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BI628355

ID-Nr. BI628355-02-EN
July 2015

Technical
Information
Hydraulic Components Longwall
Serial-N.: LFX, LFY, LWZ, LFZ, LMJ, LWB, LML, LMX, LWD

SAFETY.CAT.COM
SAFETY.CAT.COM

BI628355

Technical information
Hydraulic components

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH


Industriestrae 1 Phone: +49 (0) 23 06 / 709 - 0 Email: info@cat.com
D-44534 Lnen Fax: +49 (0) 23 06 / 709 - 1421 Web: www.mining.cat.com
BI628355

Amendments and alterations to this publication are not subject to


notification. Caterpillar reserves all rights to this publication.
Its content is protected by copyright. No part of this publication may be
reproduced or transferred in any way or form without the prior written
approval of Caterpillar.
Caterpillar does not assume any liability for direct or indirect con-
sequences of printing errors.

We reserve the right to introduce modifications as a result of technical


developments without prior notice.

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen, 2015E


A Caterpillar Inc. Company
BI628355

Table of content

Table of content
1. About this technical information
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Persons for whom this technical information is intended . 1.1
Personnel qualification (in accordance with DIN 31000) . 1.1
Before starting work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Signs and symbols used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Other instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2

2. Safety instructions
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Operator obligations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Potential hazards when working on hydraulic
equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
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Safety rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Possible causes for hydraulic errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3


Ambient conditions for hydraulic equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Temperature/ambient conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Explosion-prone environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Substances hazardous to water / environment . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Orderliness and cleanliness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Special information regarding Caterpillar systems . . . . . . 2.4

3. Hoses, lines, connections


Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Setup and mode of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Hose markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Hose line marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
Recommended storage and use period . . . . . . . . . 3.3
Guide values for service life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3
Determination of the service life by the operator . . . . . . . . 3.4
Installing hose lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
SteckO hose connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
Staple clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9
Service life of staples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10
Hose connection SSKV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11
Safety instructions for hose lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13
Maintenance and servicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.13

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BI628355

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4. Valves
General information about valve design . . . . . . . . 4.1
Basic tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Dual 3/2-way pilot valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2
4/3-way hand-lever valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Pressure relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4
Marking of pressure relief valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Color code of pressure relief valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Check valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8
Throttle check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8
Shuttle check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Prop control valves, DN 20 and DN 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9
Twin check valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
Spraying valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
Compensating valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12
Pressure relief valve / plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13
Measuring adapter with pressure relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14
Testing device for hydraulic props and valves . . . . . . . . . . 4.15

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5. Accumulator cartridges
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Working with accumulator cartridges / hydraulic
accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Maintenance / servicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
Safety instructions for working with accumulator
cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2

6. Ball valves
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Color code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2
2-way ball valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2
3/2-way ball valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2
5/2-way ball valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
5/3-way ball valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4

7. Controls
Hydraulic controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Electrohydraulic controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2
Working with/on (electro)hydraulic controls . . . . 7.3

Technical information: Hydraulic components


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8. Filters
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Examples for high pressure filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Gap filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Double filters (here: can be backflushed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Return filter examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4
Bag filter, 4x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4
Water filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6
Filter cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7
Dismantling / disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7

9. Hydraulic cylinder
Design of hydraulic cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Mode of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Hydraulic cylinders on the shield support . . . . . . 9.2
Telescopic prop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3
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Lifting cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4


Stabilizing cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4
Shifting ram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5
Seal cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5
Working with hydraulic cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6
(Initial) commissioning after transportation work . . . . . . . . 9.6
Hydraulic cylinder maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7
Retract middle step of a set prop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8
Hydraulic cylinder maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8

10. Hydraulic fluids


General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Prerequisites for using hydraulic fluid (suitability test) . . . 10.1
Maintenance of the hydraulic fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2
Handling hydraulic fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Behavioral measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Accident with hydraulic fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3
Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4

11. Testing and maintenance


Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Who may carry out testing and maintenance work? . . . . . 11.1
Who may carry out repair and overhaul work? . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Hydraulic systems - visual inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2
Hydraulic systems - function test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
Hydraulic systems - utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3
Influencing factors on test lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4

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Test criteria for hydraulic hose line . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5


Regularly scheduled damage assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5
Valve test criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6
Pressure relief valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7
Pressure relief valves (spring-loaded) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7
Pressure relief valves (gas-filled) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.8
Test criteria for accumulator cartridges . . . . . . . . . 11.9
Filter test criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.10
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.10
Filter cartridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.10
Gap filters (manual actuation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.11
Double filter (can be backflushed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.12
Return filters / bag filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.13
Water filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.13
Test criteria for hydraulic cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.15
Exchanging hydraulic cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.15

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Removing hydraulic props . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.16

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


Removing stabilizing cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.17
Removing the shifting ram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.17
Commissioning / recommissioning the shield hydraulics . 11.18
Shield hydraulics / daily maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.19
Shield hydraulics / weekly maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.19
Shield hydraulics / semiannual maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . 11.19
Permissible media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.20
Greases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.20
Preservative / anticorrosion protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.20
Cleaning agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.20
Dismantling / disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.21

12. Hydraulic supply and setup


Commissioning information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Optimum hydraulic supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3
Schematic diagram of hydraulic supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4

13. Standards and directives for hydraulic


systems / components

Technical information: Hydraulic components


BI628355

General

About this technical


information
General
This technical information will give you a general overview of the
conventional hydraulic components in Caterpillar systems. More
detailed information about the functions and their applied work pro-
cedures enhances safety when working with hydraulic components/
hydraulic systems.
Observe the following points before starting work:
The technical information must be read thoroughly.
This should enable one to safely and efficiently work with hy-
draulic systems and components.
This must be read, understood and observed by the respon-
sible operating, setup and maintenance personnel in order to
avoid errors, damage and injuries.
This must be kept handy at the place of operation.
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This must be passed on to successive owners of the system or


components.
This does not replace the technical information in the operating
manuals for the system/hydraulic components of the respective
manufacturers.
Supplemental information must be included in this technical inform-
ation.

Persons for whom this technical information is


intended
This technical information is directed toward all persons who per-
form the following work on the hydraulic systems and/or compon-
ents:
transportation
installation or removal
maintenance and servicing, or the assignment of this work.
Important!
We would like to expressly point out that the persons ad-
dressed above have to be skilled personnel (see personnel
qualification).

Personnel qualification (in accordance with DIN 31000)


skilled personnel A skilled worker is someone who, based on his special training and
experience, has sufficient knowledge and is familiar enough with
the relevant regulations, that he:
can do the work assigned to him.
can recognize potential hazards.
can take the necessary measures to eliminate hazards.
has the required knowledge for repairs and installation.

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instructed person An instructed person is someone who has been instructed with re-
gard to the tasks assigned to him and the potential hazards which
arise due to improper behavior, and, if applicable, has been trained/
instructed concerning the necessary safety equipment and protect-
ive measures.
layman A layman is someone who is neither a skilled worker nor an instruc-
ted person.

Before starting work


. You should read this information document thoroughly.
Signs and symbols used
The following signal words and symbols are used for safety instruc-
tions in this technical information.
Make sure you know what they mean.
DANGER
Danger!
Passages in the text marked with this symbol indicate an im-

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minent danger. Possible consequences if not observed are

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


very serious injury or even death.

WARNING
Warning!
Points in the text marked with this symbol alert you to a threat-
ening danger. Possible consequences if not observed can be
very serious injuries or even death.

CAUTION
Caution!
Points in the text marked with this symbol alert you to a threat-
ening hazard. Possible consequences if not observed are injur-
ies and/or machine damage.

Other instructions
To emphasize special issues, the signal word IMPORTANT is
used in combination with the following symbol.
Important!
Text passages which are marked with this symbol provide you
with useful tips and instructions which will make your work
easier.

Other instructions are not safety instructions.


Lists are indicated by bullet points.
Sublists are indicated with indented dashes.
. Work steps or procedures are given in this format and are to be
followed step by step.

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General

Safety instructions
General
When working on hydraulic systems or pieces of equipment, the
manufacturer information concerning knowledge and training, as
well as commissioning and servicing, is to be observed.
Danger!
Working on the electrical equipment of the system
Possible consequences: death or very serious injuries
Work on the electrical equipment of the system may only be
carried out by trained, skilled electricians or under the instruc-
tion of a trained, skilled electrician.

Warning!
Modifying/converting the hydraulic equipment
Possible consequences: death, serious injuries, machine
damage.
Modifications to the machine/system are only allowed after
consulting with Caterpillar. Modification without approval will
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lead to the termination of the operating license.


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

If, after consulting with Caterpillar, modifications are made to the


hydraulic equipment, it is mandatory that these changes be in-
cluded in the machine documentation.
. Note that a modification of the hydraulic equipment might re-
quire additional safety measures!
Important!
Spare parts must meet the Caterpillar specifications. This
means that all parts to be installed have to satisfy the max-
imum working pressures and must be suitable for the hy-
draulic fluid used in the system.

Terms
maximum working pressure The highest pressure at which the system or parts of the system
may be operated under uniform (steady) conditions.
impermissible pressure The application of impermissibly high pressure to the hydraulic
components.
contamination The permissible contamination (non-dissolved foreign particles in
the hydraulic fluid) is based on the most contamination-sensitive
component of the hydraulic system. The specified purity class is
the maximum permissible value which must not be exceeded under
the aspect of operational safety (e.g. clogging of gaps, panels) and
the service life.

Operator obligations
protective measures The operator must take protective measures for work on hydraulic
systems. This includes, for example, work instructions for how to
work with the hydraulic systems.
work instructions Based on this technical information, supplemented with operator-
specific instructions, these work instructions should contain infor-
mation on the following subjects:

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General

necessary protective measures, personal protective equipment


systematic error analysis
use of special tools and/or other aids
disconnection of power, e.g. electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic
(securing against switching on again)
dissipation of residual energy (also in connected parts)
support of suspended loads
method(s) for relieving system pressure
check of depressurized status

Potential hazards when working on hydraulic


equipment
hazards When working on hydraulic equipment, the following hazards
can arise:
uncontrolled escape of hydraulic fluid
due to lines breaking, when still-pressurized connection ele-

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ments are disconnected,

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when hydraulic hose lines are damaged,
due to the effect of impermissibly high forces (overpressure).
unintentional machine movement
due to the unintentional actuation of command or control
units or malfunctions due to magnetic fields.
hurled or bursting parts
as a result of over-stressed components, material fatigue,
incorrectly dimensioned components.
skin disorders and noise

Safety rules
Always carry out work on hydraulic systems or equipment accord-
ing to the following safety rule (five-finger rule).

. 1. Disconnect the power.


. 2. Secure power against being switched on again.
. 3. Depressurize the system, including any existing pressure ac-
cumulators, lower any suspended loads or support them from
below, dissipate residual energy.

. 4. Check to verify depressurization.


. 5. Prevent hazards caused by neighboring systems.
If several persons work together when servicing a hydraulic sys-
tem, a responsible person is to be appointed will define and super-
vise the work.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


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General

Possible causes for hydraulic errors


hydraulic errors Typical hydraulic errors could include:
clogged hydraulic filter
stuck valves due to contamination
unexpected startup of the machine/system due to tapping or
tripping position or limit switches, for example
valve failure due to spring breakage
Notice!
When carrying out servicing work, always eliminate the cause
of error. Check all connectors and connections of the depres-
surized system for leaks and correct installation after complet-
ing work.

Ambient conditions for hydraulic equipment


Temperature/ambient conditions
Hydraulic components may only be stored and operated in the
permissible temperature range.
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Permissible temperatures (hydraulic fluid temperatures and


max. temperatures for seals and other materials) must not be
exceeded.
Information regarding operating conditions are specified by the
manufacturer/supplier.

Explosion-prone environment
When operating hydraulic systems/components in explosion-
prone areas, make sure of the corresponding ATEX marking.

Substances hazardous to water / environment


Operating with substances which are hazardous to water will
endanger bodies of water. The respectively valid national laws,
as well as the mine regulations for environmental protection,
are to be observed.
Prevent hydraulic fluids from leaking (slipping hazard, danger of
fire, skin disorders).
Leaked hydraulic fluids are to be immediately cleaned up/con-
tained.
operating manual The operator must draw up a corresponding operating manual for
how to work with hydraulic fluids.
. Information about this can be found in the safety data sheets of
the hydraulic fluid manufacturers.

Orderliness and cleanliness


When working on hydraulic systems and components, it is imperat-
ive that you pay attention to orderliness and cleanliness. Otherwise,
there is a danger that dirt will get into the hydraulic system, which
will slow down functions or cause them to be executed incorrectly
or not at all.

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General

Special information regarding Caterpillar systems


Caterpillar removal and mining equipment are complex devices
which are sometimes operated with concealed hydraulic compon-
ents. Hydraulic components might be installed under components
which are not immediately visible.
Warning!
Concealed hydraulic components
Possible consequences: death or very serious injuries due to
hydraulic fluid emerging uncontrollably
When removing components which have hydraulic compon-
ents beneath them, note that these might be under pressure.
Make absolutely sure that the hydraulic components are de-
pressurized before removing the components.

. Refer to operating manuals, hydraulic lines, etc. to see where


concealed hydraulic components are located in the system.

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Technical information: Hydraulic components


2.4
BI628355

Definition

Hoses, lines, connections


Definition
hydraulic hose Hose product, non-assembled hoses without crimped-on strip.
hose lines Assembled, hydraulic hose lines with crimped-on strip which can be
installed.
crimped-on strip Connection and connecting elements (fittings) which are pushed
onto the ends of hoses.
protective covers Additional covers for hose lines or for their parts.

Use
Hydraulic hose lines are used in almost all machines and systems
with hydraulically-controlled subassemblies, particularly where rigid
pipes for fluid transmission are out of the question.

