is

neces

sary to find the locus of the limit points,

throwing out any extra

neous factor brought in by the elimination, and also discarding any part of the locus which is not tangent to each curve of the family.

The second method of finding the locus of limit points the method of determining the condition that f(x, y, c) = exactly
181.
if it is

is

0,

an algebraic equation in c, shall have equal roots (I, 64). Hence, if we form the discriminant of f(x, y, c) = 0, regarded as an equation in c, and place it equal to zero, the locus of the resulting
loci,

equation will contain the envelope. If there are any additional they are the loci of singular points, or correspond to extrane ous factors brought in by the elimination.
Ex. The equation of the example in
(x
2

179

may
(y
2

be written in the form
a2 )

-

a2 )

ra 2

- 2 xym +
a 2 ) (y 2
is
2
?y

-

=
+

0.

The discriminant

m

is (I,
2
?/

37)

_
(

2 XT/) 2

-

4 (x 2

x2

-

a2 )

=

4 a2 (x 2

-

a 2 ).

Hence the condition for equal
and
this

roots

+

a2

=

0,

is

the equation of the envelope, since there are no extraneous factors.

182. Singular solutions.

Let
(1)
first

/&amp;lt;**4)-0

be the general solution of a differential equation of the
&amp;lt;l&amp;gt;(x,y,p)=0.

order,
(2)

Then every curve of the family represented by (1) is such that the coordinates of every point of it and the slope of the curve at that point satisfy (2). If the family of curves has an envelope, the slope of the envelope at each point is that of a curve of the familyIt follows that

the envelope

is

a curve, such that the coordinates

* Some writers call the whole locus of the limit points the envelope, while other writers define the envelope as a curve tangent to every curve of the family.

326

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER
and the slope
of

of every point of it isfy (2).

the curve at that point sat

a solution of (2). of It is not a particular case of the general solution, since it cannot be obtained from the general solution by giving the constant a

Hence

the equation

the envelope is

particular value,

and

is

called the singular solution.

find the singular solution, if one exists, by Accordingly, the envelope of the family of curves represented by the finding general solution. This method requires us to find the general solu

we may

tion

first

;

but we

may

find the singular solution, without
:

knowing

the general solution, as follows

Let (1) and (2) (fig. 117) be two curves of the family represented by (1), intersecting at %( x v ^i) an ^ navm g the respective slopes p 1 and p 2 Then x v y v p v and x v y v p 2 satisfy (2). As curves (1) and (2) approach coincidence, in general, JJ
.

approaches a point of the envelope as a limit, and p l and p 2 become equal. Hence the locus
/(2)

FIG 117

of points for which (2), regarded as an equation in p, has equal roots must include the envelope, The equation of this locus may if one exists.

be found by placing the discriminant of the equation, regarded as

an equation in p, equal to

zero.

As

may
most

in the determination of envelopes, so here, extraneous factors appear in the course of the work, and they can be eliminated
easily

by
it.

testing

them

in the differential equation, to see

if

they satisfy
Ex.
1.

Find the singular solution,
y

if

one

exists, of the differential
.

equation

= px + a Vl + p 2
=
ex

First method.

The general

solution has been found to be

(

177,

Ex.

3)

y

+

a Vl

+

c2

;

and the envelope
x2

of this family of straight lines

is

(

179, Ex.)

the circle

+

y

2

a2

=

0.

Hence there

is

a singular solution, y
i

i.e.

xz

+

_

a2

-

o.

tion in p,

Second method. Writing the differential equation as a rational algebraic equa we have a _ _ 2 xyp + (y2 _ fl2) = 0? (a fl2) p2
.

the discriminant of which

is

4 a2 (x2

4-

y2

a2 ).
it

Since x 2
solution.

+

y2

a2

=

satisfies the differential equation,

is

the singular

ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORIES
Ex.
x
_f

327

2.

f

(p).
if

derived
tion

In solving Clairaut s equation ( 177, Ex. 2), we neglected the factor The equation x -f / (p) = 0, however, is the equation which would be Clairaut s equation were differentiated with respect to p. Hence the

p between this and Clairaut s equation would give us an equa which would include the singular solution, if one exists. In Ex. 1 of 177 we found the solution 2 ax 2 y Va = 0. This is now seen to be a singular
elimination of
solution of the given equation.

183. Orthogonal trajectories.

A

curve which intersects each

curve of the family represented

by the equation

/(*,y,)
at a given angle
is

=

o

(i)

called a trajectory. In particular, if the given angle is a right angle, the curve is called an orthogonal trajectory. It is only this special class that we shall consider.

To determine the equation

we

first find

of the family of orthogonal trajectories, the differential equation of the family represented by

(1) in

the form

(173)

,

;

(2)

Since the trajectory and the curve of the family intersect at right angles, the slope of the curve of the family is minus the reciprocal
of the slope of the trajectory.

Hence,

if

we

-is

replace -j- in (2)

by

dx
&amp;gt;

the resulting equation

the differential equation of the family of orthogonal trajectories. The solution of (3) is the equation of the orthogonal trajectories.
Ex. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of hyperbolas xy

= a2

.

The

differential equation of this family of hyperbolas is

Hence the

differential equation of the orthogonal trajectories is

(-!)
the solution of which
is

+ =
y2

x2

=

c.

Hence the orthogonal trajectories are hyperbolas, concentric with the given hyperbolas and having their common axis making an angle of 45 with the

common

axis of the given hyperbolas

(fig.

113).

328

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIEST ORDER
case.

184. Differential equation of the first order in three variables.

The integrable

Any

family of surfaces

/(,
satisfies

y, *,

c)=0

(1)

a differential equation of the form
Q.

(2)

and the elimination
gives
(2).

of

c

from

this

equation by means of (1)

Conversely, we ask solution of the form
(1)

if

(1).

an equation of the form (2) always has a To answer this question, we notice that

may

be written

,

whence
which
is

- dx +
&amp;lt;

_

&amp;gt;

,

&amp;gt;

dy

+

_

_&amp;gt;

dz

=
()&amp;gt;

(3)

an exact
it

differential equation
c, it

As
differ
(1)

(3)

does not contain

from

by some
it is

factor.

(151). must either be the equation (2) or Hence equation (2) has an integral

We

made exact by means of a an integrating factor. A special case of an exact differential equation is one in which the variables are separated.
exact or can be
factor, called

only when

shall accordingly consider three cases of equation (2),
I,

namely

:

Case

Case

II,

equations in which the variables can be separated. exact equations.

Case III, equations having integrating factors.

CASE

I.

If

the variables can be separated so that the equation

may

be written in the form
f, (x) dx

+ / (y) dy + / (z) dz =
2 3

0,

(4)
is

where any

coefficient

may

reduce to a constant, the solution

evidently of the form

dx

+/,(\$ dy +

/,() dz

=

c.

(5)

EQUATION IN THREE VARIABLES
Ex.
1.

329
=
0.

(x

+

a)

yzdx

+

(x

-

a) (y

+

b)

zdy

+ (x-a)(z +
z

c)

ydz

Dividing the equation by (x

a) yz,
,

we have
6
7

x

+

a
a

dx

x

+

?/ -

+
y

dy

+

-

+
z

c

dz

7

=

0.

Hence

the solution

is
.

I J x

rx + a
a

dx+ J
a)

I

ry -

-\-b

y

dy+lJ
y

.

rz + c. dz =
z
c

k,

or or

x

+

2 a log (x

+
y

y

+
z

6 log

+

z

+
a)

log z

k,

x

+

+

+

log [(x

Za

y z

b

c
]

=

k.

CASE II. The necessary and sufficient conditions that (2) shall be an exact differential equation are ( 151)
8P_

=

3Q
dx

3Q_8fi
cz

8fi_dP
ex
cz
is

dy

cy

These conditions being

fulfilled,

equation (2)

of the

form

and the problem is If we omit from

to find
&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;.

(2)

one term, say Rdz,

we have

the equation
(8)

Pdx + Qdy =

0,

which, because of (6), is an exact differential equation ( obtained from (7) by considering z as constant. Therefore,

147)
if

we

integrate (8), holding z constant, we shall have all that part of \$ which contains either x or y. The arbitrary constant in the solu
tion of (8)
&quot;constant&quot;

must be replaced by an arbitrary function of z, since in this connection means &quot;independent of x and
y&quot;

If,

then, the solution of (8)

is

^(x,

y,

)

= &(),

where

(f) l

is

a

known and
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

2

an unknown function, we have
(x y,
&amp;gt;

(f

)

=

(f) l

z)fa(z).

Substituting in (7)

with

(2) will give

we should have equation (2), and comparison an equation from which to determine (z).
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

330
Ex.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER
2.
2
(?/

2 -f z )

xdx

+

2

(z

+

x 2 ) ydy

+

(x

2

+

2
?/ )

zdz

=

0.

This equation

is

exact.

Omitting the

last term,
2

we have

the exact equation

(y

+
2
?/

z2 )
2

xdx

+

2

(z

+
z2

x 2 ) ydy

the solution of which

is

x

+ +

z 2x2

+

^

2

+

F(z)

= 0, = 0.
+^ =

Forming an exact equation from
2
2
(?/

this solution,

we have
x2 ) z
(2)]

+

z2 )

xdx

+

2 (z 2

x 2 ) ydy

+

[2 (y* -f

dz

-

Comparing
F(z)

=

c.

this equation with the given equation, Therefore the general solution is

we have

F

(z)

=

0,

whence

x 2 ?/

+

z 2x2

+

2/

2 z2

=

k.

CASE

III.

If

equation (2) has an integrating factor

ft,

then
(9)

pPdx + pQdy + pRdz =
is

an exact

differential equation,

and therefore

P)

=
(M&amp;gt;),

z

(M?)

=

(^),

(M) =

(^P).

(10)

Equations (10)

may

be placed in the form

dy
fji
[

dx/

ex
I

dy
ty

dQ - -dz

dR\ dy ]

=

li,

-- dp Sfji

dy

dz

_
dx

=
dz]
dz

_.
dx

equation by R, the second equation by P, and the third equation by Q, and adding the three resulting

Multiplying the

first

equations,

we have
dx

dy

\dx

dz]

\dy

This

is

that (9)
is

then a necessary condition that must be fulfilled in order may be an exact differential equation or that (2) may
factor.

have an integrating
(11)

It

may

be shown that the condition
is fulfilled,

also sufficient; that
factor.

is, if

(11)

equation

(2)

has

an integrating

EQUATION IN THREE VARIABLES
Let us

331

now

form
ft,

(2).

Then

suppose that (11) is satisfied for a given equation of if it were possible to find the integrating factor

we should form the equation (9), and, omitting the last term, should solve the exact differential equation
fiPdjc

+ fiQdy =

0,

as in Case II.

But since

//,

is

not known,

we may

solve the equiv

alent equation

Pdx+Qdy =

0,

= 0, where F(z) takes writing the solution in the form /(a?, y, F(z)) the place of the arbitrary constant. From this point on, the work
is

similar to that in Case II.
Ex.
3.

yz*dx

+

2 (y z

-

xz 2 ) dy

-

5 y dz

=

0.

This equation has an integrating factor. Regarding y as constant, we have the equation
yz*dx
the solution of which
is

+

y*dz

= =

0,
0.

x

+

F(y)

From

this solution

we form
dx

the differential equation

+

+ F/(2/)
by
?/z

dy

~ ~ dz =

*

If

we

divide the given equation

2
,

we have

whence, by comparison,

-

-|

--- F
(-

(y)

0.

so that

F

(y)

F(y)

= =

0,

whence

cy.
is

Therefore the general solution of the given equation
J x + - + cy = 0,
?/

2

or

X

V

+

y
z

+

c

=

0.

The student should
and

notice the difference between the equations

Mdx + Ndy = Pdx + Qdy + Rdz =

Q
0.

332

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIEST ORDEE

The former has always an integrating factor and a solution ( f(x, y, c)= 173). The latter has an integrating factor and a
solution/^,
185.
ables.
y, z, c)

=

only

when

condition (11)
first

is satisfied.

differential equations of the Let the two equations be

Two

order in three vari

P^dx

+ Q^dy + R^dz =

0,

where

7J,
I,

Qv
8,

R v P^
:

Q 2 R^
,

are functions of x, y, and

z,

or constants.

By

we have
:

dx dy dz
or

=
Q,

R,
K,

P,

P!

Q,

dx -

P

=

dy

= dz R Q

,

(2) only. gives a direction in space ( 97), (2) assigns a specific direction at each point in space. Moving from point to point in the direction determined by (2), we trace a curve in space.

Q2 R V Q = Q^R Z R^, and we shall consider equations in form Accordingly,
where

P=

R^

R=

.

Since

dx:dy:dz

Hence the
since
it

solution of (2) consists of a family of space curves, and requires two simultaneous equations to represent such
89),
it

a curve

(

follows that the solution of (2)
CM K*

is

a pair of

simultaneous equations. If the first of the equations
it is

(2), i.e.

P
*

=

Ct rJ
&amp;gt;

is

Q

independent of

z,

an equation in two variables, the solution of which written in the form * \_n
.

may
V

be
/

/ 1

\

^

&

)

I/

Similarly, if the remaining equations of (2) are independent of x or of y, their solutions are respectively

/.l*
and

* 4) -0,
z, c 8 )

(4)

/

8 (aj,

=

0.

(5)

Any two

of the three equations (3), (4), (5) taken simultaneously

constitute the solution of (2).

EQUATIONS IN THEEE VARIABLES
dx
JJ/X. 1.

333

dy_dz
y
z

xy

z

From
y

=

we have y =

c\z.

The equation

=
xy
y

may

be written x

=
x
c 2 ev.

dy,

whence

Therefore the complete solution consists of the equations

y
taken simultaneously.
If

= ci,

x

=

c z ev

only one of the equations

(2)

can be solved by the above
:

Suppose, for example, that we first of equations (2) with the result (3) may then solve (3) for either x or y and substitute in one of the two remaining equations, thus forming an equation in y, z, and c l

method, we may we have solved the

proceed as follows

;

or x,

z,

and

c

v

which can be

solved.

This solution taken simul
(.2).

taneously with
Ex.2.
d x

the solution of (3) constitutes
dz

^ = ^=
y x
first

xyze

3

*

The

solution of

Equating the

= is y c& 0. y and the third fractions, we have dx
we have
d(x
Cixe?dx
x 1) e

=

dz
-

Substituting

d#

for

y

in this equation,

=
log

?

whence

=

c 2 z.

Therefore the complete solution consists of the equations
y
CiX

=

0,

Ci (X

X 1) 6

log C 2 Z

=

taken simultaneously.
If

both of the previous methods fail, we may proceed as follows By the theory of proportion we may write

:

dx

_ dy _ dz _ ~~~&quot;
,

k^dx

+ k^dy + k dz
s

where k v k2 k s are arbitrary functions There are three cases to consider
:

of

x

t

y,

and

z,

or constants.

1.

kv k

,

k3

may
of
3).

fraction

and one

be so chosen as to give between the fourth the original fractions an equation which can be

solved (see Ex.

334
2.

DIFFEKENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIEST OEDEK
k v kz k3
,

may

be so chosen as to

Then \dx

+

k^dy +

k 3 dz

=

make k^P

+kQ+kR=
2

s

0.

0,

and

if

this equation falls

under one

of the cases of

184,

its

solution

is

one of the equations of the

solution of the given differential equations (see Ex. 4). 3. may form a new equation

We

\dx +

+ k dz _ k(dx + k^dy + k dz == k[p + k& + kfi ^P + ^C + AVR
k^dy
s

8

f so choosing the multipliers Jc v k 2 ks , k[, k2) k3 as to equation solvable by previous methods (see Ex. 5).
,

make the new

Ex.3.
Let

^= x * y x +

dZ x

+

z
ki

=

0,

k2

=

1,

&3

=z

1.

Then

From

x

=

y

z
is

dx x

dy
x
,

dz

d y~ d z y y
z).

+

y
find

x

+z
x

z

we

=

Ci (y

Substituting this value of x in the equation

x

+

=
y

x+z

,

we have

dy

dz
ciz
(1

(1+
the solution of which

ci)y
log (z

y)

=

c2

Therefore the general solution consists of the two equations

x

=

ci(y

-

z),

log (z

-

y}

=

c2

-

taken simultaneously.

Ex
Jjg

4

dX

y

+

z

dz dy = - = x x + y + z
1
].
T.

1
J.

1

Then
and hence

ki(y

+

z)

+

k2 (

x)

kidx

+

k 2 dy

+ k s (x + + k 3 dz
dz
z

y

+
0.

z)

=

0,

But

this equation is
is

dx
evidently

- dy
x

=
=

0,
c\.

the solution of which

y

Substituting the value of y

+

z

from
is

this equation in

=

,

we have

X

=
Ci

^-

X

,

the solution of which

Hence the general solution
x

consists of the equations

-

y

-

z

=

ci,

x

+

ci

log (x

-

ci)

=

e2

-

y-

EQUATION IN THREE VARIABLES
Ex.

335

dx
5.

dy
z z

dz

y Let

+

+x

x

+

y

fci

=

k2
*^

=

fc 3

=
+

1.

dx
T^lioti

-

dy

dz

d (x
x

y
Again,
let k\

+

z
1

z+x
ks

x

y

2(x

+ +

y
y

+ +

z) r _ z)

.

=

1,

fc 2

= =
1,

,

=

0,

and we obtain the equal fraction

;

also, letting ki

=

0,

kz

ks

=
y y
y

1,

we

obtain the equal fraction
y)

.

d (x
&quot;2(x

+ +

+ z)

_ d (x ^
,

_ d (y

-

z)

+ z)~

y-x

z-y

whence

Vx +

+z=

186. Differential equation of the first order in three variables.

The nonintegrable

case.

Consider again the equation
(1)

Pdx + Qdy+fidz=Q.
is

Geometrically, the equation asserts that the direction dxidy: dz Q R. Consequently, the geo perpendicular to the direction metrical solution of (1) consists of loci perpendicular to the curves

P

:

:

denned by the equations

^=^
~P
~Q

= ^z
fi
first

We may
surfaces

therefore seek the solution of (1)

in a family of
(3)

f(x,y,z,c)=0,

This is the form of will be orthogonal to the curves (2). the solution discussed in 184, and does not always exist. This leads to the geometric theorem that it is not always possible to

which

find a family of surfaces orthogonal to a given family of curves. the solution of (1) in the form (3) does not exist, it is

When

still

possible to find curves

which

satisfy (1)

and hence cut the

curves (2) at right angles. In fact, we may find a family of such curves on any surface assumed at pleasure. For let
&amp;lt;(&amp;gt;

y,*)=o
Then, from

(4)
(4),

be the equation of any arbitrarily assumed surface. dz dx
d

=

0.

dz

(5)

336

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER
(1)

Equations

and

(5)

may then

solution will be a family of curves condition (1).
Ex.

be taken simultaneously. Their which lie on (4) and satisfy

xydx

+

ydy

+

zdz

=

0.

