2010

The information presented in this handbook is based on the provisions of the Harbors and Navigation Act 1993 and Regulations 2009, which include reference to Collision Regulations and River Murray Traffic Regulations. It is to be used only as a guide. Copies of the Harbors and Navigation Act and Regulations can be obtained from: Service SA 101 Grenfell Street Adelaide Tel: 13 23 24. The Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure (DTEI) does not sponsor, endorse or necessarily approve any products or services advertised in the South Australian Recreational Boating Safety Handbook. DTEI acknowledges the cooperation and assistance provided by Marine Safety Victoria for granting permission to use the Victorian Recreational Boating Safety Handbook as the base for the South Australian Recreation Boating Safety Handbook.

1 Minister’s Message
I am delighted to present the updated South Australian Recreational Boating Safety Handbook, which incorporates changes to boating safety requirements introduced by the Harbors and Navigation Regulations 2009. The handbook is an essential reference for all recreational boaters and will help to enhance the safety of everyone using South Australia’s waterways. As leisure and water sports become increasingly popular so do the risks associated with participating. To counter those risks the South Australia Government has introduced a range of safety-related measures to increase the knowledge and understanding of those participating in recreational boating. The State Government is investing nearly $11 million between 2008 and 2014 to improve safety for South Australia’s recreational and commercial mariners through vital upgrades of infrastructure and services. These upgrades include the VHF Marine Radio Distress and Safety System network to ensure 24/7 coverage, navigational aids and compliance patrol vessels. This handbook includes national Standards (or core competencies) that are designed to ensure operators are able to demonstrate – by passing a theory examination – basic knowledge of waterway rules and safe boating operation. Keeping all recreational boaters knowledge of rules and safe boating operation up-to-date will help to make South Australia’s waterways a safe and enjoyable experience for everyone who utilises the State’s varied aquatic resources. I encourage all boaters to update their knowledge of safe boating operation and I look forward to working with you to improve the safety of South Australia’s waterways.

Patrick Conlon
Minister for Transport

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Contents Page ....................1 Contents Page

Minister’s Message CHAPTER 1

Unseaworthy Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Insurance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
What is BoatCode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 HIN Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Applying for BoatCode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 BoatCode Agents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 BoatCode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Recreational boating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Recreational Vessel Operator Licensing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
When Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Exemptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Application for a Boat Operator’s Licence . . . . . . . 7 Evidence of Identity (EOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Boat Operator Licensing Examinations . . . . . . . . . . 8 Special Permit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Application for a Special Permit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Special Permit Examinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Practical Test for Special Permit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Production of Licence or Special Permit . . . . . . . . 10 Interstate Visitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Operating without a Licence or Special Permit . . . 10 Obligations of a Licence or Special Permit holder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Alcohol and Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Chapter 1 Sample Test Questions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

CHAPTER 2
Trip Preparation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Before You Go Boating

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Pre-Season Vessel Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Pre-start Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Launching Your Vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Boat Etiquette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Hire and Drive Requirements

. . . . . . . . . 11

Motor Vessel Registration Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
When Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Display of Registration Label and Numbers . . . . . 12 Renewal of Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Buying or Selling a Motor Vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Proof of Vessel Ownership (PVO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Australian Builders Plate (ABP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Deceased Joint Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Interstate Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Reduce the Risk of Injury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Let Someone Know Before You Leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Tides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Too Many Is Too Dangerous . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Interpreting the Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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Contents Page Contents Page

Minimum Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Exemptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Vessels under 8 metres in length . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Vessels 8 -15 metres in length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Vessels more than 15 metres in length . . . . . . . . . 34 Personal Flotation Device (PFD)
. . . . . . 34 Safety Equipment Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Charts and Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fire Extinguishers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Local Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Weather and Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
HF Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 VHF Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . 52 Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Thunderstorms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Safety Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Crossing Ocean Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Other Safety Equipment Standards . . . . 37 Potential Hazards and Conditions Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Vessels Required to Carry an EPIRB. . . . . . . . . . . 38 Legal Requirements for EPIRBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Activating an EPIRB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 If an EPIRB is Accidentally Activated. . . . . . . . . . . 40 Disposing of 121.5 MHz Beacons. . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Distress Flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Expired Flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Using Flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Three Types of Flares. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Marine Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Licensing and Operator Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Operating Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Silence Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 The Distress Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Mayday Relay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 The Distress Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 The Distress Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 The Urgency Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 The Safety Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Mobile Telephones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Protecting the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Whales, Dolphins and Boats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Stranded Live or Injured Marine Mammal . . . . . . . 57 Dead Marine Mammal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Whale, Dolphin or Seal Harassment . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Sightings of Rare Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Shark Sightings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Aquatic Reserves and Parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 River Boat Waste Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Illegal Dumping of Waste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Historic Shipwrecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Recommended Anchoring Procedures . . . . . . . . . 60 Protected Zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Chapter 2 Sample Test Questions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Anchors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Types of Anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

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Contents Page Contents Page

CHAPTER 3
Safe Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Boat Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Responsibilities Between Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Big Ships Little Boats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 What Recreational Boaters Should Know . . . . . . . 63 Port Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Moorings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Safe Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 It Pays to Take Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Getting There and Back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Night on the Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Notice to Mariners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Yawing Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Confined Waters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Operating Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Speed Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Visibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Zone Signage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Inland Waters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Vessel Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Recognition of Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Navigation Lights

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Sailboats and Rowing Boats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Power-driven Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Larger Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Daymarks for Vessels

Sound and Light Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Definitions and Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility . . . . . 80 Ferries on the River Murray
. . . . . . . . . . 81

Locks on the River Murray . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Waterskiing
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Surf Lifesaving Patrol Flags . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Alcohol and Drugs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Chapter 3 Sample Test Questions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Buoyage System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Buoyage Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Lateral Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Cardinal Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Special Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Isolated Danger Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Safe Water Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Lead Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Other Signs and Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

CHAPTER 4
What To Do In An Emergency
. . . . . . . . . 84 Reporting Incidents and Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Coping with Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Sinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Capsize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Abandoning the Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Engine Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

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Contents Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Contents Page

Person Overboard First Aid Afloat

CHAPTER 5
. . . . . . . . . . . 95 Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Operator Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 General Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 PWC Specific Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Waterskiing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Safe Speed and Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Avoiding Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Safety First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Hire and Drive Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 First Aid Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Hypothermia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Burns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Seasickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Exposure to the Sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Bites and Stings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Personal Watercraft (PWC)

Distress Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Rescue by Helicopter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Rescue Coordination Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Australian Search and Rescue Chapter 5 (AusSAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Sample Test Questions Search and Rescue Coordination . . . . . . 93 Customs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 CHAPTER 6 Chapter 4 Sample Test Questions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Customer Service Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Feedback Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

6 CHAPTER 1 Introduction
The Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure (DTEI) is South Australia’s marine authority responsible for many functions associated with the use of the State’s navigable waters. These functions include: • Recreational boating safety, education and compliance • Recreational vessel registration and qualifications • Maintenance of some recreational jetties • Maintenance of navigational aids • Maintenance of fishing industry facilities • Maintenance and dredging of some marinas and boat ramps • Commercial compliance • Commercial vessel survey • Commercial vessel qualifications • Coordination of oil spill control and cleanup operations • Participating in national initiatives to facilitate implementation in South Australia • Identification of legislative requirements and amendments • Issue of Notices to Mariners • Issue of aquatic licences • Introduction of restricted areas and speed restrictions. collection of statistical information that is used in the planning and design of new boating facilities. Boating safety, however, is not restricted to recreational vessels fitted with an engine. All vessels, which include wind surfers, canoes, sailboards, surfboards, surf kites, waterskis and other similar devices on which a person rides through the water, must also comply with boating safety laws. DTEI conducts an extensive boating safety education program. The Transport Safety Compliance Officers - Marine provide marine safety advice, information and compliance of the boating safety laws throughout the State’s waters. Local Government Officers, Fisheries Compliance Officers and South Australia Police are also part of the compliance team.

Recreational Vessel Operator Licensing Requirements
When required
A person wishing to operate any type of recreational vessel fitted with an engine must have a Boat Operator’s Licence. This applies regardless of the size of the vessel or its engine, or whether the engine is being used at the time. A person who is not yet 16 years of age (minimum age 12) can obtain a Special Permit to operate a recreational vessel. Restrictions on operation, vessel size and engine speed capability apply. See section ‘Special Permit’.

Recreational boating
Vessel registration and vessel operator licensing fees are used to fund the Government’s recreational boating safety program. There are more than 54,000 recreational vessels with an engine fitted currently registered in South Australia and more than 130,000 licensed vessel operators, so the promotion of recreational boating safety is a high priority. Vessel registration provides a means of identifying boats and also facilitates the

Exemptions
An unlicensed person who is at least 12 years of age may operate a recreational vessel at a speed of 10 knots or less under the direct supervision of a person who holds a Boat Operator’s Licence.

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Application for a Boat Operator’s Licence
The Boat Operator’s Licence may be obtained by application at any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to page 100 for details. Applicants must be at least 16 years of age and must disclose any disabilities, including the need to wear spectacles or contact lenses other than to read. The holder of a current motor vehicle driver’s licence is deemed to meet the eyesight and medical standards for a Boat Operator’s Licence. Where a driver’s licence is not available, a certificate from a registered optometrist or doctor will be required.

Category A
Evidence of existence At least one of the following documents must be presented: • Full Australian birth certificate bearing both a registration and certificate number • Australian citizenship certificate or naturalisation certificate • Australian passport (current, or expired up to two years) • Foreign passport (expired up to two years) and accompanied by a current Australian Visa • Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) travel document, for example Resident Visa (valid up to five years after issue) • DIMIA certificate of evidence of resident status • Australian photo driver’s licence (expired up to two years) • Australian Defence Force photo identity card (not civilians) • South Australian or Federal police officer photo identity card • New South Wales photo card (issued after 14 December 2005) • South Australian proof of age card (issued after 9 October 2006). • An interstate photo Motor Boat Operator’s Licence is acceptable as a category A document; if an interstate Motor Boat Operator’s Licence does not have a photo, it may still be accepted as a category B document.

Evidence of Identity (EOI)
Full Evidence of Identity (EOI) is required whenever a person is to be recorded on the Recreational Boating System (RBS) database for the first time. This generally occurs when a person either applies for registration of a recreational motor boat in their name for the first time, or applies for a Boat Operator’s Licence or Special Permit. As no photographic or signature records are maintained for Recreational Boating, full Evidence of Identity is also required for a duplicate copy of a Motor Boat Operator’s Licence or Special Permit to Operate a Recreational Vessel, or a Motor Vessel Registration Certificate. While original documents are required for all other transactions, an applicant for a duplicate copy of a Motor Boat Operator’s Licence or Special Permit who is interstate or in a remote location may be permitted to provide photocopies of Evidence of Identity (EOI) documents, but only if the copies are certified by a Justice of the Peace (JP). Three items of EOI will be required to be presented, one each from Category A and B (detailed below), while the third item can be from either Category A or B.

Category B
Evidence of use of Identity At least one of the following documents must be presented: • Medicare card • Financial institution account card or credit card with signature and embossed name • A letter from a financial institution verifying person’s name and signature

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• Student identity document from an educational institution showing photograph and signature • Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Commonwealth pensioner concession or health care concession card • Australian issued security guard or crowd controller licence showing photograph • Australian issued firearm licence showing photograph. For more information about EOI and proof of age, contact any Service SA Customer Service Centre or visit the South Australian Government website at www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine

Boat Operator’s Licensing Examinations
The examination questions that licence applicants will be required to answer are based on information provided in this handbook. Sample questions similar to those that may be asked are provided throughout this handbook. Examinations may be undertaken at any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to the section ‘Customer Service Centres’ on page 100 for details. The examination is multiple-choice format, comprised of compulsory and general questions. All compulsory questions must be answered correctly to proceed to the general questions section of the examination. Applicants who fail the examination can apply to be re-examined. An examination fee is required each time an applicant applies to be re-examined.

Evidence of residential address
At least one of the following documents must also be produced if your current residential address is not shown on any of your category A or B documents: • Contract of purchase, lease or rental, mortgage or land ownership certificate • A telephone, gas or electricity account (up to one year old) • A water rates, local government council rates or land valuation notice (up to two years old) • Current South Australian vehicle or vessel registration certificate • South Australian driver’s licence, or vehicle or vessel registration renewal for the coming period • last or current financial year Australian Taxation Office tax assessment • Certificate or statement of enrolment from an educational institution (up to one year old) • A passbook or statement from a bank, building society or credit union (up to one year old) • A letter from the principal of a recognised educational institution (up to one year old).

Exemption from Examinations
Applicants who have obtained certain qualifications may be granted an exemption from the examination. Contact any Service SA Customer Service Centre for further information. Refer to page 100 for details.

Special Permit
A Special Permit is a form of authorisation available to persons who are not yet 16 years of age (minimum age 12) to: • Operate without supervision a recreational vessel fitted with an engine that is less than four metres in length and has a potential speed of 10 knots or less; and • Operate any other recreational vessel fitted with an engine under the direct supervision of a person who holds a

Proof of age
Applicants for a Boat Operator’s Licence must be at least 16 years of age and verify their date of birth by producing a motor vehicle driver’s licence, a motor vehicle provisional driver’s licence or learner’s permit, a birth certificate, extract from a registrar of births, a passport or a citizenship certificate.

9
Boat Operator’s Licence or a Temporary Boat Operator’s Licence; and • Act as an observer where a person is being towed by a vessel, provided that the operator of the vessel holds a Boat Operator’s Licence or a Temporary Boat Operator’s Licence and is at least 18 years of age. A Special Permit does not authorise the holder under any circumstances to operate: • A personal watercraft (PWC); or • A vessel towing a person(s). examination or the applicant will be required to re-sit the written examination. The practical test must be taken in a suitable vessel provided by the applicant and can usually be conducted at a mutually convenient location and time, including weekends. You must take the Application for Practical Test form with you to the practical test and give it to the testing officer. If you are required to submit a Medical Certificate or Eyesight Certificate, this must also be given to the testing officer prior to commencing the practical test. Before the practical test It is suggested that you familiarise yourself with the vessel that you intend using and practice the various manoeuvres that you will be required to perform during the practical test. During practice sessions you must be under the direct supervision of a licensed person and you must not exceed 10 knots. Practical test competencies During the practical test you will be required to demonstrate that you have safe and effective control of the vessel and that you have sufficient knowledge of the relevant boating rules. The skills you must demonstrate are provided in the brochure, Special Permit to operate a Recreational Vessel. Conversion to a Boat Operator’s Licence The Special Permit is not a Certificate of Competency and is therefore not converted to a Boat Operator’s Licence when the Special Permit holder is 16 years of age. A Special Permit expires when the holder is 16 years of age. Contact any Service SA Customer Service Centre for further information. Refer to page 100 for details.