Setup and mode of operation


Hydraulic hoses usually consist of several layers (inner tube, rein-
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forcement layer and outer layer). Elastomers or thermoplasts are


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

used as the materials for the inner tube and outer layer. Braided
steel wire or braided fibers are used in the reinforcement layer.
Fig. 1: Basic structure of a hydraulic hose

1 2 3

1 outer layer 3 inner tube


2 intermediate, reinforcement layer

Hose markings
Hoses are marked differently, depending on the country where they
are used.
Germany / Europe The marking is permanent with max. 50 cm spacing with:
manufacturer mark,
no. of the corresponding standard,
hose type,
nominal diameter in [mm],
quarter and year of manufacture.

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3.1
BI628355

Definition

USA The marking is permanent according to the regulations of the Mine


Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) with max. 90 cm spacing
with:
manufacturer mark,
MSHA registration number,
nominal width in [inches],
working pressure in [PSI],
quarter and year of manufacture.
Australia The marking is permanent according to the Guideline for Fluid
Power System Safety at Mines (MDG 41):
manufacturer mark,
number of the corresponding standard,
hose type,
working pressure [bar],
quarter and year of manufacture.

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Hose line marking

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


Germany / Europe The marking is on the crimped-on strip (both sides) using a marking
punch as follows:
manufacturer mark,
working pressure in [bar],
date of manufacture (MM, YY),
Caterpillar marking.
Additional markings are possible upon customer request.
Fig. 2: Example of hydraulic line marking

1 2 3 4
1 manufacturer 3 year
2 calendar week 4 max. working pressure

Australia The marking is on the crimped-on strip (both sides) using a marking
punch as follows:
manufacturer mark,
working pressure in [bar],
date of manufacture (YY, MM),
Caterpillar marking.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


3.2
BI628355

Recommended storage and use period

Additional writing on the label:


manufacturer mark,
material number,
number of the test record,
date of manufacture of the hose line,
date of manufacture of the hose,
working pressure.

Recommended storage and use period


The following recommendation applies to the use, storage and
manufacture of hydraulic hoses and lines:
hose storage period For the manufacture of a hose line, the used hose should not ex-
ceed a max. storage period of 4 years.
hose line storage period For hose lines, a maximum storage period of 2 years applies (start-
ing from the time of manufacture).
To minimize signs of aging in hydraulic hoses and hose lines, aim
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for the following storage conditions:


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

The storage temperature should lie between +15C and +25C


at max. 65% relative humidity.
. Avoid storage temperatures below 10C.
Store in a dry, low-dust location in a lying position.
Avoid direct exposure to sunlight or UV radiation.
Protect from nearby heat sources.
Do not use ozone-forming lights or electrical devices which
form sparks in the direct vicinity.
Avoid contact with acids, bases or solvents.
When stored coiled up, the smallest bending radius specified by
the manufacturer must not be fallen short of.
hose line period of use The service life of hose lines must meet the requirements of
DIN 20066. Hose lines must be checked for damage daily by the
operator. The test criteria of DIN 20066 must be observed.
The period of use of hose lines should not exceed a period of
2 years.

Guide values for service life


Tab. 1: Service life
Hydraulic hose Hose line
Storage period Service life
Age Storage period Service life
max. 4 years max. 2 years max. 2 years

Important!
Due to the cold-flow properties (creep) of the hose lines ex-
hibited after installation of the fittings, ready-assembled hose
lines should be stored for a short a period as possible prior to
use.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


3.3
BI628355

Recommended storage and use period

Determination of the service life by the operator


Important!
The hydraulic hose line inspection intervals should be adapted
to the operating conditions of the mine.

extension The operator can define an extension of the guide values men-
tioned above. This requires the following measures:
A risk and hazard analysis must be written by the operator,
which takes into consideration the protective measures to be
implemented in the event of hydraulic hose line failure.
Repeated checks for safe working conditions at appropriate
and, if necessary, shortened intervals by qualified personnel.
Notice!
An extension of the replacement interval may not result in a
dangerous situation which could cause harm to employees or
other persons.

If hydraulic hose lines fail during operation or if damage or faults


are found more frequently during regular checks, the checking and
replacement intervals should be shortened in addition to finding the

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cause of the fault.
reduction The operator must define a reduction in the above-mentioned
guide values if:
inspections show there is significant wear on the hydraulic hose
lines, indicating a reduced service life.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


3.4
BI628355

Installing hose lines

Installing hose lines


Only use components which are adapted to each other according to
dimensions, shape, pressure stage and material compatibility and
are suitable for the application. Observe the specifications of the
respective manufacturer.
. Lay the hose lines so that the natural position does not hinder
movement. Use the brackets and clips for this (provided on
site).

. Make sure that hose lines are not damaged by the movement
of the component (kinking, tearing out, crushing, twisting).
Fig. 3: Laying hydraulic line, connections to moving parts
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. Avoid hose twisting.


Fig. 4: Laying hydraulic line, twist

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


3.5
BI628355

Installing hose lines

. Avoid tensile loads.


Fig. 5: Laying hydraulic line, slack

. Avoid bending radii which are too small.


Fig. 6: Laying hydraulic line, bend

1.5 x d

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. Avoid abrasion of the hose material on unprotected edges,
corners or when hoses cross over each other.
Fig. 7: Laying hydraulic line, crossing

. Lay the hose lines so that they are always accessible.


. Only push hydraulic hoses into the connector sockets by hand.
Never try to drive the hydraulic hoses in with a tool, as this will
damage the connectors.
. Use hose guides/kink protection.
. At endangered points, use kick/impact protection or hose
bridges.
. Immediately fix any leaks.
. Pay special attention to material aging (also on hose products
in storage).

Technical information: Hydraulic components


3.6
BI628355

SteckO hose connection

SteckO hose connection


SteckO system
The SteckO system is a socket/nipple plugging system which is
connected using a staple. SteckO hydraulic connections are used
universally in mining.
Fig. 8: Example of a SteckO fitting

2
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1 socket 3 staple
2 plug nipple

Application
Mounting staples
To establish a reliable connection between a hose line and a con-
nector, the nipple is pushed into the socket and is then secured
with a staple. The staple must not be deformed under any circum-
stances.
. Place the staple on the socket.
. Pound the staple in with a suitable tool without deforming it.
Fig. 9: Press the staple together to align the ends with the holes and pound
it in

. Check the firm fit of the staple by feel.


Notice!
Check the staple projection on the rear side of the socket.
Make sure there is sufficient projection on the rear side.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


3.7
BI628355

SteckO hose connection

Fig. 10: Checking the staple fit and projection

Caution!
Re-pounding of the staple

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Possible consequences: machine damage due to leaky or

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


loosened hydraulic connections.
Do not pound the staple again under any circumstances once
this is already firmly in the socket. Re-pounding can deform
the staple to the degree that its internal stress is lost and the
staple can fall out of the socket.

Fig. 11: Deformation of the staple

Caution!
Repairing staples
Possible consequences: machine damage due to leaky or
loosened hydraulic connections.
Never repair deformed staples! These can fall out of the socket
due to faulty internal stress.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


3.8
BI628355

SteckO hose connection

Staple clips
Staple clips prevent the staples from coming loose or falling out. In
the following figures, the various staple clip designs are shown.
Notice!
The size of the staple clip must match the staple size and the
corresponding fitting (OEM fitting). If other fittings are used,
the usability of the staple clip in the application must be
checked.

Fig. 12: Staple clip, design (A)


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Tab. 2: Staple clip, design (A)


Staple clip Version Mat.no.:
Staple clip DN 10 Fitting, red 1573227
Staple clip DN 10 Hose, red 1573228
Staple clip DN 12 Fitting, yellow 1589463
Staple clip DN 12 Hose, yellow 1589464
Staple clip DN 20 blue 1589465
Staple clip DN 25 orange 1589467

Fig. 13: Staple clip, design (B)

Tab. 3: Staple clip, design (B)


Staple clip Version Version
Staple clip DN 10, 12 blue 652174
Staple clip DN 12, 19 white 652173
Staple clip DN 19 black 652172
Staple clip DN 14, 31 gray 652175

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


3.9
BI628355

SteckO hose connection

Fig. 14: Staple with clip, design (C)

Tab. 4: Staple with clip, design (C)


Staple Version Version
Staple DN 20SS with clip 1652328
Staple DN 25SS with clip 1652329
Staple DN 32SS with clip 1651598
Staple DN 40SS with clip 1652331
Staple DN 50SS with clip 1652332

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Staple DN 10-Niro with clip 1651540

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Staple DN 10-52 LG-Niro with clip 4103379
Staple DN 10-82 LG-Niro with clip 1651591
for seal cylinders and
distributors
Staple DN 10-100 LG-Niro with clip 1651592
for sawtooth
Staple DN 12-Niro with clip 1651595
Staple DN 12-63 LG-Niro with clip 4098064

Service life of staples


30 000 load changes We recommend that staples be replaced at latest after 30 000
load changes.
Important!
Staples may only be used once. Always exchange used staples
for new ones when installing/removing fittings.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


3.10
BI628355

Hose connection SSKV

Hose connection SSKV


The SSKV system (Steckschalenklemmverbindung = plug-in collar
clamping joint) is a connection system consisting of a socket, a
nipple, a clamp collar (sleeve), a locknut and a retaining ring. Unlike
the SteckO system, all individual parts of the system can be de-
tached and attached by hand.
Fig. 15: Example of an SSKV hose system
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Application
To establish a reliable connection between a hose line and a con-
nector, the nipple is pushed into the socket of the hose sleeve and
fastened with the clamp collar. Then, the locknut is screwed against
the clamp collar and the red retaining ring is inserted.
All nominal sizes have the same design.
Components of the SSKV system
Fig. 16: SSKV system

3
2

1 hose sleeve with nipple 4 locknut


2 double socket 5 retaining ring
3 clamp collar (sleeve)

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


3.11
BI628355

Hose connection SSKV

Installing the SSKV system


. Grease the o-ring with Hydrocore SF (in acc. with EWN 7068).
. Connect the hose sleeves with the double socket.
Fig. 17: Connecting the hose sleeves

1 a 2 a 1
1 hose sleeve with nipple a o-ring (greased)
2 double socket

. Mount the clamping collar by pulling it apart and fitting it on the


nipple/socket connection.
Fig. 18: Installing the clamp collar

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3 clamp collar

. Turn the locknut against the clamp collar


Fig. 19: Fixing the locknut

4 locknut 4

. Secure the locknut with the retaining ring.


Fig. 20: Fitting the retaining ring
5

5 retaining ring

Technical information: Hydraulic components


3.12
BI628355

Safety instructions for hose lines

Safety instructions for hose lines


Warning!
Staples which are difficult or impossible to remove
Possible consequences: death or very serious injuries due to
suddenly emerging fluid or hydraulic lines whipping around
If staples should only be able to be removed by applying con-
siderable force, first check whether the hydraulic line is still
under pressure by turning the hose at the connector. If the
hose is difficult to turn or does not turn at all the line is still
pressurized. It is imperative that you depressurize the hy-
draulic line!

Warning!
Spraying of hydraulic fluids under high pressure as a result of
leaks, damage or tearing off
Possible consequences: very serious to serious injuries
Always work on hydraulic lines while wearing appropriate pro-
tective clothing (particularly safety goggles).

Warning!
Repairing hose lines
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Possible consequences: death or serious injuries


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

The repair of hose lines using the used hose and/or fitting
(tie-in area) is not permitted!
Always exchange defective hose lines.

Warning!
Whipping hose lines due to pressure pulse
Possible consequences: serious bodily injuries due to whip-
ping hose lines
Keep a sufficient distance away from pressurized hose lines.

Notice!
Due to pressure pulses, wear, aging, bubble formation, dam-
age, faulty tie-ins, etc., hydraulic hose lines pose special haz-
ards.

. Never try to hold a hydraulic hose that is thrashing about.


Depressurize the section in question immediately.

Maintenance and servicing


Check hydraulic hose lines at appropriate intervals.
When doing maintenance and servicing work, observe the specific-
ations in the Testing and maintenance chapter.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


3.13
BI628355

Safety instructions for hose lines

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Technical information: Hydraulic components


3.14
BI628355

General information about valve design

Valves
General information about valve design
definition Valves are components for controlling hydraulic functions. They are
subdivided into designs A, B, C and D.
Valves of design A limit the internal hydraulic pressures of
working cylinders (pressure relief valves). Valves of this design
are subdivided into 4 classes, according to their capacity.
Tab. 5: Valve classification, design A

Class Volume flow


Ia 30 l/min <= 60 l/min
Ib > 60 l/min <= 150 l/min
II > 150 l/min <= 400 l/min
III > 400 l/min <= 1000 l/min
IV > 1000 l/min
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Valves of class Ia are only permitted for the protection of annular


spaces on working cylinders.
Valves of design B directly block the hydraulic fluid from the
working cylinders (e.g. non-return valves).
Valves of design C block the pressure built up in front of them
from consumers in their neutral setting (e.g. directional control
valves). When these valves are actuated, the hydraulic fluid is
switched to the consumer or is used to actuate other valves.
Valves of design D are valves which cannot clearly be classi-
fied as designs A through C. These could be special designs or
integrated designs (e.g. valve combinations and controls).

Basic tips
Important!
When working with valves, observe the general safety rules for
hydraulic components in chapter 2.

Important!
Make sure the working environment and tools are clean.

Important!
Observe the separate shield support operating manual.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


4.1
BI628355

General information about valve design

Dual 3/2-way pilot valve


The 3/2-way valves are usually used as pilot valves. Pilot valves
are only used to actuate valves which have a larger nominal width.
The 3/2-way double solenoid valve consists of two 3/2-way pilot
valves. The pilot valves may only be operated with the correspond-
ing double magnet and the associated control electronics.
This valve is suitable for block setup and can be fastened accord-
ingly. The valve is supplied hydraulically via the bore holes located
in the flange surface. In zero position, i.e. in the non-switched posi-
tion, the pressure port P is disconnected from the consumer con-
nection.
Caution!
As transport protection against contamination, the protective
cap and the cover must be mounted on the pilot valve.