(1)

This equation cannot be satisfied by a family of surfaces. It may, however, be satisfied by curves which lie on any assumed surface and cut at right angles , the curves ^

^=
=

.

=

,

xy
or (Ex.
1,

y

z

(2)

185),

Let us assume the sphere

Then
and from
(4)

and

(1),

= c 2 ev. Cl z, y 2 2 2 = x + y + z a2 xdx + ydy + zdz = 0, dx = 0, whence x = c.
x
.

(3) (4)

Hence the
satisfy
1).

circles cut

from the sphere x 2

+

y2

+

z2

=

a 2 by the planes x

=

c

Again,

let

us assume the hyperbolic paraboloid
z

Then
and, from
(6)

ydx

-f

xdy

dy

dz

= =

xy.
0,

(5)
(6)

and

(1),

-y -xz
is

=
xy

=
zy

dz

+

x2 y

-

tf\

y2

One

solution of (6)

known

to be z

xy.

Using

this,

we have

xdx

dy

whence

(1

+

y)

Vl +

x2

=

c.

(8)

Then

the curves defined

by

(5)

and

(8) also satisfy (1)

PROBLEMS
Express the solution of each of the following equations in the form of a
series
:

Solve the following equations
4.
5. 6.
7.

:

p 2 - 3p zi/(p
2

10

=
2

0.

10.
2
?/

py 2 - 2p*xy + p*x 2 =
)

1.

+

l)-(3:

+

)p

=

0.

H.
12.
0.

8. 9.

- 2 2 = 0. p3 + 2 yp2 _ X2p2 _ 2 x 2 yp = p 2 (x 2 - a2 2 - 4 a2 = 0.
x 2p 2

+

xyp

?/

13. 14.

)

p*

+ Zpy ctn x -

y2

=

0.

15.

2 2px = 0. T/(! + p y = yp* + 2px. 2 2 - 2 xyp 3 + x 2 (1 + )p 2 y - 2p = p*. p 3 - 4 xyp + 8 y 2 = 0.
7/

PROBLEMS
16. x2p 2 17.

337

20.

21. 24.
25. 27.
28.

29.

- p 2 + 1 = 0. 18. p 2 + 2 p X 3 = 0. 19. p(x + y)* = l. y(p + y)-p*x 2 = p 2x + p. 22. x = 4p + 4 p. 2 = 0. 2 2 23. y = p 2 - 2 p. xfyp - x (x + y)p + (x - y) (x + 2/) - s 2 2 p 3 - (x 2 + xy + y 2 )p + xy (x + xy + y*)p x y* = 0. - 2p 2 x = 0. 26. p 2 - 2xp + x 2 + 4y 2 = y + 2py - 4xy 8p + 4p 2 y 2 (x 2 - 1) + 1 = 0. (Let y 2 = z.) y* e 3 (p - 1) + p 3 e 2 ^ - 0. (Let & = v, e* = u.) x = Q. (Let y z = v, x 2 = w.) py*(px -y) +
?/
-

0.

Find the general and the singular solutions of the following equations
30.
31.

:

p

32. 33.

+ x -2xyp + y*-l= 0. 3x - 4xp + p 2 = 0. 2 2 - a2 2 - 2 xyp - x = 0. )p (x = - xp + x4p 2 y
2 2

(l
2

)

34.

2
?/

35.

a2

+ (1 - y* = p*y*. +
x 2 yp

-

2 xy)p

+

x 2p 2

=

0.

36. x 3p 2

+ +

a3

=

0.

-

37. Find the singular solution of the equation
38. Find the singular
/

p3

4 xyp

8 y2

= 0.
= px
-f

and the general solutions of the equation y

62 -f

a 2p 2 and interpret them geometrically.
,
:

Solve the following equations
39. (xy*z

+ (x yz + yz) dy + (x 2 2 - x 2 + y 2 - 1) dz = 0. 40. (y + z}(2x + y + z)dx+(z + x)(1y + z + x)dy + (x + y)(2z+x + y)dz = Q. 41.3 x^i/zdx + (2 2 z + z) dy + 2 (y + yz 2 dz = 0. 42. (y + 2 - 6 - c) dx + (z + x - c - a) dy + (x + y - a - b) dz = 0. 43. (y 2 + yz) dx + (z 2 + zx) cZy + (y* - xy) dz = 0.
xz)

dx

2

?/

?/

)

45.

(1
?/z

+
2

x

46.

dx

47. ?/zdx

+ 2/)dx + (1 + x + y)dy + (x + y)d = + (y 2 z - xz 2 dy - 2 (y + z) dz = 0. zxdy + (x2 + 2 )dz = 0.
)

0.

?/

?/

Solve the following systems of simultaneous equations

:

48
dx
yz

dx

dy

dz

dx

=

_dy
x

dy
zx

dz

-dy
dz

zx =
1

xy

^

dx

338
KQ

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER,
dx
z

_ _

xdy x2 + z 2
dy

dz

_

o

dx
i.

dy
y
2

dz

x
dz

x2 5
_

+

2xy
dy
z

(x-y)z
dz

54
KK

dx

dx
y

x~2x-y~z-xy
dx

- z~
dx

-x~ x-y
dy
c

00.

x+y-z
x

= dy = az.
,

.

oti.

CQ

z

x-y-z
x2

y-z-x
z2

z

56.

__ = 2y
y

=

fc.

60.

y2

2

xy

2 xz

61. Find the envelope of the family of lines y

= 2 mx +
ac 2

?n 4 ,

m

being the

variable parameter.

62. Prove that each line of the family

c 2x

+
=

a 2 ?/

=

0,

a being the vari

able parameter, forms with the coordinate axes a triangle of constant area, and find the envelope of the family.
63. Find the envelope of the parabolas y 2 64.

a(x

a).

straight line moves so that the sum of its intercepts on the coordinate axes is always equal to the constant c. Express the equation of the family of lines in terms of c and the intercept on 0-Z&quot;, and find their envelope.

A

65.

The semiaxes

of the ellipse

x2

--h
2

v2
b2

=

1

a

vary so that ab

=

c 2,

where

c is

a constant. Express the equation of the ellipse in terms of a as a variable parameter, and find the envelope of the family of ellipses thus defined.
66. Find the envelope of the family of straight lines formed B in the equation y = mx 2 pm

by varying

the

slope

m

pm

.

y

=

67. Find the envelope of a family of circles having their centers on the line 2 x and tangent to the axis of y.

of the parabola

68. Find the envelope of a family of circles which have the double ordinates y 2 = 4px as diameters.

69. Find the envelope of a family of straight lines which move so that the portion of each of them included between the axes is always equal to the constant c.
70.

parabola y

Find the envelope of a family of circles which have their centers on the 2 = &px and pass through the vertex of the parabola.

71. Find the equation of a curve such that the tangent cuts off from the co ordinate axes intercepts the sum of which is always equal to the constant k. 72.

Find a curve

in

the origin upon any tangent

which the projection upon OY of the perpendicular from is always equal to the constant a.

73. Find the equation of the curve in which the part of the tangent included between the coordinate axes is always equal to the constant a.
74. Determine the equation of a curve such that the portion of the axis of x intercepted by the tangent and the normal at any point of the curve is always equal to the constant k.

PROBLEMS
75.

339

pole upon any tangent
76.

Find the polar equation of the curve in which the perpendicular from the is always equal to the constant k.
k times the radius vector of the point of contact.

Find the polar equation of a curve such that the perpendicular from the
is

pole upon any tangent
77.

Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of parabolas y 2
-|

=
2

78. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of ellipses X being the variable parameter. 79.

---_ =
+
^

1,

fl2

Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of

ellipses

a2

+

a2

=

1

80. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of parabolas 2 y =4ax+4a2 .

81. Find the orthogonal trajectories of a family of circles each of which tangent to the axis of y at the origin.
82. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of circles each of

is

which

passes through the points
83. If fir,
\
0,

(

1, 0).

-rH
Uv/

=

is

the equation of a family of curves, prove that

f

(

r, 0,

r2

\

=

is

the equation of the orthogonal trajectories.

84. Find
2 a 2 cos 2
0.

the

orthogonal trajectories of the family of lemniscates r2

=

85. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of cardioids r=a(cos d

+ 1).

86. Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of logarithmic spirals r = e0.

CHAPTEE XVIII
THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
187. Definitions.

The equation

JA
where

a)
y, is a

p v p^

-

,

pn _

lt

pn and
,

f(x) are independent of
,

linear differential equation. If the coefficients p v p 2 , p n _ lt p n are constants, the equation becomes the linear differential equation

with constant

coefficients,

where a v a z
In both

-

-

,

,

a n _ v a n are constants.
(2)

(1)

and

f(x)

is

a function of x,

which may reduce
this, it is

to a constant or even be zero.

We

shall begin

with the study
-jctx

of (2).

To do

con

venient to express

by Dy,

D*y, \ ax by

-~
,

ax

by

D y,
n

and to

rewrite (2) in the form

D y + a^-^y +n

+a

n

_^Dy

+a

n

y =f(x),

or,

more compactly,
a,)y =f(x).
(3)

in parenthesis in (3) is called an operator, and we are said to operate upon a quantity with it when we carry out the indicated operations of differentiation, multiplication, and addition.

The expression

Thus,
3
(Z&amp;gt;

if

we
2

operate on sina? with
2

3
Z&amp;gt;

2
2Z&amp;gt;

+ 3D +
x.

5,

we have
5 sin

D + 3D

5) sin

x

= =

cos x

+

2 sin x 3 sin

3 cos x

x

2 cos x
340

EQUATION OF FIRST ORDER
Also, the solution of (2) or (3)
is

341

expressed by the equation

where the expression on the right hand

of this equation is not to be considered as a fraction but simply as a symbol to express the solution of (3). Thus if (3) is the very simple equation Dy =f(x),

then

(4)

becomes

In this case

means

integration with respect to

x.

What

the

more complicated symbol (4) may mean, we are now to study. 188. The equation of the first order with constant coefficients. The linear equation of the first order with constant coefficients is

or,

symbolically,
is

(D

a)y =f(x).

(1)

This

we have

a special case of the linear equation discussed in 80, and a, f2 (x) =f(x) in formula (5) of only to place f^x)

=

80 to obtain the solution.

We

have in this way

y

=
two
parts.

The
is ax

solution (2) consists of

The
is

first part, ce
if

ax
,

contains

an arbitrary constant, does not contain f(x), and,
not a solution of
e

(1)

unless f(x)

zero.

taken alone, The second part,
is

e

- ax

I (1),

f( x ^d X) contains /(#), and, taken
is satisfied

alone,

a solution of
0.

since (1)
e

by
is ax

(2)

when

c

has any value including

Hence

ax

I

e~

ax

f(x)dx

called & particular integral of (1), and,
is

in distinction to this, ce

The sum
gral
is

of the

called the complementary function. complementary function and the particular inte

be written

the general solution (2). The complementary function can down from the left-hand member of equation (1), but the determination of the particular integral requires integration.

342
Ex.
1.

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
Solve

dx

+ 3y= 5x

3
.

The complementary function
5 e~ 3x

is

ce~ 8x

.

The particular

integral

is

f

e3

*x dx
is

3

=
-

f

x3

-{-

x

2

+
3

1 -

J- x

\&amp;lt;.

Hence the general solution
Ex.
2.

y

ce~ s *

+

-jj-

3

*2

;

+

Solve

dx

+

y

=

sin x.
is

The complementary function
e

cer*.

The
L s in

particular integral
cos x.

is

- x C ex s i n xdx
is

= =

x-f

(

19,

Ex.

5)

Therefore the general solution

y

ce~ x

^ sin x

-

cos x.

189.

The operator

The

solution of linear equations of

coefficients depends upon the solution higher order with constant Hence a knowledge of the oper first order. of the equation of the

ator

D

is of

a

prime importance.
i
J_s
&quot;~~~~

We
upon

give a few of the results
certain elementary func-

obtained by operating with
tions

Ct

which occur frequently

in practice.
is ce

In writing these formulas
ax

the complementary function, which

in all cases,

is

omitted.

D

cu

=c

a

D

u.

a

(1)

ss

a =0.

(3)

s
e
te

-f+r
_^
k
MX
nn^a
,

(4)

unless k

=

a.

a
*

a

(5)

D-a
k
unless k

(6)

a

3

(k

cCf

(k

a)

= a.
-i

~m + 1

m

(8)

EQUATION OF SECOND ORDER
1
.

343

,

a sin kx

k cos

lex

~

6SS

a

=

U

1

,
&amp;lt;*

a,

cos kx

^
1

-J+JT

+ k sin kx -unless a =

K

(11)

These formulas may all be proved by substituting the special functions concerned in the general formula 188, (2)). For (3), ( (7), (9), and (11) the student may refer to Exs. 4, 5, and 6, 19. The derivation of (10) is as follows: 188,

By

(2),

i

D - ki sin kx
-.

=e

ux

r
\

e~

kix

sin

kx dx.

J

If we attempt to use the method of Ex. 5, 19, it fails to work, but by replacing sin kx by its value in terms of the exponential functions ( 169, (5)) we have

Formula
190.

(12)

is

derived in a similar manner.

The equation of the second order with constant coeffi cients. The symbol (D a)(D l)y means that y is to be operated on with D b and the result a. Now operated on with D
(

D ~^}y = ~~
ax

l&amp;gt;y,

and hence

(I)

ab. b),q This result, obtained by considering the real meaning of the operators, is the same as if the operators a and l had

where

p=

(a

+

=

D

D

344

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

been multiplied together, regarding
Similarly,

D

as an algebraic quantity.

we

find

(2)-b)(D-a)y

= [D - (a + b) D +
2

ab] y

= (D - a) (D - I) y.

That is, the order in which the two operators used does not affect the result.
2

D

a and

D

I are

Moreover,
b so that (1)

if
(Z&amp;gt;

-h

pD +

q)

y

is

given,

it is

is satisfied.

In

fact,

we have simply

possible to find a to factor

and
2

Z&amp;gt;

+

pD +

q, considering This gives a method order with constant coefficients.

D

as an algebraic quantity. of solving the linear equation of the second

For such an equation has the form

or,

what

is

the same thing,

(& + pD +
where

g)y=f(x),
is

(2)

q are constants and f(x) p reduce to a constant or be zero.

and

a function of x which

may

Equation
whence, by

(1)

may
(2),

be written

188,

&quot;

ax
)

dx

Again applying

188,

(2),

we have
\
e/
/-

&quot;.\

/

\

= cebx+ e C e -b*( c e
x
&amp;gt;

x
+e&quot;

J

\

J

Ce- axf(x)dx)dx.
:

(3)

There are
I.

now two

cases to be distinguished

If

a

3= b, (3)

becomes
(a

II.

If

a

~ bx x Ce~ axf (x) dx\ dx. y = c / + c/** + e C(e = b, (3) becomes ax ax ax y = (c + Cl x)e +e CCe~ f(x)dx JJ
b)x
2
.

(4)

2

(5)

In each case the solution consists

of

two

parts.
e&quot;*,

The one

is

the

complementary function c^+c/* or (c 2 + c^) It can be written down arbitrary constants but not involving f(x).

involving two

EQUATION OF SECOND ORDER

345

from the left-hand member of the equation, and is, in fact, the solu 0. The other part of the tion of the equation (D a)(D solution is the particular integral, and involves f(x). Its general computation by (4) or (5) necessitates two integrations.

=

l&amp;gt;)y

Formula

(4)

when a and

b are

holds whether a and b are real or complex. But conjugate complex, it is convenient to modify
:

the complementary function as follows

Let us place
in.

a

= m + in,

b
is

=m

Then the complementary function

where

= ^&quot;[^(cos nx + i sin nx) -f c (cos nx = e mx C\ cos nx + C sin nx), C = c + c C = i(c^ c Since c and c
2 (
z
1

i

sin nx)]
(6)

l

2,

2

2 ).

l

2

are arbitrary con

stants, so also are C\

and C2 and we obtain
,

all real

forms of the
.

complementary function by giving real values to C^ and C2 The form (6) may also be modified as follows Whatever be the values of Cl and C2 we may always find an angle a such that
:

cos

a

=

C

*
&amp;gt;

sin

a

=

C2

Then

(6)

becomes

where a and k = V (7 2 + C 2 are new arbitrary constants.
find

Or,

we may

Then

an angle ft, such that sin (6) becomes

ft

=

^L

l
,

cos

ft

=

This equation

may

be written

(D + 2) (D + 3) ?y = e*. The complementary function is therefore Cie~ 2x +
ticular integral,

c 2 e-

3:r .

To

find the par

we proceed
(D

as follows

:

+

3)

y

=-

D -f

&=
2

e~

*

J

C

Therefore the general solution

is

346
Ex
.

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
2
*&amp;gt;L
.

dx2

+

a

*+
dx

1/

=x

.

This equation may be written (D + l) 2 y = x. Therefore the complementary function is (ci
ular integral,

+

c 2 x)

er x

.

To

find the partic

we proceed
(D

as follows
1

:

+

1)

y

D+1
=
1

x

= -

r e- * xex dx
I

=
(x

J

x

1.

y

D

(x
-\-

1)

=

e- x

r
I

-

1)

e?dx

=

x

-

2.

I
is

*/

Therefore the general solution

Ex.

3.

Consider the motion of a particle of unit mass acted on by an attract

ing force directed toward a center and proportional to the distance of the par ticle from the center, the motion being resisted by a force proportional to the velocity of the particle.
If

we

attracting force is positive constants.

take s as the distance of the particle from the center of force, the ds ks and the resisting force is h where k and h are
,

Hence the equation
d2s
dt 2

of motion

is

=

ks

h
dt

,

ds
,

The

factors of the operator in (1) aref
\

DH
2
:

2

We

have therefore to consider three cases

I.

W _ 4k

&amp;lt;

o.

The
e
2

solution of (1)

is

then

s

=

(

Ci cos

1

+ C 2 sin
&amp;gt;

or

The graph of s has the general shape of that shown in I, 155, fig. 161. The particle makes an infinite number of oscillations with &quot;decreasing amplitudes, which approach zero as a limit as t becomes infinite.
II.

h2

-

4k

&amp;gt;

0.

The

solution of (1)
rrn&amp;gt;

is

then

The
III.

particle
h*

makes no

oscillations,

but approaches rest as
is

t

becomes

infinite.