Application for a Special Permit
Application requirements for a Special Permit are similar to the Boat Operator’s Licence in respect to making the application and the medical and eyesight requirements. However, a practical test must also be completed after satisfactorily passing the written examination, prior to the issue of the Special Permit.

Proof of age
Applicants for a Special Permit must be at least 12 years and not yet 16 years of age and verify their date of birth by producing a birth certificate, extract from a registrar of births, a passport or a citizenship certificate.

Special Permit examinations
Examination requirements for a Special Permit are similar to the Boat Operator’s Licence. However, the total number of questions contained in the written examination is reduced to suit the age of the applicant. A practical test must also be completed prior to the issue of the Special Permit.

Practical Test for Special Permit
Once the written examination has been passed, applicants for a Special Permit will be required to undertake a brief practical test conducted by a Transport Safety Compliance Officer – Marine, or other authorised person. The practical test must be taken within six months of passing the written

10
Production of Licence or Special Permit
If requested, a licence or Special Permit must be produced to a Police Officer, Transport Safety Compliance Officer Marine or any other authorised person within 48 hours.

Alcohol and Drugs
Alcohol and boating accidents

People who operate vessels after drinking alcohol have a greatly increased likelihood of being involved in a boating accident. For example, a vessel operator with a concentration of alcohol in the blood of .05 (.05 grams of alcohol in each 100 millilitres Interstate Visitors of blood) has doubled his/her risk of 'The holder of a current Boat Operator's collision, compared to having zero Licence issued in another State may operate concentration of alcohol in the blood. a registered recreational vessel in this State Recent research conducted nationally found for up to 90 days from the date of first use that alcohol was involved in at least 35% of of a recreational vessel in South Australia. boating fatalities, with other drugs involved Note: To operate a Personal Watercraft (PWC) in South Australia you must hold a licence to operate a motor boat and be a minimum of 16 years of age. in 9% of fatalities. It is an offence for vessel operators, crew (including ski observers), and water skiers to have a concentration of alcohol in the blood of 0.05 or more on South Australian waters. Transport Safety Compliance Officers Marine and South Australia Police carry out random breath testing for alcohol on the State’s waterways and launching facilities. If operating a vessel, water skiing or observing, while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, you may face severe penalties. A person does not have to exceed the prescribed concentration of alcohol (.05) to be charged with an offence.

Operating without a Licence or Special Permit
It is an offence for a person to operate any recreational vessel fitted with an engine without a licence or Special Permit unless: • The unlicensed person is under the direct supervision of a person with a Boat Operator’s Licence or current interstate boat operator’s licence, is at least 12 years of age and does not exceed 10 knots. • The unlicensed person is operating in waters defined within a Boat Hire Business Licence issued by DTEI. The minimum age for operating a PWC is 16 years.

Injured persons including waterskiers
If a person (over the age of 14 years) is involved in a boating accident and is admitted into a hospital for the treatment of an injury resulting from that accident, it is compulsory for the medical practitioner to take a sample of the patient’s blood for testing.

Obligations of a Licence or Special Permit Holder
The holder of a Boat Operator’s Licence or Special Permit must notify Service SA Customer Service Centre within 14 days of any change of name, address or any physical or mental impairment that may affect the licensed holder’s capacity to operate a vessel.

Concentration of alcohol in the blood
The level of alcohol in your blood can be measured. How is it determined? The concentration of alcohol in the blood can be determined by analysing a sample of blood or by using a Breath Analysing

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Conditions placed on a Small Motor Boat Hire Business include: • All vessels for hire must also be clearly The results are expressed as a ratio of marked with the word “HIRE” on each the mass of alcohol (in grams) per volume side of the vessel. (100 millilitres) of blood. In other words, .05 means there is .05 of a gram of alcohol • All hirers are to be given practical instruction in the safe operation of in each 100 millilitres of your blood. the vessel. How quickly does it fall? • All hirers must sign a statement to the Approximately 10% of the alcohol passes effect that they have received adequate out of the body unchanged by way of instruction. breath, urine and sweat. • All hirers must be advised that to operate Most of the alcohol in the bloodstream (more a vessel with a concentration of alcohol than 90%) is broken down by the liver. As a in the blood of .05 or above is an general rule, it takes the liver about one hour offence. to dispose of the alcohol in one standard • The hirer must be a minimum of drink. This means that the concentration of 16 years of age. alcohol in the blood drops by about .015 • Hirers are to operate only between (grams) per hour. While this amount differs the official hours of sunrise and sunset, from person to person, a concentration of during fine weather and safe navigable alcohol in the blood of .05 will take conditions. approximately 3-4 hours to reach zero. The operation of a hire vessel by an There is nothing you can do to make the unlicensed operator outside the defined liver work any faster. area of operation is not permitted. Only TIME will help you to sober up. It is Penalties apply. a myth that black coffee, cold showers, exercise, fresh air, vomiting, tablets or home If the person is operating in the waters defined within a Boat Hire Business Licence remedies will make a person more sober. issued by DTEI, a current driver’s licence is They may produce a more wide-awake required. feeling, but do not sober you up. Operators of hire and drive (commercial) Refer to the DTEI brochure H2.05 What you need to know about alcohol on the water for houseboats are exempt from the requirement to hold a Boat Operator’s Licence but the further details. operator is required to be at least 18 years or age and hold a current motor vehicle Hire and Drive Requirements driver’s licence, and given at least one hour An operator of a hire and drive motor powered vessel will require a Boat Operator’s of tuition on the operation of the vessel. Instrument (Breathalyzer) to measure the level of alcohol in the breath. Licence to hire that vessel in South Australia unless operating a vessel hired from a Boat Hire Business authorised to hire vessels to unlicensed operators. This business will have a licence issued by DTEI and in the case of unlicensed operators, will have a defined body of water in which a vessel can operate. The holder of the Houseboat Hire Business Licence or agent will advise clients on the individual capability of each specific houseboat.

12 Motor Vessel Registration Requirements
When Required
All recreational vessels fitted with an engine are required to be registered while underway in South Australian waters.

Application
Application forms to register a vessel are available from any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to page 100 for details. The vessel must be registered in the name of a person 16 years of age or above. To complete the initial registration or change of ownership process the vessel must be BoatCoded. Refer to page 14 for details.

Display of Registration Label and Numbers
Once the registration process has been completed a registration label is issued, which must be securely affixed to the vessel, adjacent to the steering position and clearly visible in daylight. The registration number issued must also be painted or displayed on both sides of the vessel towards the bow, in figures at least 150mm high so as to be clearly legible at a distance of 50 metres while the vessel is under way in clear weather. For vessels less than 3 metres in length, numbers must be at least 100 mm high and clearly legible from 50 metres. In cases where the bow is excessively flared, making display of registration numbers difficult, approval may be granted to display the numbers closer to the centre of the hull or on each side of the cabin. Registration numbers must be of a contrasting colour to the surface on which they are put. All registration numbers should be displayed on a vertical surface.

Renewal of Registration
Each year before the registration is due to expire, an Invitation to Renew Motor Boat Registration is posted to the registered vessel owner for payment of the annual registration fee. Registration may be paid by credit card via the Internet at www.ezyreg.sa.gov.au or by telephoning or visiting any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to page 100 for details. For all motor boat registration transactions, your registration label will be posted to you, usually within 10 working days. You can use your vessel for up to 21 days without a registration label, provided: • you have paid the required fee for the registration • you have not yet received the label; and • no more than 21 days have passed since the fee was paid. Note: While it is normal procedure for DTEI to forward an invitation to renew notice prior to expiry date of the vessels registration, it is the obligation of the owner to ensure the vessel is currently registered prior to its use.

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Buying or Selling a Motor Vessel
Where a registered recreational vessel is sold, the new owner must apply for transfer or new owner registration within 14 days. Transfer of registration only applies where the registration is current, the previous owner has signed the transfer section on the back of the current registration certificate and the vessel has been BoatCoded. New owner registration applies when any of the transfer conditions cannot be met. The new owner registration form is available from any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to page 100 for details. Note: Where a vessel registration ownership details change, but an owner appearing on the registration certificate immediately preceding the application for change of ownership remains the same, application for new owner registration or transfer must be made. However the vessel is not required to be BoatCoded. Refer to page 15 for details. • A signed and dated statement from the previous owner, showing new owner’s details and a brief description of the vessel including the vessel’s registration number if the vessel has one; • Recreational Registration Certificate in your name issued in another State (for Initial Registration only); • Commercial Vessel Registration Certificate in your name (for Initial Registration only); or • Statutory Declaration signed by a Justice of the Peace, including the new registered owner’s details and a description of the vessel including registration number, if the vessel has one. For more information on Proof of Ownership requirements, contact any Service SA Customer Service Centre on 13 10 84, or visit the South Australian Government website: www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine

Australian Builders Plate (ABP)
The Australian Builders Plate (ABP) is being adopted nationally to reduce the number of incidents caused by overloading vessels. Recreational Vessels constructed after 4 February 2008 – unless exempted from the requirements – will be required to have an ABP affixed at the time of original sale. The ABP has been introduced to inform purchasers of new recreational vessels as to the loading capacities for the vessel, in terms of people, luggage and maximum engine capacity, enabling buyers to choose a boat which meets their needs. The plate will be fitted so that it can be seen by the operator as they set off, enabling them to see at a glance: the maximum number of people allowed; the maximum capacity of the boat; and the maximum weight and power rating of the engine. For boats under six metres in length, the plate will also provide information on buoyancy performance.

Proof of Vessel Ownership (PVO)
When you apply to have a vessel newly registered in your name (Initial Registration, Registration Transfer or New Owner Re-Registration), you will be required to provide Proof of Vessel Ownership (PVO). PVO will work with the BoatCode System to improve the security of your vessel, by making it harder to ‘re-birth’ and re-register boats without appropriate documentation. The following are acceptable as PVO documents: • Current Vessel Registration Certificate, with Hull ID Number (HIN) and BoatCode Certificate Number information, with the “Application for Transfer of Registration” on the back of the Certificate completed and signed by both the current and new vessel owners; • A Bill of Sale or Receipt for Purchase from the previous registered owner or a boat dealership;

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For more information on the Australian Builders Plate refer to the South Australian Government website: www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine Alternatively visit the National Marine Safety Committee www.nmsc.gov.au prosecution, but may be directed by an authorised person to take the vessel from the water, or return to point of departure and rectify any deficiencies before using it again. Safety equipment deficiencies are common and it goes without saying that any equipment left at home or back at the boat ramp is of absolutely no use to anyone. The equipment will not meet the requirements if the battery has expired (i.e. EPIRB or waterproof torch) or the expiry date has passed (i.e. flares). Penalties apply for failure to carry the required equipment in good working order, for the area of operation. Failure to carry an EPIRB (if required to) could result in a maximum $10,000 fine. A check card or one of the safety stickers issued by DTEI can be helpful in ensuring that all the required safety items are on board before setting out.

Deceased Joint Owner
Where one of the registered owners of a vessel is deceased the surviving owner may apply for transfer of registration into their name only. Change of ownership fee and BoatCode requirements are not applied but formal proof of the deceased owner is required.

Interstate Registration
Where a recreational vessel fitted with an engine is registered interstate, the vessel may be used for up to 90 days from the first use in South Australia. If the duration of the visit exceeds 90 days, the vessel must be registered in South Australia (and must meet BoatCode requirements). Some states do not register all recreational vessels fitted with an engine. However, such interstate vessels must be registered to operate on South Australia waters.

Insurance
Although vessel insurance is completely voluntary, vessel owners are strongly advised to take out some form of cover, particularly against liability that may occur if loss of life or serious injury results from an accident involving a recreational vessel. Even accidents that result in little or no damage may cause serious injuries to those involved. Damage claims for personal injuries sustained in an accident often amount to many thousands of dollars. Without adequate third party insurance, the consequences of a claim for personal injuries or damage caused to property could be significant. Marine insurance cover is reasonably inexpensive and can be arranged through any insurance company offering this type of policy.

Unseaworthy Vessels
The owner or person in charge of a vessel must ensure that it is in a seaworthy condition while being operated, with adequate measures to ensure the safety of its occupants. In this context, seaworthiness extends not only to the physical condition of the vessel itself, but also to such matters as proper loading with adequate freeboard, carriage of the required and other necessary safety equipment and fitting of the correct navigation lights, if the vessel is to be operated at night. If an operating vessel is deficient in any of these areas the operator is not only committing an offence and liable to

15 BoatCode
What is BoatCode HIN Format
A manufacturer’s HIN describes the hull’s country of origin, manufacturer’s identity code, a serial number, month and year of production and the model year.

BoatCode is an identification system for registered recreational vessels to deter theft and aid the recovery of stolen vessels. From 1 September 2001 BoatCode became compulsory for all recreational vessels being registered in South Australia for the first time or when vessels change ownership. BoatCode involves having two small plates bearing a Hull Identification Number (HIN) A HIN issued by a DTEI BoatCode Agent affixed to the hull of a vessel, one on the will include the country of origin, a serial starboard side of the transom, the other in number, agent code and the year it is affixed. a hidden location. Only a BoatCode Agent or BoatCode Examiner can affix a plate. The HIN is similar to Vehicle Identification Numbers on motor vehicle compliance plates. Each HIN is a unique set of characters permanently linked to a vessel hull. The HIN is recorded on a central register that is cross-referenced with vessel registrations. Once affixed, a HIN must not be removed. Although compulsory for new vessels and vessels changing ownership any registered recreational vessel owner can voluntarily apply for a HIN and take advantage of the security benefits BoatCode provides.

Applying for BoatCode
If you are registering your vessel in South Australia or applying for a change of ownership and the vessel does not have a HIN fixed you must: 1. Visit any Service SA Customer Service Centre and apply for registration or new owner re-registration. Interstate registrations are not transferable so the vessel must be registered as a South Australian vessel. If the vessel has a HIN affixed a BoatCode Certificate must be provided as proof. 2. Provide Evidence of Identity (EOI) for the person(s) in whose name(s) the vessel is to be registered. 3. Pay the registration fee or new owner re-registration fee. You will receive a Certificate of Temporary Motor Boat Registration that is valid for 21 days enabling you to use your vessel while you arrange to have the HIN plates affixed by a BoatCode Agent or BoatCode Examiner.