Fig. 21: Dual 3/2-way valve 2

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1

4
3
1 pilot valve 3 cover
Mat. no.:344857 Mat. no.: 4384815
Reman Mat. no.: 20R3403
4 circuit diagram
2 protectivecap
Mat. no.:365763

Possible errors
The valve cannot be switched or a bypass has formed due to in-
ternal leakage. The latter can normally be detected on the solenoid
valves of the electrohydraulic control unit by a clearly audible hiss-
ing noise.
Pilot or control valves with a significantly lower volume flow will be-
come noticeably warmer due to the constantly flowing medium.
Defective pilot valves are difficult to detect since no medium
emerges from the control block. There is therefore no recognizable
indication of faults, such as discharged hydraulic fluid.
Troubleshooting procedure:
Valve does not switch off / exchange valve
. Close the main shut-off valve in the pressure feed line for the
shield.
. Then actuate the functions manually at least 10x to relieve the
pressure in the accumulator.
. Exchange the 3/2-way pilot valve.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


4.2
BI628355

General information about valve design

Valve does not switch

. Try to fix the problem by actuating the function on the control


unit/electrohydraulic control unit several times in a row.
Internal leakage

. Internal leakage is indicated by hissing noises. Localize the


faulty valve by actuating the function individually in sequence.
If the noise stops while a function is actuated, that valve is
faulty.
You may have to press the button for the faulty function for
several seconds before the noise ceases.
Important!
Make sure you observe the separate operating manual for the
control unit.

4/3-way hand-lever valve


The 4/3-way valve is a pilot valve, which is for actuating valves of a
larger nominal width. As opposed to the above-mentioned 3/2-way
pilot valve, it is actuated mechanically by hand. The valve is suit-
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able for block setup and can be fastened accordingly. It can be ac-
Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

tuated with or without a holding function. When the lever is en-


gaged, the function is executed until the lever is disengaged.
Fig. 22: 4/3-way valve (example of Multimatic control unit)
3
1

1 control unit 3 circuit diagram


2 4/3-way valve
Mat. no.: 352110

Danger!
Manipulation of the hand lever by locking in place
Possible consequences: death or very serious injuries due to
uncontrollable shield movement
Never mechanically lock the hand lever of the 4/3-way valve in
place, e.g. by wedging it. The lever must be able to swivel in
both directions at all times.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


4.3
BI628355

General information about valve design

Pressure relief valve


Pressure relief valves prevent an impermissible overpressure in the
hydraulic system. Here, a pre-tensioned valve piston (gas- or
spring-loaded) seals off the primary side. If the pressure on the
primary side reaches the set pressure, there is an equilibrium of
forces on the valve piston. As the pressure rises in the system, the
piston moves against the pressure spring or the gas accumulator
and moves past a sealing ring with a ring of bore holes. As a result,
hydraulic fluid is released into the environment until the set pres-
sure level (pre-tension) has been reached again.
Fig. 23: Pressure relief valve

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1
4
3

1 pressure relief valve 3 color code


2 protective cap 4 circuit diagram

Caution!
Setting pressure of pressure relief valves
Possible consequences: machine damage due to overpressure
The setting pressure of pressure relief valves must not be
changed! Only use pressure relief valves which have been fact-
ory-set to the required value and which have a corresponding
color code.

. Always replace pressure relief valves with new valves with the
same properties. For this, observe the hydraulic circuit dia-
gram.
Important!
Always insert new seals when you exchange valves.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


4.4
BI628355

General information about valve design

Marking of pressure relief valves


marking Pressure relief valves are marked in acc. with DIN 21557 with the
following information using a color code and text identification:
setting pressure, setpoint
week setting was made
year setting was made
last person who made changes
Tab. 6: Text identification, example

420 or 42* 09 03 RP
Setting pressure Week Year Last person who
made changes

*The format for the setting pressure can be 2- or 3-digit. In the case
of the shortened 2-digit format, the 1st digit stands for the hundreds
place and the 2nd for the tens place of the nominal setting pres-
sure.
e.g. 5 for the nominal setting pressure 50 bar, 10 for 100 bar, 16 for
160 bar.
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Color code of pressure relief valves


The color code either has one or two colors. It indicates the range
within which its setting pressure lies.
Fig. 24: Color codes for 0 - 199 bar

0 - 49 bar 50 - 99 bar 100 - 149 bar 150 - 199 bar

Fig. 25: Color codes for 200 - 399 bar

200 - 249 bar 250 - 299 bar 300 - 349 bar 350 - 399 bar

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


4.5
BI628355

General information about valve design

Fig. 26: Color codes for 400 - 699 bar

400 - 449 450 - 499 500 - 549 550 - 599 600 - 649 650 - 699

Tab. 7: Color codes for pressure relief valves

Color code Pressure range in [bar]


black 0 - 49
black / white 50 - 99

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brown 100 - 149

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brown / white 150 - 199
green 200 - 249
green / white 250 - 299
blue 300 - 349
blue / white 350 - 399
red 400 - 449
red / white 450 - 499
yellow 500 - 549
yellow / white 550 - 599
orange 600 - 649
orange / white 650 - 699

In the following figure, several pressure relief valves can be seen


under the canopy of the shield support. According to the color code
(see Tab. 7), these are pressure relief valves with a pressure range
from 350 bar to 399 bar (blue/white) and 450 bar to 499 bar (red/
white).

Technical information: Hydraulic components


4.6
BI628355

General information about valve design

Fig. 27: Pressure relief valves, installation example on shield support

1
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1 blue/white, 350 - 399 bar 2 red/white, 450 - 499 bar

Notice!
Pressure relief valves with missing or unrecognizable color
codes must not be used!
Errors on pressure relief valves
Leaky pressure relief valves are recognized by:
leaking hydraulic fluid, even at the working pressure (cause
could be the discharge pressure being set too low)
a pressure drop on the pressure gauge (if there is one).
Important!
Pressure relief valves for different cylinders or for the piston
and ring sides of a cylinder can have different maximum pres-
sure values. Observe the information in the hydraulic circuit
diagrams.
Maintenance / servicing
Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the Testing
and maintenance chapter.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


4.7
BI628355

General information about valve design

Check valves
Check valves are mainly used in line construction. They block the
flow of hydraulic fluid in one direction without leaking. In the oppos-
ite direction, the hydraulic fluid can flow without obstruction. Check
valves are made in different versions, such as the twin arrange-
ment or as a piloted check valve.
Mode of operation
Piloted check valves work like simple check valves, but can be re-
leased by another supply line as needed.
Fig. 28: Check valve with SteckO connection

A B

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1 check valve 2 check valve circuit diagram

Throttle check valve


This valve is a combination of a throttle and check valve. Depend-
ing on the installation position, the medium flows throttled in one
direction, and unthrottled in the other direction. With this, it is pos-
sible to define the moving speed of hydraulic cylinders, for ex-
ample. It is advantageous to be able to determine the speed separ-
ately for both directions of movement.
Mode of operation
If the hydraulic fluid flows through the valve from B to A, the check
valve opens. The medium can flow through the valve unhindered
(no throttle effect). If the hydraulic fluid flows from A to B, the check
valve closes and the medium must go through the throttle. The flow
rate is reduced by the smaller line cross section.
Fig. 29: Throttle check valve

A B

2
1

1 throttle check valve 2 circuit diagram

Technical information: Hydraulic components


4.8
BI628355

General information about valve design

Shuttle check valve


The shuttle check valve is a combination of a piloted check valve
and shuttle valve. The valve is mainly used in the hydraulic circuit
of a shifting ram in plow shields, where the shifting ram is charged
both on the piston side as well as in the annular space.
Fig. 30: Shuttle check valve

2
1 shuttle check valve 2 circuit diagram

Prop control valves, DN 20 and DN 13


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The prop control valve DN 20 has a flange design. It is actuated by


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a 3/2-way valve and is designed for large volume flows. Therefore,


it is preferably used on props with a piston diameter > 300 mm.
Fig. 31: Prop control valve DN 20

2
1 prop control valve DN 20 2 circuit diagram

Mode of operation
When there is a flow through the valve from PA to A, the valve
function corresponds to that of a normal check valve. The prop con-
trol valve is released via connection PB. Hereby, first the servo
valve is opened, which relieves the main stage cone pressure,
which allows the prop control valve to open without oscillations.
Possible errors
1) Bypass formation / piloted check valve
The formation of a bypass is indicated by a drop in pressure.
. Try to solve the problem by actuating the function several times
at the electrohydraulic control unit or control unit.
If the problem occurs again, the valve may be defective.
. Check the valve and replace it, if defective.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


4.9
BI628355

General information about valve design

2) Bypass formation / prop control valves


To check the check valves on the props, proceed as follows:
. Set the prop until the setting pressure has been reached.
. Remove the set prop hose line on the piloted check valve.
If fluid escapes from the connection of the piloted check valve, it is
defective.

Twin check valve


The twin check valve has a flange design. This valve is a combina-
tion of two piloted check valves, which are actuated by a 3/2-way
valve via connection A or B. The valve has a conical seat design
and is for blocking the piston and annular space of a cylinder. It is
preferably used in stabilizing cylinders.
Fig. 32: Twin check valve

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2

1 twin check valve 2 circuit diagram

Mode of operation
If, for example, the piston space of a cylinder is charged with pres-
sure and the first valve is flowed through from A to ZA, the second
valve is simultaneously opened via an internal pilot line by means
of a control piston. As a result, the cylinder space pressure is re-
lieved via ZB to B. If the annular space of a cylinder is charged with
pressure, the same thing happens in the opposite direction.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


4.10
BI628355

General information about valve design

Spraying valves
Spraying valve (electrohydraulic)
Electrohydraulic spraying valves (water valve units) are used in the
automatic water spraying system in the support. They consist of a
valve block and a flanged electromagnetic pilot valve. Two spraying
functions can be activated independently of one another.
Mode of operation
The double solenoid valve is for the hydraulic actuation of the
2/2-way water valve. It is connected to the HFA face supply and is
supplied with high pressure. Actuating a function opens the valve
and opens the 2/2-way water valve. The water supply is connected
to the water spraying system this way.
Fig. 33: Water valve unit, 4 functions

W P
1 W2
W2
3
W1
W1
E

W4
Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

W4

W3
W3
LK
2 4
1 pilot valve 3 filter cartridge
2 water valve 4 circuit diagram

Spraying valve (hydraulic)


A spraying valve is used in combination with various nozzles in the
support for bonding dust in the face. It is possible to spray gases,
the canopy roof as well as the caving area. The spraying valve was
designed using the conical seat technology.
Mode of operation
Spraying valves are actuated by a pilot pressure on the HP port
(lower prop or advance shield), i.e. the water pressure is released
by the water input port at the water output port (spraying). When
the pilot pressure drops, the valve cone closes the valve, thereby
stopping the spray.
Fig. 34: Spraying valve

1
1 spraying valve 2 circuit diagram

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4.11
BI628355

General information about valve design

Compensating valve
Compensating valves limit the protected piston space of a hinge
cylinder to a specific pressure during the setting operation, and do
that until the prop has reached a certain internal hydraulic pressure.
Only when the internal prop pressure continues to rise does the
valve close, so that the piston space of the hinge cylinder can
reach its maximum pressure.
Typical installation site: stabilizing cylinder
Compensating valves usually have three ports which are marked as
follows:
S = prop port
Z = cylinder port
T = return port
Fig. 35: Compensating valve
Z

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
S T

Z cylinder port T return port


S prop port

Technical information: Hydraulic components


4.12
BI628355

General information about valve design

Pressure relief valve / plug


Pressure relief valves are mainly installed in closed hydraulic sys-
tems for maintenance purposes. The system pressure can be re-
lieved by opening a set screw.
This is necessary, for example, when the connections of the supply
line are short-circuited for the purpose of transport, and when an el-
evated pressure has built up in the return line during installation. By
relieving pressure, any pressure in the return line is relieved.
Fig. 36: Plug with pressure relief valve
2

1
E

1 set screw 2 sealing ring


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Important!
Check the sealing ring regularly to see if it has become porous.
Just to make sure, you can cover the ring with a rag to prevent
hydraulic fluid from spraying out.

Mode of operation
In order to relieve pressure in the system, the set screw is screwed
into the valve.
Fig. 37: Open for pressure relief
Screw in the screw System open, pressure relieved

To seal the system pressure-tightly again, the set screw is screwed


out.
Fig. 38: Pressure relief closed
Screw out screw System closed

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


4.13
BI628355

General information about valve design

Measuring adapter with pressure relief


Measuring adapters are mainly installed in closed hydraulic sys-
tems for maintenance purposes. The measuring adapter is for con-
necting a measuring coupling (SMK 20). The measuring couplings
are installed on cylinder or prop check valves, for example. The
pressure can be read off of the pressure gauge. By opening the set
screw, pressure in the system can be relieved.
Fig. 39: Measuring adapter with pressure relief

E
Screw in the screw

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


measure
3

Screw out the screw


relieve

Measuring adapter 3 connection of the measuring hose


with pressure relief of the measuring coupling
Mat. no.: 4337802 (SMK 20)
Mat. no.: 4337803 (SMK 20) 4 pressure relief
Mat. no.: 4337435 (Steck-O)
1 pressure gauge
2 set screw

Technical information: Hydraulic components


4.14
BI628355

General information about valve design

Testing device for hydraulic props and valves


The testing device is a pressure intensifier, with which the function
of the pressure relief valves can be checked. The pressure relief
valve is charged with the setting pressure of the pressure relief
valve via the pressure intensifier of the testing device to check the
function (pressure relief by spraying).
Via the lever, the pressure relief valve is charged with steadily in-
creasing pressure until the spraying pressure is reached.
Fig. 40: Testing device
c

e
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

d
g

a f

Testing device d cap nut


Mat. no.: 143400 e testing device body
a connection piece f hydraulic hose
b lever g connection for pressure supply
c pressure gauge

Lever positions
The testing device has three lever positions. Depending on the
lever position, the pump fills with hydraulic fluid and presses it into
the prop of the pressure relief valve being tested at a 1.75x higher
pressure.
Fig. 41: Lever positions

3 1
2
Lever position 1) Pump fills with hydraulic fluid
Lever position 2) Pump entry and pressure intensification = zero
Lever position 3) Hydraulic fluid is pressed into the pressure relief valve
(pressure intensifier)

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


4.15
BI628355

General information about valve design

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Technical information: Hydraulic components


4.16
BI628355

General

Accumulator cartridges
General
Accumulator cartridges are for stabilizing the pressure in hydraulic
control circuits. Accumulator cartridges/hydraulic accumulators
have an accumulator system (usually as a piston-type accumu-
lator), which is filled with a gaseous medium (usually nitrogen).