-

4k

=

0.

The

solution of (1)

The

particle approaches rest as

t

becomes

infinite.

SOLUTION BY PARTIAL FRACTIONS
191. Solution

347
of solving
(1)

by

partial fractions.

Another method

the equation

tfy =/&amp;lt;*),
is

when

We may

the factors of the operator are unequal, express the solution in the form

as follows

:

^

~
2)

1
2

-f-

pD + q

=
~~

1

(D

a)(D

b)

have seen that in many ways the operator may be handled as if it were an algebraic quantity. This raises the ques
tion

Now we

D

whether

it

is

proper to separate

into partial

(D
fractions.

a]

(D

b)

Algebraically
1

we

have, of course,

=
l)

1

l

(

(D
and the question

a)(D
is,

a

l)\D

a

D

JL
l

Is

a solution of equation (1)

?

The way
in (1)
of (1),

to

this question is to substitute this value of
result.

and observe the

We

y have then, on the left-hand side

a-b
~
a
1

1

&quot;

b

&quot;-&quot;

^

a x)l f\

=/(*)
Consequently
(2) is a solution of (1).

Writing

(2)

out in
[

full,

we have
C&amp;lt;T~f(x)dx-

f&quot;

e

a

l

e

b*

u

,_/

o

C&amp;lt;T*f(x)fa (3)
,_/

348

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
complementary function
is

It is to be noted that the

the same

as in

but the particular integral appears in another form. b. This method fails if a
190,
(4),

Vy
dx*

dy_
dx

Since this equation

may

be written

the complementary function we proceed as follows
:

(D-2)(D+ B)y = e**, is Cie 2x + c 2 e~ 3x To find
.

the particular integral,

y

=
D2
5

j

e +D_6

2x

ID -

2

D+3

Therefore the general solution

is

192.

The general equation with constant
of

coefficients.

The

solving a linear equation of the second order with constant coefficients are readily extended to an equation of the nth order with constant coefficients. Such an equation is

methods

or,

symbolically written,
n

(D
The
factors
first

+ ai D
is

n

-l

+

+

a^D + a^y =f(x).

(2)

step

to separate the operator in (2) into its linear
(2) as

and to write

(D
where r v rf ,
,

- r,) (D - r
l

.

. .

2)

(D- rj =/(*),
n

(3)

r n are the roots of the algebraic equation r
n

+ a^~ +

+ a.^r + a =

0.

It

may

be shown, as in

(3) are equivalent, (2) is immaterial. (3)

and

and that the order

190, that the left-hand members of of the factors in

GENERAL EQUATION
The general
solution of (1) consists

349
two
parts, the

now

of

com

plementary function and the particular

integral.

The complementary function
form

is

written

down from
,

the factored

the solution of (1) in the If r v r 2 ., rn are all distinct, the complementary function consists of the n terms
is

of the left-hand side of (3), special case in which f(x) is zero.

and

c/ *+c/^+
where c v
If,

+

/*,

(4)

c

-

-

2,

,

cn

however,
(4)

D
c

are arbitrary constants. r appears as a &-fold factor in (3), k of the
i

terms of

must be replaced by the terms

+ cx -h
(4)

*

k

-

Also,

if

two

factors of (3) are conjugate

complex numbers, the

corresponding terms of
sines

may

be replaced by terms involving

and

cosines, as in (6),
is

190.

The particular integral

found by evaluating

This
1.

f(X )

-

may

be done in two ways
(5)
&amp;gt;

:

The expression

tors

--

may

be evaluated by applying the opera
left.

,

in succession from right to

This

leads to a multiple integral of the form

(*&-*..
2.

.

C

(6)

side of (5) may be separated into partial frac the factors of (5) are all distinct, this leads to an integral of the type
tions.

The left-hand

When

C

r

*

f (x) dx +
/(*)&.

.

.

(7)

If

some of the factors must be combined with

of (3) are repeated, the previous
this.

method

350

THE LINEAK DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
(6)

In evaluating
omitted,
function.
since

and

(7)

they are

taken

the constants of integration may be care of in the complementary
of the

The general solution is the sum and the particular integral.
193. Solution

complementary function

by undetermined

coefficients.

The work

of find

ing the particular integral may be much simplified when the form of the integral can be anticipated. The particular integral may

then be written with unknown, or undetermined, coefficients, and the coefficients determined by direct substitution in the differential
equation.

Since both (6) and

(7),
,

192, consist of successive appli

cations of the operator
.LJ
ct

we may apply
it

the formulas of
if

189

in

many

cases.

From

(2),

189,

follows that

/(a?) consists of

an aggregate

of terms, the particular integral is the

sum

of the

parts obtained by taking each follows that the coefficient of a

term by itself. From (1), 189, it term oif(x) affects only the coeffi

cient of the corresponding part of the particular integral. 189 we can deduce the following: the other formulas of
1.

From

a m _ l x-{-a m (m a positive + the particular integral is of the form Ajt m + AjP^ + integer), d- m -i x + A m unless the left-hand member of the differential equa
.

When /(#)=
,

a Q x m + a 1 (tfn

~1

+

+

tion

contains the factor
is of
r

D
l

r
.

solution

the form x (A xm

terms of the form

A m+l xr ~ +

In the latter case the particular +A l xm ~ l + + A m _ l x +A m ), while
-

+ A m+r _ x+A m+r
l

occur in the

complementary function, and hence need not be assumed as part
of the particular integral.

ae kx the particular integral is of the form Ae*x unless the left-hand member of the differential equation contains
2.
, ,

When f(x) =
r

a factor

(D
r kx

k)
,

.

In the latter case the particular integral
r

is

of the
kx

form

A r _ l x A r)e while terms of the form (A l x + occur in the complementary function, and hence need not be
Ax
e
-

~l

+

+

assumed
3.

in the particular integral.

the

When f(x) = a sin kx or,a cos kx, the particular integral is of form A sin kx -f B cos kx, unless the left-hand member of the
2
(Z&amp;gt;

differential equation contains the factor

+k

2 r
)
.

In the latter

SOLUTION BY UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
while terms of the form x
case the particular integral is of the form x (A sin kx r~l
r

351
}

(A l sin kx +

B

l

coskx)

+

+ B cos kx) + (A smkx
r

+B

r

cos kx) occur in the

complementary function, and hence need

not be assumed in the particular integral.
4.

When f(x) = axme kx (m
member

gral is of the

form (A xm + A 1 xm

the left-hand
tor
r
.

a positive integer), the particular inte ~l fcx Am _ lx unless m )e of the differential equation contains a fac

+

-

+

+A

,

In the latter (D k) m form x r (A Q xm + Ajc -*l

case the particular integral
kx

is

of the of the

form (A m+l x r
ular integral.

occur in the comple l function, and hence need not be assumed in the partic mentary
-\

~1

+A m+r _ x+A m +

M^^+AX ^ while terms
r )e

The above statements may all be summed up in the following rule, which may also be sometimes used when f(x) is not one of
the forms mentioned above
:

If u

is

a term of f(x), and if u^

t&

8,

,

u k are

all the distinct

functions (disregarding constant

coefficients)

which can

he obtained

from u

by successive differentiation, then the corresponding part -\-A k u k of the particular integral is of the form Au + A l u l + unless u is a term of the complementary function, or such a

,

term multiplied by an integral power of
corresponding part

x.

In

the latter case the

particular integral is of the form where r is the number of times the + A^u^ ), which gives in the complementary function the term u, or factor, u divided by an integral power of x, appears in the left-hand

of

the

xr (Au

-

+ A ku t

member of

the differential equation.
,

The above rule is of course valueless unless the functions u v u 2 uh are finite in number. In applying it to functions other than
,

those already discussed, the student should consider that he is mak ing an experiment. If a function assumed in accordance with the
rule
is is justified.

found to satisfy the differential equation, the use of the rule When it fails, recourse may always be had to the gen

eral formulas (6)

and
kr

(7),

192.

When/(#)=
may
tion.

e

the
&amp;lt;j&amp;gt;(x),

work

of finding the particular integral

be lightened by substituting y

= e kx z
e
kx

in the differential
e

equa
kx
,

Then, since all derivatives of

z

contain the factor

the

352

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
differential equation
for z in

new

may
z,

be divided by
is

e

kx
,

and there
is
&amp;lt;t&amp;gt;(x).

is left

an equation

which the left-hand member
y

When

this equation is solved for

2).

..
This

.

dx s

dx 2

dx

may

be written

D(D

2

I)

?/

=

xe 2x

+

e*,

whence the complementary function

is c\

+

x (c? 4- c^x) e .

The term xe 2x
,

,

if

suc

2 cessively differentiated, gives only the new form e *. Hence the corresponding part of the particular integral has the form Axe 2x + Be 2x The term ex gives no

new form

if

differentiated

;

but since

it

appears in the complementary function
2

corresponding to the double factor (D
ticular integral
is

I)

,

the corresponding part of the par

Cx 2 ex

.

Substituting

y
in the differential equation,

= 4xe 2x + Be zx + Cx 2 e x
we have

24xe 2 * +
Then
whence

(5

A+

2 B) e 2x

+

2 Cex

= xe2x +
2

e*.

24 =

1,

54 +

27^

^-=j,

= 0, = -|, #

C= C=

1,

1.

The general

solution of the differential equation

is,

accordingly,

y

=
=

ci

+

(c 2 -f

c 3 x) e^

+

l xe 2a:

-%&*

Ex.

2.

d y --2
&amp;lt;Zx

2

\-

y

xe Sx sinx.

We

place y

=

e Sx z.

There results

The complementary function integral we assume
z

is

e- 3 r
-

(c 1

sinx

4- c 2

cosx).

For the particular

= 4x sin x + .Bx cos x + C sin x + E cos x,

and, on substitution, have

+ (64+ 9E)xcosx + (64 - 27? + 9C- e^sinx + (24 + 6U + 6C + 9^)cosx = xsinx. Therefore 4 - 6 B = 1, 64 + 95 = 0, 64-25+ 9C- 6^ = 0, 24 + 65 + 6(7 + 9^ = 0, 4 - ^, 5= whence C = ~ T! 7, ^ = T\$fy

(QA - 6B)xsinx

-A

Therefore the general solution of the original equation

is

y

=

Cisinx

+

c2

cosx

+

es x

(y ^ x sin x

1

^

x cosx

T F sinx + T f | r cosx).

SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
194.
coefficients.

353

in

Systems of linear differential equations with constant The operators of the previous articles may be employed solving a system of two or more linear differential equations

with constant coefficients, when the equations involve only one independent variable and a number of dependent variables equal
to the

number

of the equations.

The method by which

this

may

be done can best be explained by an example.

S+
We may now

f+
may
be written

These equations

(D
3

2

+

4)

x

Dx + (D2 +

- 3 Dy = = 4) y

sin 2

t,
1.

(I) (2)

cos 2

eliminate y from the equations in a

manner analogous
(1)

to that

used in solving two algebraic equations. the coefficient of y in (2), and have

We

first

operate on

with

D +
2
.

4,

16)x-3(D 3 + 4D)y =
since
(

0,

(3)

D2 + 4) sin 2t =
coefficient of

4 sin 2
(1),

1 -f

4 sin 2

1

0.

We

then operate on

(2)

with

3D, the

y in

and have

= -6sin2,
since 3

(4)

D cos 2

1

=-

sin 2

1.

By adding (3) and (4) we have 17D 2 + 16)x = -6sin2,
cos 4

(5)

the solution of which

is

x

=

ci sin 4

1

+

c2

+

c 3 sin t

+

c4

cos

+

J sin 2
2

.

(6)

Similarly, by operating on (1) with tracting the result of the former operation

3D

and on (2) with D + 4, and sub from that of the latter, we have

(D
the solution of which
is

4

+
cc

17

D2 +
1

16)

y

=-

6 cos 2

,

(7)

y

=

c 5 sin

4

1

+

cos 4

+

c 7 sin

+

c 8 cos

+

^ cos 2

\$.

(8)

The constants
of x

in (G)

and y given

in

((&amp;gt;)

and (8) and

are, however, not all independent, for the values (8), if substituted in (1) and (2), must reduce the

latter equations to identities.

Making

these substitutions,
c2 )

we have
t

12

(c

-

ci) sin

4

1

- 12 (c 5 +
12
(C B

cos 4

1

+ +

3

(c 8 -f c s ) sin
t

3

(c 7

c 4 ) cos

+

sin 2
c 8)

1

=
t

sin 2

1.

-

12

(c e

ci) cos 4 1

+ +

c 2 ) sin

4

1

3

(c 8

3

(c 7

c 4 ) sin

+ + cos 2 =
cos

cos 2

.

354

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
may
are

In order that these equations
C6

be identically
,

satisfied,
C7

we must have

=Ci,

C5

= -C 2
(2)

C8

= -C 3 +

,

=

C4 .

Hence the solutions
x

of (1)

and

= = y

ci sin

4

+
4

c2

cos 4
Ci

+

c 3 sin t

c4

cos
c3

i

-f

^ sin 2

Z,

(9)
.

c% sin

+

cos 4

+

c\ sin

cos
:

+

^ cos 2

(10)

The method

of solving
(6),

may
4
1

be modified as follows
substitute this value in

Having found

as before

the value of x in

we may
Ci sin

(1).

We
t

have then
l sin 2
1
,

.whence

Dy = =
?/

4
Ci

4

c2

cos 4
2

1

+
cos

c 3 sin
t

+

c4

cos

cos 4

c 2 sin

4

c3

+

c 4 sin t

+

l cos 2

+

C.

The constant C

is

found to be zero by substitution

in (2),

and we have again

the solution (10).

195. The linear The equation

differential equation

with variable

coefficients.

^coefficients p v p 2 p n _ lt p n are functions of x, can be solved in terms of elementary functions. In fact, such rarely an equation usually defines a new transcendental function. We

where the

,

,

may, however, easily deduce certain simple properties
tion of (1).

of the solu

Consider

first

the equation

which

differs

from
yn

(1) in that
-\&amp;gt;

the right-hand side

is zero.

V Vv y^
(2),

Vn are

n

linearly independent
is

* solutions of

then the general solution of (2)

y = c iVi+ c 2/2+
2

+c

-i2/-i+

c n yn

&amp;gt;

(

3)

where

c

v

c

-

2,

,

cn _

v

cn

are arbitrary constants.

The fact that
substitution in

(3) is a solution of (2)
(2).

may easily be verified by direct

That

(3)

is

upon the

fact that it contains

n

the general solution of (2) depends arbitrary constants, and the number

of constants in the general solution of a differential equation is equal

to the order of the equation.
* The n functions t/,, y 2 no relation of the form
,

This statement

we

shall not prove.
if

,

yn-i, yn are said to be linearly independent
H-----\-a.n-\y n

there

exists

i2/i

+

2 2/ 2

-\

+ a n yn = 0,
&quot;

where a v a 2

,

,

a n -i, a n are constants,

and = means

identically

equal.&quot;

VARIABLE COEFFICIENTS
Keturning now to
(1),

355

If y

i

and u

is is

l/n-v Vn y* any particular
&amp;gt;

we may say are n H near ty independent
:

solutions of (2),

solution of (1), then the general solution
c,y,

f

W
The

y
c

= c,y, +

+

+c

n

yn +

u,

(4)

where

v

c

2,

,

cn

are arbitrary constants.

fact that (4) is a solution of (1)

may

be verified by substi

tution.

The

fact that

it

is

the general solution

we

shall accept

without proof.
It appears

now

ular integral of

that the complementary function and the partic 192 are only special cases of (4). There exists,
(4)

however, no general method of finding the solution coefficients of (1) are not constant.

when

the

Methods

of solution

may, however,

exist in special cases,

and

we

shall notice especially the equation

a n are constants. This equation has the -, a n _ v that each derivative is multiplied by a power of x peculiarity It can be reduced to a linear equal to the order of the derivative.

where a v a 2

,

equation with constant coefficients, by placing

For

dx

..,-. dx
dz

dz

dz

dz~

dz&amp;gt;

dz

dz\

dz ]

2

dz\

_dz

~
~dz*

d?

+

&quot;

C

~dz

where

D=

-

dz

356
Hence

THE LINEAK DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
x
ctx

= Dy,

dx s
Placing x

dx 2

dx

=

ez

,

and making the substitution as above, we have

whence

y

=

GI

+

c2 z

+

c s e~ 2s H

e2z

=

GI

+

c2

(logx)

+

H

:

z2

.

196. Solution

by

series.

The solution

of a linear differential

equation can usually be expanded into a Taylor s or a Maclaurin s series. This is, in fact, an important and powerful method of
shall limit investigating the function defined by the equation. ourselves, however, to showing by examples how the series may be obtained. The method consists in assuming a series of the form

We

where

and the coefficients a Q a v a 2 are undetermined. This then substituted in the differential equation, and and the coefficients are so determined that the equation is identically satisfied.
-

m

,

,

series is

m

We assume a series of the form given above, and write the expression for each term of the differential equation, placing like powers of x under each other. We have then
d 2y

(m-t-r)a,rX

m+ r +

-3^ = dx

-

Adding these results, we have an expression which must be identically equal to zero, since the assumed series satisfies the differential equation. Equating to
zero the coefficient of x
1 &quot;-

1
,

we have

m (m

4)

a

=

0.

(1)

SOLUTION BY SEKIES
Equating
to zero the coefficient of

357

xm

,

we have

(m

+

1)

(m

-

3) ai

+

(m

-

2)

a
,

=
-

0.

(2)

m+r Finally, equating to zero the coefficient of x
relation
(

we have
r

the

more general
(3)

m+r+

1)

(m

+

r

- 3)a r + 1 + (m +

2)a r

=

0.

We

shall gain nothing

as the first term of the series.

m is assumed by placing a = in equation (1), since Hence to satisfy (1) we must have either
a&amp;lt;&

m=
Taking the
first

or

m=

4.

of these possibilities,
ai

namely
2

m=
7T a ro)

0,

we

have, from

(2),

=
jj-

ao,

and from

(3),

r

+

i

=
(r

r

+

(4)

1) (r

This last formula

(4)

the previous one, a,.. Thus we find a 2 coefficients after as equal to zero.

enables us to compute any coefficient, a r + i, when we know = J a 1 = 1 a a 3 = 0, and therefore all
,

Hence we have as one solution

of the differential equation the polynomial

take

Returning now to the second of the two possibilities for the value of m, we m = 4. Then (2) becomes 6 ai + 2 a = 0,
(3)

and

becomes

ar + i

=
(r

4-2

+

5)(r

+

r-

(6)

l)

Computing from
have the solution

this the coefficients of the first four

terms of the

series,

we

\

5
(7)

6-6

5-6-7

/

We

have now in
Hence, by

(5)

and

two independent solutions of the
y

differential

equa

tion.