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4. Take your vessel to a BoatCode Agent to affix the HIN plates. A fee will be charged for this service. You will also need to present your Certificate of Temporary Motor Boat Registration. The BoatCode Agent will forward an Interim BoatCode Certificate to a Service SA Customer Service Centre and provide you with a copy. The Service SA Customer Service Centre will post your permanent BoatCode Certificate to you. Keep the registration certificate and BoatCode Certificate in a safe place. Note: BoatCode is not required when: • One of the registered owners is deceased and application is made to change ownership details into the sole surviving joint owner – providing proof of deceased owner details is provided; or • An owner recorded on the immediately proceeding registration certificate remains as a registered owner.

Question
What types of recreational vessels must be registered? A. All recreational vessels. B. All recreational vessels over 3.1 metres in length. C All recreational vessels fitted with an engine.

Question
What is the minimum age for an applicant for a Boat Operator’s Licence. A. 21 years of age. B. 16 years of age. C. 18 years of age.

Question
If a person operates a vessel or is a member of the crew (including waterskiers) engaged in duties affecting the safe navigation, operation or use of the vessel, is he/she guilty of an offence where the prescribed concentration of alcohol is: A. 0.05 or more B. 0.08 or more C. There is no legal limit provided you can operate the vessel safely.

BoatCode Agents
A list of South Australian BoatCode Agents is available from any Service SA Customer Service Centre, most boat dealers and the South Australian Government website www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine For further information call DTEI on 13 10 84.

Question
Under what circumstances can a Special Permit holder operate a vessel towing a waterskier? A. When the observer is a minimum of 18 years of age. B. When the Special Permit holder is under the direct supervision of a person with a Boat Operator’s Licence. C. A Special Permit holder is not permitted to operate a vessel towing a water skier under any circumstances.

Chapter 1 Sample Test Questions
Question
When can a Hull Identification Number (HIN) be removed from a vessel? A. Once a HIN has been affixed to a vessel it must not be removed. B. When the owner sells the vessel and wishes to retain the same HIN on their new vessel. C. Only when a hull has been damaged and the HIN is to be used on the replacement hull.

17 CHAPTER 2 Trip Preparation
Boat Operator’s Licence The class of Certificate of Competency appropriate to operate a recreational vessel fitted with an engine. Bombora A shallow area where waves may break. Bow The front end of the vessel. Certificate of Competency A qualification to operate a vessel issued to a person who has met all of the conditions and requirements for the particular class of certificate applied for. The Boat Operator’s Licence is the Certificate of Competency appropriate to operate a recreational vessel fitted with an engine. Chart Datum As the level of the sea is constantly rising and falling, the depths shown on charts must have a common level from which they are measured. This level is the lowest predictable level to which the tide is likely to fall and is known as Chart Datum. Coast / Shore Where the terms ‘coast’ or ‘shore’ are used it means the coast or shore of the mainland or of Kangaroo Island only; no other island’s shore is to be used in measuring distance out to sea for safety equipment or vessel operation purposes. For waterskiing purposes, a device is an object that is towed by a rope or by other means directly behind a motor boat. Examples of devices include ‘ski biscuits’ and tyre tubes. Devices generally have little or no means of controlling the direction in which they travel.

Definitions
Boating, like many other activities, has its own language with many terms that you may not be familiar with. It is important that you understand the meaning of some of the more important and common terms. Abaft Abeam Aft Area aft of the beam (to the rear of the centre of the vessel). Abreast of or at right angles to the fore and aft line of the vessel. Towards the stern or rear of the vessel.

Astern, to go astern Go backwards, put the engine in reverse. Authorised person A person appointed by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure to enforce the Harbors and Navigation Act, or a member of the Police Force. Bar

A shallow area formed by sand, Device mud, gravel or shingle, near the mouth of a river or at the approach to a harbour which is often dangerous. Any type of craft or vessel which, irrespective of size or type, is being used for recreational or non-commercial purposes.

Boat

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Distance Where ‘miles’ are referred to in this booklet ‘nautical’ miles are meant. One nautical mile = 1.852 km. Draft Ebb Tide The falling or run out of tide. EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon. The minimum depth of water a vessel needs to float in. Making Way Vessel underway and moving through the water, using sail or power. Masthead Light A white light placed over the fore and aft centreline of the vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 225 degrees and so fixed as to show the light from directly ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on either side of the vessel. Motor Boat Any boat or vessel that is being propelled by an engine (irrespective of size), whether or not the engine is the main means of propulsion. A sailing boat fitted with an auxiliary engine is regarded as a motor boat or motor vessel. Nautical mile The International unit of distance over water. A nautical mile is equivalent to 1,852 metres, or about 1.8km. Operator The person in charge (control) of a recreational motor vessel whilst the vessel is underway. Personal Watercraft (PWC) A device that is propelled by a motor, has a fully enclosed hull, is designed not to retain water if capsized and is operated by a person who sits astride, stands or kneels on it. PFD Personal flotation device. Often called a Buoyancy Vest or Life Jacket. Looking forward from the stern, the left hand side on which a red sidelight is displayed.

Flood Tide The rising or run in of tide. Fore Situated at or toward the bow (front) of a vessel.

Freeboard The distance between the surface of the water and the gunwale. Give Way Slow, stop, go astern or change course to keep clear of another vessel. Go astern To move stern-first (backward) through the water. Gunwales (pronounced gunnels) The top edge of a vessel’s side. Heave To To steer into the wind and sea making minimum headway. Knot(1) One nautical mile an hour or 1.852 km/h. Leads (Transits) marks used in channels and entrances which when in line indicate the centre of the channel.

Lee Shore The shore onto which the wind blows. Leeward The side of the vessel opposite to that from which the wind blows. Licence A certificate of competency known as a Boat Operator’s Licence enabling the holder to operate a recreational vessel fitted with an engine.

Port Side

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Power-Driven Vessel A vessel propelled by an engine and includes a sailing vessel under auxiliary power. Recreational Vessel Any vessel (fitted with an engine) used for purposes that are not solely industrial, commercial or scientific. Also commonly referred to as a motor boat, motor vessel, motorised vessel, power–driven vessel or power boat. These vessels are subject to registration requirements and must only be operated by a person holding the appropriate Certificate of Competency. Sailing Vessel Means a vessel that is operating under the power of sail only. Side Light Lights to be shown at night when underway, showing an unbroken light over an arc of 112.5 degrees from directly ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam. Skier Any person who is being towed in any manner behind a powered vessel other than a person on a device. Stand On That vessel which has right-of-way during a meeting, crossing, or overtaking situation. Starboard Side Looking forward from the stern, the right hand side on which a green sidelight is displayed. Stem the Tide Go forward against the current. Stern The back end or rear of a vessel. Sternlight A white light placed as nearly as practicable at the stern showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees and so fixed as to show the light 67.5 degrees from directly aft on each side of the vessel. Supervision A licensed person directly watching over and accompanying an unlicenced person or Special Permit holder while that unlicenced person or Special Permit holder operates a recreational motor boat. The licenced person must at all times be in a position to take over the control of the motor boat should the need arise. This is not possible when operating a PWC. Tender A ship or boat used to attend a larger one, especially to supply goods and provisions, convey orders, or carry passengers to and from shore.

Special Permit Authorisation for a person aged between 12 years but not yet 16 years, to operate a recreational vessel fitted with an engine under certain conditions (see chapter 1). Speed All speeds are measured in ‘knots’ One knot = 1 nautical mile per hour.

Standards All equipment listed in the Handbook must meet standards detailed or listed in the Harbors and Navigation Act 1993 and its associated Regulations 2009.

Underway Not at anchor or tied to jetty or shore, or aground. If you are drifting you are underway.

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Vessel Any type of craft that can be used as a means of transportation on water, from a small boat to a large ship. Vessels can also include sailboards, surfboards, surf kites, waterskis or other similar devices on which a person rides through the water. The track left on the water’s surface by a moving vessel. A swell caused by the passage of a vessel through water.

Outboard motor service
Manufacturers usually recommend a service by a specialised workshop at least once a year, even if you use the motor very little. This ensures that vital internal parts like the water pump get looked at. If you use the motor often, then you should have the gearbox oil changed every three months.

Wake Wash

Inspect fuel system
Once a year the tank from your vessel should be cleaned with a suitable cleaning solvent. Inspect the fuel tank for any cracks or corrosion. Always replace old fuel with new fuel after periods of inactivity. Inspect fuel lines, manual priming bulb and connections for cracks, leaks, etc. Clean out or replace fuel filter. Refer to engine manufacturer’s specifications regarding allowable percentage blends of ethanol in fuel.

Windward The direction from which the wind blows (upwind).

Before You Go Boating
With vessel ownership also comes the responsibility for the safety of all your passengers and your equipment. Be sure you have the right vessel and the right safety equipment for what you plan to do, so that your boating will be safe and enjoyable. Once you have your ideal vessel and have made sure it meets all the requirements of the regulations, make yourself familiar with its layout and equipment before you go out on the water. Take short trips on calm waters first. Ask an experienced friend along for advice and learn how your vessel responds at different speeds and in different weather conditions. Remember, obtaining a Boat Operator’s Licence means that you know the rules but the knowledge, skills and ability to operate a vessel in all types of conditions comes from experience.

Batteries
Top up battery cells with distilled water and check each cell with a hydrometer. If in an enclosed space, ensure properly ventilated and ensure vented before starting the engine. The battery should be charged at a suitable rate and should never be overcharged. Batteries should always be secured in brackets. Terminals, cables or casing should be kept clean. Grease terminals regularly. Only marine batteries should be used as they are designed to withstand marine conditions.

Pre-season Vessel Maintenance
In the interests of safer boating we highly recommend that you give your vessel and equipment a thorough pre-season check before heading out for a day on the water.

General check of vessel
Inspect vessel structures for corrosion, cracks, wear and tear. Test steering gear for stiffness. Treat cable with correct lubricant. Ensure bung is suitable and in good condition. Self draining holes must be clear.

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Check drain flaps and lubricate them if necessary. If Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) tanks are fitted, ensure the system is regularly serviced. For further information contact the Office of the Technical Regulator on telephone (08) 8226 5500 or visit the website www.technicalregulator.sa.gov.au Inspect propeller, nut and pin. Ensure bilges are clean and dry. Check for water and fuel leaks.

Inspect safety equipment
Inspect all safety equipment for any deterioration or damage. Refresh your knowledge of the use of the equipment. Inspect anchor, shackles, chain and line for any sign of wear and replace if necessary. Test bilge pump diaphragm for wear and tear. Test the marine radio. Call a volunteer marine rescue group and make a test transmission. Check the expiry date on the flares and EPIRB. Test the EPIRB battery (see section on EPIRBs). Test your waterproof torch.

Extra checks
Inspect the tool kit for any tools, spare parts, etc. Replenish water supply. Ropes and lines should be in good condition and stored ready for use.

Spare parts and tools
Make sure you include: • engine manual • new spark plugs, spare fuses and a new spanner • spare “O” rings for fuel connector • spare bung • sharp knife • spare propeller nut, washer, split pins and socket for propeller nut • length of soft wire • spare shackle • screwdriver (Phillips/Flathead) and shifting spanner and pliers • de-watering spray, spare oil and a funnel • spare key and stop harness (lanyard) • roll of waterproof electrical tape • starter cord • spare fuel line • wire brush.

General check of engine
Make sure you check: • for fuel leaks • for petrol and/or LPG odours • that the fuel is fresh - and if necessary replace it • battery and the connection • the fuel line is not kinked and connected • spark plugs and clean as necessary to test start the engine.

22 Notes
Pre-start Checklist
Vessel
It is advisable to check your vessel’s equipment and fittings before every journey. Before setting out make sure your vessel is seaworthy, all gear is well secured and the vessel is capable of making the trip you have planned. Check the engine; if it is not working properly, don’t go out until the problem is identified and fixed. Ensure that you have enough fuel for the return trip. A good safety tip to remember is to use a third of your fuel to get out, a third to get back, and have a third in reserve. It may be calm when setting out, but the return trip could be into a head wind or sea, and fuel consumption can easily double under such conditions. Fuel should be fresh (not last year’s). Check engine oil and coolant levels and top up if required. Examine batteries, terminals, etc. Check that all your navigation lights are working even if you only expect to be out during daylight hours. On entering the vessel and before operating any switches or engines, check for petrol and/or LPG odours; fix any faults before you go out. Ropes and lines should be in good condition and ready for use. Steering cables and connections must be in good working order. Test any electrics operating from the battery such as radios, gauges and power tilt. If you are not required to have a marine radio on board, carry a pocket radio. You can tune into weather forecasts. Conduct a radio check to ensure that yours works. Mobile phones are no substitute for a Marine Radio but may be of assistance in some situations, so make sure the battery is fully charged. Where cooking devices are installed, a fire extinguisher must be carried and stored in an accessible place, away from the stove. Always ensure that your fire extinguisher is fully charged and is inspected every 12 months by an authorised inspection agent (fire fighting authority or manufacturers agent).

Supplies
Ensure you have sufficient supplies of food and water for the trip and some extra in case of an emergency. Check that your vessel is not overloaded; take into account heavy equipment and extra fuel cans. Stow all gear securely and distribute load evenly. Remember that it is always colder on the water and the sun is stronger; extra jumpers, waterproofs and sun-block cream are never a waste of space. Ensure the first aid kit is on board.

Clothing
Make sure your skin is not overly exposed to sunlight (direct or reflected), wind and water. Carry adequate wet weather gear for the trip you are planning. Clothing should offer protection from the elements and not restrict your movements. Avoid clothing that will significantly reduce buoyancy, or if you need to be rugged up, wear a PFD. It would be worthwhile to check your ability to swim or float in your clothes. Try it out in shallow water so that you are prepared in case your vessel sinks or you fall overboard.

Equipment
Ensure you have the safety equipment required for the area where you intend to operate. Make sure all safety equipment is easily accessible and in good working order.

23

Navigation
You should know exactly where you are going, how to get there and how long it will take to get back. Check the tides, weather, river flow as appropriate. Find out about any local dangers and special rules or regulations for the boating area you are operating in. Information can be obtained from local or official charts, signage at boat ramps or the South Australian Government website www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine Coastal navigation courses, run by volunteer groups are highly recommended.