Function
By connecting the accumulator cartridge to the control circuit of the
hydraulic system, pressure fluctuations in the hydraulic system are
balanced via the cartridge accumulator system. Here, the gas-filled
cartridge accumulator is stressed or relieved. When the pressure
drops in the actuating circuit, hydraulic fluid is pressed into the sys-
tem by the accumulator cartridge due to the expansion of the gas
accumulator. The pilot pressure is stabilized.

Working with accumulator cartridges /


hydraulic accumulators
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Notice!
Accumulator cartridges / hydraulic accumulators are always
under pressure! Before removing the accumulator cartridge,
the hydraulic circuit must be completely relieved.

To do this, after shutting off the hydraulic supply, actuate the pilot
valve until the residual pressure in the control circuit is relieved. To
check this, a pressure gauge in the control circuit is recommended.
When checking the hydraulic accumulator, the permissible
pressure must not be exceeded.
No gas may flow out after each test or setting.
Fig. 42: Accumulator cartridge
1

1 accumulator cartridge 2 circuit diagram, accumulator


cartridge

Important!
Also read the test criteria for accumulator cartridges in the
Testing and maintenance chapter.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


5.1
BI628355

Safety instructions for working with accumulator cartridges

Fig. 43: Installation example, accumulator cartridge

3
1

1 accumulator cartridge 3 pilot valve


2 electrohydraulic control system

E
Maintenance / servicing

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the Testing
and maintenance chapter.

Safety instructions for working with


accumulator cartridges
Warning!
Changes to hydraulic accumulators by machining
Possible consequences: destruction of the hydraulic accumu-
lator, bodily injury due to the accumulator bursting
It is forbidden to do welding work or other mechanical machin-
ing on hydraulic accumulators.

Warning!
Setting/testing the gas filling pressure
Possible consequences: destruction of the hydraulic accumu-
lator, bodily injury due to accumulator bursting
Setting, testing and filling work may only be carried out by
Caterpillar service personnel.

Caution!
Maintenance and filling of accumulator cartridges
Possible consequences: destruction of the accumulator cart-
ridge
Maintaining and filling may only be done by Caterpillar service
personnel!

Technical information: Hydraulic components


5.2
BI628355

General

Ball valves
General
Ball valves are usually used to mechanically block hydraulic lines.
By turning the handle, the hydraulic line is blocked or opened.
Caution!
Ensure that the ball valve is engaged at all times. A ball valve
that is not engaged prevents an optimal through-flow. This can
damage the ball valve.

Fig. 44: Design variants


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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Color code
red handle Ball valves in hydraulic lines have red handles.
Ball valves in water lines have blue handles.
Fig. 45: Color code, ball valves

blue handle
2

1 auxiliary supply (red), blocked 3 water spraying system (blue), open


2 pressure supply line (red), open

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


6.1
BI628355

Operation

Operation
Notice!
Ball valves are mechanical components. When operating, make
sure that the ball valve is always completely engaged in its re-
spective position.

A non-engaged ball valve can have the following effects:


The medium will flow by the incorrectly positioned valve,
thereby damaging the ball and seal seat over time. The ball
valve must then be replaced!
The hydraulic system cannot be depressurized. As a result,
pressurized hydraulic fluid can escape during installation work,
which could result in injury!

2-way ball valve


The 2-way ball valve is for shutting off the pressure supply line dur-
ing maintenance work or repairs. Installed, blue 2-way ball valves
are for shutting off lines conveying water, such as the water supply
Fig. 46: Mode of operation, 2-way ball valve

E
Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
open closed

A P

P pressure A consumer

3/2-way ball valve


The 3/2-way ball valve is for shutting off the pressure supply line
during maintenance work or repairs. Shutting off the pressure sup-
ply line connects the downstream hydraulic system with the tank at
the same time. This releases the residual pressure in the hydraulic
system.
Fig. 47: Mode of operation, 3/2-way ball valve
direction of flow downward direction of flow to the left

T P T P

A
A
T tank A consumer
P pressure

Technical information: Hydraulic components


6.2
BI628355

Operation

5/2-way ball valve


The 5/2-way ball valve has two switching or lever positions. The
5/2-way ball valve is installed on the compact distributor and is for
shutting off the pressure supply line during maintenance work or re-
pairs.
Fig. 48: 5/2-way ball valve, with two lever positions
open closed

T
P
A A
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

T tank A consumer
P pressure

OPEN working position (pressure open) CLOSED depressurized


(pressure relief for output side to the return line)

Fig. 49: 5/2-way ball valve, with two lever positions


open closed

A A

P T

T tank A consumer
P pressure

CLOSED depressurized
OPEN working position (pressure open) (pressure relief for output side to the return line)

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


6.3
BI628355

Operation

5/3-way ball valve


The 5/3-way ball valve has three switching or lever positions. The
5/3-way ball valve is installed on the compact distributor and is for
shutting off the pressure supply line during maintenance work or re-
pairs on the shield support.
In the PTO (Power Take Off) lever position, the pressure supply
line and the pressure relief are shut off.
The lever position is adjusted by pulling out the engagement pin
and turning the hand lever into the corresponding position. The
hand lever must engage in the respective position.
In the OFF position, only the pressure supply inside the shield is
relieved. Residual or back pressures in the return lines (e.g. due to
height differences in the face) are not relieved and must be relieved
with the pressure relief valves.
Fig. 50: 5/3-way ball valve, with three lever positions
1

E
2

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


A
P

(Power Take Off)

A T

1 engagement pin A consumer


2 hand lever P pressure
T tank

PTO depressurized OFF depressurized


(pressure relief for output side
(pressure and pressure relief
to the tank)
shut off)
medium flow stopped
medium flow stopped

ON working position
(pressure open)
medium flow open

Technical information: Hydraulic components


6.4
BI628355

Hydraulic controls

Controls
Hydraulic controls
Hydraulic controls are used for controlling hydraulically operated
machines and devices. This kind of control is mainly used in under-
ground hydraulic shield supports. Hydraulic controls can execute
up to 20 functions which are activated via corresponding pilot
valves.
Notice!
In this context, the control may only be used for setting up a
neighboring control system. The control unit, therefore, may
not act on the support in which it itself is located, but must al-
ways be switched so that it only can act on the two directly ad-
jacent supports.

Fig. 51: Hydraulic control (example: Multimatic) 16x

2
1
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

3
1 pilot valve with switch 3 hydraulic connections, rear side
2 distributor block

Zero position Operation


Function 1 The functions are operated directly on the pilot valves. The pilot
valves are usually designed as dual 3/2-way valves. Each pilot
valve can be used to actuate two functions. If you actuate the oper-
ating lever of the pilot valve, the corresponding working valve is dir-
ectly actuated. The operating levers of the pilot valve are designed
Function 2 as switches, with or without a catch.
Danger!
Manipulation of the operating levers
Possible consequences: death or very serious injuries due to
shield movements which cannot be stopped.
Never lock an operating lever in place!

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


7.1
BI628355

Electrohydraulic controls

Electrohydraulic controls
Electrohydraulic controls are for controlling a shield support. They
consolidate a group of hydraulic functions in one control block.
Depending on the design, up to 20 functions can be executed in
one block. Electrohydraulic control units may only be used in con-
junction with an electronic control system, for example a PMC-R
control
Fig. 52: Electrohydraulic control unit, 4x

3
1

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
5
1 distributor block 4 4 filter cartridge
2 pilot valve 5 hydraulic connections, rear side
3 accumulator cartridge

Operation
Function (electric)
The functions must not be operated directly on the electrohydraulic
control, but on the associated electronic control unit on the neigh-
boring shield. The function is actuated electrically here (lifting mag-
net). Here, a 3/2-way valve in the pilot circuit is switched, whose
hydraulic signal switches the function of the 3/2-way control valve
cartridge, which is in the main control circuit and allows the flow
from P to A. This brings about a volume flow to the consumer (prop,
shifting ram, etc.)
Function 1 Function (manual)
Function 2
The electrohydraulic control unit can also be used as a control
unit for the following exceptions:
emergency operation or repair operation.
The individual functions of the shield support are actuated directly
on the pilot valve of the electrohydraulic control unit.
Notice!
During emergency or repair operation, the valid safety regula-
tions must be strictly complied with.
The main parts of the electrohydraulic control unit are:
distributor block with
working valves,
filter cartridge and check valve,
connection for accumulator cartridge and connecting sockets,
pilot valves.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


7.2
BI628355

Working with/on (electro)hydraulic controls

Working with/on (electro)hydraulic controls


Installation
Important!
Improper or faulty installation can endanger yourself and
others. You may only carry out the installation if you can
demonstrate that you have the required knowledge.

. Before beginning work, check all protective devices and safety


functions.

. Observe the operating manual for the control unit, control and
shield support.

. As a matter of principle, only work on depressurized hydraulic


systems.
Alternately actuate the two push-buttons
of each pilot valve (electrohydraulic control unit) 10 times, in
order to relieve the pressure in the hydraulic system of the
shield.
E

Check if there is any residual pressure in the control unit.


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Consider the hydraulic lines and the hydraulic diagram when


doing this.
. Mechanically secure all moving parts before you depressurize
the hydraulic system.

. Make sure that no dirt or impurities can get into the hydraulic
system.

. Only remove the protective caps from the connectors immedi-


ately before installing the control unit.

. Always keep out of any shield which is not set.


. Only use control units which are in a technically flawless condi-
tion.

. Always actuate the EMERGENCY STOP switch in the event of


malfunctions and irregularities.

. Never allow body parts to get between moving parts, e.g.


side seals, skids, relay bar assemblies,
lemniscatic links, hydraulic cylinders,
canopies and flippers.
Maintenance and servicing
Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the Testing
and maintenance chapter.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


7.3
BI628355

Working with/on (electro)hydraulic controls

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Technical information: Hydraulic components


7.4
BI628355

General

Filters
General
In hydraulic systems, filters have the job of cleaning the medium
that flows through them. They are usually passive elements
(without their own drive), which implement various filter grades. The
unit of measurement is specified in micrometers [m].
micrometer Micrometer is the unit of measurement with which the particle size
in fluids can be determined, which are filtered by the filter. A micro-
meter is a thousandth of a millimeter (1 m = 0.001 mm).
Important!
Make sure you observe the separate operating manual or tech-
nical data for the filter components of the respective manufac-
turer.
Important!
When working on filters, pay attention to orderliness and
cleanliness. Sealing surfaces, in particular, must be free of
contaminants.
E

Examples for high pressure filters


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Gap filters
A gap filter system consists of a housing, the filter cartridge with
gap cleaner, a stripper and a handle (rotating handle). The fluid to
be filtered flows through the filter body from the outside toward the
inside. Dirt particles which are bigger than the gap width are filtered
out and either drop to the housing floor or form a filter cake over
time, which is scraped off by turning the filter cartridge. The filter
body can be scraped during running operation.
Fig. 53: Gap filter example
2

1 housing 3 3 drain screw


2 (rotating) handle 4 inlet/outlet

Depending on the design, gap filters are also supplied with a motor
drive, which then replaces the (rotating) handle.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


8.1
BI628355

Examples for high pressure filters

Maintenance / servicing
Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the Testing
and maintenance chapter.

Double filters (here: can be backflushed)


Double filters are for filtering water, HFA fluids, oil and flame-
resistant, low-viscosity fluids. There are two types of double filters:
automatic and manual.
A double filter consists of two independent filter chambers (filter
bells), each of which has a filter element inserted in it. The two filter
chambers are connected to one another by valves or selector
shafts. During operation (filter setting), the two filter elements are
flowed through in parallel.
During the backflushing procedure, one filter is flushed in the op-
posite direction with the corresponding valve/selector shaft setting.
The other filter continues to work normally, so that the filters can be
cleaned during running operation.
Double filters are installed in lines upstream from the components
they are to protect. To display the inlet and outlet pressures, pres-

E
sure gauges or pressure sensors with optical indicators can be in-

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


stalled, which can be used to calculate the differential pressure.
Fig. 54: Double filter, automatic
6
4

1 1

2
3

1 filter bell 5 4 pressure sensor with display


5 inlet
2 solenoid valve
6 outlet
3 pilot block 7 backflushing connection

Caution!
Properly install the solenoid valve
Possible consequences: destruction of the filter
Filters with solenoid valves may not be put into operation with
this.

Important!
Both filters are equipped with an anti-rotation lock, which en-
sures that the filter bells can only be released when depressur-
ized.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


8.2
BI628355

Examples for high pressure filters

For manually actuated double filters, a reasonable time span for


backflushing the double filter is to be defined by the operator.
Fig. 55: Double filter, manual
1

3 5

3
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

2
1 mounting device, 4 medium inlet/outlet
filter cartridge 5 direction of flow
2 backflushing handle
3 backflushing outlet

Caution!
Shut-off valve in inlet and outlet line
Possible consequences: destruction of the system, since not
possible to change filter
In the inlet and outlet lines, as well as in the line for the separ-
ate pressure supply, there must be a shut-off valve installed
on-site.

No shut-off valves may be installed in the backflushing line,


however.
Important!
During commissioning, first the shut-off valve on the inlet side
is to be opened slowly, and afterwards that on the outlet side.
Opening suddenly can destroy the filter!