195, the general solution is

= -

Ciyi

+

C2 y2 .

Ex.

2.

Legendre

s equation.

(1

x2)

ax 2

2x

ax

+ n (n +

1)

y

=

0.

Assuming the general form
d 2y dx 2
2

of the series,
-f

we have
-1
-f (in -f

= m (m

1)

aox m

~2

Ow

+

1)

wiaix&quot;

2)(m

+ 1) a 2 x m +

,

d y ~^~=
2x

-m(m-l)aox
2

,

=
dx

waox m

,

n(n

358

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
to zero the coefficients of x m ~
2
,

Equating

x

&quot;-

1
,

and x m we have
,

m (m
(m

-

1)

a

= =

0,

(1)
(2)

(m

+

2)

(7/1

+

1)

a2

+ 1) mai 0, - (m - n) (m +

n

+

1)

o

=

0.

(3)

To find a general law for the coefficients, we will find the term containing x m + r-2 i n each of the above expansions, this term being chosen because it con tains a r in the first expansion. We have
zjf-ss

dx 2

----\-(m

+

r}

(m

+

r

-

1)

a,.x&quot;

+r-2

+

,

_

X

2^ = ---- (m + r - 2)(w + r -3) a
dx 2 dx

r

_2X&quot;

+r-2

-,
---,

_2x^ =
n(n

---- 2(7M + r-2)a r _ 2 x- +

&quot;-

2

+ l)y=

+

n

(n

+

l)a r _ 2 x

nt

+r-2

+

.

The sum
(m

of these coefficients equated to zero gives

+

r)

(m

+

r

-

1)

ar

- (m - n +
placing
is

r

-

2)

(m

+

n

+

r

-

1)

ar -

2

=

0.

(4)

take

We may satisfy (1) either by m = 0. Then, from (2), a\

m=
;

arbitrary

or by placing from (3)

m = 1. We

shall

n(n

+
r

1)

lf.\

and from

(4)

ar

=-

(n

+

2)(n

+

r

1)

_

ar _ 2

.

(6)

By means

of (6)

we determine

the solution

j

^
[3

(n-l[

^
[6

\

we have in (7) the general solution of the dif In fact, the student will find that if he takes the value the second series in (7). ?7i = 1 from (1), he will obtain again Particular interest attaches to the cases in which one of the series in (7) reduces to a polynomial. This evidently happens to the first series when n By is an even integer, and to the second series when n is an odd integer.
Since

and

a\ are arbitrary,

ferential equation.

giving to a

or a\ such numerical values in each case that the polynomial

SOLUTION BY SERIES
is

359
(7)

equal to unity

when x equals

unity,

we

obtain from the series in

the

polynomials

4-2
PS
each of which
coefficients.

4-2
2

=

0-7 5 x, 4-2

7-5 s x, 4-2

+

H

5-3 -4-2

x,

satisfies a Legendre s differential equation in which n has the value indicated by the suffix of P. These polynomials are called Legendre s

Ex.

3.

BesseVs equation,
series for

x2

^

+

x

(x

2

- n2

)

y

=

0.

Assuming the d 2y
dy

y

in the usual form,

we have

+

(m

+

l) ai x

+i

+ m

Equating to zero the sum of the coefficients of the have

first

three powers of x,

[(m

+

2)

2

-

n 2 ]a 2

+

a

=

0.

(3)

To

obtain the general expression for the coefficients,
x2

we have
m+r

^2
dy
2
?/

=

+

(m

+

r)

(m

-f

r

l)a,.x

+

,

*-=
n

&quot;.

+

&amp;lt;m

+

r;

=

Equating to zero the sum of these
[(m

coefficients,

we have

+

r)2- n 2]a r
7/1

+

ar _ 2

=

0.

(4)

Equation

(1)

from

(2), (3),

be satisfied by and (4) we have

may
Oi

=

n.

We
flt

will take first

m=

n.

Then

=

0,

a2

=

^
2(2 n

-.

+

2)

r(2n

^-a +

r)

360
By

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
we
obtain the series

use of these results

Similarly,

by placing
1 4.

m=
2(2

(
If,

--n_
T2
2)

n,

we
\-

obtain the series
y4 *

2

4- (2n

-

----2)(2n
4)

\
.

)

(6)

/

now, n is any number except an integer or zero, each of the series (5) and converges and the two series are distinct from each other. Hence in this case the general solution of the differential equation is
(6)

If

n

=

0,

the two series

(5)

and

(6)

are identical.

If

n

is

a positive integer,

series (6) is meaningless, since some of the coefficients become infinite. If n is a negative integer, series (5) is meaningless, since some of the coefficients become

Hence, if n is zero or an integer, we have in (5) and (6) only one par ticular solution of the differential equation, and another particular solution must be found before the general solution is known. The manner in which this may
infinite.

be done cannot, however, be taken up here. The series (5) and (6) define new transcendental functions of x called BesseVs functions. They are important in many applications to mathematical physics.

PROBLEMS
Solve the following equations
1.
:

8^ + 2 V = 0.
dx

10.^ + 8^ + 16^ = 0. dx dx
2

2.

j|
3.

+ 8y = a;* +

Jsinx.

11.

+ 9y =
dx*

0.

^-2y = e^+e-cosx. dx

12.

^ - 6^ +
dx

13y

=

0.

4.

^ + y = 8e-* +
dx
dx

aj^.

13.

? + 2^-8y=*dx dx*
dx 2
y

5.

+

4y

= G sm 2x.
+

14.

=

8.

dx

-.!,

= _?__ x x
e

15.

e-

16.

8.

dx2

+

2V-Sy = dx
5

0.

17.

9

^&amp;gt;_

^=
dx

0.

18.

^ + 8^-100 = ^ + 3^-47/ = ^ + 3^ ^ + ^dx 2 dx

6

dx2

dx

dx 2

dx

dx 2

dx*

dx

PROBLEMS

361

21.

(X-3)2
5e
23. *UL
r o 2:c

dX 3
o

dx2

dx
.

sm3x.

An d y 42. 3

-j

d y ~

2

= x8

24.

^| +
d 2 ?/

y

=

2sin6zsin3x.
fa

nf,

26
dx 2

+

3

-

x sin 2

dx
d7

+

dy
di

rrt
(ia.

d&quot;V

f-

2

^C??/
^-

+o

?/

x 2 e~ x 4-

,1

e 3 *.

/7r

46
dy

=2x

on

^ 2 ?/ d 3^
.

^2/

O1 1

o

d 2y

^rO.

47-

/7r

OT

?/

IS

oft 32

-^ + dx =
?/

^

3

^y

dv
-

= 2a: +

23

-

10

-

(

dx4

-J

=
dx 2

2

dQ
dy

37.

1-

y

=

te*

-+-

fl-^rnsrr

gQ

&quot;

-^

_

q2

__

362
51.

THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

#-Sx dx + dx
2

a

V

=

0.

54. x

dx 3

+ 8*

dx 2

+

*
dx

52

-

*+&quot;

+

v=&quot;&amp;lt;**.

56. x

53

*-.ft + *-&amp;lt;**
means
0.

+ 3x2
:

-

Solve the following equations by
57.

of series

a*^ + (x-2x2)^-0y =
dx 2

60.

dx

^ x^ + dx + dx
x2
2

(x

-

6)y

=

0.

59.

(x-x

dx2

+

5

dx

+

6^0.

62.

(

l

+

dx 2

+

x- W =
dx

0.

63. particle of unit mass moving in a straight line is acted on by an attracting force in its line of motion directed toward a center and proportional to the distance of the particle from the center, and also by a periodic force equal
to a cos
kt.

A

Determine

its

motion.

particle of unit mass moving in a straight line is acted on by three an attracting force in its line of motion directed toward a center and proportional to the distance of the particle from the center, a resisting force proportional to the velocity of the particle, and a periodic force equal to a cos kt. Determine the motion of the particle.

64.

A

forces,

65.

Under what conditions will
?

oscillations the amplitudes of

the motion of the particle in Ex. 64 consist of which increase without limit as the time increases

without limit

CHAPTER XIX
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
197. Introduction.
tion

A partial

differential equation is

an equa

which involves partial derivatives. The general solution of such an equation involves one or more arbitrary functions. Thus

z

f(x

y,

y

x)

is

a

solution
is

of

the

equation

--h
vx

-

=
2

(

113, Ex. l),no matter what
f(x-\-at)-\-f^(x

cy the form of the function/. Also

z=
(

at) is a solution of the

equation
ct

=a

-

ex
.

no matter what are the forms of the f unctions /x and/2 Only in comparatively few cases can the solution of a partial In general, the differential equation be written down explicitly.
1 18,

Ex.

2),

nature and the properties of functions denned by such equations must be studied by the methods of advanced mathematics. In a
practical application, the problem is usually to determine a func tion which will satisfy the differential equation and at the same

time meet the other conditions of the practical problem.
198. Special forms of partial differential equations.
differential equations

Partial

sometimes occur which can be readily solved successive integration with respect to each of the variables, or by which can be otherwise solved by elementary methods. No general discussion can very well be given for such equations, but the fol
lowing examples will illustrate them.
Ex.
1.

-5L =
dxcy

0.

By

integration with respect to y,

we have

,

where

X

is

an arbitrary function.
z

Integrating with respect to x,

we have

=

02 (z)

+

03 (y),

where both

2

and

8

are arbitrary functions.

303

364
Ex.2.
If

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
ax 2

?U-a%.
this equation

x were the only independent variable, the solution of
z

would be

=

GI sin

ax

+

c2

cos ax.

This solution will also hold for the partial differential equation if we simply impose upon Ci and 2 the condition to be independent of x but not necessarily independent of the other variables. That is, if z is a function of x and y, we have for the solution of the differential equation
c,

z

=

0i (y ) s in ax

+

2

(y) cos ox,

where 0i(y) and

2 (y) are arbitrary functions.

te.a^-^=o. ax
a?/
2

2

Placing x

+

ay

=

M,

and x

ay

=
2

u,

we have

(

***_.*.*;+ aw
a?/
2

awai?

A
118)

au2

e*z_s2z
az 2
&quot;^

a 2z

2

2

and the

differential equation

becomes

the solution of which (Ex.

1) is

Z

=

01 (U)

+ + +
1

2 (fl).

Hence the solution

of the given equation
z

is

= =

0! (Z
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;i(x

ay)
iy)

+

2

(x

-

ay).

When

a

2

=

1,

we have

z

+
0.
2

as the solution of the equation

-- -- =
ax2 ay

199.

The

linear partial differential equation of the first order.

Consider the equation

*
where P,
Q,

+

-*
more
of
of (1) is a function (2)

and
x, y,

R

are constants or functions of one or
z.

the variables

and

The solution
*

=/(,
it

y),

which, substituted in

(1),

reduces

to an identity.

LINEAR EQUATION OF FIRST ORDER
Now
of

365

equation (2) represents a surface, the normal at any point
: :

which has the direction
normal

1

(

112).

Equation
is

(1) there

fore asserts that the

to (2) at

any point

perpendicular to

P\Q:R (98, (5)). Consequently we may start from any point on (2) and, moving in the direction P:Q\R, remain always on the surface. That is, the surface (2) is covered by a
the direction

family of curves each of which

is

a solution of the simultaneous

equations

dx

_dy _dz
and hence we reach the conclu

~P~~Q~ R
Now
(2) is

any solution

of (1),

sion that the solution of (1) consists of all surfaces which are cov ered by a family of curves each of which is a solution of (3).

We may
(3),

obtaining, as in

proceed to find these surfaces as follows 185, the solution

:

Let us solve

u (x,
Then,
if

y, z)

= cv

v

(x, y, z)

=c

2

.

(4)

we form

the equation
&amp;lt;l&amp;gt;(u,v)=Q,

(5)

where

any function whatever, we have a surface which is covered by curves represented by (4). For if in (4) we give c x and = 0, the corresponding curve lies on (5). c such values that c 2 (c v 2)
&amp;lt;

is

&amp;lt;

by means of (5) we have assembled the curves (4) into surfaces, and have therefore the solution of (1). We may formu That
late
is,

our result into the following rule
solve the equation

:

To

P
dx

+Q
dy

=R

y

solve first

7

n

.

,

7

.

dx

tlie

equations

P
u

= dy = dz
Q
v

R

for

the solution

= cv
\$ (u,

Then
where

the equation
is
&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

= cr = 0, v)
solution of the partial dif

an arbitrary function,

is the

ferential equation.

366
Ex.

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
(ny

mz)

C -

ex

+

(Iz

nx)^ = mx cy

ly.

(1)

We

form the equations
ny

mz

=
Iz

dy nx

=

_^_ mx
ly

,

(2 )

the solutions of which are

x2

+

y

2

+

z2

=

cb

Ix

+ my +

nz

=

c2

.

(3)

Hence

the solution of (1)
2

is

(x

+

2
?/

+

2 2 , te

+ my +

712)

=

0.

(4)

Geometrically, the first equation of (3) represents all spheres with their cen ters at the origin, and the second equation of which represents all
(3)

planes

are normal to the line

(3) taken simultaneously represent all circles whose centers are in the line (5) arid whose planes are perpendicular to Equation (5). (4), then, represents all surfaces which can be formed out of these circles that is, all surfaces of revolution which have the line (5) for an axis. These surfaces
;

Hence the two equations

of revolution

form the solution

of

(1).

200. Laplace s equation in the plane. equation in the plane,

Solutions of Laplace

s

have already been found in 172, 198. Another method of Let us place V = XY, dealing with this equation is as follows where is a function of x alone and Y is a function of y alone, and ask if it is possible to determine and Y so that s
:

X

equation

may

be

satisfied.

Laplace Substituting in the given equation

X

and dividing by XY, we have

X
which may be put

L** + 1^1=0
&quot;

dx 2

Y df

in the

form
~

X

dz?

Y dy

2 -

According to the hypothesis, the left-hand member of contain y and the right-hand member cannot contain

(2)
x.

cannot

Hence

LAPLACE

S

EQUATION IN THE PLANE

367
.

a2 they are each equal to some constant, which we will denote by Then (2) breaks up into two ordinary differential equations,

-a*Y=0.
ay-

(4)

By

190, the solution of (3)

is

and the solution

of (4) is

Y= B
Hence

l

cos

ay

-f

I&amp;gt;

2

sin ay.

V e ax cos ay, V = e~ ax cos ay,

V = e ax sin ay, V = e~ ax sin ay,
a2 we should
,

are particular solutions of the given equation.

the value of the constant had been denoted by have obtained the particular solutions
If

V = eay cos ax, V e~ ay cos ax,

V = eay sin ax, V = e~ ay sin ax.
are, in
fact,
iaz
,

The particular solutions thus obtained
the imaginary parts of the functions
e
az
,

the real and
e
iaz
(

e~

az
,

e~

and

172).

The sum
plied

by an

of (1), each multi constant, is also a solution of (1), as is easily arbitrary
of

two

or

more particular solutions

verified.

Hence we may form the

particular solutions

F=A

, -f-

VA
m=l

e~ mv sin

mx + 2,Bme~ my cos mx
m=l

t

(5)

m=l m= oo
Q

m= oo

V = A + ^ A memy sm mx +
solution (6) becomes infinite with y.

Bm e my cos mx.
rn=l

(6)

Solution (5) has the property of reducing to

A when y =

oc,

while

Ex. Find the permanent temperature at any point of a thin rectangular plate TT and of infinite length, the end being kept at the temperature unity and the long edges being kept at the temperature zero.
If

u

is

the temperature,

it is

known

+-

that u satisfies the differential equation

368
If

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
take the end of the plate as the axis of x, and one of the long edges as we have to solve (1) subject to the conditions
:

we

the axis of y,

if

x X

if
if if

= =

0,
TT,

u

=

0,
&amp;lt;&amp;gt;,

(2)
(3) (4)

*
y

=
=
0,

,

= U = 0,
u

=
oo

1.

(5)

Condition

(4) is satisfied

by the solution

m= oo
M

m=
my sin ?nx
-f

=

m=l

^T A m e-

^

7^ m e~

W cos rax.
2/

=1

By

condition

(2),

=
m=l
and hence

for all values of y,

Bm =
,

for all values of m.

Our

solution

is

now

reduced to

= *,
m ^ sin
rax,

w
which
satisfies (2),

=

^V -4 m e~ m=l

(3),

and

(4).

In order that

it

determine the coefficients

A m that
m sin mx.

may

satisfy (5),

we must

so

(6)

m=l
But
.

(6) is

a special form of a Fourier s series

(

159, 160).
to. TT.

multiply
TT (

2 /I

- -(6)

Accordingly,
result,

by

sin

mx dx, and
whence
)

integrate

from
2

cos m7r\

m

A =
I

4

n

=

AS = *
5

41 ~

As a

we we have

Therefore

- e~^v

sin3x

3
is

+ ~e~ 5 v sin 5x +
the conditions.

)

/

the solution of our problem, since

it satisfies all

201. Laplace s equation in three dimensions.

The general form

of Laplace s equation in rectangular coordinates is

If cylindrical coordinates are used, (1)

becomes
&quot;

VV_
8r*

+

r~fr
(1)

\W +

ld*V

7

W +,W_ d?d&amp;lt;f&amp;gt;

and in polar coordinates

becomes

dr

dr
sm&amp;lt;j&amp;gt;ci&amp;lt;l&amp;gt;\

LAPLACE
of this text.
(3) in

S

EQUATION IN THKEE DIMENSIONS 369
of these equations is

The general discussion

beyond the limits

We

the special
0.

of shall, however, consider particular solutions in which V is independent of the diedral case

angle

In that case
a /
( 2

=

0,

and

(3)
.

reduces to
,

r 0r
Letting V function of

r

&quot;

ar ~
0r

i

a /

sm

dv
a

=

7t&amp;lt;,

where

R

is

a function of r alone and

4&amp;gt;

is

&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;

alone,

we may

dif replace (4) by the two ordinary

ferential equations

-

- a?R =
)

0,

dr /
sin
2 where a

(5)

(6)
(j)

d(j)

\

d(f&amp;gt;

an arbitrary constant. Expanding (5), we have
is

the solution of which

is,

by

195,

where

m=

J

+ V^ + iand
(6)

2

From

this

value

of

m

we have

a =
2

m (m + 1),

becomes

sin

(j)

d(f&amp;gt;

Changing the independent variable from we have Legendre s equation ( 196, Ex. 2),

to

(f&amp;gt;

t,

where

t

= cos

&amp;lt;,

In the particular case in which
4&amp;gt;

m

is

an

integer,

we may

choose for

Legendre

s coefficient

JJ(Q=.(C08^).