Crew
Ensure all persons onboard are correctly fitted with a PFD. Ensure that the people onboard who require medication have it with them and that others know how to administer it if necessary. Ensure everyone onboard knows what safety equipment is carried, where it is stored, how it works and what to do in an emergency.

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Children
If you take your children boating teach them emergency procedures. It can be great fun and will improve their confidence and your peace of mind. Learn to swim and practice emergency positions like treading water and H.E.L.P . (Heat Escape Lessening Posture) and Huddle. (See section on Hypothermia for more details.) Make sure children have a well fitting PFD, ensure they can’t slip out of it, or that it doesn’t feel too tight to move. Check the type (PFD 1,2 or 3) depending on the nature of activity. See if they can put the PFD on with a blindfold and while in the water. It is recommended a child wears a PFD at all times while on the vessel. Show children around the vessel - where PFDs, first aid kit and other equipment are kept. If they are old enough to understand, show them how to use equipment like radios, EPIRB and flares. Teach them about stability, getting on and off the boat and distributing the load. If the boat capsizes everyone should stay with the boat or an easily seen floating object. It is easier for a rescue team to see the hull (bottom) of a vessel than a person floating in the water.

Launching Your Vessel
Boat Etiquette
Have a good look at the ramp and note the condition, gradient, depth, mooring cleats and other features and consider the weather and tidal conditions. Standby to give other boaties a hand if required. Take your time, relax and be careful. Do not pull straight into the ramp. Prepare your boat well away from the ramp and ensure: • the boat was not damaged during the trip to the ramp • straps and ties are undone • everything you need is on board • the bung is in • the trailer winch is secure. Boats coming out have priority over boats going in. When it’s your turn, move towards and back down the ramp Launch immediately. Take the trailer out of the way. Until you and your boat are completely out of the way, away from the ramp, don’t fiddle around.

Taking off
Many injuries occur because people fall overboard while the vessel is in motion. No one should ever stand or sit on the bow of a vessel that is not specifically designed to have persons in the bow, or dangle their legs in the water, while the boat is moving. Insist that everyone aboard is within the boat itself, not on the side decking, and especially not on the bow or where they will obstruct your view. Keep to the centre of the boat for stability. Move off slowly. The same goes for returning to jetty, mooring or ramp. Always check for trailing ropes that may be caught in your propeller.

Check the ramp
• • • • • How steep is it? Is the surface firm? Is it slippery? Is it wide enough? How deep is the water at the end of the ramp? • What can you tie the boat to once it is launched?

Now is the time to
• • • • remove any tie downs put your gear in the boat attach a bow line to the boat if the boat is stern drive or outboard, tilt the unit up

25

LOOK UP
PLEASE BE CAREFUL OF POWERLINES

AND LIVE

26
• ensure that the drain plugs are in place and tight • turn the battery switch and (if fitted) the blower on • generally get ready and then disconnect the trailer wiring. When you are ready, move towards the ramp at a gentle pace. If you try to move quickly, mistakes are more likely to happen.

Final step
To reload/retrieve the boat simply reverse these procedures. Before loading, clean any dirt or sand off the rollers and buffers. Sand on the rollers and buffers can damage your boat whilst being towed. Be sure that all tie-downs are properly fastened before departing the ramp area.

Back the trailer onto the ramp
Have someone stand to one side of the ramp to direct you. Backing up with the trailer can be tricky. A good way to simplify this procedure is to grasp the steering wheel with one hand at its lowest point (the six o’clock position). When you want the trailer to turn right, move your hand slowly to the right, when you want the trailer to turn left, move your hand slowly to the left.

Warning
Reduce the Risk of Injury
Do not step inside or on the trailer frame during launching and retrieval procedures. A winch line can break so stand to the side when winching your boat onto the trailer (use a line attached to the winch switch). For additional information on selecting your boat trailer, matching your boat to your trailer, trailer equipment, traveling with your boat trailer, and the legal requirements in respect to the vehicle dimensions, lighting and rear vision requirements, boat trailer brakes, vehicle mass and registration requirements refer to the brochure You and Your Boat Trailer which can be downloaded from the South Australian Government website www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine

Launching
Back the trailer into the water. Set the handbrake and lock the transmission. Slacken the trailer winch and with the winch line still connected push the boat slowly but firmly into the water. Be sure to have a firm hold on the bow line. Don’t wrap the bow line around your hand as it is dangerous and injuries can occur. Detach trailer winch hook and line from the boat and wind the line back onto the winch. Using the bow line move the boat to the side, away from the launch position. Secure the boat to this holding position with a bow line. If a jetty is near a ramp, tie off to the jetty with both the bow line and stern line. Move your car and trailer to the parking area where they will not obstruct access to the ramp. Lock your car.

27

28 Let Someone Know Before You Leave
Always let someone know where you are going, your point of departure and when you plan to return. If your plans change, let them know. Also give them a description or photo of your vessel, vessel registration number and details of the number of passengers on board. A fridge magnet, I”VE GONE BOATING is available from any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to page 100 for details. This is a record of your planned voyage. Liaise with your local volunteer marine rescue groups which can be contacted by marine radio on 27 MHz channel 27.88, VHF channel 16 and HF channels 2182, 4125, 6215 and 8291 kHz. As these are distress channels, you must change to a ‘working’ channel once contact has been made. retrieval – leave yourself extra time in case the ramp is busy.

Chart datum
As the level of the sea is constantly rising and falling, the depths shown on charts must have a common level from which they are measured. This level is the lowest predictable level to which tide is likely to fall and is known as Chart Datum. All soundings on a navigation chart are referenced to Chart Datum. To be able to calculate the total depth of water, you must add the depth obtained from the chart to the tide height at that time and place. Tides for the major South Australian ports are provided in the Tide Tables for South Australian Ports. At locations not referred to in the tide tables book it is essential that you are able to use the tide data and levels provided to determine the approximate time of high and low water. Tide table booklets can be purchased from most marine dealers, tackle shops or newsagents.

Tides
It is important that you check the time of high and low tide before you depart. Tides are the rising and falling of sea levels that result from the gravitational interaction between the earth and the moon and to a lesser extent, between the earth and the sun. Tides can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy from analysis of long-term tide records variations. However, variations in tidal heights can be caused by strong, or prolonged winds and by unusually high or low barometric pressure. While tide books are not part of your required equipment, vessel operators should always have a copy onboard. The tide book will provide the information necessary for you to calculate high and low tide and while this may also be helpful to determine the best times for fishing, it also provides essential information to ensure you do not run aground. Access to boat ramps may be restricted at low tide. It is important that you calculate the time that you must return to the ramp for

Too Many is Too Dangerous
Overloaded vessels are unstable and dangerous. Legal limits on passenger numbers are detailed below. There are other considerations such as an even distribution of load in the vessel, adequate freeboard for the prevailing weather conditions and unexpected deterioration in weather conditions. Except where a recreational vessel is fitted with a manufacturer’s compliance plate or Australian Builder’s Plate (ABP), the following tables determine the maximum number of persons that may legally be carried on board. To use the appropriate table, you need to know your vessel’s length and breadth in metres. The maximum number of adults the boat can carry safely in calm water conditions, based on an average weight of 90kg (includes 15kg of personal gear) per adult, is indicated where the length and breadth measurements intersect.

29

TABLE 1 Maximum safe capacity (adults) for conventional vessels without flybridges.
Example: A Boat with a length of 5.5m and breadth of 2m has a capacity of 6 adults

TABLE 2 Maximum safe capacity (adults) for conventional vessels with flybridges.
Example: A flybridge vessel with a length of 8m and breadth of 2.5m has a capacity of 8 adults.

METRIC CONVERSION FEET TO METRES

30
Interpreting the Capacity
The figures given in the tables, a compliance plate or ABP refer to the maximum number of adults a vessel can carry safely in calm waters under ideal conditions, such as on the River Murray or other protected waters. This number needs to be reduced when boating on the open sea. As a guide, reduce this number by one-third when boating on the open sea or in rougher conditions. Also, children under 12 years old only weigh half that of an average 75kg adult, so they can be counted as half an adult when adding up the number of people on board. For example, a boat with a capacity of four adults could safely carry three adults and two children under the age of 12. Travel at a safe speed, particularly when visibility is reduced by sun glare, fog or rain and during the hours of darkness. Remember, your boat has no brakes. Keep a constant watch on the weather, and if conditions start to deteriorate make sure that everyone on board is wearing a PFD. It is extremely difficult to put one on in rougher conditions or whilst treading water. Don’t throw rubbish over the side, stow it and take it home.

Minimum Safety Equipment
All vessels operating in South Australian waters are required by law to carry certain items of safety equipment. Details vary according to the size of the vessel and where it is being used. Minimum safety equipment requirements for all types of vessel are shown in Schedule 9 of the Harbors and Navigation Regulations 2009. The latest version of the Regulations may be viewed by visiting: www.legislation.sa.gov.au and following the links to ‘Regulations and Rules’ go to "H', then from the Alphabetical List select Harbors and Navigation Regulations 2009. Minimum safety equipment requirements vary according to the size and type of boat, whether it has an engine and where it is being used. Areas where a boat may be used are defined as protected waters, semiprotected waters and unprotected waters. Protected Waters – all inland waters, excluding Lakes Albert and Alexandrina Semi-Protected Waters – waters up to two nautical miles (3.704 kilometres) seaward of the coast of the mainland and Kangaroo Island, and up to two nautical miles from the shore of Lakes Albert and Alexandrina. Unprotected Waters – waters beyond two nautical miles (3.704 kilometres) seaward of the coast of the mainland and Kangaroo Island; and beyond two nautical miles from the shore of Lakes Albert and Alexandrina.

Vessels over 10 metres length
For vessels over 10 metres in length, use the appropriate formula below to calculate the number of adults it can safely carry in calm water conditions. For single-deck vessels (no flybridge) the formula is: Maximum capacity (adults) = 0.75L√B (nearest whole number) where: L = length of vessel in metres, and B = breadth of vessel in metres For vessels fitted with flybridge, the formula is: Maximum capacity (adults) = 0.6L√B (nearest whole number) where: L = length of vessel in metres, and B = breadth of vessel in metres For flybridge vessels, no more than one-quarter of the maximum number of passengers allowed on board should be on the flybridge at any one time.

Underway
Maintain a good lookout and continually assess the relative position, speed and direction of other vessels in the vicinity. Make sure you know all the navigation rules and take action in plenty of time to avoid a collision. Keep clear of larger vessels that cannot manoeuvre as quickly as you.

31
In addition to protected, semi-protected and unprotected waters, two other areas are referred to herein, Spencer Gulf and Gulf St Vincent. Spencer Gulf – the waters in that gulf north of a line drawn from Cape Catastrophe on Eyre Peninsula to Waterhouse Point on Thistle Island and then to Corny Point on Yorke Peninsula. Gulf St Vincent – the waters in that gulf north of a line drawn from Troubridge Point on Yorke Peninsula to Rapid Head on Fleurieu Peninsula. All personal flotation devices (PFDs) carried on a vessel must comply with one or more of the standards listed on pages 36-37. All distress flares and smoke signals required to be carried on a vessel must comply with AS2092 and be stamped indelibly by the manufacturer with its date of expiry and that date must not have passed. A fire extinguisher is required to be carried on a vessel and must comply with the applicable part of AS1841. All safety equipment (including fire extinguishers) must be in working order and stowed in readily accessible positions, protected from the sea and weather at all times. For canoes, kayaks and similar small, unpowered boats the safety equipment carriage requirements are: • a PFD that complies with one or more of the appropriate standards for the area of use (that is: protected, semi-protected, or unprotected waters) and is worn at all times • suitable bailer (unless the hull is permanently enclosed) • a waterproof torch or lantern (while the vessel is being operated during the hours of darkness). A sailboard rider or kite surfer must at all times wear an approved PFD that complies with the area of use. For tender vessels, while being used in conjunction with another vessel, the requirements are: • a pair of paddles or oars, or other means of auxiliary propulsion • a bucket, bailer or bilge pump/s to drain each compartment of the boat • if the vessel is 1500 metres or more from the shoreline: – before 1 June 2010, a PFD Type 1, 2 or 3 for each person onboard – on or after 1 June 2010, a PFD Type 1 for each person onboard. For surf rescue boats propelled by paddles or oars, the vessel must be equipped with a suitable bailer that is attached to the vessel by a lanyard.

Exemptions
The safety equipment requirements apply to the majority of boats. However, certain types of boat are either partially or totally exempt from these requirements. Some of the more common exemptions are summarised below.

For motorised inflatable surf rescue boats involved in rescue work within 1500 metres of the shoreline or patrol work within 1000 metres of the shoreline, the A surfboard, surf ski or racing shell is exempt requirement is that the vessel must be from the safety equipment requirements listed, equipped with a pair of paddles or oars, however, if using a surfboard, surf ski or similar or other means of auxiliary propulsion. vessel in protected waters, each occupant For Personal Watercraft (PWC) such as jet must wear a Personal Flotation Device (PFD). skis®, waverunners® and jetboards®, the Waterskiers (or persons being towed in any requirements are: other manner) must wear a PFD Type 2 or 3 • all operators and passengers aboard the at all times when engaged in waterskiing. PWC must at all times wear a PFD Type 2

32
or 3 that complies with one or more of the approved standards – a PFD Type 1 is not suitable for use when onboard a PWC. Note: From 1 September 2009, the following vessels may not be operated in unprotected waters, i.e. beyond two nautical miles offshore, without the approval of the CEO: • Personal Watercraft (PWC) • Canoes, kayaks or other similar small human powered vessels (other than rowboats). • one fire bucket (can be the same bucket as for bailing water if that bucket is suitable for collecting water for use in case of a fire of solid combustibles, i.e. it won’t distort or break) • a waterproof torch or lantern • on or after 1 June 2010, two handheld red flares and two hand held orange smoke signals. While operating in semi-protected waters a vessel that is less than 6 metres in length must be equipped with all of the above plus one pair of paddles or oars or other means of auxiliary propulsion.

Vessels under 8 metres in length
Protected Waters
• one approved PFD Type 1, 2 or 3 for each person on board • bucket/s with line attached, or bilge pump/s sufficient to drain each compartment of the boat • an anchor with cable • if the boat has an engine or cooking facilities, one fire extinguisher • one fire bucket (can be the same bucket as for bailing water if that bucket is suitable for collecting water for use in case of a fire of solid combustibles, i.e. it won’t distort or break) • if the vessel is being operated between the hours of sunset and sunrise one waterproof torch or lantern. While operating in protected waters a vessel that is less than six metres in length must be equipped with all of the above plus one pair of paddles or oars.