Maintenance / servicing
Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the Testing
and maintenance chapter.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


8.3
BI628355

Return filter examples

Return filter examples


Bag filter, 4x
Bag filters are for filtering water (HFA) and flame-resistant fluids
within the flow, pressure, temperature and chemical resistance
ranges specified on the associated data sheets.
Bag filters are suitable for installation in pipelines. Depending on
the design, there can be up to four pressure take-up cradles in the
filter chamber, into which filter bags are inserted. The design with
filter bags ensures high dirt absorption during operation and after-
wards allows for economical disposal of used filter bags. Due to the
large filter surface area, high flow capacities are achieved.
Fig. 56: Bag filter station example

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
2

1 bag filter 2 return flow prevention device

Bag filters are combined with return flow prevention devices in the
shield hydraulics. Return flow prevention devices help ensure that
the filter cartridges in the return filter can be exchanged during op-
eration without the return line having to be completely shut off.
Fig. 57: Return flow prevention device

Technical information: Hydraulic components


8.4
BI628355

Return filter examples

Fig. 58: Bag filter

2
3

1 bag filter 3 medium outlet


2 medium inlet

Before changing the filter, the shut-off valve (1) is closed, so that
the return filter can be opened. If there should continue to be pres-
sure on the filter (> 10 bar), the safety valve opens and connects
the return line directly to the tank (see Fig. 53).
Installation situation for return flow prevention device / return filter
Fig. 59: Installation situation
1
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

1 return flow prevention device 3 safety valve


2 shut-of valve 4 bag filter

Caution!
Direction of flow
Possible consequences: in the opposite direction of flow, the
filter bags can be destroyed.
Observe the hydraulic diagrams / directions of flow

Maintenance / servicing
Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the Testing
and maintenance chapter.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


8.5
BI628355

Return filter examples

Water filters
Water filters consist of a filter housing, in which a filter cartridge is
inserted. Depending on the version, the water filter inlet is designed
as a SteckO connection to the filter housing. A SteckO fitting is
plugged into the filter housing, which forms the filter outlet and ac-
commodates the filter cartridge inside the filter. The fitting is con-
nected to the filter housing with a staple. The filter socket of the fil-
ter cartridge ensures the radial seal between the filter housing and
the fitting, which ensures that the water filter is not operated without
a cartridge inserted. In this case, medium will noticeably flow out of
the filter housing.
Water filters are used in the pressure circuit. The medium to be
cleaned flows through the inlet port to the inside of the water filter,
flows through the filter mesh of the filter cartridge (from the outside
in) and, cleaned, exits the water filter via the outlet.
Caution!
Faulty assembly
Possible consequences: escape of medium under pressure
Make sure when assembling that the o-rings and supporting
rings of the filter cartridge and the plug-in reducing sleeve are

E
not damaged!

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


Fig. 60: Water filter example
3

1
1 fitting connection 2 staple
3 filter housing 4 direction of flow arrow

Caution!
Incorrect direction of flow
Possible consequences: destruction of the filter cartridge
Pay attention to the direction of flow arrow on the filter hous-
ing.
Medium must not flow through the filter cartridge of the water
filter in the direction opposite the intended direction of flow!

Important!
If you loosened or removed additional connections during the
course of maintenance work, then these are to be reinstalled
completely after the maintenance work is finished!
Insert new staples and check all connections for complete-
ness.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


8.6
BI628355

Dismantling / disposal

Filter cartridges
A filter cartridge is located in the distributor block of the control unit.
It protects the control unit's valves from damage caused by impurit-
ies in the hydraulic fluid.
The filter cartridges on the electrohydraulic control unit of the shield
control system protect the downstream hydraulic components
against damage caused by contaminants in the hydraulic medium.
Fig. 61: Filter cartridge example

2
1
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

1 filter cartridge 2 electrohydraulic control unit


Mat. no.: 155283

Maintenance / servicing
Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the Testing
and maintenance chapter.

Dismantling / disposal
Filter systems and/or used filter elements must be disposed of ac-
cording to the national environmental protection regulations and/or
the regulations of your mine.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


8.7
BI628355

Dismantling / disposal

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Technical information: Hydraulic components


8.8
BI628355

Design of hydraulic cylinders

Hydraulic cylinder
This chapter contains important information on the operation and
maintenance of the hydraulic cylinders. The design of the hydraulic
cylinders varies depending on the shield support.

Design of hydraulic cylinders


Hydraulic cylinders mainly consist of a piston rod and a cylinder
tube (sheath) where the piston rod is moved in and out by introdu-
cing hydraulic fluid.
In principle, there are single- and double-acting cylinders. Single-
acting cylinders require an externally acting force to retract the pis-
ton rod. The connections for the annular and piston space are
either in the cylinder tube or at the end of the piston rod.
Fig. 62: Schematic design of a hydraulic cylinder
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

1 2 4 5 3

1 piston rod 4 cylinder tube, sheath


2 annular space 5 piston
3 piston space

Mode of operation
If the piston space is charged with hydraulic fluid, the piston rod
moves out.
Fig. 63: Extension function

fluid flowing out fluid flowing in

If the annular space (double-acting cylinders) is charged with hy-


draulic fluid, the piston rod retracts.
Fig. 64: Retraction function

fluid flowing in fluid flowing out

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


9.1
BI628355

Hydraulic cylinders on the shield support

Hydraulic cylinders on the shield support


In the following figure, the basic construction of a shield support
with hydraulic cylinders is shown. The function of the respective hy-
draulic cylinder is explained in the table. The use/design of the hy-
draulic cylinder varies, depending on the type and design of the
shield support.
The design of a shield support varies, depending on the local condi-
tions. For additional functions, such as flippers or caving flaps,
other hydraulic cylinders are used.

Fig. 65: Hydraulic cylinder items on the shield support, schematic diagram

Z5

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
Z1

Z2 Z3 Z4

Item Name Use / function

Z1 Telescopic prop Height adjustment of the shield support


Z2 Lifting cylinder Lifting the shield bases
Angle adjustment of the canopy and caving shield com-
Z3 Stabilizing cylinder
ponents
Z4 Shifting ram Advancing the shield support and the conveyor
Z5 Seal cylinder Extending and retracting the side seal

In the area around the shield support, there are other hydraulic cyl-
inders on the following components:
conveyor steering device (block anchorages)
steering device canopy/canopy, skid/skid
outrigger steering system as well as anchoring devices and end
shield steering devices

Technical information: Hydraulic components


9.2
BI628355

Hydraulic cylinders on the shield support

Telescopic prop
The following figure shows the basic construction of a telescopic
prop. Depending on the version, the design and external connec-
tions can vary.
Fig. 66: Double-telescopic prop

d
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

a prop base f safety cam


b piston pipe g load ring
c piston rod
h lubricating nipple
d piston space connection
e annular space connection i valve connection plate

Possible defects
Internal bypass formed inside the prop
If an internal bypass in a prop is suspected, this procedure should
be followed:
. Set the prop until the setting pressure has been reached.
. Make sure that the annular space of the prop is depressurized.
. Actuate the set prop function from the neighboring support.
Important!
If there is an internal bypass in the prop, for example due to
damaged piston packing, hydraulic fluid will flow out of the
prop's annular space connection. If this happens, the prop
must be replaced. If fluid should escape from the detached
hose lines, the piloted check valve is defective.

Information about dismantling / installing telescopic props can be


found in the Testing and maintenance chapter.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


9.3
BI628355

Hydraulic cylinders on the shield support

Lifting cylinder
The following figure shows the basic construction of a lifting cylin-
der. Depending on the version, the design and external connections
can vary.
Fig. 67: Lifting cylinder

a cylinder tube c annular space connection


b piston rod d piston space connection

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
Stabilizing cylinder
The following figure shows the basic construction of a stabilizing
cylinder. Stabilizing cylinders are installed individually or in pairs.
Depending on the version, the design and external connections can
vary.
Fig. 68: Stabilizing cylinder
b
a

a cylinder tube c valve connection plate


b piston rod

Important!
Information about dismantling / installing stabilizing cylinders
can be found in the Testing and maintenance chapter.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


9.4
BI628355

Hydraulic cylinders on the shield support

Shifting ram
The following figure shows the basic construction of a shifting ram.
Shifting rams are usually combined with a length measuring system
(reed rod) in order to be able to determine the path of the piston rod
that is still available.
Fig. 69: Shifting ram
h
c
e f a
g

d
d

a cylinder tube e plug-in elbow


(path measurement)
b reed rod
f annular space connection
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c piston rod
Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

g piston space connection


d screw fitting h load ring

Important!
Information about dismantling / installing the shifting ram can
be found in the Testing and maintenance chapter.

Seal cylinder
The following figure shows the basic construction of a seal cylinder.
Seal cylinders are installed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of
the shield. Depending on the shield size, up to 5 seal cylinders can
be installed per side in the canopy and caving shield.
Fig. 70: Seal cylinder

c
b

a cylinder tube c piston space connection


b piston rod d annular space connection

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


9.5
BI628355

Working with hydraulic cylinders

Working with hydraulic cylinders


Working on and with hydraulic cylinders requires a high degree of
concentration.
Danger!
Overpressure due to closed annular space connection
Possible consequences: death or very serious injuries due to
bursting hydraulic seals.
Annular space connections on double-acting props must never
be sealed pressure-tightly. Otherwise, a dangerous pressure
might build up in the annular space when extending the prop
which is several times higher than the setting pressure and
can destroy the cylinder.

Danger!
Shut-off valves in return lines
Possible consequences: death or very serious injuries due to
bursting hoses as a result of overpressure.
Never install shut-off valves in return lines or on annular space
connections!

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Important!

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


When changing hose lines, make sure that components, such
as the canopy or caving shield, are secured against uninten-
tional dropping.

(Initial) commissioning after transportation work


Before (initial) commissioning after transportation work, we recom-
mend that all plugs be removed at the beginning of installation
work.
Plugs which are not removed can burst if pressure is applied to the
cylinder, which can cause serious injuries.
Danger!
Removing plugs (dirt guards or transport safety device)
Possible consequences: death or very serious injuries due to
bursting plugs as a result of overpressure.
Before (initial) commissioning after transport work, where prop
connections have been dismantled, make sure that any plugs
have been removed from all connections (transport safety
devices or dirt guards).

Technical information: Hydraulic components


9.6
BI628355

Working with hydraulic cylinders

The following figure gives you an overview of the plug positions.


Depending on the design, prop connections and plugs might be loc-
ated in different places.
Fig. 71: Positions of the plugs
annular space connection

pressure relief valve

annular space
connection
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

rock burst valve connection piston space connection

Hydraulic cylinder maintenance


Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the Testing
and maintenance chapter.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


9.7
BI628355

Retract middle step of a set prop

Retract middle step of a set prop


Warning!
Check whether the shield is sufficiently tight between the roof
and the floor.

Important!
Make sure you observe the information on how to operate the
shield hydraulics in the respective shield operating manual.

Right-hand prop

. Lock the left-hand prop with HP ball valve (annulus space and
piston space)
. Retract right-hand prop.
While the prop is retracted, the middle step is retracted.
. When the middle step has reached the desired position, set the
prop.
. Once the right-hand prop is set, reopen the HP ball valve of the

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left-hand prop.

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


Left-hand prop
. Lock the right-hand prop with HP ball valve (annulus space and
piston space)
. Retract the left-hand prop.
While the prop is retracted, the middle step is retracted.
. When the middle step has reached the desired position, set the
prop.

. Once the left-hand prop is set, reopen the HP ball valve of the
right-hand prop.
Fig. 72: Retracting the middle step on a set prop

Hydraulic cylinder maintenance


Maintenance and servicing information can be found in the "Testing
and maintenance" chapter.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


9.8
BI628355

General

Hydraulic fluids
General
Hydraulic fluids are used for transferring energy in hydraulic sys-
tems. They must be selected so that they withstand the occurring
stresses, particularly the mechanical, chemical and thermal types,
and are compatible with the materials used in the hydraulic system.
Hydraulic fluids must meet the specifications of the manufacturer of
the hydraulic system.
Prerequisites for using hydraulic fluid (suitability test)
The starting point for a functioning hydraulic system is clean hy-
draulic fluid. If difficulties arise in the preparation of hydraulic fluids,
which would compromise their properties, all of the liquid in the hy-
draulic system must be replaced as a precaution. We recommend
creating a maintenance plan for hydraulic fluids to minimize accu-
mulation in the hydraulic components, such as filters.
Important!
Only use hydraulic fluids for which you have a valid certificate
in accordance with EWN 8350 or a special permit issued by
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Caterpillar. Otherwise, there is a risk that the hydraulic system


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

could be seriously damaged and result in the loss of warranty


claims.
The composition of hydraulic fluids depends on the quality of the
process water (tab. 5). Before Caterpillar issues a corresponding
certificate (permit), the customer (operator) must send in a sample
of his process water and the concentrate manufacturer must send
in a sample of his concentrate for a suitability test.
This suitability test refers to the technological properties of the hy-
draulic fluid and does not allow any conclusions to be drawn with
respect to its properties regarding health, safety and environmental
protection.
Fig. 73: Certificate It is carried out by an independent testing institute authorized by
Caterpillar in accordance with EWN 8350. A supplementary chem-
ical fingerprint of the concentrate will be made to rule out/verify
any changes in the concentrate composition.
If the suitability test shows that the hydraulic fluid meets the re-
quirements, the operator will receive a corresponding certificate
from Caterpillar.
The certificate is valid for a period of one year and, after a simpli-
fied test, can each be extended for an additional year.
The certificate loses its validity when one or more properties of the
process water and/or concentrate no longer meet the requirements.
Changes in the mixing ratio will also make the certificate void.

Important!
Changes in the composition of the water will lead to the loss of
the certificate even if they are within the limit values men-
tioned.
If system parts from different manufacturers should be used in a
mine, a special permit can be issued for operating all hydraulic
components with the same hydraulic fluid after consulting with
Caterpillar.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


10.1
BI628355

Maintenance of the hydraulic fluid

Important!
Caterpillar will not accept any warranty claims for any compon-
ents which have been or are operated with a different hydraulic
fluid without Caterpillar approval.