Therefore the particular solutions of (4) are

370

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
coordinates,
s

If the center of the ring is

Ex. Find the potential due to a circular ring of small cross section and radius a. taken as the origin of and the axis
is

OZ

perpendicular to the plane of the ring, Laplace
*
/

equation assumes the
(1)

form

*v\

i

a - /sin0 aFX _)=0,

since,

from the symmetry

of the problem,

V is

independent of

6.

This equation

is satisfied

by

V=
where

(2)

Am

and

At any

Bm are arbitrary constants. point on the axis OZ distant r from the origin

VOa
where

2 -f r

(3)

is the mass of the ring (see Ex. 9, p. 90). = 0, cos0 = 1, and by 196, Ex. 2, Pm (cos0) = Then, when same time the right-hand members of (2) and must be i.e.

M

1.

At

the

(3)

equal

m=
and the
coefficients

Am

and

Bm =

must be chosen

so as to satisfy this equation.

If r&amp;lt;a(31,

Ex.4),

w
Va2 + r 2

_
\

2 a2

2

4 a4

andifr&amp;gt;a,

V2 + r
we
6tC

J^ = ^
a

a
(

_

1

a \r
s

2 r3

g + LJ g? _
2

.\
/

4 r5

Hence

if

r&amp;lt;a,

place all the

equal to zero,

A -

,

--2

^=

0,

^4 2

=

~a a

an

and
&quot;

if

r&amp;gt;a,

we
,

place all the ^4

s

equal to zero,

B =

.a,

B =
l

--- -

0,

B2 =

a3

,

and obtain the solution

PROBLEMS
Solve the following equations
1.
:

=
a* 2

a*z.

3.

^-a dx = W
d

ez

0.

5

^ + 4^w ^
-

Z-

x

^- = 2 sx 9

a

ax

^-

4

-

?x 2

-5
ax

+ 62 =

0.

6.

=

w. y

axay

PKOBLEMS
7.

371
t

dxdy

= +
ez

x*

+
!.

7/2.

13.

ex

ly

ez _ 8. ex
,

_=
ly

,,

14.x
15. x

ez

ex
0.

--\-y

z

=

z.

cy

9.

x

--y- = ex cy
ex

*--xy ex

+
ey

2
?/

=

0.

10.

2ZX- + 2Z2/- =
ay

Z2.

16. XZ

K
ex

+y Z EZ =Xy.
cy
ey
(x

cy

ex

ex
-to

10

&amp;lt;

z

12.

y

- x

cz
eiy

=

CZ

1.

ex

18. y

ex

+

+

^

CZ

z)

=

y.

cy

19.

Find particular solutions of the equation
t.

nometric functions of x and

^= ^
a2

in

terms of trigo

20. Find particular solutions of Laplace s equation in the plane in polar
,.

coordinates

d*V cV F -- ---- --- =
1
1

c2

1

1

0.

cr2

r dr

r2 c^ 2

21. Find the permanent temperature at any point in a semicircular plate of radius unity, the circumference of which is kept at the temperature unity and the bounding diameter of which is kept at the temperature 0, given that the temperature u satisfies the differential equation of Ex. 20.

where u is the ex 2 and x is measured parallel to the direction in which temperature at any time the heat flows. If a slab of thickness TT is originally at the temperature unity
linear flow of heat
is
,

22.

The equation for the
,

=

a2

ct

ture at

throughout, and both faces are then kept at a temperature 0, find the tempera any point of the slab, the slab being so large that only the flow of heat
to its

normal

bounding faces need be considered.

(The answers to some problems are intentionally omitted.)

Page 33

CHAPTER

II

12. log(logx).
13. log(tan-ix).

19.

_

-log

(a

+

6cosz).

24. log

20
4(1

:

25.
x2)2

+

-- _
1
(1

Ve 2 * + tan2x.
n) [log(x

-

+ o)]-i

21

26

-

tan-ix-l!.

27.

Page 34
28.

Oa
29.
30. x

(

2 e *

+

6)3.

37. - (esc bx b 38.
-

-

ctn bx).

- 2 Va 2 - x 2
-

.

-ctn (ax a

+

6).

31. 32. 33.
,

34.

-

-=(Vox-Vte)*
-

=

x | sin 4x. 43. log(cscx ctnx) 44. C os3x.
42.

+

2cosx.

-2
&amp;lt;

35
36.

? sin4x

45.
6)

tan x

+

ctnx.
x.

-L + 6a [sine (ox

- cos

(ax

+

46&amp;gt;

6)1

47.

- sec 3 x) 2tanx-secx-x.
tan 3 x

98.
i

375

99.

~
V2

log(2x+V4x2-3).
log (2 x

101.

1

102.

*2

+ 2-V2
a - Vz* -

100.

3x-V2

.

103. log (x

-

tan

2 x tan

a-

l)

Page 36
104. lo
105. log (x 106.

+

sin

a + Vz 2 +

2 x sin

a+

l).

2
107.

V3

3x

-

3

+ V3
2

-V5

-3

108. ilo

x-5
- 6x +
3).

109.

\/3
110.

111.

v2
112. |

log(2x

+

2

-

10).

lo

113. i

114.

115. 2 116. 3
117.

+ x -f 2 - 4 log(2x + 1 + 2 Vx2 + x + 2). Vx2 + 4x - 1 + log (a + 2 + Vx^T^^).
Vx2
-

2

V2

2+V3
119. 5 sin-i ?-

V5
120.

+ 2 Vl -

4x

-

x2.

-

121. ~ Iog(4x2 122.

+

4xsec
2

+

tan a)

_

^

Vs
log

2^+sec^-

-3Vl-2x-x

376
123.

1

,2x4-3

124. i log(x 125. log(x
log a

2

+ Vx 4

a

4

)

2V5 - i sec- ~
1

V5
.

-f

Vx 2 -

l)

+

sec-ix.
131.
132.
)

4 log a

127.
1

128. 4 log a

(

a2x

2

_

a- 2 *

133.
c(l

129.

+

log a)

134.
2

n log a
~l
&amp;lt;

2m log 6

n log a

+ m log 6

135.
1

136.

137.
log a

log (a*

4- 1

+Va + 2 a* 4- sec
2a:

2

a).

138.

140.

2x -alog(e4-l).
x
(e

141. 2 log

+

1)

-

x.

pax

152.

sec- 1

.

ab
153. x
154.
155.
63

_b
1).
4-

sV

+ 4 Vx 4- 41og(Vx 2 - 6 x 46) (2 x (5 x
log(a

3)1

+

bx)

+

156
157. 3 158. isec- 1 -.

a

a

159. T

160.
161.

V Vx2 + a2 (3 x4 - 4 a2x 2 + 8 a4 ^x4 - 3V 14 x 3 - 5

)

.

49(5
162.

-7x
+

3 2
)

4(1

2x2
x2 ) 2
4
4-

163. log
151. J (x 2

Vx 2 +

-

2 a2 )

Va2 + x2

.

164.

179.

(sin

ax

ax cos ax).
183

181.
.

2 2 * -(a x sec- ax

- Va 2x 2 a3 ax

l).

x2
.

sin

185.
1 86.

ax
-|

2 x cos ax

2 sin ax
.

a

a2 a2x 2
2

-

[(3

-

6) sin

-

3 3 (a x

-

6 ax) cos ax].

187. x [(log ax)

188. 27 * 3 [9 (log ax) 2
189.
190. 191. 192.
--

8 a2

-2 log ax + 2]. -G log ax + 2 J2x2 - 2 ax sin 2 ax - cos 2 axl. [2 a
(2

^e
^e
-

2:r

+ cos2x +

sin2x).

^ex [5(cosx + sinx) - (cos3x + 3 sin 3 x)].
sx 4 a2

193.

[^(3sm4x - 4 cos 4 x) + T 3 (3sin2x 2 2 - a 2 x 2 ]. [(2 a x 1) sin- ax + ax Vl
1 1

2 cos 2 x)]

378
2

-a 2

a2 log

x

+ Vz 2 -

a2 \
)

23. 24.

21

-

*
2 | log

22.

-.
36.
.6366.

25

2-

5
-

e

Page 62
35.

IT.

Page 63
46. .4621. 47. .016. 48. .8746.

CHAPTER IV
Page 80
1.

170 f.

2.

|a

2
.

3.

22.

67r

-|

23.
24.
2

|7ra

.

25. 5?.

27

-(-3
a
/

00 1 Q 33. i7ra d \e a
-

I

e

+

Tra 2 h.

97

34. 47ra 3 (21og2
35.

-1).

f

7ra 3 (31og2

-2).

36. ITT (a 2
4_

-

ft

2
)*.

^^3

.

77-2^25

_

4

Tj-a-3

^

i

s

the distance from the diameter of

semi-circle to the axis).
38.
4 Trafr2
.

42.

39. 27T 2 a6cL
73

40.

3a2
41.

^

43.

(3

a
2

+

ft).

44 44.

_
T^ 5

^^(^

ANSWEKS
Page 83
45.

37 J

_5A_ (3 h* +

4Q pah*
is

+ 240 pW).

46.

]

vpW (5 a - 3
is

ft).

47. 1 7ra 3 (l
of the cone).

cos a:) (a

and 2 a

the vertical angle
* a&2

48. 07r(l
54. 55.
56.

+

OVOTr).
z

49.

rra 8

.

50.
?,

Tra 3

.

53.

.

a3
(TT

tan

(a is the radius of the cylinder).
is

%)ha (a
2

and h
is

is

the altitude).

4 /m (a
4
/
1

is

and h

the altitude).

57. 2rrh 2 58.

Vpip 2 (pi and p z

are the respective parameters of the parabolas).

-a
8

3

\

)

+

7T\

-

1

(a is

2/

Page 84
59.
6

7ra 2 6.
is

60. T Q4j a 3 (a

the parameter of the hypocycloids).
67.
,

61.

a& 2

.

a --} -U-ej.
(

-

71

-

8a

-

78
68
63. 1152 cu. in.
64. 65.

.

l-

73&amp;gt;

73

2
1

^[(4 + 0A)-8].
log(e

4 (a 2 -

+
a

a&

2 -f 6 )

74

177

r

in
ft.

11+6

+

75. 1007

e-i).

66. Ga.

Page 85
77.
* a.

78.

|7ra.

79. 80.

80. 27ra(h 2

-

hi) (a

is

84.

81.

irVA +
a
--.

&amp;gt;*-*.

iTra 2

.

82

x-

,

-

gg

83. 27ra 2
87. 27T& 2

+
2.

-

-

siu-ie

(e is

the eccentricity of the ellipse).
89. 47ra 2 (2

88.

3/7ra

-V2).

CHAPTER V

1

-

7

(Hs the length of the wire).

C(C+f)

380
-

r- sinC
(I

is

the length of the wire) in a direction bisecting the angle
10.

0.

9.

^/I a
2

\c

v^Ttf/

L=Y

11.

^ 2 - V(c +

O

2

+

a 2 ).

Page 100
12.
,

sm
2

.

21. 22. | a below the surface. 2 23. w.

14.

2ac).
3 (a

^ba

15

+

below the
2
c)

I a below the surface. 25. 2 a6 2 iy (the axis 2 a being in the
-

24

surface.
16. 18.

surface). 26. fir -n-b below the surface. 27. 2250 Ib.

20.

28. 781.25 Ib.

Page 101
29. 2234| ft.-lb. 30. 769.4 Ib.
31. 33. 88.4 tons.

36.

(fa, fa).
(0,

34.
35.

41 tons

37.
38.

fa).

104 If tons.

32. 8333 _L foot-tons. 39.

On
(

40.

\5 4 / the axis, three fifths of the distance from the vertex to the chord. k, 0)(x = k is the equation of the ordinate).
42.
7T

k ^}.
V

2

(If,

-^.

43

-

(t

,

\3

3

7T,

,5

57

Page 102
48.
\5

**
*} m2 m I
9 9

51.

176 ?
fp,

V
TT)/

5 (2

+

3

46. 47. Intersection of the

49.

52.

/i^,ii^&)
r

3?r

50.

medians.
53.

(-, \2 2

+ -^-1.
12p/

the radius perpendicular to the base of the hemisphere and three eighths of the distance from the base. 54. On the diameter of the sphere perpendicular to the planes, at a distance \ (hi + hz) from the center.
55. x

On

58.

= y = =

a.

56.
(y
is

y=

|fc.

57.

x

=

5 T^ 6

2

(6

=

4 pa).

^ yi
b.

the ordinate of the point of intersection of the line and the

parabola).
59. 60.

y

fir

At

the middle point of the radius of the hemisphere perpendicular to

the base.

61.
base.
62.

381

On

the axis of the cone, two thirds of the distance from the vertex to the

On

of the distance

the radius of the hemisphere perpendicular to the base, two thirds from the base to the vertex.

CHAPTER VI
Page 117

21. I log(4x 2 22.
23.

+ 4x +
log [(x

2)

+

3

zJx2
1x2

Jx

tan-i(2x
3)6].

+
1

1).

-!)( +

+

1

Iog(9x2
6 Iog(x2

+

12x

+

8)

+
4

24.

+ 4x +

- 2x -

1)

+

22 ~^
tan-i^t?.

V2 log^
x

~1 - 1 + V2

9.

Sx

lo-ff

(X
1

-

2)

)*.

382
30.

x2
2

- 2x +

log (3
1

+

1)

+

1

1 log(2x

-

1)

+ V- lo S(x +

3 )-

31.

^ (x

+

x)

+

+

3)

32. Iog[x 3

(2x-l)]

X

33. log(x

+

2x
2) -f

(x

+

2)2

34.

log[(x-l)V2x

2 (2 x

+

3)

Page 118
35.

2x

log (x

+

2).

38. x

+

-

oX

+

o

log(3x-2).

39.

x&amp;gt;

+

logx.

-i^- z + 8 -^rij
Vx 2 43.
1
.

4x

V2

-2+V2

44.

a
.

+

lOg
6

A

2 /x \x 2 +

6

a
1
h-

x2 5 45. - log 2 3x 2
46.

-2x+3
x2

+ +
2

= tan- *
2
^

,

*

1

3

05

2
3

V2

V2
.

VO
-^
5

V6

\
47. x
1

5 2 x

2
;

-f-

x

+

H

tan-

1

V3
+
2)

V3
3 tan1

V^9 1)

(X
2

g log (x

-

-

(x

-

tan-

1

(x

+

1).

48.

-2X)+1
/

(2x

+

4

3)

4x-3
3V3

49.

V3
50.

/

o

x
2

+ V3

/

/

V61

V51

tan-

x

2V3
51.

V3

+x 2 (x 2 + 3)

4
52. 3 log

2V2
+
17

x

2x +
1

3

3V3
g

13
53. log

4V2

xV2 xV2 +

_V3

~

3

+ 7x
2

l

2(2x -l)

CHAPTER
137
VII

383

1

+

x

+ 4 V1 +
/

x

+

2 log (x

f

, - V1 +

-

N

.

x)

+

-

= log

14.

(8x6-1) (3x6 +

1)8.

17.
18.

+ x 4 + log (x 2 + \/4 + x 4 ). + 3x - 2 /V2 tanV2
4
,

1

19.

V5
1

log

x
.

20.

lo

22.

V3 Vx 2 + 2x +
2(1

V2 + V2 x 2 + 3 x + V3 + 3X-V3-X V3 + 3x+V3-x
3

5

+ V5
21.

2(2x

+
h3).
24.

x

+

1

-

log(l

+

x

23.

+
3x

6x)

/l-3x

2(28x

3

12 x

-8)

243(1- x-2x 2 )^

17x-6 -4=tan-i Jt2f?. 25 V2 -3x-2x 2 \l-2x V2
^
sin 6 x
7 | sin x.

27. cos^3x( T1T cos8 3x

-

cos3x).

Page 138
28. I cos x

-

cos x

+

cos x

-

cosx.

x

+

gin

x\ /.

n

2x _

\

29. sinx
30.
31.

^ 2 v Icos(2x+l)[cos (2x+l) -31. - ] ros4x x
,

sin 8 x

+

sin 6 x.

1

33.

a \4

(-sm 4 ox

/I

.

\ -sin 6 ox).
.

1

384

38.

A Vco

8/

39.log

X

2*(cos*2z-7). 1+ sinrp

S

---sin8--2sin-. n
*
f\

41

&quot;i .

1-sin2
Sln 8 sin

8
1 l

*! lOg

l-cos2x l+cos2x

- -3

cos2x _

4sin22x

42. 43.
i

\

12cos*3x
tan 2 3 x

+

j*JL JL] S 8cos 2 3x 16 i log cos 3 x.

-

sin 3

x

44.
45.

1.

log sin 3 x

+

l ctn 2 3 x

- TL

ctn* 3 x.

^an3|_2tan|
46.
47.
50.
o1

+

x.

-|ctn*|+ctn|-8ctn--af. ^tan^x - ctn^x) + 2 log tan*.

^

4
&quot;

Ctn
3

l (

+

.

4cos22x

--sin2x
1

-^ctn3x(l+
8

ctn23x

+

ctn*3x+

l-sin2x
l
rf

sin2 sin2x

Q

52

5 cos5

15 cos !?

4sin 4 5 53.
-

-

~

x
5

+ ^io
16

-

ctrt

54.

-(sinax a\

_

+ 2cscax-icsc 3 axV

8-/

55.

52

-sec 5 -.

66.

385

i [x Vx

2

+

a2

-

a 2 log(

+ Vx 2 + a 2)].
x
2

67.

2 a3

Vx +
,

a2

+

a

68.

2a 2x 2
-

1

x

8
70.

x(2 x

2

+

a2 )

Vx 2 +

a2

8

log(x

+ Vx 2 +

a2 ).

8
71. 72.

2 2 2 2 -x(2x - a ) Va - x

+

8

sin-i-. a
75.

- TV(3x2 + 2a 2 )(a2 v
2 (a2
i

-

(1

+

x2 )

+

2

a

76.

x
73.

77.
78.

- V2 ax
V2ax x2

x2 x a

74.

+

a sin- 1

79.

J

(2

x2
(x

+
x
1

ax

-

3 a2 )

V2 ax x2

x2

+ -sin-i^-^.
sm-i*-^. + y ^ sin x cos x +
1

80.
81.
82.

-

i

3 a)
cos5
-

V2 ax x

+

^

sin

+

TjL

si n

x cos 3 x
.

x.

-sin

x cos 2 x

+

3 sin x

2cos2 x

+

3 log (sec x 2

+

tan

x).

83.

84.
86.

tan 3
2 cos 3

3x+
2x-3cos2x 3. --.

2 sin 2 x

1

85.