Unprotected Waters
• one approved PFD Type 1 for each person onboard • a suitable anchor with cable • bucket/s with line attached, or bilge pump/s sufficient to drain each compartment of the boat • if the boat has an engine or cooking facilities, one fire extinguisher • one fire bucket (can be the same bucket as for bailing water if that bucket is suitable for collecting water for use in case of a fire of solid combustibles, i.e. it won’t distort or break) • a waterproof torch or lantern • a two-way marine radio – must be capable of communicating with onshore stations • two hand held red flares and two hand held orange smoke signals • four litres of fresh water • the boat must be fitted with a liquid damped magnetic or a gyroscopically controlled compass. Note: This requirement is not satisfied by GPS, satellite navigation systems or similar electronic devices, nor by a handheld compass. While operating in unprotected waters a vessel that is less than six metres in length must also be equipped with one pair of paddles or oars or other means of auxiliary propulsion.

Semi-Protected Waters
• before 1 June 2010, one approved PFD Type 1 for each person aboard • on or after 1 June 2010, one approved PFD Type 1 for each person aboard • a suitable anchor with cable • bucket/s with line attached, or bilge pump/s sufficient to drain each compartment of the boat • if the boat has an engine or cooking facilities, one fire extinguisher

33
If operating more than five nautical miles from shore in Gulf of St Vincent or Spencer Gulf, or more than three nautical miles from shore in other waters except Lakes Alexandrina and Albert: • as above, plus • one 406 MHz EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Distress Beacon) • one V distress sheet. If operating more than 10 nautical miles from shore: • all the above, plus • two distress rockets with parachutes • a map or chart of the waters in which the vessel will operate. Note: While auxiliary power is no longer a legal requirement for boats longer than six metres, all boat operators are strongly advised to carry an auxiliary means of propulsion that is suitable for their boat, whether paddles or oars or a spare motor. • on or after 1 June 2010, one approved PFD Type 1 for each person on board • two suitable anchors with cables (if less than 12 metres one anchor may be carried as a spare) • two buckets with lines attached • bilge pump/s sufficient to drain each compartment of the boat • if the boat has an engine or cooking facilities, two fire extinguishers • one fire bucket (can be the same bucket as for bailing water if that bucket is suitable for collecting water for use in case of a fire of solid combustibles, i.e. it won’t distort or break) • one life-buoy with line • a waterproof torch or lantern • on or after 1 June 2010, two hand held red flares and two hand held orange smoke signals.

Unprotected Waters
• • • • • • one PFD Type 1 for each person on board two suitable anchors with cables two buckets with lines attached bilge pump/s sufficient to drain each compartment of the boat if the boat has an engine or cooking facilities, two fire extinguishers one fire bucket (can be the same bucket as for bailing water if that bucket is suitable for collecting water for use in case of a fire of solid combustibles, i.e. it won’t distort or break) one lifebuoy with line a waterproof torch or lantern a two-way marine radio capable of communication with onshore stations two hand held red flares and two hand held orange smoke signals four litres of fresh water the boat must be fitted with a liquid damped magnetic or a gyroscopically controlled compass.

Vessels 8-15 metres in length
Protected Waters
• one approved PFD Type 1, 2 or 3 for each person on board • a suitable anchor with cable • bucket/s with line attached • bilge pump/s sufficient to drain each compartment of the boat • if the boat has an engine or cooking facilities, two fire extinguishers • one fire bucket (can be the same bucket as for bailing water if that bucket is suitable for collecting water for use in case of a fire of solid combustibles, i.e. it won’t distort or break) • one life-buoy with line • if the vessel is being operated between the hours of sunset and sunrise one torch or lantern.

• • • • • •

Semi-Protected Waters
• before 1 June 2010, one approved PFD Type 1, 2 or 3 for each person on board

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Note: This requirement is not satisfied by GPS, satellite navigation systems or similar electronic devices, nor by a handheld compass. If operating more than five nautical miles from shore in Gulf of St Vincent or Spencer Gulf, or more than three nautical miles from shore in other waters except Lakes Alexandrina and Albert • as above, plus – one 406 MHz EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Distress Beacon) – one V distress sheet. If operating more than 10 nautical miles from shore: • all the above, plus – two distress rockets with parachutes – a map or chart of the waters in which the boat will operate. Full detail of safety equipment requirements and the standards that apply are in the Harbors and Navigation Regulations 2009.

Personal Flotation Device (PFD)
A Personal Flotation Device (PFD), suitable for the type and area of operation must be carried on the vessel for every person on board. In addition, any person water skiing must be wearing a PFD. A PFD must also be worn at all times by occupants of canoes, kayaks, sailboards and similar small unpowered vessels, when kite surfing or operating a personal watercraft (PWC). While it is not a requirement that a PFD be worn at all times on vessels (with exception of the type previously listed) it is recommended that you wear one when you are boating. At the very least, you should wear a PFD on the following occasions: • when crossing a bar or rip • at the first sign of bad weather • in an emergency situation • between sunset and sunrise or during restricted visibility • when operating in unfamiliar waters • when operating with a following sea • when boating alone • when moving around the sides of a vessel that is not fitted with rails • if you are not a strong swimmer • if you are taking medication that may affect your balance. It is extremely difficult (and in some circumstances impossible) to put a PFD on if you are in the water, so prevent yourself and your crew from being in this situation by wearing your PFD.

Vessels more than 15 metres in length
All of the safety equipment required for a vessel 8-15 metres in length in Unprotected Waters, plus: • One EPIRB. • One V distress sheet. • Two distress rockets with parachutes. • A map or chart of the waters in which the boat will operate. • An additional lifebuoy with line attached. • A liferaft.

Safety Equipment Standards
All items of safety equipment must comply with certain standards to ensure they will do the jobs required of them. These standards are outlined below. All personal flotation devices (PFD) required to be carried on a vessel must comply with one or more of the following approved standards.

35

SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR RECREATIONAL VESSELS
VESSEL UNDER 8 METRES
AREA OF OPERATION
Approved PFD PER PERSON √ √ (PFD Type 1) √ √Ω √ √ √Ω √ √ √ √ √ √Ω √
(PFD Type 1, 2 or 3) ••

VESSEL 8 METRES AND OVER

PROTECTED SEMI-PROTECTED UNPROTECTED PROTECTED SEMI-PROTECTED UNPROTECTED WATERS WATERS WATERS WATERS WATERS WATERS
√ √
AT LEAST 1 OF EACH (PFD Type 1, 2 or 3) •• AT LEAST 1 BILGE PUMP

√ (PFD Type 1)

BUCKET & LANYARD OR BILGE PUMP(S) FIRE BUCKET Approved FIRE EXTINGUISHER (IF MOTOR FITTED OR COOKING FACILITIES ON BOARD) PADDLES / OARS (UP TO 6m ONLY) ANCHOR & CABLE BUCKET & LANYARD WATERPROOF AND BUOYANT TORCH OR LANTERN Approved COMPASS 4 LITRES FRESH WATER Approved FLARES & SMOKE SIGNALS Approved ROCKET PARACHUTE FLARES CHART OF THE AREA OF WATER EPIRB (Radio Distress Beacon) “V” SHEET MARINE RADIO (Capable of communicating with stations ashore) LIFEBUOY WITH LINE ^
•• 2 EACH

AT LEAST 1 BILGE PUMP

√Ω 2

√Ω 2

√Ω

2

√ or auxiliary propul- √ or auxiliary propulsion sion √ √ √ ++ 2 2 √ √ √ if operating at night (sunset and sunrise) √

2

2

√ if operating at night (sunset and sunrise)

§√

2 EACH • 2 EACH •• 2 EACH

§√

2 EACH

• 2 EACH

•√ #√ #√ √ √ √

•√

#√

#√

Where 'Low Water Mark' is mentioned in reference to a coast it refers to the coast of the mainland or Kangaroo Island only. √ Compulsory Item. • When the vessel is more than 10 nautical miles seaward of the low water mark. # When the vessel is more than three nautical miles seaward of the low water mark, or more than five nautical miles seaward of the low water mark in Spencer Gulf or Gulf of St Vincent. Excludes Lakes Albert and Alexandrina. Ω If a bucket with lanyard is carried as a bailer and is suitable for use as a fire bucket (i.e. it won't distort or break when collecting water for use in case of a fire of solid combustibles), that bucket can double as the bailer and fire bucket. •• From 1 June 2010, a PFD Type 1, as well as two red hand-held flares and two orange smoke signals, must be carried in Semi-Protected Waters. Enough bailers or pumps must be carried to drain each compartment of the vessel. ++ if the vessel is less than 12 metres in length one anchor may be carried as a spare. ^ Vessles that are more than 15 metres in length must carry an additional lifebuoy with line and a liferaft. § A GPS does not meet compass requirements. An approved compass must be affixed to the vessel near the steering position and either liquid damped magnetic or gyroscopically controlled. Vessels that are more than 15 metres in length must also carry an additonal lifebuoy with line and a liferaft.

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Note: Australian Standard AS 4758.1 incorporates all of the former Standards AS 1512, AS 1499, AS 2259 and AS 2260. For this reason, only the specified section of AS 4758.1 applies to each of PFD Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3. A personal flotation device that complies with the requirements of Australian Maritime Safety Authority Marine Orders Part 25 related to the type of life-jackets required to be carried on Australian registered ships.

PFD Type 1 Lifejacket
Must comply with one of the standards listed below.

PFD Type 2 Buoyancy Vest
Must comply with one of the standards listed below,

AS 1512-1996 (as in force on 1 January 2008) AS 4758.1 as applied to PFD providing level 100 or level 150 buoyancy (or more) Appendix R of the Uniform Shipping Laws Code European Standard EN399-1993 Lifejackets-275N European Standard EN396-1993 Lifejackets-150N European Standard EN395-1993 Lifejackets-100N ISO 12402-2, 12402-3, or 12402-4 Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB-65.11-M88 (for adults) Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB-65.15-M88 (for children) Underwriters Laboratories Standards UL1180 New Zealand Standard NZ5823:2001 Type 401 Any other standard or specification that may be approved by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure (DTEI), once such approval has been included in the South Australian Government Gazette.

AS 4758.1, as applied to PFD providing level 50 buoyancy AS1499.1996 (as in force at 1 January 2008) European Standard EN393-1993 Lifejackets-50N ISO 12402-5 Any other standard or specification that may be approved by the CEO of DTEI, once such approval has been included in the South Australian Government Gazette.

PFD Type 3 Buoyancy Vest
Must comply with one of the standards listed below.

AS 4758.1: Personal flotation devices. General requirements in relation to a PFD classified as providing level 50 special purpose (50S) buoyancy AS 2260.1996 (as in force on 1 January 2008)

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Any other standard or specification that may be approved by the CEO of DTEI, once such approval has been included in the South Australian Government Gazette. One PFD must be carried for each person on board.

Other Safety Equipment Standards
Minimum standards for many items of safety equipment (e.g. PFDs, Flares and Fire Extinguishers) are listed under headings related to those items. Minimum requirements or standards have now been applied to many other items of required safety equipment, and these requirements or standards are listed here: • a torch or lantern must be waterproof and buoyant • an anchor must be: – of a kind and size appropriate to the vessel, regarding to both the size and the area of operation of the vessel; and – attached to a length of chain or rope or both appropriate (in respect of both length and breaking strain) to the waters in which the vessel is being operated • a compass must be marked with the cardinal points • a bilge pump must be: – of a kind, and with a pumping capacity, appropriate to the vessel; and – fitted with a strainer on the suction pipe with mesh of a suitable size to prevent choking of the pump • a bailer must be: – suitable for bailing water from the vessel; and – attached to a lanyard suitable to prevent loss of the bailer from the boat • a marine radio must be of a kind approved by the Australian Communications Authority

SOLAS Lifejacket
(SOLAS – Safety of Life at Sea)

A very bulky lifejacket, designed to keep the body afloat for long periods. Has a light and whistle attached to attract attention. Carried by commercial vessels and recommended for use on larger vessels operating long distances offshore.

COASTAL Lifejacket Multi Fit

Has more flotation than a PFD1. Has a whistle attached for attracting attention. Recommended for use on larger vessels operating long distances offshore.

• paddles, oars or other means of auxiliary propulsion must be of a kind and size capable of propelling and manoeuvring the vessel

38 Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)
An EPIRB is a compact, buoyant, self-contained radio transmitter designed for marine use which, when activated, continuously emits an alert signal for a minimum of 48 hours. In a marine emergency, time is often a critical factor. The quicker an alarm is raised, the search area identified and a rescue coordinated, the more likely it is that those in distress will be safely rescued. Your initial distress alert should be made by radio where possible, but an EPIRB can be activated if you fail to make radio contact and human life is in imminent danger. Once activated, a distress beacon transmits an alert detected by both a series of satellites that form part of an international search and rescue system known as COSPAS-SARSAT, and by overflying aircraft. EPIRB alerts detected off the South Australian coastline are received by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority’s Rescue Coordination Centre (AMSA’s RCC) in Canberra and acted upon immediately. The satellite system can locate a distress beacon to within a radius of about 5 kilometres for a 406 MHz beacon without GPS and to within 120 metres with GPS. Each 406 MHz beacon transmits a unique code that identifies which beacon has been activated. This enables the RCC to access the registration database and find contact details, details of registered vessels and details of up to three nominated emergency contacts who may be contacted if a beacon is activated and contact cannot be made with the registered owner. These emergency contacts may be able to provide valuable information to the RCC that can assist with a more expedient rescue. Details of distress beacon activations in South Australian waters are passed by the RCC to South Australia Police to coordinate a rescue. Specially equipped aircraft and/or rescue boats are then used to home in on the beacon’s signal and rescue those in distress.

Vessels Required to Carry an EPIRB
All recreational vessels venturing more than five nautical miles from the shore in Gulf St Vincent or Spencer Gulf, or more than three nautical miles from the shore in other State waters, except Lakes Alexandrina and Albert, are required to carry a 406 MHz EPIRB which complies with legal requirements.