Maintenance of the hydraulic fluid


usability Consistent good quality of the hydraulic fluid is essential for the op-
erational reliability of hydraulic systems. To ensure the usability of
hydraulic fluids, the most important properties should be monitored
weekly and logged. These properties include:
temperature (max. 55C, during normal operation, however,
a temperature of 45C should not be exceeded),
electrical conductivity,
foaming,
pH value (target value 7.5 to 9.5),
concentrate proportion and microbial load (target value
105 col/ml).
It is recommended to draw up an operation-related maintenance

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maintenance plan

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


plan, which should be made with the manufacturer of the hydraulic
concentrate and consistently applied.
Quality of the process water
The water used to manufacture the hydraulic fluid has a great influ-
ence on the properties of the hydraulic fluid. The requirements on
the water quality are correspondingly high (tab. 5, Properties of the
process water).
If one or more limits should not be complied with,
install a water treatment system or
special measures must be taken by the concentrate manufac-
turer.
Tab. 8: Properties of the process water, limit values

Test criterion Limit value


Appearance, color, odor No peculiarities permissible
e.g. turbidity, bad odor, etc.
Electrical conductivity < 1800 S/cm
pH value 6.5 ..... 8.5
Na+ content Not specified
Mg+ content Not specified
Water hardness < 750 mg/l CaCO3 equivalent
( 42 dH)
Cl- - content 201 mg/l
SO42- content 145 mg/l
NO3- content 20 mg/l
Fe content 1 mg/l
Bacteriological requirements 105 col/ml
Fraction of solid foreign matter at 1.2 m 10 mg/l
filtering in accordance with DIN EN 12662
Contamination class according to ISO 4406: - / 18 / 14
1999

Technical information: Hydraulic components


10.2
BI628355

Handling hydraulic fluids

Handling hydraulic fluids


Some rules must be followed when handling hydraulic fluids.
Important!
Observe the regulations of your country/mine with regard to
the use of hydraulic fluids.

operating manual The operator of a hydraulic system must draw up an operating


manual, which defines the hazards to persons and the environment
which arise when handling hydraulic fluids, as well as the required
protective measures and rules of behavior, first aid measures and
information on proper disposal.
instruction The employees must be instructed with regard to the arising haz-
ards and protective measures based on the operating manual. The
instruction must be carried out before the employee starts work,
and afterwards at appropriate intervals.

Behavioral measures
Depressurize the hydraulic system before starting work.
Wear oil-resistant gloves and safety goggles.
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Immediately change contaminated clothing.


Do not put contaminated rags in your pants pocket.
Stay away from food and drinks.
When working with hydraulic fluids, make sure the workspace is
well ventilated.
Warning!
Hydraulic fluids / bodily contact
Possible consequences: skin disorders, irritation or damage to
respiratory organs and/or eyes
Observe the following rules of behavior:

. Immediately change contaminated clothing.


. Contaminated rags must not be stuck in pants pockets.
. Avoid working near leaky, pressurized hydraulic systems.
. Do not touch eyes with contaminated hands.
Accident with hydraulic fluid
If you or your colleagues should have an accident with hydraulic
fluid, do the following:
injection Penetration of pressurized hydraulic fluids under skin.

. Consult a doctor immediately. Let the doctor know about what


happened during the accident. Otherwise, particularly small
wounds might be overlooked or incorrectly treated.
eye injury Penetration of hydraulic fluid into the eye.

. Flush the eye with water or eye rinsing fluid (eye wash) for at
least 15 minutes, and consult a doctor, if necessary.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


10.3
BI628355

Disposal

swallowing Swallowing of hydraulic fluid.

. Immediately consult a doctor. Do not induce vomiting.


burning Burning by hot hydraulic fluid.
. Cool for at least 10 minutes with water and cover the wound
with a sterile bandage (germ-free, non-adhesive gauze or burn
bandage), and consult a doctor'.
Important!
Always keep the safety data sheet of the used hydraulic fluid
ready for the doctor.

Disposal
Important!
Dispose of hydraulic fluid according to the national regulations
of your country and/or mine.

. Before disposal, check whether the hydraulic fluid can be re-


used after being treated accordingly.

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
. Collect hydraulic fluid in appropriate containers and then prop-
erly dispose of the fluid.

. Prevent hydraulic fluid from penetrating into the ground.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


10.4
BI628355

Prerequisites

Testing and maintenance


Prerequisites
Who may carry out testing and maintenance work?
In general, testing and maintenance work may only be performed
by persons who have the knowledge and skills to meet the special
requirements and have been adequately trained with regard to test-
ing and maintenance work.

Who may carry out repair and overhaul work?


Repair and overhaul work may fundamentally only be carried out by
skilled personnel (see personnel qualifications).
Repair work on and overhaul of:
safety devices, e.g. pressure relief valves,
hydraulic props and cylinders,
control units, valves, and filters,
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

may only be carried out by service engineers from Caterpillar or by


specially trained personnel.
Important!
Before working on hydraulic systems/parts, the following
measures must be taken (five-finger rule):

. 1. Disconnect the power.


. 2. Secure power against being switched on again.
. 3. Depressurize the system, including any existing pressure ac-
cumulators, lower any suspended loads or support them from
below, dissipate residual energy.
Alternately actuate the two push-buttons of each pilot valve
(electrohydraulic control unit) 10 in order to relieve the pres-
sure in the hydraulic system of the shield.
. 4. Check to verify depressurization.
Check if there is any residual pressure in the control unit.
Consider the hydraulic lines and the hydraulic diagram when
doing this.
. 5. Prevent hazards caused by neighboring systems.
Important!
Observe any other rules for the individual (system) compon-
ents.

Caution!
Changing sealing rings
Possible consequences: leaks and damage due to leaks
When you exchange hydraulic components which have sealing
rings, always exchange the used sealing rings for new ones.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.1
BI628355

Prerequisites

Hydraulic systems - visual inspection


Recommended scope of test before initial commissioning/
recommissioning of hydraulic systems
Is all user information available which is required for safely op-
erating the hydraulic system?
(e.g. hydraulic circuit diagram, parts list, system description,
drawings, operating manual)
Do the hydraulic hose lines correspond to the hydraulic circuit
diagram/parts list and the system description (including the
used hydraulic fluid)?
Have protective measures been taken for the case of excep-
tionally high pressure pulses or pressure intensification, such
as pressure relief valves?
Are hoses and hose lines each marked with:
name or abbreviation of the manufacturer
EN number and type (pressure stage)
nominal diameter, quarter/year of manufacture.

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Are hydraulic hose lines each marked with the name or abbrevi-

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


ation of the manufacturer, max. permissible operating pressure
and year/month of manufacture on their labels (fittings)?
The hydraulic hose lines are installed so that, in accordance
with DIN 20066:
The natural position does not hinder movement.
Hose twisting and a tensile load due to short and too-small
bending radii are avoided.
Kinking protection (if necessary, on the connecting element)
guides the hose.
External mechanical effects or abrasion on edges is preven-
ted by sufficient spacing.
Damage from driving over them is prevented by using hose
bridges.
Loosely installed hose lines are protected by hose guides
(such as hose saddles) and sufficiently wide hose holders.
Heating protection (shield) protects against the effect of high
temperatures.
Are the hydraulic hose lines designed and arranged such that,
with regard to the installation site, they
cannot be mixed up, or are they clearly and permanently
marked?
are protected against all foreseeable damage (e.g. mechan-
ical, due to environmental influences, such as cooling lubri-
cants or high machine cycle frequencies)?
do not impair the maintenance and servicing of working
equipment?
Are hydraulic hose lines, which are used in the line areas with
stricter requirements (e.g. load suspension), secured against a
line break?

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.2
BI628355

Prerequisites

Are there suitable protective measures taken on hydraulic hose


lines, which could pose a hazard in the event of failure by whip-
ping around or leaking hydraulic fluid, such as fastenings, re-
tainers or shields?
Hazards can be expected, for example, when people mainly
stand in the direct vicinity of the hydraulic hose lines, such as in
signal towers or along operational travel ways.
Are hydraulic hose lines installed such that they cannot be used
as a climbing aid?
Do hydraulic hose lines of machines newly/repeatedly put into
operation already show damage?
Have the installed hydraulic hose lines/hoses exceeded the
storage/usage period recommended by the respective manu-
facturer?
Are the hydraulic hose lines painted over?
Does the operating manual include information about the test-
ing intervals? If so, what?
Important!
Installed hydraulic hose lines must not be made of used hoses
or used press-type fittings which were previously used as part
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of a hose line.
Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Hydraulic systems - function test


Recommended test scope for initial or recommissioning
Does the hydraulic control fulfill all intended machine functions
and do these correspond to the system description?
For all required machine functions for the intentional operation
of the machine, are there strange noises (e.g. relaxing knocks)
or similar indications of high pressure peaks or pressure intens-
ification for the hydraulic hose lines?
All parts of the hydraulic system must be tested at least with
the intended maximum working pressure, which can be reached
taking all intended applications into account:
Does any measurable leakage occur on the hydraulic hose
lines and connecting element?
Have all hydraulic hose lines withstood the pressure?
Are there chafe marks on the hydraulic hose lines which
move under operating conditions?
Hydraulic systems - utilization
Recommended test scope for safe provision and utilization (re-
curring or extraordinary testing)
Is the user information (operating manual, hydraulic circuit dia-
gram, parts list, etc.) of the manufacturer still complete and
present?
Do the operating conditions and environmental conditions of the
system still fulfill the original intended use?
For this, the following must be observed, for example:
type of product, tact time, pressure peaks
pressures and volume flows, temperatures
vibrations, moisture, contamination by oil
mechanical effects.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.3
BI628355

Prerequisites

Have the above-mentioned preconditions, which earlier led to


the definition of a certain period of use of the hydraulic hose
lines, been changed?
(If so, have testing periods and change intervals been defined
accordingly?)
Are all markings on the hydraulic hose lines present and
legible?
Do the used hydraulic hose lines show deficiencies?
Are the required protective measures (if necessary) for prevent-
ing the line from whipping around and/or hydraulic fluid from
leaking present on the hydraulic hose lines in question?
Are the periods for recurring tests on the hydraulic hose lines
defined and complied with?
Were the change intervals recommended by the manufacturer
or the max. period of use defined by the operator observed for
the hydraulic hose lines?
Have shortened test intervals been defined for the intentional
prolonged period of use of the hydraulic hose lines?
Have tests for proper installation and safe function been car-

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ried out after making changes to the machine and hydraulic

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


system (control and equipment) as well as after major overhaul
work, particularly when this involves the new installation of hy-
draulic hose lines? Were these changes recorded and included
in the machine documentation?

Influencing factors on test lists


Test lists must be adapted to the conditions at the mine. For this,
the following influencing factors must be taken into account:
Hazards which can arise when using the working equipment
during all relevant working procedures (basis: risk assessment)
Stricter safety requirements, e.g. due to the safety design of the
machine manufacturer and a specification for shorter periods in
the operating manual
Operating conditions of work equipment and hydraulic system
(e.g. special loads, conditions with defined overloads, utilization
times, tact times, operating parameters, influence of used hy-
draulic fluid)
Ambient conditions (damaging external influences, such as vi-
brations, moisture, contamination, mechanical influences, par-
ticularly high ozone fraction in outdoor air (e.g. as a result of
electric motors)
Compare whether the actual operating conditions correspond to
the operating conditions at the time of purchase and intended
by the manufacturer.
Manufacturer specifications for test intervals (system and hy-
draulic hose lines)
Age or degree of wear of the work equipment or of the hydraulic
hose line
Prolonging the change intervals
Manner and system, with which a planned overhaul is done,
particularly for safety-related components and wear parts

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.4
BI628355

Test criteria for hydraulic hose line

Experience of operator/setter/overhauler with the work equip-


ment and the hydraulic system with regard to failure behavior,
occurrence of deficiencies, malfunctions, clustering of such
events on machines or systems
Assessment of the results from the visual inspections and func-
tion tests before the daily use of machine
Known damage or accidents occurring on comparable ma-
chines or hydraulic systems
Assessment of the test results from recurring tests on these hy-
draulic hose lines or such which are operated under compar-
able conditions
Results of test before commissioning.

Test criteria for hydraulic hose line


Is there damage to the outer layer up to the inner lining, caused
particularly by chafing, cuts or cracks?
Is the outer layer brittle or is crack formation visible in the hose
material?
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Are deformations visible in the depressurized or pressurized


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

state or when bent, which do not correspond to the natural form


of the hydraulic hose line, e.g. layer separation, blister/bubble
formation, crushed spots, kinks?
Is the hydraulic hose line free of leaks on the hose, hose line or
fitting?
Is there so-called migration of the hose out of the fitting?
Is the fitting damaged or deformed, which could impair the func-
tion and strength of the fitting or the hose/fitting connection?
Is the fitting corroded, which would impair its function and
strength?
Can the hydraulic hose line move freely, as always, or are there
new crushing, shearing or chafing points due to the attachment
of any new system parts or units?
Has it been made sure that the hydraulic hose lines cannot pro-
ject into travel ways, even when the units coupled to the hy-
draulic hose lines move to their end positions?
Have hydraulic hose lines been painted over (no recognition of
markings and cracks!)?
Are storage times and utilization periods exceeded?
Are all covers remounted and working (after testing, moving,
conversions)?
Are the necessary securing devices to prevent lines from being
torn out present?

Regularly scheduled damage assessment


In accordance with the test lists given above, we recommend that
damage be assessed on a regular basis. These records should be
evaluated regularly and consolidated to form a damage report.
This will enable you to detect frequently occurring damage early on
and take preventative action.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.5
BI628355

Valve test criteria

Valve test criteria


3/2- and 4/3-way pilot valve
Defects on pilot valves are difficult to detect since no medium is
discharged on the valve terminal. There is therefore no obvious in-
dication of faults, such as discharged fluid.
3/2-way pilot valves must be subjected to a function check at the
latest after one year of storage. The storage time begins from the
date of manufacture of the pilot valve (see week/year on the name
plate).
The pilot valve must be flushed with anticorrosion protection
(MineTech Protection Fluid, from Quaker, see Table 13). Operate
the functions of the pilot valves so that the preservative is spread
around better.
The storage time for pilot valves after passing the function
check is one year.
Store the pilot valves only in closed rooms at 15C to 25C.
Notice!
If push-buttons are damaged, contamination can get into the

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pilot valves. Exchange the pilot valve in the event of defective

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


push-buttons.