4 cos4 x

4sin 2 2x

4

log (esc 2 x

ctn 2 x).

Page 139
/

87.

15 h?

2 a5

+

2 a. i log

&quot;)92.
88.

97.
Tra 2
.

15
89.

CJ

93.

06
90.

94. f 7ra6. 95. 3 Tra 2
.

4n
99.

30
91.

96.
2.

i-4-

100.

^(7r-2)a

101.
102. 4 A/2
a.

105. 106. Tra 3 tan
0.

103.
104. 4
Tr 2 a 3 .

107.

386
Page 140
108.
(Tra,
(Tra,

*
a).

111

/

256a

256a \
315
TT/

109.

a).

\315Tr
112.

110.

2(47r-3V3),

CHAPTER
Page 154
1.

VIII

3 x2
e x8

+

2 x3

c.

3

2
?y

y2

2 ?/

=

c.

2.
3.

siny

=
-f

6.

x x2

Vl
tanx

Vi +

=

c.

7.

= ce*. = 2c?/ +

c2.

4.

=

c

cosy.

8.

21ogx + (sin- 1 -)
cosx sin y

=

c.

9.

=

c.

Page 155
10.

xsin-

=
e

c.

25. y

=

c

cosx - 2 cos 2 x.

x
x)

26.

11. x \ex

=

c.

12. (x 14.
15.

13. x 2

16.
17. 18.

+ y) 5 + 4x?/ - 2 - Gx - 2y = (y + 3)(x + y + 1) = c. (x + y)* + 2y = c. 2y = sinx cosx + ce~ x = (x + l)2(ex + c). y = ^(x + l) + c(a; + l).
?/
.

28. y 2
c.

=-

|(2 x
-J-

2

3) -f

29.

?/

2

=
=

i /I

^21

2
30.

+
x

ex
1

gtan&quot;

a;

7/

31.

32.
33.

19. x

=

-sin^
ce
x
.

34.
35.

36. 21. logx?/ 22. x 2 c2

23. 24.

+ l(x 2 -y2) = = + 2cy. 2 y = 1 + x + cVl + x = l + c x-Vl x
y=
- X
Cix
2 2

+c X 2 (l- 2 = C(l-f-X 2 ). x 2 logx 2 + (x 3 + y 3 )5 = ex 2 y (ex + 1) = e x + x + c. 3 (secx + tanx)(l + 2/4 y = ce 2 * - (2 x 2 + 2 x + 1). y = (x+ c)eax
e tan
?/
)
.

)

.

37.
38.

39.
c
2

sin ax + + c2 y = -y = y = J x 3 logx - ^ x 3 + cix + c 2
.

.

40.
41.
42.

Cl

-

x2

+

sin-

1

+

c2

.

?/

=

+

c2

.

V

r=^W(X.

43. (y + I) 2 = Cl x + c 2 44. y + Cilog(y - ci) f x

47.

y
T/

=

x

=

X

+

c2

.

c2

.

48.

=
(1X2

+ Vc
51.

2

-l)]+C 2

.

y

=

Cicosh[fc(x

+

c 2 )].

ANSWEKS
Page 156
52. y(x
53.

387

-4)2
y

=

9.
.

56.

?/

=-l+
= cx n = ax 2 + =
.

e*

tan

=

ex- 1
ce
x

57. y

54

y tan?/3

&quot;^2

r
C

58. y 59.
r&quot;

c.

2~
=

55. 4
62.
64. 65.

Q(k x

+

2.

60
c)]. is
fc

x=

y

+

Ce

y

= = =

-cosh [A: (x
a cosh
2

(& is

the constant ratio.)

y y

-1

(a

the constant length.)
1

sino

8x

K*

2

Vk*x -

_
^

63. x 2

-f

y2

=

ex.

4 x2

66. y

=

k cosh

--

Z

+

c.

(k

is

the constant ratio.)

(k is the constant ratio.)

*&quot;=

70. (x

-

2

Ci)

+
(x

(y

-

c2 ) 2

=
1.

c2

.

(c is

the given constant.)

71. ciy 2

-

c

2

-1
fc

+

c2 ) 2

=

(k is the constant ratio.)

Page 157
72.

Harmonic motion.

73.

=

2

and x
74.

=

c+-*/^fVax-x
=
if

- -sin-i

~

a
,

where

A:

is

j

the constant ratio,

a when v 0. Same velocity as

the

body

fell freely.

75.

7

miles per second.

CHAPTER X
Page 195
1.

(1,

2, 2).

2.

3.
6.

x2

+

y

2

+

z2

-

(

-L9,

_
iy&amp;gt;,

J

2x

-

4y

-

2z

-

49-).

43

=

0.

11.

cos--

e

13

2x-37/ +
ay

6z21 = 0.

Page 196
14. x 17. TTX

+ y + z - 6 = 0. - 2y - 2z + 2?r =
ef )

16.
0.
(

+
0.

kz

=

0.

18. e (x 19. x

-

e- f (y

e0.

)

+ 2y +
9

3z
7

-0 =

+ V2(z

v7 2) =
25. x
26. 27.

-

2 y

+

z

+

G

=

0.

20.

3

sin-i].*.
(i, 2, i), (i, 4, ^).

Viiio
28.

Viso Viso
29.

x-z + 2 = 0.

llx+ 13y-37 =

0,

3x+13z+

10

=

0.

388
Page 197
30. (2,
31.

1, 2).

x-l = y-l = 2-l
3

37. (1,
39.

-

1, 1).

4

32.

x-1 ~2~
x
e*

-2

40.
41.

~T~
y
e~
f

z

33.
34.

&
x
z

=
z

0,

-ey =
0.

V2 V2
t

42.

0.

43. 44.

a;

35.

2y +
1

=

+ I6y + 7z + 8 = 0. 3x-2?/-z + 4 = 0. z + lly + 52 = 0. z-6y + 2-2 = 0, 3z + y + 32-l = 0. -2 = 0. 93 x - 46 y + 13 z - 179 = 0.
x

36. cos-

-2^,
VlS

-,
2

46.
c

(1,

-2,4),

(f,

y,y).

Vl3

47.

(0, 1, 2),

CHAPTER XI
Page 218
10.

AA =

12.

AF=
sin sin (a

.396 sq. in., 5.11 cu. ft.,
ft

dA =

dV=
ft

.398 sq. 5.09 cu.

in.
ft.

11.

AL =

.057 in.,

dL =

.057 in.

h sin
j8)

cos (a

+
/3)

/

+

sin 2 (a
(zi

18. xix

+

21

/_

/

a) (z

+ a) =
+

0.

~
a2

cd

\

+

62

c2

a2

+

52

+

C 2/ a).

22. (a, a, a), a, a, a, a), ( a), (a, 23. Point of intersection of the medians.
24.

(a,

a,

V=

8 abc

2

aK
a2

3V3
Page 219
32
a2

+

b2

+

c2

a2

+
_

6*

+

c2

_+

!l*L J- Ii

1

62

c2

39. cos-

1

52

2ac

49.

0.

Page 221
\,

389

cx 2

1^ + 2-^cycx
1

70. Trlog

+V1 -a2

71. log(a

+

l).

CHAPTER
Page 234

XII

CHAPTER
Page 253
1.

XIII

2. 4.

fs Va6 (a +

3
2 6) (5 a

64a 4 Va/l
1056
\3

+

2 ab
8. 9.

+

5 6 2 ).
.

+

a

\

lUp)

if

a*

V3.

iTra 4

12.

5

iTra 4

.

6

10.
11.

f

Tra4

13
.

3465
4
.

63

T%7ra

14.

Page 254
15.

21.

24.

8 a2

.

16.
17.

(107T- /)a 4

.

22.

25.

2a 2
.

26. 2

18.

(27T-

2 |) a

.

27. 8 a 2 23.

19. OTT.

20. 29. x 2

--a

28. 2
2
.

a2 esc 2

or.

+

(y

+

z tan a) 2

=

a2

;

2 a2 (ctn

a+ a

csc 2 a).

30.

31.

32.

-37T).

Page 255
33.

10a 2 [7r-V2-log(l+V2)]. /32a (*,|a).

35. /O
\

3a

^

57r

+ 8 )\

37

H5a\
39
357T/
,

/ 26Ga

256 a\

V 15 *-

\3157r

315W

5(67r-4)/

36.

Q0 /288a 50. \1757T
I

288 a\ - I.
1757T/

40.

(

)u the axis of the sector,

4
(
(
;

a
0).

distant from the center of the circle

41.

128V2a
105
TT

42.

]a,

43.

] Tra, 0).

390
5a
iO,
48. 49.

5a(k,+ko)\
*-=:

-)

46.

,

/8a
(

106 10c\ ,_,-).
its

47.

,

/4a

26
.

8a

On
On

the axis of the cone,

~

distant from

vertex.

the axis of the cone, | of distance from vertex to base.

Page 256
50. (^ a, 51.

being in the

On

the origin, and the octant a), the center of the sphere being at octant bounded by the coordinate planes. the axis of the cone, midway between the vertex and the base.,
-|

a,

first

74.

} 2

irpa*h.

75.
76.

^L
^

fcTrA6
,

tan*a.
(fc

fora6

is

the constant ratio.) (fc the coefficient of variation.)
is

77. -firirprf-rf). of variation.) 78. | ka & (k is the coefficient
.

QM(l /i

cos a)

8Q

TTpq (2 6

-

a)

2

tan 2 a
(JW
is

&

81.

82

-3a i3^
2

the mass of the hemisphere.)
2

7

&quot;

25 a 2

\

(3f

is

the mass of the hemisphere.)

83.

^
.

(M is

the mass of the ring.)

CHAPTER XIV
Page 276
3
1.

7ra 2

.

%

2.

^(36
-.
7).

-2 a).

Page 277
5.
8. 2. 6.
0.

7.

(k is the constant ratio, r is the distance.)

;

k logr
;
&amp;lt;j

(fc
-

and

r as in

Ex.

14. x 2 15.
16.
i

n

i- i I

;

+ ?/ - xy + x + ^ 2 + xv - C x 2

y

=

c.

.

5. 3.

_L

(x+

llA;Ll 5

17. x 2 18. lo

=

Page 278
19. X*

391
_

+

3 X7/2

=
xy

r-7/2.

24
25.
,

20.

tan-ix

+

=
c.

x3y

+

x2y2
-f
2/ )

=
+
1

c
c.

c

_x
21. e -;+log

2x + sm

2x

y

=

4y cosz =

26

.

22

-

10

^ + 3V

log C os2(z

+

C

27.
28.

log*- l--

^
y2

=c

.

23. xy

+ log^c. x

Page 302
14.
-l&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;l.

CHAPTER XV
18. All values of x.
19.

21.

-l&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;l.

15.
16.

-l&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;l. -l&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;l.
-l&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;l.

All values of
-l&amp;lt;x&amp;lt;l.

x.

20.

22

a

a
&amp;lt;X&amp;lt;

~b

b

17.

no

1

+
,

X2

5a;4

24.

l

+

x

+

x2

+
3

+
+
22

....

27.

1

+
2

x
2

+

+ 23 +
45

.

25.

x3

+
\

-_
I2

..-.

28
cos 3 x

_^

_^_^_17x
12

8

2520

29
30

cosx 4i

cos 2 *

32

sinh air

_
+

2

a sinh

TT /

~^
2 sinh
TT
CTTT

\rM^-oTT7 +
2

cos x

cos 2 x

\
&quot;7

/

sinx

~ _

2 sin 2 x 22
-f

\1 2

+

a2

a2

+

3 sin 3 x
32

\

+

a2

/

31

4 / ^if
\

+ !l^x
I2

sin5x

1

K~ +
cos^x
\

32 30

r
!

_2/cosx
TT

cos3x

4
3jr 4

\

~32~
cos3x
~3^~&quot;

~52~
cos5x ~~52~

~

/sinx
(,&quot;1-

sin 2

a;

7

-~2~-

+ ~Q

sin3x

_
+

2 /cos x

^l
/

I2

3 sin x

_ sin 2 z
22

234
3 sin 3 x
cos 3 x
32
~|

sin 4

x

I2

Page 303
40
38.],,,&quot;.

2.

2

-

43.5.
44. 0.
45. 0.

37

~

2

39

-f
-

46.0. 47.0.
48

0.

42.

392

CHAPTER XYII
Page 336
1.

y

=

a

+ a*x +

2.
3.

y
y

= =
-

a
a

+

x

+
2

3 a: 3 ao 3

111 ^
3

(a

-

l)x

2

+

/a 4

^jx

3

+
.

5

(a

-

--

4a

+ rr-f^
5a
5

4. (y
5.
8.

9.

10. 11. 12.

+ a x + (a + )x* + +a x+a 6. (x 2 y - c) (y - ex) = 0. + c) (y + 2 x + c) = 0. 2 - x 2 - c 2 = 0. 7. (y-c)(y-ce-* )(3y-x 3 -c)=:0. ex) (y (y = 0. c (x + a) ec (x + a) e] [x a a [x 2 2 2 y sin x + 2 cy + c = 0. 2 13. c 2 (1 -f y 2 - 2 c 3 xy + c 4 x2 = 1. 2 c 2 xy + c 3 x2 = 1. cy 2 14. x = logp + p + c, y = _p + c2 p2 y = 2cx 2 2 = 2 ex 15. y = c (c + c2 x) y
x2
3
.

4

5x

2

)

]

)

.

.

.

.

Page 337
16. x 2

y 18. y
19. x

17.

= sin 2 (y +_c). = p log Vcp, x = (l + = ex 2 + c 2 + y = cti\(c-y).
.

log

Vcp) log vep.
4 (x 2 y + c) 2 20. 9 (x x Iogcx)(2x 2 y 2 21. (y

+

=

-

+ I) 3 -x 4 -c) = 0.
.

22

s

=
(P

-

2

I)
2

23. (l

-Vy

+

l)

=

ce

_(P-1) --a2v^Ti.
c) (XT/

2

24. (cy
25. y 26. 27. 28.
30.
31.

-

e 2&quot;)(x 3

-

3?y

+

+

cy

+

1)

=

0.

= cpW,
2

x

=

(1

+

2 2 x]
.

2 (!-4?y) + 4x -2c[(l-4?/)cos2x + 2x sin
(Z/

+

c2

=

0.

32.

- ex) 2 - c 2 + 1 = 0. e = cex + c^. Vl - c 2 2 - x 2 = 1. y = ex - 3 x 2 + c) (2 y - x 2 + c) = 0, (2 y x 2 = 2 cy + c 2 + a 2 x 2 + 2 = a 2
2

_

29

^=

ca a

+ l. c

,

?/

x

=

0.

,

2/

.

2 = 34. (y ex) 38. &2 X 2 + a 2^2

39.

41.

42.

- 1 = 0. 37. 27 y - 4 x 3 = 0. c, 4 xy _ a 25 2 _ 0, y = CX + Vb 2 + a C 2 = c. 2 2 40. (x + y) (y + z) (z + 1) z (x + 1) (y x 3 + y 2 + z 2 + logyz 2 = c. xy + yz + zx (a + b) z = k. (c + a) y (& + c) x

+

2

2

.

x)

=

c.

43. 2/(z

393
x

+
V
z

z)

+
x

c(7/

+

z)

=

0.

^
47.
c.

44

X

+ V_ Z

lQnz

=

Cf

y

+

45. log(x

+

y)

+

x

+

y

+

z

=

loz =

48. x 2
49. 50. 52.

+ 2 = M2/ 2 + &2 ), tan-1 5 ~ x 2 - 2/2 = ci, 7/2 - z 2 = C2 2 x = = (x + ci) Vx 2 -f 1, 2 = y
.

c

51

e

*+

e

s

=&amp;lt;*

e

:

Page 338
53. x 2

+

z2

=

c

2

y

+

c2

=
2

log

54. x 2 55. x 56. x
57. x

- xy = ci, z + x 2 - c 2 x + v=c *,2y = * +
l

~ Cl + Ci + ci = 0.
* z

&amp;lt;*.

!!

58.
59.
60.
61. 62.

63.
74.

- c 2 ^. = cie 2 66. 27 p^2 = 4(x - 2p) 3 = ciz, x 2 - y a = c 2 y. 6T. 3 2 - 4y = 0. -y 2 = 68. X + T/+ z-Ci, x 2 + 2/2 + z 2 = c|. 4px + 4p 2 =c 69. x* + 2 z = ci, x -y = c 2 e 22 x + + 2 2 70. x 3 + (x + 2p) y* = 0. + z 2 = c 2 z. y = ciz, x + 2 - 2 71. (x 10 y 3 + 27 x = 0. k(x + y) + 2 72. x 2 - 4 a (a - y) = 0. 4x2/ = c 73. x* + y = a x 2 - 4 2/2 = 0. 2 (x - c) = k log (A; V^ - y) T Vfc2 - 4 y2
y
,

^

_!

2

65.

yl ? += 2xy

=

Cl
,
.

-

c2

z/

e&quot;

.

?/

.

s

2/

.

2/

.

7/

4

.

_
-i

2/)

A;

2

=

0.

8

.

.

Page 339
75. r

=

k.

77.

2x 2 +

?/

=

c2

.

To. 81.

^=^0
7*

78. x 2

CC

+

?/

_

79. y

2 a2 logx

+

c.

80. y 2

= ex 4 = 4 ax +
.

4 a2

.

A
A

82. x 2 84.

family of circles tangent to + y 2 - ex + 1 = 0.

OX at 0.
=
f or
c-

family of lemniscates having the line e

a

common

axis.

85. r

=

c(l-cos0).

86. r

= e^

- o\

CHAPTER
Page 360
1.

XVIII

y
y y y y y y

=
= = = = = =

T*.
ce- 3 * + -J x 2 ce2x + e3x +
a;

2.
3.

-

| x
1

+

^e

(sin

(3 sin x 5r + x cosx).
j
-.

2

^

-

cosx).

4.
5.

6.
7.

+ 3x)e- +|(2x-l)e ce- 4 x + 5 - ^V (2 cos 2 x -f sin 2 x). e [c + 2x- Iog(e 2 r + 1)]. sin 5 x + 5 cos 5 x) + ce 2x (2 sin x + -J-g (2
(c
-

^

cos x).

394
8.

= Cl e 2 * + c 2 e-4* 10. y = Cl + c 2 x) e-** = cie5x +c 2 11. y = cisinSx + c 2 cos3x. y = e 3x (c!cos2x + C 2 sin2x). x ~ Wy = cie* + c 2 e- 3 * - J x 4 - f x 3 - y z 2 x y = GI(? + c 2 e- - 2 + f cos2x. y = cie 2 * + c 2 e~ 5a; + ^j(9sin3x - 19 cos 3 x). y= cie* + c 2 e- 4 *- f. y = ci + c 2 e- 3 * + TL x4 + 1 x 3 - x 2 + x. y = (ci + J x 3 -x 2 - f x)e 2 *+ c 2 e~ 8a:
y
7/ (
.