Legal Requirements for EPIRBs
Your EPIRB must meet AS/NZS 4280.1:2003 406 MHz satellite distress beacons - Marine emergency position-indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs). Some Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs) which meet AS/NZS 4280.2 are being marketed as EPIRBs, however these beacons are not designed for marine use and do not meet the legal requirements. Your beacon must be capable of transmitting on the 406 MHz frequency. Previously, beacons could transmit on a 121.5 MHz frequency, however from 1 February 2009, this frequency will no longer be monitored by satellites and will not automatically instigate a rescue. All 406 MHz beacons must be registered with the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) and have the registration sticker displayed on the beacon. Beacon registration is free and can be done online or in writing via mail, fax or email using AMSA’s registration form. For more information, visit www.beacons.amsa.gov.au or call 1800 406 406 during business hours. Beacons must be maintained in good working order (including having a battery that is not past its expiry date) and be suitably located and secured on the vessel to protect it from accidental damage or loss, but positioned so that it is accessible in an emergency.

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How and when to use a distress beacon
Satelite compatible radio distress beacons (EPIRBs) have significantly improved SAR operations but they are not a substitute for carrying appropriate marine communications: – your initial distress alert should be made by radio if possible. – switch on your beacon if radio contact cannot be made or is lost; or when told to do so by a rescue authority. – once switched on, leave the beacon on until rescued or until told to turn it off by rescue authorities. Activation - read the instructions on the beacon before you need to use it. False Activation - to prevent unnecessary search and rescue action switch the beacon off and call AusSAR immediately on 1800 641 792. If offshore - advise AusSAR through coast station or by relay through another vessel
THERE IS NO PENALTY FOR REPORTING INADVERTENT ACTIVATIONS.

Response - Once you switch on your beacon, it’s signal will usually be detected within hours. Resources needed to rescue you then have to be coordinated and this can take time. Be prepared - carry water and appropriate survival gear. Servicing - Test your beacon regularly and check the battery. If close to or past the expiry date - have batteries changed or dispose of the beacon responsibly and replace with a new unit. Never rely solely on any single safety or navigation system. Always carry appropriate charts and safety equipment, be aware of changing weather and operate within the limits of your own capability and that of your vessel.

Further Information Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) 24 Hour emergency contact: 1800 641 792

General inquiries: Phone: (02) 6279 5743 Fax: (02) 6279 5757 email: aus_beacon_query@amsa.gov.au www.amsa.gov.au

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Activating an EPIRB
Most EPIRBs will have instructions printed on them and you should be familiar with those instructions in case you are unfortunate enough to need it. This device is designed to work best while floating in the water. Should you need to activate your EPIRB: • take the device from its cradle • raise the antenna • activate the switch • unravel the lanyard (cord) from the device and attach to the vessel, liferaft or your PFD and • throw the device into the water. It should be attached to the vessel, liferaft or your PFD and allowed to drift away from you to let it work as it is designed to do. An EPIRB should only be activated in situations where human life is in grave and imminent danger, and only after all other means of indicating distress, such as flares and radio, have been attempted. You should keep a flare(s) available to aid searching boats/aircraft after an EPIRB is activated. EPIRBs should be tested regularly in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The expiry date should be checked as part of your trip preparation each time you take your vessel out for the day. Australia. Check www.batteryworld.com.au for locations. Volunteer Marine Rescue Squadrons around the state are also acting as collection points for unwanted beacons. SA Sea Rescue Squadron Radio Room, Barcoo Road, West Beach. 7am to 6pm daily. Australian Volunteer Coast Guard, Southern Myth Drive, North Haven. 7am to 6pm weekends and public holidays. Whyalla Sea Rescue, Foreshore, Whyalla. 8am to 4pm daily. For details of other squadrons, please visit the SA Volunteer Marine Rescue page at www.ses.sa.gov.au. Please contact the squadron prior to dropping off your beacon to make sure that there will be someone available to receive it. Beacons must not be left at an unattended squadron.

Distress Flares
Recreational vessels are required to carry two handheld red flares, and two handheld orange smoke flares, of an approved type when operating in unprotected waters (i.e. more than two nautical miles from the shore). If operating more than 10 nautical miles from the shore two distress rockets with parachutes (rocket flares) must also be carried. These must be approved to the Australian Standard AS2092. They are essential for showing your location to a search vessel. Distress flares have a life of three years – you must ensure the flares are current and obtain new ones if their use-by dates which are stamped on the flare are reached. Orange smoke flares, which can be seen for up to 4km (10km by aircraft) should be used in daylight to pinpoint your position.

If an EPIRB is Accidentally Activated
Switch off the beacon and notify RCC-Australia as soon as possible by calling 1800 641 792 to ensure a search and rescue operation is not commenced. There is no penalty for inadvertent activations.

Disposing of 121.5MHz Beacons
Unwanted beacons can be disposed of at no cost by placing them in collection bins in any of the Battery World stores around

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Red flares, which have a visibility range of 10km, are designed for use at night but can also be seen during the day. Always delay using flares until you can see an aircraft, or until people on shore or in other boats are in visual range. Keep flares away from fuel and combustibles. As the contents of flares attract moisture, make sure you store them in an accessible, but dry place. Be prepared – ensure everyone on board your vessel knows where the flares are stored and how to use them. Ensure that you carefully follow the activation instructions of all flares. In speed boats, endeavour to stow flares where they won’t receive too much pounding in rough conditions. You should be able to ignite the correct flare in total darkness. It is an offence to misuse flares and penalties apply.
Operation: A Remove caps at each end and safety pin. Operation: B Firing lever will drop down. Press firing lever against cylinder to fire.

Three Types of Flares

1 PARACHUTE

(Rocket Flare - Red)

Capable of reaching a height of 300 metres and can be seen for up to 40 kilometres at night and 15 kilometres by day.

2 RED

HAND FLARE

Can be seen up to 10 kilometres away.

Expired Flares
Approved flares have expiry dates clearly marked. Expired flares should be disposed of at a police station.

Using Flares
Make yourself familiar with their operation. While you can’t let one off just to see how it works, some rescue organisations arrange authorised demonstrations of how to use flares. How do you know which is the right flare to use in total darkness? The plastic end cap (red) for the red flare has a raised “+”, to enable easy identification in the dark, while the end cap (orange) for the orange flare has a raised “O”. Misuse of distress signals (EPIRBs, flares and the like) is an offence.
Operation: A Remove cap both ends – bottom cap is a striker. Hold flare at base and use striker to ignite flare at top end. Operation: B Once flare is ignited – hold away from you and as high as possible until finished.

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3 ORANGE

SMOKE FLARE Visible up to 4 kilometres away. Daytime use only.

communication with stations ashore is required. There are three types that you may install in your boat: • 27 MHz marine (commonly called 27 “meg”) transceiver; • VHF marine transceiver; • MF/HF marine transceiver. 27 MHz and VHF marine transceivers are relatively inexpensive and provide short-range communications. If you take your vessel 15 nautical miles or more from shore, you may need to install an HF* marine transceiver to have the communication range you require. *Note: An interim HF marine radio distress and safety communications system was established in July 2002. It is intended that a long-term integrated, nationally uniform coastal waters communications arrangement be developed and the current interim system upgraded when the specifications have been approved. It is recommended, however, that when purchasing a new radio you select a radio that has Digital Selective Calling (DSC) or is International Marine Satelite Organization (Inmarsat) compatable. Information regarding the HF radio communications system is available from the National Marine Safety Committee (NMSC) web site at www.nmsc.gov.au or the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) website at amsa.gov.au

Operation: A Remove cap both ends – bottom cap is a striker. Hold flare at base and use striker to ignite flare at top end.

Operation: B Once flare is ignited – hold away from you and as high as possible until finished.

Note: Flares can cause injury if misused. Look after them and they will serve you if needed. Different brands have alternative methods of firing, ensure you are familiar with how your flare is fired.

Marine Radio
The ocean can be a frightening and lonely place, especially if you are in trouble. Unlike other forms of radio communication, a marine radio transceiver is specially designed for the marine environment. It enables you to monitor distress frequencies and make contact with other vessels in your vicinity that may be able to offer assistance. It also enables contact with shore-based stations who can coordinate a rescue. A marine radio can also keep you up-to-date with radio weather information. You must know how to use the radio and maintain it in working order to meet legal requirements.

Licensing and Operator Certificates
If you have an MF/HF radio, the marine radio transceiver must be covered by a current apparatus licence. You should contact the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) on 1300 850 115 or the website at www.acma.gov.au 27 MHz and VHF marine radio transceivers no longer require an apparatus licence, however you must comply with the Radio Communications Act.

Two-way radio equipment
If you are operating a vessel in unprotected waters, a two-way marine radio capable of

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If you are operating VHF, MF/HF or other marine transceivers, a person on board must hold a Certificate of Proficiency. You may obtain more information about the Operator’s Certificate of Proficiency from the Office of Maritime Communications, Australian Maritime College (telephone 1300 365 262 or visit the website at www.amcom.amc.edu.au). The Marine Radio Operators Handbook, available from the Australian Maritime College (AMC) or other service providers listed on the AMC web site, provides information on the correct operating procedures, maintenance of equipment and how to deal with minor faults while at sea. Basic information on HF marine radio Distress, Safety and Weather services, including undertaking vessel radio checks (test transmissions) is covered in the HF marine radio brochure available from any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to page 100 for details. See also the South Australian Government website www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine use and chatter on marine radio frequencies can mask an incoming call for help, and one day that may be your call. When reception is doubtful or conditions difficult, spell out the words and figures using the recommended phonetic alphabet and figure code when transmitting a message. Always end the exchange of communications with the word “OUT”. Your two-way radio is your communication lifeline so it is important to remember: • do not transmit unnecessarily • listen before transmitting and avoid interfering with other stations. Commence your call on the calling and distress channels: 27 MHz – 27.880 (Ch. 88), VHF channel 16 or HF frequencies 2182, 4125, 6215 and 8291 kHz. (note; only Coast Radio Adelaide monitors frequency 2182). For distress messages, maintain best contact and be guided by the coast or limited coast station. For non-distress messages, arrange to switch to a working channel once you have contacted whom you have called. Always use your call sign or the name of the vessel for identification – use of given names or surnames is not permitted. Keep messages brief and clear, non essential remarks, bad language and unnecessary conversations should be avoided. If making a distress call, it is important that you give your position, the nature of the distress, the time afloat, the type of vessel and the number of people involved. Stop transmitting when requested to do so by a coast station. If using 27 MHz, return to 27.880 (channel 88) when you have completed your call. For VHF radio return to channel 16. The distress call and message may be repeated as often as necessary, especially during silence periods, until an answer is received.

Operating Procedures
In a boating emergency, unless correct radio procedures are followed, things can become chaotic. It is important that you know how to effectively call for help and to recognise when another boat is calling for assistance. Standard radio procedures have been established and are used by vessels of all nationalities. If your vessel is fitted with marine radio equipment then you should carry a copy of the Marine Radio Operators Handbook. This handbook is available for a small charge. To obtain a copy from the Australian Maritime College telephone 1300 365 262 or other locations listed on the website www.amcom.amc.edu.au Use of standard procedures described in the handbook avoids confusion and shortens transmitting time. Unnecessary

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www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine

www.sa.gov .au/boatingm arine

www.sa.go v.au/boatingm arine

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If no answer is received on distress frequencies, the message should be repeated on any other available frequency where attention might be attracted. grave and imminent danger and requests immediate assistance.

The distress signal must not be used under any other circumstances. It does not extend It is an offence to use a transmitter in a manner to situations where immediate assistance is that is likely to cause a reasonable person sort on behalf of a person, for example, a to be seriously alarmed or affronted, or for medical emergency. The Urgency Signal the purpose of harassing another person. should be used in these situations.

Silence Periods
International regulations no longer require silence periods to be observed on the Distress Calling frequencies. However, to increase the safety of life at sea in Australia, two three-minute periods of radiotelephony silence should be observed in each hour. Radiotelephony silence periods start on the hour and continue to three minutes past the hour, and on the half hour until 33 minutes past the hour. 1:00 – 1:03, 1:30 – 1:33, 2:00 – 2:03, 2:30 – 2:33 and so forth. With the exception of Distress Calls and messages, all transmissions from all stations should cease during these periods.

Misuse of the distress signal could result in attention being diverted away from a situation which really requires immediate assistance.

Mayday Relay
If you hear a distress (Mayday) call and a coast station does not answer, render assistance where reasonable or attempt to relay the message.

The Distress Call
The distress call consists of: • the distress signal MAYDAY, spoken three times • the words THIS IS (or DE spoken as Delta Echo in case of language difficulties) • the name and call sign of the vessel in distress, spoken three times.

The Distress Signal
The Distress signal consists of the word “MAYDAY”. The signal indicates that the vessel or person using it is threatened by Example of a complete distress call and message:
The radiotelephony If facility fitted then

alarm signal

the following spoken message:

Distress call Distress signal (x3) MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY Words “this is” THIS IS Station calling (x3) SCAMP VL2345 SCAMP VL2345 SCAMP VL2345 Distress message Distress signal MAYDAY Name/call sign SCAMP VL2345

50 NAUTICAL MILES DUE EAST POINT DANGER Nature of distress SINKING RAPIDLY AFTER STRIKING SUBMERGED OBJECT. ESTIMATE FURTHER 15 MINUTES AFLOAT Other information TWENTY METRE MOTOR CRUISER RED HULL WHITE SUPERSTRUCTURE FOUR PERSONS ON BOARD EPIRB ACTIVATED

Position

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The Distress Message
The distress message consists of: • the distress signal MAYDAY • the name and call sign of the vessel in distress • particulars of its position • the nature of the distress and the kind of assistance desired • any other information which may facilitate rescue. • after the initial broadcast on the distress frenquency/ies it needs to be frequently repeated (this generally applies only to maritime communication stations). Urgency messages may be addressed to all stations or to a particular station. If addressed to all stations, the originating station must cancel the message when the action is no longer necessary.

The Safety Signal
The safety signal consists of the word SECURITE, pronounced SAY-CURE-E-TAY. It indicates that the station using it is about to transmit a message concerning an important navigational or weather warning. It should not be used to precede routine weather forecasts. Ship stations hearing the safety signal should continue to listen until they are satisfied that it does not concern them.They must not make any transmission that is likely to interfere with the message. The safety signal and a call to all stations should normally be made on a distress frequency. However, the safety message which follows should be made on a working frequency or channel.