Notice!
Always insert new seals when you exchange the valves!
Grease the O-rings with Hydrocore SF.

Possible errors:
Valve does not switch off / exchange valve
. Valve function on the electrohydraulic control unit continues to
respond although the function is not being actuated.
Close the main shut-off valve in the P line of the shield supply.
Relieve residual pressure (actuate functions 10x). This valve is
defective and must be exchanged.
Valve does not switch
. Actuate the valve function on the (electrohydraulic) control unit
several times to release the blocked parts of the valve.
Internal leaks - bypass formation
(can be detected on the working valves of the electrohydraulic
control unit by a clearly audible hissing noise).

. Locate the faulty valve by actuating the functions individually in


sequence. If the noise goes away while a function is being ac-
tuated, this valve is faulty (you might have to press the button
for the faulty function for several seconds before the noise
goes away).

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.6
BI628355

Pressure relief valves

Pressure relief valves


Possible errors:
Leaky pressure relief valves can usually be detected by the escap-
ing hydraulic fluid or by a pressure drop on the pressure gauge in-
dicator (if there is one). If fluid is already discharged at working
pressure, the pressure relief valve is defective or the discharge
pressure setting of the pressure relief valve used is too low.
. Check the pressure specifications of the pressure relief valves
based on the hydraulic circuit diagrams and exchange the dam-
aged valves.

Pressure relief valves (spring-loaded)


Maintenance
Pressure relief valves (spring-loaded) must be subjected to a func-
tion check at the latest after one year of operation, or when the
equipment is moved to another face.
The service life starts from the delivery of the pressure relief valve.
If more than a year passes between delivery and commissioning,
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the pressure relief valves must be subjected to a function check.


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

If this deadline cannot be complied with, it is up to the operator to


make an exception to extend it.
Servicing
At the latest after two years of operation all pressure relief valves
on the face must be replaced or repaired. Each pressure relief
valve is serviced in accordance with specific work instructions.
Tab. 9: Pressure relief valves (spring-loaded)

PRV Test specification Work Repair kit


instructions
8220 027 000 00 00 8220 027 000 RA 00 8220 027 020 00 00
8220 027 000 PV 00
8220 028 000 00 00 8220 027 000 RA 00 8220 028 020 00 00
8220 042 000 00 01 8220 027 000 RA 00 8220 042 020 00 01
8220 042 000 PV 00
8220 042 000 00 02 8220 027 000 RA 00 8220 042 020 00 02
8220 138 000 00 00 8220 027 000 RA 00 8220 138 020 00 00
8220 139 000 00 00 5733 700 045 PV 00 8220 027 000 RA 00 8220 139 020 00 00
7337 493 010 00 00 8220 027 000 RA 00 7337 493 020 00 00
7337 486 010 00 00 7337 486 010 PV 00 8220 027 000 RA 00 7337 486 020 00 00

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.7
BI628355

Pressure relief valves

Pressure relief valves (gas-filled)


Maintenance
Pressure relief valves (gas-filled) must be subjected to a function
check at the latest after three months of operation, or when the
equipment is moved to another face. We recommend subjecting at
least 15% of the pressure relief valves to a random sample inspec-
tion.
If this deadline cannot be complied with, it is up to the operator to
extend it after a corresponding risk analysis.
Servicing
At the latest after two years of operation all pressure relief valves
on the face must be replaced or repaired. Each pressure relief
valve is serviced in accordance with specific work instructions.
Tab. 10: Pressure relief valves (gas-filled)

PRV Test specification Work Repair kit


instructions
7337 611 010 00 00 7337 611 010 RA 00 7337 611 020 00 00
7337 611 010 PV 00

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8220 127 000 00 00 8220 127 000 RA 00 8220 127 020 00 00

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


8220 146 000 00 00 8220 146 000 PV 00 8220 146 000 RA 00 8220 146 020 00 00
8220 147 000 00 00 8220 147 000 PV 00 8220 147 000 RA 00 8220 147 020 00 00
8220 148 000 00 00 8220 148 000 PV 00 8220 148 000 RA 00 8220 148 020 00 00

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.8
BI628355

Test criteria for accumulator cartridges

Test criteria for accumulator cartridges


Accumulator cartridges in hydraulic systems should be checked
regularly.
If not otherwise required by the manufacturer, we recommended
that approx. 20% of the installed accumulator cartridges be ran-
domly checked every year.
After 2 years of use, all accumulator cartridges of a hydraulic sys-
tem should be removed and checked.
Important!
When installing accumulator cartridges, always exchange the
used sealing rings for new ones, too.

Warning!
Setting/testing the gas filling pressure
Possible consequences: destruction of the hydraulic accumu-
lator, bodily injury due to accumulator bursting
Setting, testing and filling work may only be carried out by
Caterpillar Service personnel.
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. When checking the gas filling pressure, the permissible pres-


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

sure of the hydraulic accumulator must not be exceeded.

. No gas may flow out after each test or setting.


Caution!
Maintenance and filling of accumulator cartridges
Possible consequences: destruction of the accumulator cart-
ridge
Maintaining and filling accumulator cartridges may only be
done by Caterpillar Service personnel!

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.9
BI628355

Filter test criteria

Filter test criteria


General
Filters hold back dirt particles of a certain size that are in hydraulic
fluids, water or other media. The filter performance is strongly de-
pendent on the quality of the supplied medium. If the medium is of
inadequate quality, the filter gets clogged more quickly (blockage).
Always make sure the medium is clean.
After working on a hydraulic system, you can assume that dirt has
penetrated the hydraulic system. At what time intervals filters have
to be exchanged mainly depends on the degree of contamination of
the medium.
For this reason, time intervals must be defined individually. If func-
tions are slowed down or are executed incorrectly or not at all, the
cause could be a clogged filter.
Notice!
Make sure the working environment is clean when working on
hydraulic systems. Close open lines and components with pro-
tective caps or the like.

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
Notice!
Make sure that closed isolating equipment cannot be opened
by accident during the maintenance periods.

Notice!
When changing the filters, pay attention to sealing surfaces
and seals. Replace any damaged seals.

Important!
Depending on the filter type and manufacturer, the following
descriptions can deviate from your filter version. Always read
the original operating manual of the respective manufacturer.

electrohydraulic control unit Filter cartridges


The hydraulic filter cartridges on electrohydraulic shield control sys-
tems must be replaced immediately after commissioning or recom-
missioning (e.g. after changing to another face or working on the
hydraulic system).
. Start up the shield hydraulics.
. Run all functions consecutively.
filter cartridge . Then replace all water filters.
Caution!
Use filter cartridges only once. Filter cartridges and filters may
not be cleaned. Always replace used filters with new ones.

Cleaning filters can cause the filter fineness to change, permitting


coarser contamination to be deposited in the valves and damaging
them.
Important!
If there should be an increase in problems with contamination,
the cause might be the deficient treatment of the HFA fluid.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.10
BI628355

Filter test criteria

In this case, the treatment process should be checked and a main-


tenance plan should be drawn up to regularly check the filters and
exchange them, if necessary.
Caution!
Cleaning of filter cartridges
Possible consequences: contamination and failure of the hy-
draulic system
Always exchange used filter cartridges for new ones. Do not
use any cleaned filter cartridges.

Important!
Used filter cartridges are contaminated by emulsion residue
and deposits. Dispose of used filter cartridges according to the
environmental regulations of your country and/or mine.

Gap filters (manual actuation)


For maintenance, the filter body is turned once or twice with the
handle. Gap cleaners and strippers loosen the dirt, which then
sinks downward. Then open the drain screw and drain the contam-
inated fluid.
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Maintenance intervals are specified by the manufacturer in operat-


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

ing hours (h). In the respective original operating manuals of the


manufacturer, you will find the maintenance intervals for the follow-
ing components or tasks, for example.
Housing, seal on housing, gap filter insert, shaft seal on filter
head, scraper/stripper, discharge sludge
Possible malfunction / error
Leak on housing cover
. Change the o-ring of the cover seal.
Shaft seal leaky
. Change the shaft sealing ring.
Gap filter does not filter the medium sufficiently
. Remove the gap filter insert and check for damage, completely
replace, if necessary, or have it repaired.
Flow rate has gone down and/or the differential pressure has
risen sharply.
Filter body contaminated

. Turn gap filter; check again. If necessary, repeat this operation


several times.
Scraper/stripper worn
. Replace the scraper/stripper
Too much sludge in the gap filter
. Drain the sludge, clean the filter insert and housing, shorten the
sludge discharge interval

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.11
BI628355

Filter test criteria

Gap filter cannot turn completely


Too much sludge in the gap filter
. Drain the sludge, clean the filter insert and housing, shorten the
sludge discharge interval
Filter body and/or scraper worn
. Remove the gap filter insert and check for damage, completely
replace, if necessary, or have it repaired.
Warning!
Depressurize the gap filter
Possible consequences: serious injuries to the face, eyes and
skin due to sprayed fluid
During cleaning, maintenance and repair work, the gap filter
and hydraulic system must be switched off. Switch off the gear
motor (if present) and depressurize the system. Secure against
being switched on again unintentionally.

Double filter (can be backflushed)


The time intervals for backflushing double filters depend on the de-
gree of contamination of the used HFA fluid and must therefore be

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
defined individually. We recommend backflushing double filters
(both filter inserts) regularly once a shift.
If there is external leakage, exchange the corresponding seal. If the
leakage is not remedied by doing this, all sealing surfaces must be
checked and defective parts exchanged immediately.
Filter elements and valves are subject to normal wear during use.
Therefore, they should be checked accordingly at appropriate inter-
vals.
Worn or damaged parts must be exchanged immediately.
Important!
During commissioning, first the shut-off valve on the inlet side
is to be opened slowly, and afterwards that on the outlet side.
Opening suddenly can destroy the filter!

Possible malfunction / error


Leaks
. Check connections and screw connections and exchange,
retighten or exchange seals, if necessary.
Inadequate filtering effect.
. Exchange filter cartridges.
Backflushing procedure is not initiated.
. Check the actuation of the solenoid valve. If necessary, ex-
change the solenoid valve, check the pressure supply, ex-
change the filter cartridge of the inlet filter.
Backflushing procedure too slow/selector shafts do not reach
their end positions.
. Check working pressure, check separate pressure supply, pro-
long switching time of the solenoid valve, exchange filter cart-
ridge.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.12
BI628355

Filter test criteria

Low backflushing effect.

. Check volume flow, check complete opening of the shut-off


valves, check separate pressure supply.
Differential pressure rises too quickly.

. Install prefilter and/or change element fineness, shorten back-


flushing interval.
Important!
If unambiguous fault localization/elimination is not possible,
then the double filter must be taken out of operation!

Return filters / bag filters


Return filters / bag filters should be checked weekly. To do main-
tenance work on the return filter / bag filter, the filter must first be
depressurized.
Depressurizing procedure

. First close the shut-off valve in front of the bag filter (inlet), and
then the shut-off valve after the bag filter (outlet).
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

. Slowly open the venting ball cock to allow the overpressure


prevailing in the filter chamber to completely escape.
Pressurizing procedure
After the filter has been changed and all openings have been
sealed, you can pressurize the filter again.
. Slowly open the shut-off valve on the inlet side (opening sud-
denly can destroy the filter chamber and filter inserts).
. Afterwards, vent the filter chamber.
Water filters
Water filters should be checked regularly. The operator must define
the maintenance intervals, since the degree of contamination of the
filters depends on the system and ambient conditions of the mine.
If shield functions are executed much more slowly, although the
system pressure lies in the normal range, this could be due to the
malfunctions given below:
Important!
After the initial commissioning, exchange water filters after
working on the hydraulic system (e.g. change to another face)!

Filter defective or the hydraulic system is contaminated


(e.g. during repair).
. Check all filters of the hydraulic system.
Leaks
. Check connections and seals and exchange, if necessary.
. If there is no filter element inserted, insert a filter element.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.13
BI628355

Filter test criteria

Inadequate filtering effect

. Exchange filter element, since worn or defective.


Water filter clogs too quickly.

. Check the upstream filter and return filter in the face.


Flow rate too low
. Exchange filter element, since clogged.
. Check whether shut-off valves are completely opened.
. Check the feed line system with regard to excessively low flow
rate.
Important!
Water filters must not be cleaned! Always replace used water
filters with new ones.

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Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.14
BI628355

Test criteria for hydraulic cylinders

Test criteria for hydraulic cylinders


Hydraulic cylinders are highly stressed components which have to
be checked regularly.

. Check all external connections and seals of the piston rod and
piston pipe for leaks at appropriate intervals.
water spraying system On hydraulic cylinders which are within range of a water spraying
system, the piston rods must be thoroughly cleaned every six
months, at latest, and be re-preserved.

Exchanging hydraulic cylinders


The following procedure only describes the basic procedure for ex-
changing hydraulic cylinders. Depending on the design, some steps
might vary.
Before carrying out work, the operator must draw up work instruc-
tions, which include the ambient conditions and any hazards.
What preconditions must be met?
Make sure that all tools and load handling devices required for
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

the work are available.


The working area at the defective shield must be secured and
cordoned off.
The Support blocked switch on the defective shield must be
pressed.
The left and right neighboring shields must be set.
Important!
In emergencies and during repairs, the shield can only be
moved via the actuation elements on the electrohydraulic con-
trol unit. During normal operation they should not be used.
Otherwise, dangerous situations could arise which could result
in very serious injury or death!

Important!
Make sure you observe the information on how to operate the
shield hydraulics in the respective shield operating manual.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.15
BI628355

Exchanging hydraulic cylinders

Removing hydraulic props


. Set the shield on which repair work has to be carried out.
. In addition, move out the side seals until the shield is braced
with the neighboring shield.

. Shut off the working prop hydraulically by closing the HP ball


valve on the prop control valve.