9.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

W

18.

.

Page 361
19.

y

20.

y

21. y 22.

= = =

+ c 2 x + l x 2 ex + 4 e 2 *. 3 - 6x 2 + (ci + Caxje-^ + x + c 2 x - log (x - 3)] e 3 *. [d
(ci
)

18 x

-

25.

y=(ci +

c 2 x)e- 2 *H

e 2x

125

(7 sin

3x

-

24 cos 3

x).

23. y 24. y
25.

=

GI sin ci sin
c\

2x

+

c2

cos 2 x H

g2x
(sin 2

x

2 cos 2 x).

y

26. y 27.
28.

= = =

y.=

c 2 cos x J cos 2 x + ^3 cos 8 x. + (c 2 + x) sin 2 x. 1 x + x cos 2 x GI cos x V3 + c 2 sin x V3 + ^ 1 x) cos3x]. e 2x [cisin3x + (c 2

x

+

cos 2 x

2 sin 2 x.

l

+

1

e,

+

e

2

29. y 30.

= =

e~ x (ci cos 2 x
e2
(

+

c 2 sin 2 x) -f (| h c 2 sin

x2
3 x2

x ^) e~

+
+

]

-

g

y

ci

cos
2
C 2x c2

\

2
.

J

+

+

10 x

3.

/

31. y

32.
33.

?/

=d+ = GI +
.

+

C 3 e 3x

cos x
e

+

c 3 sin x.

y
?/

cie^

+

-*/ 2
\

(c 2 cos

xV3
2

hc 3 sm

.

xV3
2

34. 35.

y

= =

(ci

x2

+ c 2 x) cos x + (c 3 + c 4 x) sin x. + C!X + c 2 + c 3 cosx + c 4 sin x.
y
_;

36. y

= -(e^-e-^+e^/2 / c^os 4
V

+

c2

sin-^-

)

V2

V2/
c4

-^ +
_
37.

V2

sin-^Y V2/

y

=

Cie~

x

+

e2

X
f

c2

cos

-

(2 sin

x

cos x)

+

1 x y ^ e~

(2 sin

x

+

3 cos x).

38. y

395
c4

39.

?/

40.

41. 42.

= &^*(ci cos2x 4- c 2 sin 2 x) + e~ * (c a cos 2 x 4 e 8:r + &x*-?nT x 3 - 2 x2 7 x 4- C 3 e*. = Ci 4 c 2 x 4 (1 x 4 - ^ x 2 sin 2 x. y = (ci + c 2 x) cos 2 x 4 (c 3 4 c x x 2 )e 2 *. y = ci 4 x 4 (c 2 4- c 3 x + - 3 x 2 + x 3 - } x4 + ^ x5 x y = cie~ + c 2 + c 3 x

^
-

sin2x)

-^
4

)

)

.

*

43. x

=

ce 2 ,
6_

y

=

_

ce2 .
L&amp;lt;

44. x
45.

46. 47. 48.

49.

= ce 2 4f e5&amp;lt;-2e 2 y = ce 2 - fe^-e2 + 1 e + ^V (5cos2 + sin2 ), x = c est + c 2 e= - 3 cie - ^ c 2 e- 2 + ^ e - ^V (17 cos 2 + 19 sin 2 y - 2 c 2 e4 + ^. x = cie + cae4 + -U-, y = Cie 4 3 x = c^ 3 + cae4 + 3, y = 2 Cie + Cae + 2. 2 +^ 3 x = ci + c 2 e 2 + c 3 e~ + -^ - | - ^2 + 3 - 2c 2 e2* + C8 e- + f y = 2ci + I 2 + i 3 x = d + c 2 e 2 + c 3 e- 4- | - J
.

,

2&amp;lt;

i

).

&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

&amp;lt;

,

*

^

-

&amp;lt;

.

50

3.

_
=

e

c

cos

-^ +
V2
-

03 sin

^ V2/

]

4- e

W
V
\

c3

cos

^- + V2
V2

c 4 sin

-

V2/
c 4 cos

J

,

ec
CiX

2

cos

V2

- d sin -^^ +
V2/

e

^2 /c 3 sin -^ -

-V2/
)

Page 362
51. 52.
?/

=

+

c 2 x2

+ ^x 3
4
2

.

?/

=X
5

[ci

cos (log x2 )

4- c 2 sin (log

x 2 )]

+
-]

-^-

(5

logx
2

.

2).

53. y
54.
?/

=
=

ci
I
j

cos (2 logx)

C 2 sin (2

logx)

+
.

(logx)

-

x2

4 4

ti

(log x)

4

c2

log x
c 3 sin

4

c3

55. y
56.

=

CiX

ca

cos (logx)

4

(logx)

-

.

z/

= =

Cl

4-c 2 x 2

2
.

4^-^(logx)
2-3
22 3

4

2

-

3

4

5

(r

+

57.

-

2)

y

x3
S8.
j,

=

59. y

=

ri

(35-42x +

21 x 2

-

4 x 3 ) 4-

(3

- 14x4-21x 2 ).

396

4

5

6
3.8

+

.

.

,

/

[8.6.7.8*
61
.

^FT^T
ir

4.6.6...(r

y

=

Cl

l

- i (nz-3) + L-4

_

62.

= cjl +
L

&quot;x.

+ ^LZlil^ + n(-4)(,-18)
|4
|_6

[2
...

+ + +
63. s

+ *(n-4)(n-16)...rn-(2r-2)1
[2r

&quot;

C2

xFl +
.

^^ + (!L^H^i^)
[3
x

^4
,

(n

-

1) (n

|_7

9)

(

n

n

25)

.

.

+

(

n

~

[6

)(

n

-

9 )(^

-

25)

.

.

[n

-

(2r

1)2]

2

=

Cl

cos

^+
Atf

c 2 sin

^+
+

_

|2r
C os

+
W. ^

l

J

(^

is

the constant ratio.)

s

=

ci

cos

+

c 2 sin kt

sin A:, if

=

yfc.

+

a (A 2

-

jp) cos kt

+

did sin kt

a(h

2

a(h*-k*)coskt

&quot;

+

2 akh sin to

2

65. h

=

(A
k.

and

Z

are the constant ratios.)

Page 370

CHAPTER XIX

4

-

z

=

Page 371
5.
6.

397

z
z

= e- 2 2/[0i(x)cosy -f 2 (x)sin?/]. = ^x 2 y 2 -f 0i(y) + 02(z).
(x
2

I

3

&amp;lt;t&amp;gt;[e-

8z

(2x

&amp;lt;

8.

y,

?/

2)
2)

=
0.

0.

9.

(x

+

y

2
,

=
-

1^-

0(^2/5

xyz\

= 0.

16.
\~
/

11.

0(x

+
2

y
?y

+
2
,

2,

x2

+

2
?/

-

z

2
)

=
0.

0.

17. 18.

2

(?/\
x

(x
/

-

2
?/
,

2
?/

-

z 2)
I

=

0.

+

z

+

tan-i-J
- r 3 sin 3

=
x

(x

-

z,

xz

-

?/ 2 \

0.

21.

u

=

-

Ir sin x

+

+
2&amp;lt;

- r5 sin 5 x

+).
25
2

22.

u

=77

2

(e\

sinx

+

- e3

9

sin3x

+

- e5

sin5x

+

-V
/

INDEX
(The

Roman numerals

refer to the volume, the Arabic to the page.)

Abscissa,

I,

36

Arc, differential in space rectangular
length defined,
II, 77

Absolute convergence, II, 283 Absolute value of complex number,
II,

coordinates, II, 180 I, 195

305
II,

length in plane polar coordinates,

Absolute value of real number, Acceleration, I, 202
line, II,

283

207

length in plane rectangular coordi nates, II, 75 length in space rectangular coordi nates, II, 179
limit of ratio to chord,
I,

Algebraic functions, classification, 1, 43 graphs, I, 121
differentiation,
I,

178

195

equations
implicit,

(see

I,

Equations) 188

Archimedes, spiral of, I, 332 Area, center of gravity by single in
tegration, II, 94, 96

integration, II, 26, 113, 119 Amplitude of complex number, II, 305

Analytic function,
of ellipse,

II,

311

center of gravity by double inte gration, II, 246
derivative in polar coordinates,
I,

Angle between normal and focal
I,

191

348
derivative in rectangular coordi nates, I, 204 II, 47
;

between between between between
57

plane curves, I, 211 planes, II, 186
space curves,
II,

184
I,

straight lines in plane,

determination by double integra tion, II, 239, 240
determination by line integral, 260
II,

between straight
183

lines in space, II,

1,345
eccentric, of ellipse,
vectorial,
I, I,

determination in oblique coordi nates, II, 66

determination
304
nates, II, 67

in

polar

coordi

329

Arc, derivatives in plane polar coordi nates, I, 347
derivatives in plane coordinates, I, 196
nates, II, 79
differential in plane rectangular

determination in rectangular co ordinates, II, 64

moment
of
of

of inertia, II, 236
II,

rectangular

any surface,
ellipse,
I,

241
II,

304;

65,

66,

differential in plane polar coordi

261
of lemniscate, I, 348 of parabolic segment,

I,

216

;

II,

coordinates, II, 78

95

399

400
Area
of rose of three leaves, II, 69 of sphere, II, 242 of surface of revolution, II, 79

INDEX
Center of gravity, of parabolic seg ment, II, 95
of plane area

by

single integra

projection of, II, 177

tion
II,

II,

94

representing definite integral, 41

of plane area
tion, II,

by double integra

246

of complex number, II, 305 Asymptote, defined and illustrated, I,

Argument
128

of plane curve, II, 92 of quarter circumference, II, 93 of solid, II, 248 of solid or surface of revolution,
II,

of hyperbola,

I,

145

of hyperbolic spiral, I, 333

96

Attraction,

by multiple

integration, II,

252

of spherical segment, II, 97 Center of pressure, II, 98 of pressure of circle, II, 98

by

single integration, II, 86 of cylinder, II, 252 of wire, II, 87

Change of coordinates (see Coordinates)
Chord
of limits in definite integral, II, 49 of contact, I, 248

Auxiliary circle of ellipse, I, 304 Axes of coordinates (see Coordinates)
of ellipse, I, 141 of hyperbola, I, 145

supplemental,

I,

264

Circle, auxiliary of ellipse, I, 304 center of gravity of quarter cir

Axis of parabola,

I,

147

cumference,
definition

II,

93
I,

of revolution, II, 69 of symmetry, I, 121 radical,
I,

and general equation,

134
involute of, I, 311 of curvature, I, 354
of, II,

175

Beams, bending moment

149

Bernouilli s equation, II, 148 Bessel s equation, II, 359

parametric equations, polar equation, I, 342

I,

303

BessePs functions, Binomial theorem,

II,
II,

360
59

pressure on, II, 89, 98 special case of conic, I, 149
special case of ellipse, I, 142 tangent to known line, I, 136

Bisection of straight line, I, 39 Boyle-Mariotte s law, I, 43 Cardioid, I, 337 radius of curvature, Cassini, ovals of, I, 338

through known point, I, 136 through three known points, 1, 138 with center on known line, I, 137
Cissoid,
I,

I,

362
281

151

Catenary, equation and graph, equation derived, II, 143
property of, Center of circle,
of conic,
I,

I,

polar equation, I, 341 Clairaut s equation, II, 321
Coefficient, differential, II, 7

II,
I,

152

of element of a determinant,

I,

8

134

238

undetermined, in differential equa tions, II, 350
undetermined, in partial fractions,
II,

of curvature, I, 356 Center of gravity, defined in plane, II,

104
I,

90
defined in space, II, 245 of elliptic segment, II, 96, 247

Collinear points in a plane, in space, II, 188

38

Comparison test for convergence, II, 280

INDEX
Complex numbers, argument,
conjugate,
I,

401
I,

II,

305

Coordinates, Cartesian,

224

32
;

denned,

I,

31

II,

304

functions of,

II,

307

change from plane rectangular to oblique, I, 224 change from plane rectangular to
polar,
I,

304 graphical representation, II,

341
to

modulus

of, II,

305
;

change from space rectangular
II,

operations with, I, 32 Complementary function,

305

cylindrical, II, 231

II,

349

change from space rectangular to
polar, II, 231

Components

of force,
I,

I,

34
112

of velocity,

200
I,

change in multiple integrals,
234

II,

Concavity of plane curve, Conchoid, I, 334
Cone,
II,

165
I,

change in partial derivatives, 208
221

II,

Conies, classification, definition, I, 148

237

change of direction of plane axes,
I,

diameter,

I,

252
I,

change of direction of space axes,
229
II,

general equation,
limiting cases,
polar,
I,

193
I,

in oblique coordinates, I, 244
I,

234

change of plane origin, change of space origin,
cylindrical, II, 231 oblique in plane, I, 223

217
193

II,

247
I,

polar equation,
tangent,
I,

343

246

through five points, I, 241 treatment of numerical equations, I, 240

oblique in space, II, 159 polar in plane, I, 329 polar in space, II, 231

rectangular in plane,

I,

35

Pa

rectangular in space, II, 158 Curvature, center of I, 356
,

Conjugate axis of hyperbola, I, 145 complex numbers, I, 32 diameters of conic, I, 258
functions, II, 313

circle of,

I,

354
I,

definition,

353

of, in

parametric form,
polar coordinates,

I,

360
of, in
I,

Conoid,

hyperbolas, II, 173

I,

262
40

361
I,
I,

Constant, defined,
of integration,

;

206

II,

12

Contact, chord

of, I,

248

point of, I, 105 Continuity of function of one variable, I, 101
of function of

nates, I, 354 Curve, Cartesian equation of plane curve, I, 44

center of gravity,
166&quot;

II,

92

two

variables, II,

degree, I, direction of space curve, II, 182

200
Convergence, absolute,
II,

equations of space curve,

II,

170

283

comparison

test, II,

280

parametric equations curve, I, 302

of

plane

definition, II, 279

polar equation of plane curve,

I,

ratio test, II, 281

330
second-degree curves,
I,

region of, II, 285

229

402
Curve, slope of plane curve,
I,
I,

INDEX
99 104
189

tangent to plane curve, tangent to space curve, with given slope, I, 207
Curves, family of,

Derivative of rectangular coordinates with respect to plane arc, I, 196
of rectangular

II,

coordinates with

I,

respect to space arc, II, 182 partial, II, 198

second,

I,

110

intersection of,

161

with

common

points of intersec

sign of first, I, 106 sign of second, I, 1 1 1

tion, I, 171

theorems on,
I,

I,

179
132

Cycloid, I, 305 radius of curvature,

361

Descartes folium,
rule of signs,

I,

tangent
Cylinders,

to, I,

315

I,

87
I,

II,

169 173

Cylindroid,
Definite

II,

Determinants, defined, elements, I, 4
expansion,
I,

4

8

integrals,

applications

to

minors,

I,

4

geometry,

II, 64,

236

applications to mechanics, II, 86,

properties, I, 6 solution of equations,

I, 1,

12-23

236

change of coordinates, II, 234 change of limits, II, 49 defined, II, 39
differentiation, II, 216

Diameters, conjugate, of conic, 1, 252
of ellipse,
I,

I,

258-262

256

of hyperbola, I, 257 of parabola, I, 254
Differential, defined for one independ ent variable, II, 6

double,

II,

222
64
41

element,

II,

evaluation, II, 47

graphical representation,
limits of, II, 40

II,

defined for several independent variables, II, 201
exact, II, 269

properties, II, 45
triple, II,

230

formulas, II, 10 graphical representation for one

with with

infinite integrand, II, 53 infinite limits, II, 52
I,

independent variable,

II, 8

Degree of plane curve,

166
I,

graphical representation for two independent variables, II, 206

Derivative, applications,

202, 203
I,

application to velocity, defined, I, 102
higher,
I,

198

higher order, II, 10 of plane arc, II, 78 of space arc, II, 180
partial, II,

111, 187
II, 212,
I,

202

higher partial,
illustrations of,

214

total, II,

200

203

illustration of partial, II, 199 of f(x, y) when x and y are func

when equal to zero, II, 209 Differential equations, (aix + biy
dx

+

(a%x

+

b2 y

+

c2 )

dy

+ Ci) = 0, II,

tions of s

and

t,

II, 206,

214

146
Bernoulli
Bessel
s, II,

of f(x, y) tions of

y are func t, II, 202, 214 of polar coordinates with respect to plane arc, I, 347

when x and

148

s, II,

359
321

Clairaut

s, II,

defined, II, 141

INDEX
Differential equations, first order, ex istence of solution, II, 316
first

403
10
defined,
I,

Differentiation, collected formulas, II,

order not of

first

degree, II,

102
I,

318

general formulas,
s,
s,

184

Laplace Laplace 368

in plane, II, 366 in three dimensions,

II,

of algebraic functions, I, 178 of definite integrals, II, 216 of exponential functions, I, 284 of hyperbolic functions, I, 290 of implicit functions, I, 188
;

Legendre
linear, II, linear,

s, II,

357

340

II,

constant coefficients, any order, II, 348

210
of inverse hyperbolic functions,
I,

linear, constant coefficients, first

292
of

order, II, 341
linear, constant coefficients,

inverse
tions, I,

second

trigonometric 276

func

order, II, 343

constant coefficients, solu tion by partial fractions, II, 347 linear, constant coefficients, solu
linear,

of logarithmic functions, I, 284 of polynomials, I, 103 of trigonometric functions, I, 272 of w, I, 185
partial, II, 198

tion

by undetermined
350

coeffi

cients, II,

partial,

independent of order,

II,

linear, variable coefficients, II,

354

213
successive, I, 187 use of logarithm, I, 288 See also Derivative, Differential

Mdx + Ndy = 0, exact, II, 270 Mdx+ Ndy = 0, homogeneous, II,
145

Mdx + Ndy - 0, Mdx + Ndy = 0, Mdx + Ndy = 0,
rable, II, 144

linear, II, 146

re sume

,

II,

317

Direction, cosines defined, II, 180 cosines found from two equations
of line, II, 186 normal to plane, II, 184 of plane curve in polar coordi

variables

sepa

of

order of,

II,

143

partial, II.