The Urgency Signal
The urgency signal consists of the words PAN PAN. It has priority over all other communications except those concerned with distress. Use of the urgency signal indicates that the station sending it has a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of the vessel or person. The urgency signal may only be sent on the authority of the master or skipper, or person responsible for the safety of the vessel. All stations which hear an emergency signal must take care not to interfere with the message that follows. The urgency signal and message are normally sent on one or more of the distress frequencies. However, transmission of the message following the urgency signal should be transferred to a working frequency or channel if: • it is lengthy or it concerns an urgent medical case; or Example of an urgency call and message sent by a ship station: Urgency Call Urgency signal (x3) Station called (x3) PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN HELLO ALL STATIONS HELLO ALL STATIONS HELLO ALL STATIONS THIS IS

Mobile Telephones
A mobile telephone while useful, is not a substitute for a marine radio. If you intend operating a recreational vessel fitted with an engine in Unprotected Waters, you must have a marine radio aboard in working order and know how to operate it. Station calling (x3) Urgency Message HAWK VL2345 HAWK VL2345 HAWK VL2345 30 NAUTICAL MILES DUE WEST OF CAPE BORA LOST PROPELLER ESTIMATE DRIFTING SOUTHWEST AT 3 KNOTS REQUIRE TOW URGENTLY.

Words “this is”

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Example of safety call and message transmitted by a ship station:
Safety Call Safety signal (x3) SAY-CURE-E-TAY SAY-CURE-E-TAY SAY-CURE-E-TAY

Ship station changes to working frequency and calls again Repeat safety call Safety signal (x3) SAY-CURE-E-TAY SAY-CURE-E-TAY SAY-CURE-E-TAY Station called (x1) HELLO ALL STATIONS Words “this is” THIS IS Station calling (x1) SEAFOX VL9876 Safety message POSITION 030 DEGREES 12 NAUTICAL MILES FROM CAPE ARNHEM SHIPPING CONTAINER FLOATING JUST BELOW SURFACE DANGER TO NAVIGATION.

Station called (x3) HELLO ALL STATIONS HELLO ALL STATIONS HELLO ALL STATIONS Words “this is” THIS IS Station calling (x3) SEAFOX VL9876 SEAFOX VL9876 SEAFOX VL9876 Change of frequency NAVIGATIONAL WARNING LIST EN ON 2524

Anchors
An anchor is an important item of equipment. When at anchor, attention is required to ensure the safety of the craft as changes in wind and sea conditions can affect the holding power of the anchor. Anchors or ground tackle should be fitted with chain or wire of a length equal to the length of the craft to resist wear and provide an ideal curved weight necessary for efficient anchor performance. Often larger vessel owners prefer a line or cable entirely of chain, as it greatly increases the holding power and acts as a shock absorber. The end of the anchor rope retained on the craft, should always be secured before deploying. Attention should be paid to the prevention of chafe to the line or cable at the deck lead. Anchor shackles and pins should be properly maintained and tied with wire or cable tie or otherwise secured to prevent them from coming undone with the motion of the riding anchor. Synthetic anchor ropes should be stowed out of direct sunlight when not in use. An anchor should be stowed and lashed securely when not in use.

Types of Anchors
There are various types of anchors suitable for different circumstances including: Danforth This type of anchor is most commonly used and recommended for small craft. The Danforth is a small light anchor that has excellent holding power and can be handled easily in a small vessel. Coral quick release (CQR) or Plough This type of anchor can be used in small craft, however it is more suitable for larger and heavier vessels. Both the Danforth and the CQR or Plough anchors have good holding power, so if used on a reef they may get caught. Grapnel Grapnels with flexible prongs can be used when anchoring on reefs. The flexible prongs will straighten and release when sufficient pull is applied. This type of anchor is not an approved type in several states hence can only be carried in addition to an approved type. Sea Anchor or Drogue If you plan to go boating offshore, then a sea anchor can be a valuable piece of equipment.

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Sea anchors, when set, will slow your drift and keep the bow of your boat into the wind and the waves. This provides comfortable conditions when drifting in choppy seas. This type of anchor is not an approved type in several states hence can only be carried in addition to an approved type. Sacra (Sand and rock combination anchor) This type of anchor offers a superb holding power on a variety of bottom types including mud, sand, gravel and rock, eliminating the need to carry two or more anchors to do the same job. If anchoring your vessel on the waters of the River Murray be aware of the risk of snags. It is suggested that you use a grapnel type of anchor. bottom and let the vessel drift away until sufficient line is out.

The scope
Scope means the ratio of the length of anchor line let out to the depth of water in the place you are anchoring. It is essential that you use the proper length of anchor line to hold the vessel in all conditions. To calculate how much line to let out, allow for a ratio of 3 to 1. If conditions are extreme increase the ratio to 5 to 1. The flatter the pull on the anchor, then the better it will hold.

Where to anchor
Other than your favourite fishing spot, the place to anchor is where you gain most protection from the elements. You should be aware of the type of sea bottom where you are going to drop your anchor so the most appropriate type is used. If you have the wrong type of anchor for the sea bottom below your boat, you may not retrieve a snagged anchor unless it is specially rigged. You may also need to consider a second anchor forward and spread apart so the boat forms the bottom of a ‘V’. This gives better holding power in adverse conditions. When you wish to be held in a specific location in calmer conditions, perhaps while diving, a stern anchor can be used.

Anchor lines
Anchor lines are important. Don’t use an anchor line that floats – such as a polypropylene line. It does not help the anchor to dig in and is also prone to being cut off by other boats’ propellers. Nylon and silver rope are both suitable material for strength and stretching ability plus being more resistant to abrasion. Silver rope has less tensile strength,

Anchor chain
Between the anchor line and the anchor, insert a length of chain. If your rope is nylon the chain should be at least two metres long and at least three metres long for other ropes. The purpose of the chain is to keep the stock or shank of the anchor down as near as possible to parallel to the sea bottom. The anchor flukes can then gain maximum penetration into the seabed. The chain also prevents the anchor line chafing on the bottom.

How to anchor
When you have selected the spot you wish to be at anchor, you should have some idea of the depth of water, move forward into the wind, stop, then drop the anchor and drift back to your selected location. At the same time deploy a suitable length of line (see The Scope) and tie off the line to a forward bollard. The length of line can be adjusted as conditions dictate. If setting more than one anchor (not an easy task for one person) have crew assist in playing the lines so they are not picked up by the prop as you locate the place for the

Anchor placement
Always lay your anchor out: don’t pick a bundle of anchor chain and line and throw it over hoping it will untangle. Let it touch

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second anchor, then adjust the lines so the vessel is riding safely. If anchoring at night, ensure your vessel is displaying the prescribed lighting. Refer to the section on ‘Navigation Lights’ for details. Do not anchor in marked channels.

Charts and Maps
Vessels intending to operate more than 10 nautical miles from shore must carry a map or chart of the waters in which they will operate – the chart or map must be suitable for navigation purposes. The experienced skipper will be able to use the map or chart to assist them in plotting a course to their destination, to identify their current location, the depth of water, hidden reefs and sand bars, islands and other navigation features. It will also provide details such as the beacons and navigation markers to harbour entrances. It is important that you are able to read a chart if you intend to travel more than 10 nautical miles off shore.

vessel, (as outlined below) and must be maintained in accordance with AS 1851. The minimum approved sizes of fire extinguishers are: • For a vessel carrying not more than 115 litres of flammable liquid – 0.9 kilograms • For a vessel carrying more than 115 litres but not more than 350 litres of flammable liquid – 2.0 kilograms • For a vessel carrying more than 350 litres but not more than 695 litres of flammable liquid – 4.5 kilograms • For a vessel carrying more than 695 litres of flammable liquid – 9.0 kilograms. The hand-held Dry Chemical Powder (DCP) fire extinguisher is generally regarded as the best all-purpose fire extinguisher for recreational boats (red with a white band). These extinguishers can be used to combat all types of fire likely to be encountered on board recreational vessels. Ideally they should be readily accessible and mounted near possible sources of fire such as the galley, engine compartment and fuel storage areas etc. It is recommended that Dry Chemical Powder fire extinguishers be stowed horizontally. This will stop the powder packing down and make the powder easier to dislodge for effective use. An Australian Standard approved DCP fire extinguisher features a pressure gauge that indicates its state of charge.

Fire Extinguishers
It is a legal requirement to carry a fire extinguisher on a recreational vessel fitted with an engine or the vessel includes facilities for cooking. Refer to page 30 for details. A fire extinguisher required to be carried on a vessel must comply with the applicable part of AS 1841, must be at least the minimum size in that standard for the

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Always ensure that your fire extinguisher is fully charged. Regularly remove the extinguisher from its bracket and shake to avoid possible compaction of the powder. In addition, ensure that your fire extinguisher is inspected every 12 months by an authorised inspection agent (firefighting authority or manufacturer’s agent) to maintain your fire extinguisher at a maximum state of efficiency – your life could depend on it. It is recommended that: • vessels up to 5m in length have one DCP fire extinguisher of nominal mass 1kg • vessels between 5m–8m have one DCP fire extinguisher of nominal mass 2 kg • vessels greater than 8m have two DCP fire extinguishers of nominal mass 2 kg. The above are minimum recommendations. For legal requirements refer to page 30. When determining the number, size and type of fire extinguishers consideration, should also be given to the size of the vessel, number of compartments, machinery and flammable materials on board the vessel.

Local Knowledge
In addition to complying with the appropriate South Australian boating legislation and requirements, it is important to find out location specific requirements. There are many areas in South Australia that have speed restrictions or vessel restrictions. Details of these restricted areas are provided in the Harbors and Navigation Regulations 2009. Several seaside Councils also have by-laws that apply to speed limits on the foreshore or launching of vessels within their jurisdiction. Before deciding to launch your vessel from a boat ramp in their area it is recommended that you check with the Council regarding any local restrictions. Knowledge of location of boat ramps and their suitability for launching and retrieval of vessels during rough weather or low tide is also handy. The Tide Tables of South Australian Ports book provides details of the location of the boat ramps in South Australia and rates the ramps road access, launching

Chart reproduced by permission of Fire Protection Association Australia – www.fpaa.com.au

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conditions, parking, shelter and other relevant comments. The Tide Tables for South Australian Ports book is available from any Service SA Customer Service Centre, most boat dealers, fish and tackle shops and other outlets. If boating interstate, you are required to adhere to the safety and operating rules and regulations imposed by that State. Charleville broadcasts for SA - VMC Warnings: every hour from 0030 CST Forecasts: at 0200, 0600, 1000, 1400, 1800, 2200 CST Broadcast frequencies (kHz) Daytime (7am – 6pm EST): 4426 & 16546 Night (6pm-7am EST): 2201 & 6507 Anytime: 8176 & 12365 Wiluna broadcasts for SA - VMW Warnings: every hour from 0030 CST Forecasts: at 0300, 0700, 1100, 1500, 1900, 2300 CST Broadcast frequencies (kHz) Daytime (7am-6pm WST): 4149 &16528 Night (6pm-7am WST): 2056 & 6230 Anytime: 8113 & 12362

Weather and Conditions
Even with the most up-to-date equipment and an experienced operator, it is the weather that will determine if a day’s outing is safe and enjoyable, or unpleasant and dangerous. The importance of being informed about likely weather conditions cannot be overstated. Before embarking on any boating expedition, it is important to be aware of the weather and sea conditions you are likely to encounter. The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) has some potentially life saving advice for the thousands of boating enthusiasts who venture into South Australian coastal waters: “keep an eye and ear on the weather and if in doubt, don’t go out”.

VHF Radio
Weather forecasts for South Australian Waters are issued daily by the Australian Volunteer Coastguard.

Weather by Fax & Weathercall
The latest weather information for SA Coastal Waters is also available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week via the BOM’s Weathercall and Weather by Fax Services.

HF Radio
The BOM broadcasts marine weather information, warnings and coastal reports via its own network of HF radio transmitters. This network comprises transmitters at Charleville in Queensland (call sign VMC) and Wiluna in Western Australia (call sign VMW). Both stations cover central regions of Australia, with Charleville’s cover extending eastward and Wiluna’s extending westward. South Australia therefore receives weather information from both at different broadcast times.

Weather maps
Learn how to read a weather map. After checking the latest weather forecast, interpret the forecast in terms of your weather map. Remember that weather maps published in morning newspapers often show charts based on a situation at noon the previous day.

Bureau of Meteorology Website
For further information on BOM services, including the radio fax service, visit: www.bom.gov.au/marine or www.bom.gov.au/weather/sa/

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Need Assistance?
For any assistance in interpreting weather maps or any other marine weather services, please contact your nearest BOM office: Adelaide: (08) 8366 2600 Ceduna: (08) 8625 2048 Mount Gambier: (08) 8725 5533 the strength of the wind that will follow. It is often best to ride them out, keeping your bow into the wind and maintaining a speed sufficient to give you steering. Don’t let the vessel drift side on to the wind and waves as it may take on water or capsize. Without power or anchor, drag a sea anchor from the bow to keep the boat pointing towards the waves. A sturdy bucket or oar on a rope may make an adequate sea anchor. If you do capsize, it is best to stay with the boat until help arrives because your boat will be more visible than an individual in the water. It is extremely difficult to put on a PFD once you are in the water so remember to put it on at the first sign of bad weather.

General Tips
Know the local factors that influence sea conditions and where to shelter if conditions deteriorate. Know what conditions exceed your vessel’s safety limit. Keep your eye on the sky and the state of the sea. Wind shifts, increases in swell, or cloud build up, may be forerunners of bad weather. If the forecast wind speed is 15 knots or more and sea conditions are expected to be more than a metre, operators of smaller vessels should consider postponing a trip until conditions improve. To maximise your safety: regularly check the latest marine radio forecast. Be flexible and change your plans if necessary. If the weather starts to look bad or doubtful, head for shore.

Wind
Wind blows roughly parallel to lines (isobars) on the weather map, clockwise around LOWS and anticlockwise around HIGHS. The closer together the isobars, the stronger the wind. Hills and valleys can also funnel winds, causing stronger and gustier winds and producing localised shifts in direction. This effect often occurs on inland waterways that are surrounded by hills. Cold fronts normally produce strong, gusty wind changes that are not always accompanied by thickening cloud and rain. During summer in particular, southerly changes can be cloud-free but still produce dangerous squalls and sudden wind shifts. Squalls and sudden wind shifts can also occur with showers and thunderstorms. The Bureau of Meteorology issues: • Strong Wind Warnings when the average wind speed is expected to be 25 to 33 knots. • Gale Warnings for 34 to 47 knots. • Storm Warnings for wind speeds of 48 knots or more when wind gusts up to 40 per cent above the mean speed are expected.