. Remove the prop aprons and secure the defective prop against
falling over with chain hoists and wooden wedges, if necessary.
. Remove the prop head fastening.
. Completely retract the defective prop via the control unit.
. Close the ball valve on the supply block, in order to shut off the
pressure supply to the shield.
. Alternately actuate the opposing push-buttons in the control
unit 10x to reduce the pressure in the shield hydraulic system.

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. Briefly turn the vented cap screw on the prop control valve in-

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


ward so that the residual pressure escapes from the annular
space of the prop.

. Briefly open the screw on the pressure gauge port so that the
residual pressure can escape from the piston space (special
tool required).

. Shut off the defective prop hydraulically by closing the HP ball


valve on the prop control valve.

. Remove the hose lines from the defective prop and seal these
with plugs.
. Remove the check valve from the defective prop.
. Mount the cover plate to the defective prop and seal the annu-
lar space connection with a blind plug.
. Remove the prop retainer from the skid.
. Remove the defective prop from the shield.
. Remove any contamination from the prop seat before you
mount a new prop.
Important!
Installation is done in the reverse order!

Important!
Only release the shield for use once you have checked the
functions and no malfunctions occurred.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.16
BI628355

Exchanging hydraulic cylinders

Removing stabilizing cylinders


. Set the shield on which repair work has to be carried out.
. In addition, move out the side seals until the shield is braced
with the neighboring shield.
. Secure the stabilizing cylinder against falling down with chain
hoists.
. Bring the stabilizing cylinder into the floating position so that
the connecting elements can be released more easily.

. Remove the pin retainer of the stabilizing cylinder from the can-
opy.
. Retract the stabilizing cylinder via the control unit.
. Close the ball valve on the supply block, in order to shut off the
pressure supply to the shield.
. Alternately actuate the opposing functional pair of push-buttons
on the control unit 10x to reduce the pressure in the shield hy-
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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

draulic system.
. Briefly turn the two vented cap screws of the twin check valve
on the stabilizing cylinder inward so that the residual pressure
can escape from the stabilizing cylinder.
. Remove the two pressure relief valves from the stabilizing cyl-
inder.

. Additionally secure the stabilizing cylinder from tipping over.


. Remove the pin retainer of the stabilizing cylinder from the cav-
ing shield and remove the stabilizing cylinder from the shield.
Important!
Installation is done in the reverse order!

Important!
Only release the shield for use once you have checked the
functions and no malfunctions occurred.

Removing the shifting ram


. Set the shield on which repair work has to be carried out.
. In addition, move out the side seals until the shield is braced
with the neighboring shield.

. Bring the shifting ram into the floating position so that the con-
necting elements can be released more easily.

. Remove the securing device from the relay bar assembly.


. Lift up the relay bar assembly by the load ring somewhat.
. Retract the shifting ram via the control unit.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.17
BI628355

Exchanging hydraulic cylinders

. Then extend the shifting ram to relieve the pressure in the shift-
ing ram.
. Close the ball valve on the supply block, in order to shut off the
pressure supply to the shield.
. Alternately actuate the opposing functional pair of push-buttons
on the control unit 10x to reduce the pressure in the shield hy-
draulic system.

. Remove the hose lines from the shifting ram and seal these
with plugs.

. Remove the shifting ram from the shield.


. Keep the bearing shells for installing the new shifting ram.
Important!
Installation is done in the reverse order!

Important!

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Only release the shield for use once you have checked the

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


functions and no malfunctions occurred.

Commissioning / recommissioning the shield


hydraulics
Before you put the shield hydraulics into operation, it is imperative
that the following checks be carried out:
. Check all line connections established during the installation of
the shields, especially all supply lines of the shield hydraulics,
for completeness and correctness.

. Hoses must always be able to move freely. They may not be


pinched or overstretched. Make sure the hose lines are
bundled properly.

. Damaged hydraulic hose lines must be replaced immediately!


Important!
When hose lines between piloted check valves and props or
other hydraulic cylinders lying in the flow of force, such as sta-
bilizing cylinders or adjusting cylinders, have to be replaced,
the caving shield and canopy must be secured mechanically
against dropping.

Important!
To evaluate damage cases and to take the corresponding coun-
termeasures, we recommend that any damage be recorded.
A weekly or monthly evaluation of the records will allow you to
detect weak points and to avoid errors early on, e.g. by carry-
ing out the appropriate maintenance.

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.18
BI628355

Exchanging hydraulic cylinders

Shield hydraulics / daily maintenance


. Check all shields by visually inspecting them for escaping hy-
draulic fluid at the following points:
hose lines,
electrohydraulic or hydraulic control units,
valves,
props,
shifting rams and baselift cylinders (lifting cylinders),
hinge, alignment and flipper cylinders.
. Check the pressure gauges on the props for visible damage
and correct function.
. Replace defective control systems or other defective compon-
ents immediately.

Shield hydraulics / weekly maintenance


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. Check each control system for correct functioning.


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

. Clean the control systems, especially the control panel.


Shield hydraulics / semiannual maintenance
. Lubricate the dirt strippers of the hydraulic props of all tele-
scope stages via the lubricating nipples.
Grease A2, see table 11
. Apply a preservative to the piston rods of the hydraulic cylin-
ders.
Cleaning agent, see table 14

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.19
BI628355

Permissible media

Permissible media
The media indicated in the tables are recommendations that meet
the required specifications. Other media may well be used,
provided they are approved by Caterpillar and comply with the re-
quirements of the respective EWN*). When using media which do
not meet the requirements, the operator and the respective manu-
facturer accept liability for any damage.
Important!
Observe the data sheet of the respective manufacturer. This in-
cludes specifications and specific safety instructions for safe
handling of the product.

Greases
Meets the requirements of Caterpillar to EWN 7068
Grease A2 Greases containing additives for high pressure applications, e.g. for
dirt strippers of the hydraulic props.
Tab. 11: Grease A2

Supplier Make Base NLGI Flashpoint

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class in C

Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015


Shell Alvania E.P. grease 2 Lithium 2 205
soap

Grease A9 Grease for installing hydraulic components such as hose lines,


valves and cylinders.
Tab. 12: Grease A9

Supplier Make Base NLGI


class
Houton Hydrocor SF Polyglycols 2

Preservative / anticorrosion protection


Meets the requirements of Caterpillar to EWN 8350-4
Preservative / anticorrosion Storage liquid to protect hydraulic components from frost damage
protection and corrosion during long term storage.
Tab. 13: Preservative / anticorrosion protection

Supplier Make Remark


Quaker MinetechTM Protection Fluid Frost protection to -50C
Houghton CV50 DF Frost protection to -40C

Cleaning agent
Cleaning agent Cleaning agent for cleaning piston rods of the hydraulic props or
hydraulic cylinders.
Tab. 14: Cleaning agent

Supplier Make Remark


Fuchs Renoclean Spezial 2000
Shell Dobatex Gold at a dilution of 5% water
*) EWN = works standard

Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.20
BI628355

Dismantling / disposal

Dismantling / disposal
Warning!
Depressurizing components and systems
Possible consequences: serious injuries to the face, hands and
upper body due to hydraulic fluid spraying out
Always carry out work on hydraulic components when they are
depressurized. Make sure that the system/component is de-
pressurized before starting work.

The disposal of hydraulic systems or components, such as filters,


must be done according to the national disposal regulations and/or
according to the regulations of your mine.
Information regarding disposal can be found in the regulations and
laws of the following subject areas:
Occupational safety
Environmental protection
Rules and regulations of the employers' liability insurance asso-
ciation
E

Requirements and regulations of your mine


Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


11.21
BI628355

Dismantling / disposal

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Technical information: Hydraulic components


11.22
BI628355

Commissioning information

Hydraulic supply and setup


Commissioning information
The longwall or hydraulic supply is a closed hydraulic circuit with a
pressure supply (P) and return (T). If the hydraulic supply is opened
while installing the shield or commissioning, air and contaminants
can enter the hydraulic circuit.
Air in the hydraulic lines enters at low pressure in the form of gas
bubbles which can quickly compress like an implosion under high
pressure. This releases forces that can have a destructive effect on
the surroundings and the medium (cavitation).
Particularly in hose lines, cavitation can destroy the hose line, and
released particles can plug and damage the valves.
The prevention of air inclusions in the hydraulic supply and how to
ventilate the system is described below.
When does the hydraulic supply have to be ventilated?
before first startup
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after changing to another face


after opening the supply lines
such as shield to shield supply in the pressure line
after a long downtime
How is the hydraulic supply ventilated?
The following procedure corresponds to a basic sequence in the
longwall with a ring line and branch line. The arrangement and
design of the longwall can vary depending on the situation.

. Backflush and ventilate the section line


Shut off the pressure supply at the filter station (1).
. Connect the pressure and return with each other (2).
Open the ball valve for the section line bypass.
Start the pump station, and completely rinse the system.
Stop the pump station.
. Check the filter station return and change the filter bag if
necessary (3).
Dispose of contaminants from the section line.
. Turn on the pressure supply (2).
Close the ball valve for the section line bypass.
. Open the ball valves in the filter station (1).

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


12.1
BI628355

Commissioning information

. Backflush and vent the face line


Connect the pressure and return with each other (4).
Open the ball valve for the tail gate face line.
Start the pump station, and completely rinse the system.
Stop the pump station.
. Check the filter station return and change the filter bag if
necessary (3).
Dispose of contaminants from the face line.
. Turn on the pressure supply (4).
Close the ball valve for the tail gate face line.
. Backflush the backflush filter (1).
Start the pump station.
Backflush the backflush filter.
Stop the pump station.

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Caterpillar Global Mining Europe GmbH, Lnen 2015
Fig. 74: Diagram of a hydraulic supply

1 High-pressure filter station 3 Return filter station


2 Bypass in the section line 4 Bypass in the face line
(head gate) (tail gate)

Technical information: Hydraulic components


12.2
BI628355

Optimum hydraulic supply

Optimum hydraulic supply


The permissible working pressure is set by the highest pressure at
which the machine or component can function safely. If this value is
exceeded or undershot, the function and safety cannot be ensured.
The working pressure is the pressure at which the system oper-
ates. When the operating pressure is exceeded, the system is kept
safe by pressure relief valves that respond in an emergency. If the
pressure falls below the indicated operating pressure, the props of
the shield unit, for instance, may not have the required setting pres-
sure.
This is important in order to achieve good roof support and to
ensure sufficient bracing between the roof and the floor for shield
units with special functions, such as thrust bearings for conveyor
steering devices.
Observe the following specifications for an optimum hydraulic
supply.
The indicated values are based on continuous conveyance. The
bearing function or setting pressure of the prop can be queried in
the PMC-R control unit.
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The working pressure in the pressure supply (P) may not fall
below 20% of the indicated value.

working pressure max. 320 bar 100%

setting pressure min. 256 bar 80%


The working pressure or pressure peaks in the return (T) should
not fall below 20 bar.
0 to 5 bar is optimal; the pressure peaks should not exceed
20 bar.

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


12.3
BI628355

Optimum hydraulic supply

Schematic diagram of hydraulic supplies


Important!
Branch line
A branch line constitutes a permissible pressure feed to the
shield column to
ensure an even pressure distribution in the face.

Fig. 75: Hydraulic supply without a ring line or branch line

P=100%

P=85%
=P
=T

P=65%

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Fig. 76: Hydraulic supply with a ring line and without a branch line

P=100%

=P P=80%
=T

Technical information: Hydraulic components


12.4
BI628355

Optimum hydraulic supply

Fig. 77: Optimum supply: Hydraulic supply with a ring line and with a branch line

P=100% P=95%
P=90%

=P
=T
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Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


12.5
BI628355

Optimum hydraulic supply

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Technical information: Hydraulic components


12.6
BI628355

Standards and directives for hy-


draulic systems / components
Important!
Also observe the respectively valid versions of your national
laws and regulations.

Tab. 15: Standards and directives, excerpt

Date of
Designation Title
issue
EC Directive of the European Parliament and Council on
Directive 2006/42/EC the approximation of the laws of the Member States relat- 2006-05
ing to machinery
EC directive of the European Parliament and the Council
on the approximation of the laws of the Member States
Directive 94/9/EC 1994-03
concerning equipment and protective systems intended for
use in potentially explosive atmospheres
DIN 31000 General principles for the safe design of products 1979-03
DIN EN ISO 12100 Safety of machinery 2011-03
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Safety requirements for fluid power systems and their com-


DIN EN 982 2009-06
ponents
Rubber hoses and hose assemblies; hydraulic hoses -
DIN EN 853 - 857
specification
DIN 20066 Hose assemblies, dimensions and requirements 2002-10
Staple-lock couplings for hydraulic power-transmission
DIN 20043 2003-09
circuits
DIN 24320 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids 2006-12
DIN 24343 Maintenance and inspection list for hydraulic systems 1982-02
Hydraulic fluid power - Filter elements - Verification of col-
ISO 2941 2009-04
lapse / burst pressure rating
Hydraulic fluid power - Filter elements - Verification of fab-
ISO 2942 2004-08
rication integrity and determination of the first bubble point
Hydraulic fluid power - Filter elements - Verification of ma-
ISO 2943 1998-11
terial compatibility with fluids

In addition, you can find, if available, other requirements for hy-


draulic systems and hose lines in the national laws and regulations
of your country for the following subject areas:
Occupational safety
Ordinances for operating pressure vessels
Ordinance for operating work equipment
Environmental protection (substances harmful to water)
Rules and regulations of the employers' liability insurance asso-
ciation

1) EWN = Caterpillar works standard

Doc. No.: 1999 001 000 TB 00 VESE / 03 Media-ID: BI628355-02-EN


13.1
BI628355

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Technical information: Hydraulic components


13.2
BI628355

2003 CATERPILLAR CAT, CATERPILLAR, THEIR RESPECTIVE LOGOS, CATERPILLAR


ALL RIGHTS YELLOW AND THE POWER EDGE TRADEDRESS, AS WELL AS
RESERVED CORPORATE AND PRODUCT IDENTITY USED HEREIN, ARE TRADEMARKS
OF CATERPILLAR AND MAY NOT BE USED WITHOUT PERMISSION.