363

partial, linear of first order, II, 364

Pdx + Qdy + Edz =
case, II,

nates, I, 345 of plane curve in rectangular co

0,

integrable

328
0,

Pdx + Qdy + Edz =
grable case, II, 335

noninte-

ordinates, I, 197 of space curve, II, 182 of straight line in space, II, 180 Directrix of circle, I, 149
of conic, I, 148 of ellipse, I, 149

problems in geometry,
151, 327

II,

141,

problems

in mechanics, II,

142,

of hyperbola,
of parabola,

I,

149
101

149, 153, 346, 367, 370

I,

146
I,

second order, special cases, II, 149 singular solutions, II, 325 simultaneous of first order, II,
332
simultaneous,
solution
linear,

Discontinuity defined,

examples
283
;

of, I, 41, 128, 268, 282,

II,

finite defined, II,

292, 294 291
I,

constant

Discriminant defined,

117
i

coefficients, II,

353
:;:r,

by

series, II, 318,

of cubic equation, I, 114, 117 of quadratic equation, I, 73, 1 17

404

INDEX
Equations, fractional roots, I, 90 first degree in two variables, I, 52
first

Discriminant of quadratic equation in two variables, I, 236
Distance between two points in plane, I, 36

degree in three variables, II, 161
I,

between two points in space, II, 178 of point from plane, II, 191 of point from straight line, I, 63
Divergence,
II,

irrational roots,

92

multiple roots,

I,

116

279

Newton s method of solution, 1, 1 14 number of roots, I, 80
rational roots, I, 89 second degree in two variables, 229
I,

e,

the number,

I,

280

Eccentric angle of ellipse, I, 304 Eccentricity of conic, I, 148
Elasticity, I, 204 Element of definite integral, II, 64 of determinant, I, 4

simultaneous, I, 161 simultaneous linear,

I,

12

simultaneous linear homogeneous, 1,21
solution

Eliminant,
Ellipse,

I,

23
I, 1

by

Elimination,

sum and product
and
transcendental,

factoring, I, 77 of roots, I, 82
I,

area,
I,

angle between normal I, 191

293
I,

304

;

II, 65, 66,

261

with given roots, Evolute, I, 357
II,

79

center of curvature, I, 357 center of gravity of segment, 96, 247
definition
I,

Exact

of ellipse, I, 358 differential in three variables,
II,

276
II,

and simplest equation,
358

in

two variables,

269

139
I,

evolute,

Expansion, coefficient, I, 204 Exponential equations, I, 295

expressed by general equation of second degree, I, 231, 235
length, II, 77

Exponential function, differentiation, I, 284
expansion,
II, 58,

308

parametric equations,

I,

303

special case of conic, I, 148 radius of curvature, I, 355

integrals, II, 25 of complex number, II, 307 of real number, I, 279

referred to conjugate diameters,
I,

259

solution of equations by,
I,

Ellipsoid, equation, II, 165

77

volume,

II, 73,

249

Factors, integrating,

II, 271,

328

Energy, kinetic, I, 203 Entropy, II, 272 Envelopes, II, 322
Epicycloid,
I,

list of integrating, II, 273 of polynomial, I, 81, 83 Families of curves, II, 316

307

Epitrochoid,

I,

309
I,

Equations, complex roots, depression of, I, 79
tions)

82

II, 314, 327 of liquid, II, 259, 266 Focus of conic, I, 148

orthogonal,

Flow

differential (see Differential

equa

of ellipse, I, 139 of hyperbola, I, 142

discriminant,

I,

117

Folium

of parabola, I, 146 of Descartes, I, 132

INDEX
Force,
I,

405
linear
differential

202 266

General solution,

function, II,

equation, II, 350

Forms, indeterminate, II, 295 Fourier s series, II, 290
Fractions, differentiation,
integration, II,
partial, II, 104
I,

Generators, rectilinear, II, 172 Graph, I, 40

182

Gravity

(see

Center of gravity)
I,

113

.

Harmonic
II,

division of line,
I,

250

Functions, analytic, Bessel s, II, 360
classes, I,

311

motion,

275
I,

property of polars,

249
267

43

Heat, as line integral, II, 260

complementary, II, 349 conjugate, II, 313 continuous, one variable,
200
decreasing,
I,

dependent on path, derivatives, II, 269
I,

II,

101
II,

entropy,

II,

272

continuous, several variables,

Helix, direction, II, 182 equation, II, 172

106

defined, one variable, I, 40 defined, several variables, II, 158

Homogeneous
145

length, II, 180 differential equation, II,

defined by equation of second de gree, I, 127

graphical representation, one vari
able, I, 44

Homogeneous equations, I, 21 Homogeneous functions, II, 145 Homer s method referred to, I, 92
Hyperbola, conjugate,
definition
I, I,

262

graphical representation, two vari
ables, II, 159 implicit, I, 188; II, 210

and simplest equation,
I,

142

equilateral,

146

increasing,

I,

106
I,

increment, one variable,

100

increment, several variables, II, 200 involving fractions, I, 128

expressed by general equation of second degree, I, 231, 235 referred to asymptotes, I, 224
referred to conjugate diameters,
I,

mean

value, II, 54
I,

259
I,

notation,

44
200

special case of conic,

149
I,

periodic, II, 290
total differential, II,

Hyperbolic functions, defined, differentiation, I, 290
expansion,
inverse,
II,

288

differentiation of inverse, I, 292

Hyperbolic, Logarithmic, Trans cendental, Trigonometric func
tions

63

integrals leading to inverse, II, 24
I,

291
163

Gas, graph of Boyle-Mariotte s law,

Hyperbolic spiral, I, 332 Hyperboloid of one sheet,
of

II,

1,43
illustrating differential, II, 8
illustrating function, II, 168

two

sheets, II, 165
I,

Hypocycloid,

309
I,

four-cusped,

132 31

illustrating partial derivative, II,

199 temperature-pressure-volume sur face, II, 168

Imaginary unit,

I,

numbers

(see

Complex numbers)

surfaces, II, 160

406
210

INDEX
II,

Implicit functions, general discussion,
special case, I, 188 Increment of function of one variable,
I,

Line integrals
Integrand, defined, infinite, II, 53
Integrating factors,
II,

12

100

II,

273

of functions of several variables,
II,

200

Integration, by parts, II, 30, 51 by substitution (see Substitution)

Indefinite integral, defined, II, 41

constant

of, II, 12

Vq + 6x, II, 29, 119 2 containing Va + bx + x II, 121 x 2 II, 122 containing Va + bx 2 x 2 II, 29 containing Va 2 2 containing Vx + a II, 29 Vx 2 a2 II, 29 containing
containing
, , ,
,

definition, II, 12

elementary formulas, II, 26 fundamental formulas, II, 13
of simple
II,

of rational fractions, II, 113 differential equations,

141

,

fundamental formulas, dx
of
4- J3)

II,

26
,

possibility of, II, 32

_
+
c

II,

29

preliminary discussion,
special

I,

205

Vax 2 +
x

bx

methods

of, II,

119

dx
of

dx

a

+

6 cos

a

+

b sin
II,

x

integrals Intercepts,
I,

53

129

6 sin x of e ax sin 6x dx, e ax cos 6x dx, II,

a cos x

+

Intersection,

curves

with
169

common

31
of rational fractions, II, 113 of sec M xdx, cscxdx, II, 127 of

points, I, 171 number of points,

I,

of plane curves,

I,

161

sinxdx,

cos w xdx, II, 123

Involute, I, 357 of circle, I, 311
Isolated points, examples,
1,

of sin m xcosw xdx, II, 124, 135 of tanxdx, ctn w xdx, II, 126
of tan

126 11,292
;

xsecxdx,
II, II,

ctn m x

Kinetic energy,

I,

203

csc&quot;xdx,

II, 128

Laplace
28

of

of of

Va2 -x2 dx, Va2 + x2 dx,
M&quot;,

equation, in plane, II, 366 in three dimensions, II, 3(58
s

32
130

II,

14
II, 120, II, 130,

of x

(a

+ 6x)^dx,

135

Latus rectum, I, 211 Legendre s coefficients, II, 359 Legendre s equation, II, 357 Lemniscate, I, 340
area,
I,

348
I,

Indeterminate forms,
Indicator diagram,
Inertia (see

II,

295-301
54

Cartesian equation,

341

II, 43,

Moment of inertia) Infinitesimal, defined, II, 1
fundamental theorems
on, II, 4

Length (see Arc and Distance) Lima9on, I, 336 Limit, approached by variable, defined,
I,

Infinitesimals,

97
I,

order
Infinity,
I,

of, II, 1

of ratio of arc to chord, 1 cos h sin h , and Limits of

195

I.

270

29
of (1

h

Inflection, point of, II, 112, 194

-

1
I,

Integral, particular, II, 349

+

h}*

and

283

INDEX
Limits, theorems relating to, I, 178 of definite integral, change of,
II,

407

Logarithmic function, differentiation of, I, 284
expansion,
of
II,

49
52

59

defined, II, 40
infinite, II,
II, 267 Line integral, defined, II, 258 dependent on path, II, independent of path, II, 203

complex number, II, 310 of real number, I, 279
Maclaurin
s series, II, 55,

287
I,

2(&amp;gt;7

Maxima and minima

defined,
s

108
II,

related to double integral, II, 2G1

discussed by Taylor 60
for functions of

theorem,

Line,

straight,

points in plane, 187

determined by I, 60

two

two

variables, II,

205

determined by two points in space,
II,

problems,
test
test

I,

192, 275

determined by point and direction
in plane,
I,

by first derivative, I, 108 by second derivative, I, 112
II,

58

Mean

value of function,

54

determined by point and direction
in space, II, 190 direction cosines, II, 186 direction in plane, I, 55

Mechanics and physics problems, ac
celeration,
I,

202

adiabatic lines, II, 267 attraction of wire, II, 87
attraction of cylinder, II, 252 beams, bending moment, II, 149 Boyle-Mariotte s law, I, 43

direction in space, II, 180 equation in plane, I, 50

equations in space,

II,

170
61
I,

intersection in plane,

I,

normal equation

in plane,

64

parallel lines in plane, I r 56 parallel lines in space, II, 183

catenary, II, 142 center of gravity, II, 90, 245 center of pressure, II, 98
coefficient of expansion,
I,

204 200

parametric equations

in plane, I,
I,

302

perpendicular lines in plane,

57
II,

components of components of

force,

I,

34, 35
I,

velocity,

perpendicular lines in space, 183

damped

vibrations, II, 346 deflection of girder, I, 110
I,

polar equation in plane, I, 342 satisfying two conditions in plane,

elasticity,

204
II, 259,

flow of liquid,
force,
I,

266

1,58
tangent to plane curve,
I,

202
Gas)
I,

104

gas

(see

tangent to space curve, II, 189 Linear algebraic equations, I, 1 Linear differential equations, II, 146, 340

harmonic motion,
heat
(see

275

Heat)

Linear partial differential equations,
II,
:
&amp;gt;&amp;lt;it

height of atmosphere, I, 287 indicator diagram, II, 43 kinetic energy, I, 203
lever,
I,

Liquid, flow of, Locus, I, 45
II, 259,

192

266

mean velocity, II, 54 moment of inertia, II, momentum, I, 203
motion of particle
(see

236, 251

problems,

I,

316
I,

Motion)

Logarithm, Naperian,

280

pendulum,

II,

153

408
203

INDEX
Numbers,
rational, I, 28
tential, II,
real, I,

Mechanics and physics problems, po
potential due to ring, II, 370
pressure, II, 88

29

Operator, differential,

pressure-temperature-volume sur
face, II, 168
projectile,
I,

II,
,

340
II,

314
I,

formulas for
192

D -a

342

refraction of light,

Order of
II,

differential equation, II, 143
1

saturated steam,

I,

42

of infinitesimal, II,

temperature in long plate, uniform motion, I, 199
velocity,
I,

367

Ordinarte, I, 36

198

Orthogonal trajectories, Ovals of Cassini, I, 338

II,

327

work (see Work) Minima (see Maxima)
Minors of determinant, I, 4 Modulus of complex number,
II,

Parabola, area of segment, 1, 216; center of gravity of segment,

II,
II,

95
95

305

Moment, bending,

II,

149

Moment

cubical, I, 74 definition and simplest equation,

I,

of inertia, defined, II, 236

146

area, II, 236 rectangle, II, 224

any plane
solid, II,

expressed by general equation of second degree, I, 231, 235
length, II, 77

251

sphere, II, 251

Momentum,
Motion of

I,

203
292

particle, falling in resisting
I, I,

path of projectile, I, 314 referred to diameter and tangent, I, 255
referred
to

medium,
harmonic,
in circle,
I,
I,

275 314
203

latus rectum,

tangents at end of I, 132
148

314

in ellipse,

semicubical, I, 131 special case of conic,

I,

path

of, I,

313
I,

Paraboloid,

elliptic, II,
II,

162

uniform,
346

projected upwards, I, 199

hyperbolic,
II,

166

vibrating in resisting medium,

tangent plane, II, 205 Parametric equations, I, 302
differentiation,
I,

315

with given velocity and accelera
tion, I, 207

Partial fractions, II, 104 derivative, II, 198
differential, II,

202 349

Newton s solution of equations, I, 114 Normal equation of plane, II, 185
equation of straight to plane, II, 184
line, I,

differential equations, II, 363

Particular integral,

II,

64

Parts, integration by, II, 30, 51

Pedal curves,

I,

319 290

to plane curve, I, 191 to straight line, I, 59 to surface, II, 204, 211
classification, I, 28
I,

Pendulum,

II,

153
II,

Periodic function,

Numbers,

complex,

31

;

II,

304

Physics (see Mechanics) Plane determined by normal and point, II, 184

irrational,

I,

28

determined by three points,

II,

190

INDEX
Plane, direction of normal, II, 184 distance of point from, II, 191 equation, II, 161

409

Revolution, center of gravity of sur face or solid, II, 96

equation of surface,

II,

168

normal equation,

II,

185 183
192

volume of

solid, II,
II,

69

parallel planes, II, 183

perpendicular planes, tangent, II, 204, 211

II,

Ring-surface, area, volume, II, 71

80

Roots, complex,
line, II,

I,

82

through given straight Polars, I, 247
reciprocal, I, 251 Pole of straight line, I, 247

fractional,

I,

90

irrational, I, 92, 114

location,

I, I,

86
116

multiple,
I,

of system of coordinates,

329

number

of, I,

80

Polynomial, defined,
derivative of,
factors, I, 81,
first
I,

I,

43

of unity, II, 307
rational, I, 89 relation to factors,

97

83
50

I,

78

degree,

I,

sum and
Rose of three

product,

I,

82

nth degree, I, 74 second degree, I, 70
square root
of, I,

leaves, I, 331 area, II, 69
II,

121

Ruled surfaces,
Segments of

172

Potential due to ring, II, 370 rate of change, II, 203
Pressure, II, 88 center of, II, 98

line,

I,

32

Series, convergent, II,

279

divergent, II, 279

on

circle, II, 89,

98
173

Fourier

s, II,

290 279 280
55, 287
II, 59,

Prismoid, II, 75 Prismoidal formula,
Products, graphs of,
Projectile, path of,

geometric,
II, 74,
I,

II, II,

83

harmonic, Maclaurin

s, II,

I,

314

Projection in plane, I, 34 in space, II, 176

operations with, power, II, 284
by,

286

solution of differential equations
II,

318, 356
65, 287

curvature

in

parametric

Taylor

s, II,

form, I, 360 of curvature in polar coordinates,

Sine, graphical construction, I, 267 Singular points of curve, II, 324

1,361
of

solution of differential equation,
II,

curvature in rectangular co ordinates, I, 354

325
I,

Slope of plane curve,

99

vector, I, 329 Rate of change, I, 203

Ratio test for convergence, II, 281 Rationalization of integrals, II, 119

of straight line, I, 64 Solid (see Center of gravity, Moment of inertia, and Volume)

Reduction formulas, algebraic,
trigonometric,
II,

II,

130

Space coordinates (see Coordinates) Sphere, area, II, 242
equation,
center of gravity of segment, II, 178
of inertia, II, 251
I,

134
II,

II,

97

Region of convergence,

285
79

Resultant, I, 23 Revolution, area of surface,

moment
II,

Spiral of Archimedes,

332

410
Spiral, hyperbolic,
I,

INDEX
332

Transformation of coordinates
ordinates)

(see

Co

333 Statistics, graphs, I, 41 Stokes s theorem, II, 274
logarithmic,
I,

Trigonometric equations,

I,

293

Straight line (see Line) Strophoid, I, 152

Trigonometric functions, differentia tion, I, 272 differentiation of inverse, I, 276
expansion,
II, 58, 62, 308 integrals leading to inverse, II, 19

Subnormal,
polar,
I,

I,

210

351
119

Substitution, integration by, II, 27

integration, II, 123
inverse,
I,

general discussion,

II,

269

in definite integrals, II, 49

suggestions for, II, 29

inverse, expansion, II, 59, 62 of complex number, II, 307

Sub tangent,
polar,
I,

I,

210

of real

number,
306

I,

266

351

Trochoid,

I,

Successive differentiation, I, 187 Supplemental chords, I, 264
Surface, normal line, II, 204, 211
of second order, II, 162-168 of revolution, II, 168

Undetermined
efficients)

coefficients

(see

Co

Value

(see

Variable, defined,

Absolute and I, 40

Mean

value)

ruled, II, 172

tangent plane to, II, 204, 211 See also Area, Center of gravity, Moment of inertia, Volume
Sylvester s

I,

I,

87

329
I,

method
axis of,

of elimination,
I,

1,

24

Vectorial angle, Velocity, I, 198

329

Symmetry,
Tangent

121

components, I, 200 Vertex of ellipse, I, 141
of hyperbola, of parabola,
I,
I,

to circle,

I,

190

144

to conies, simplest equations, 1, 190 to conies, general equation, to plane curve,
I,
I,

147

246

Volume, any

solid, II,

249

104;

II,

210

common

to

two

cylinders, II, 74

to space curves, II, 189, 212
to surface, II, 204, 211

cylindrical coordinates, II, 232
ellipsoid, II, 73,

249
II,

with given slope, I, 163 Taylor s series for one variable,
55, 287

polar coordinates,
II,

233
74

prismoidal formula,
solid

II,

solid of revolution, II,

69
II,

for several variables, II, 288 Temperature of long plate, II, 367

with parallel bases,
149
I,

72

Time

as parameter,

I,

313

Witch,

I,

Total differential, Tractrix, II, 142

II,

200
327

points of inflection,

194

Work,
II,

defined, II,

40
II,

dependent on path,

267

Trajectories, orthogonal,

Transcendental equations, I, 293 Transcendental functions of complex number, II, 307-311
Transcendental functions of real ber, I, 266

expressed by indicator diagram,
II, 43 expressed as line integral, II, 259 independent of path, II, 266

num

Zero,

I,

29

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