Potential Hazards and Conditions
Weather
If it’s going to blow, don’t go is a handy motto. Check the weather forecasts, which are regularly updated and give warnings of strong winds and gales. Sudden squalls are not easy to predict in South Australia, so keep a sharp lookout and regularly check the horizon for telltale clouds or whitecap waves. Head for the shore or the protected side of an island only if you are close. If possible, head into the wind and waves at a steady speed. Squalls usually last only for a short period and commonly precede a change in wind direction, usually blowing at twice

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The Bureau of Meteorology’s forecasts are written to describe the typical weather expected to occur in the forecast period. This means that the forecast rarely describes the wind or waves occurring in all places or for the whole of the time. The forecast also attempts to describe any severe or dangerous weather expected in the period. For example, the forecast for a day may indicate westerly winds at 10-15 knots, but lighter winds can often occur from different directions in the lee of the land, especially in the morning before this wind becomes established. Alternatively, the forecast might refer to ‘possible squalls with thunderstorms’. If stranded on the water – stay with your boat.

Waves
Waves larger than the boat was designed to handle are a major cause of accidents and drownings, on both inland and coastal waters. Waves are created by wind passing over water surfaces – the stronger the wind and the longer the ‘fetch’ (length of water over which the wind blows), the bigger the waves become. Waves develop very quickly when the wind starts to blow over water. These are called ’sea waves’. If the wind blows for a long time over the same area ‘swell waves’ are formed. Swell waves often have enough energy to travel thousands of kilometres from their origin until they break on the shore. Sea and swell waves can occur at the same time, often coming from different directions. The sea wave is pushed by the wind at the time, whereas the swell waves may have been set in motion two or three

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN COASTAL WATERS DIVISIONS

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days before by very distant winds, or by the predominant currents. The wave forecast makes reference to what is known as the significant wave height. The significant wave height is the average height of the highest 33% of waves, and most waves will be smaller than this. However, maximum wave heights can be up to twice that of significant wave height. Moreover, the forecast waves will only occur where the fetch is the longest. • Beware of rapidly darkening and lowering cloud – squalls may be imminent. • When at sea, listen to the weather reports on public or marine radio. • Be flexible – change your plans if necessary.

Crossing Ocean bars
What is a bar? A bar is an accumulation of sand or silt at the entrance of a river, creek, lake or harbour. Why are bars dangerous? Conditions prevailing on a bar can cause steep and often breaking seas. For this reason it is important to take a number of precautions and manoeuvre the vessel with extreme caution. Crossing a bar is a job for an experienced vessel handler. Exercise extreme caution Conditions on a bar change quickly and without warning. The skipper’s experience and vessel type should be taken into account when a bar crossing is considered. No amount of experience or boat type makes crossing a bar safe when the conditions are marginal or adverse. No situation warrants taking the risk. If In Doubt Don’t Go Out. Once started, you are committed to crossing the bar. Local knowledge All sand bars are different. You need to learn about each bar from local commercial vessel operators, maritime authorities, volunteer rescue groups or the water police. Immediately prior to crossing a bar always contact the local authority for an update on conditions at the bar. Assess conditions Vessel operators must assess conditions on a bar and be aware that a rapid change in conditions might prevent a safe return.

Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms are another serious hazard for boats. Cumulonimbus or thunderstorm clouds (see diagram) produce strong, gusty winds, which blow out from the front of the storm. If you see this type of cloud, you should watch which way it is moving – clouds often move in different directions from the wind at the surface. If it looks like it will pass over or within a few kilometres of you, head for shore!

Safety hints
• Know the local factors that influence sea conditions and know where to reach shelter quickly. • Learn how to read the weather map. • Be aware that the weather map in the morning newspaper was drawn the day before. • Always check the latest forecast and warnings before going to sea and know what conditions exceed your safety limits.

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Vessels unable to weather adverse sea conditions outside the bar should not leave port. Ensure that you have adequate reserve fuel and provisions, should you need to remain at sea longer than intended, or need to divert to another port should adverse bar conditions prevail on your return. Obtain a weather report for the time of crossing the bar and a weather forecast of conditions expected on your return. Do not venture out to sea if you are in any doubt of your ability to return. Be aware • All bars have areas of broken waters containing air. These areas can severely reduce the stability and handling of a vessel. • More dangerous sea conditions often occur over a bar during run-out tide. • Night crossings are more hazardous. • Vessels attempting to cross a bar at or near low water are more likely to experience adverse conditions. • Liquids and loose objects ‘sloshing’ from side-to-side may reduce the stability of the vessel. Example: eskies, fish bins and water on deck. Preparing to cross a bar • Obtain up-to-date tide and weather information. • It is always preferable to cross on an incoming tide. • Stay at a safe distance until a report on the prevailing bar conditions has been obtained. • Ensure that all deck openings, hatches and doors are securely battened down or closed. • All loose gear must be secured. • Ensure that all persons are wearing an approved PFD. • All persons should stay clear of spaces on decks exposed to the sea and waves. • Keep everyone seated and still. • Ensure all life saving equipment is accessible and ready for immediate use. • If possible, trim the vessel slightly by the stern. • Before approaching the bar, test the engines “ahead” and “astern”. Ensure ample fuel is in the fuel tank for the engines to draw from. IF IN DOUBT DON’T GO OUT. If already at sea and in doubt – stay out. Ultimately it is the vessel operator’s responsibility to determine whether or not to cross a bar. Crossing a bar • While approaching the bar keep a close lookout for depth of water, smallest waves, where the breakers are, etc. • Check where other vessels are crossing the bar. This will be the likely spot where you too will cross the bar. • Monitor the prevailing wind direction and force: – wave pattern timing, ie looking for sets – course to follow – bar traffic – alternate routes. • Ensure that any preceding vessel is well clear of the bar before attempting to cross. • Approaches should be made at a moderate speed in order that the operator is capable of increasing or decreasing speed.

Outbound – heading out to sea
• Motor slowly to the breaking waves looking for the area where waves break last or even better, not at all. Wait for a flatter than usual stretch of water and motor through. • If there seems no break in the waves slowly power through each oncoming wave. • Ensure that you are not going too fast over each wave as this would cause the vessel to “bottom out” if it dives heavily.

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• Punching through the waves can also cause severe structural damage to your vessel. • If possible make the crossing with the waves slightly on the bow so that the vessel gently rolls over the crest of each wave. These Regulations under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 are available at www.legislation.sa.gov.au/listRegulations.asp x?key=N Reducing speed increases your safety, reduces wave wake to other boats and lessens the stress and risk of propeller injury to local dolphin populations.

Inbound – heading back to port
• Approaching from sea, increase the power of the vessel to catch up with the bigger set of waves. • Position the vessel on the back of the wave (DO NOT surf down the face of the wave). • Adjust the vessel’s speed to match the speed of the waves, but DO NOT attempt to overtake the waves.

Stranded Live or Injured Marine Mammal

• If you observe a stranded whale or dolphin or an injured seal, whale or dolphin call the Department for Environment and Heritage -Dr Deb Kelly 8124 4801 or 0417 801 094, or Protecting the Environment • Fishwatch 1800 065 522; or • RSPCA 8321 6931 (AH: 8321 2120) Whales, Dolphins and Boats • SA Museum - Dr Catherine Kemper; Whales are protected by state and federal 8207 7458 (office hours only) laws and heavy fines apply for breaching • Australian Dolphin Research Foundation regulations. 8390 3554 or 0417 824 235. In SA, distance requirements vary for When reporting such matters, the following different vessel types. For whales, some details may be required: vessels are required to keep at least • location and number of animals 300 metres away from whales and this distance is required for all vessels when • species involved (and description) calves or any animal in distress are present. • your name and contact details Reducing vessel speeds, and changing • nature of the incident direction away from the whales ensures the • identity or description of people involved safety and wellbeing of the whales, the (if any) vessel and its occupants. • registration number of boats (or vehicles) Similar strategies apply to dolphins. In SA, involved some vessels must not approach within • when it was first discovered 150 metres of dolphins. Dolphins are often found in semi-protected waters, in particular, • the weather conditions now and expected the Port River, Outer Harbor and Barker Inlet. • tide details • accessibility by boat/vehicle. Signposted speed limits of 4 and 7 knots exist in some of these areas.

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Dead Marine Mammal
(Whale, Dolphin or Seal)
• Contact the Department for Environment and Heritage 8124 4700; or • RSPCA 8231 6931 (AH: 8231 2120) • SA Police 131 444 or the nearest local police station.

Restrictions
Restrictions in aquatic reserves range from totally closed areas to areas allowing some recreational fishing. Details about requirements for specific reserves are sometimes sign posted, available from Fishwatch or the PIRSA website: www.pir.sa.gov.au. To report a fishing offence contact Fishwatch on 1800 065 522 and speak to the duty officer.

Whale, Dolphin or Seal Harassment
If you witness the harassment of marine mammals Call Fishwatch on 1800 065 522. If unanswered call one of the following: • SA Police 131 444 or the nearest local Police Station • RSPCA 8231 6931 (AH: 8231 2120).

Publications
Aquatic reserves’ boundaries are also progressively being incorporated into navigational charts and other publications. All visitors to reserves should be aware that due to scale variations and the age of some marine charts, positional discrepancies may occur, especially when using hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.

Sightings of Rare Species
These include turtles, strange fish, sea snakes or other marine life not normally seen in South Australian waters. Call the South Australian Museum 8207 7500.

Shark Sightings
If you observe a shark(s) near swimmers or where it could cause harm to humans, please report the location, description, distance to shore and your contact details to: • Fishwatch 1800 065 522 (all hours) • SA Police 131 444 • The local Council • The local Surf Lifesaving Club.

Pollution
All garbage must be retained on board vessels and correctly disposed of, once back on shore. Reduce the amount of your garbage by not using disposable products including plastic bags, paper plates and cups. Marine animals such as fish, turtles and whales can mistake plastic bags for jellyfish (a food source), which can be fatal to them. Other garbage such as rope, fishing line and plastics can entangle and kill marine animals such as dolphins, seals and sea birds. Ensure fuel lines and connections are tight and avoid refuelling from portable containers. If necessary use a funnel and/or a siphon hose to minimize spillage. All powered craft should be properly maintained and speed limits observed so that emissions both to the atmosphere and to water are minimized. Do not discharge human waste overboard within harbours or within three nautical miles from the coast. A self-contained portable toilet is suggested.

Aquatic Reserves and Parks
The South Australian Government has created aquatic reserves to ensure that representative samples of South Australia's marine environment are conserved for future generations while permitting appropriate uses and promoting public education. These are declared under the Fisheries Act. These reserves safeguard important marine habitats and species, significant natural features, cultural heritage and aesthetic values.

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What to do if you see evidence of pollution
Help to keep the waterways clean by reporting incidents of pollution. Provide as much information as possible so that it can be investigated promptly. The information required includes: • your name and address • the registration number and name of the vessel involved • the location of the incident (include latitude and longitude where possible) • details of the incident (what was discharged and in what quantity) • names and addresses of any witnesses • details of any other boats in the vicinity • description of person responsible if possible • any other helpful information. If possible take a photograph, collect the garbage and provide this evidence to the authorities. Incidents of marine pollution should be reported to: DTEI Business hours: (08) 8348 9575 After hours Signal Station: (08) 8248 3505

Illegal Dumping of Waste
Environment Protection Agency 8204 2004 (all hours)

Noise
Noise, or more particularly excessive noise, is another form of pollution that can be avoided. Motor vessels should always be fitted with means of reducing engine noise to an acceptable level. This is particularly important along the River Murray, where vessels are often used near towns and shack sites. Operators should bear in mind that residents are entitled to reasonable consideration, especially during early morning. Because noise carries easily over water it should always be kept to a minimum. This includes not only noise from the boat itself, but also any noise created by those on board, eg generators and loud music.

Historic Shipwrecks
Shipwrecks are time capsules revealing rare information about the past. As artificial reefs they are fragile havens for a variety of marine life. If a wreck site is damaged or disturbed, disintegration of the wreck is accelerated and these valuable assets are eventually lost. Vessel anchors are a major threat to historic wrecks – tearing the structure, disturbing the site and destroying sensitive marine life. Vessel operators should remember that it is an offence to anchor into an historic shipwreck as this will inevitably cause damage. As most wrecks do not have permanent mooring facilities, vessel operators should anchor off the wreck and allow the vessel to drift back to the required position.

River Boat Waste Disposal
Regulations under the Water Resources Act require certain classes of vessel operating on the River Murray to be fitted with holding tanks or other ancillary pollution-control equipment. The types of recreational vessels affected are: • any vessel fitted with a toilet or galley; or • any vessels of six metres or more in length that provides sleeping accommodation. Further information and technical advice concerning these requirements is available from SA Water offices at Adelaide, Berri or Murray Bridge.

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Recommended Anchoring Procedures
• Locate the wreck (generally using an echo sounder). • Mark the position of the wreck by dropping a buoy attached to a line and small weight (sufficient to resist any current but light enough that the wreck is not damaged. • Motor upwind or, if appropriate, up-current of the wreck site. • Drop an anchor suitable to the size of the vessel and to the type of seabed beneath (eg. reef or sand). • Lay back on the anchor line until the vessels is positioned near to or over the wreck site (ie. close to the marker buoy already dropped). • If there is little wind or current that could move the marker buoy off site it can be left in place, otherwise retrieve it.

Question
When should you notify family or friends that you intend to go boating? A. Only when you intend to be away overnight. B. Only when the weather forecast is for deteriorating weather conditions in the afternoon. C. You should always let someone know where you are going, your point of departure and when you plan to return.

Question
How far out to sea do semi-protected waters extend? A. Three nautical miles. B. Two nautical miles. C. Five nautical miles.

Question
When should you activate your Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)? A. Only when human life is in grave and imminent danger and only after all other means of indicating distress such as flares and radio have been used. B. When you have run out of petrol and you cannot see any other boats in the vicinity. C. When a person has suffered a minor injury and you wish to notify authorities of the accident.

Protected Zones
Some shipwreck sites have been declared a Protected Zone. These zones cannot be entered for any reason without a permit issued by the Department for Environment and Heritage. For further information and brochures on historic shipwrecks contact: Department for Environment and Heritage Phone: 8124 4960 Email: heritage@sa.gov.au www.heritage.sa.gov.au

Chapter 2 Sample Test Questions
Question
What does the term “Starboard” mean? A. Looking forward from the stern, the lefthand side on which a red sidelight is displayed. B. Looking forward from the stern, the righthand side on which a red sidelight is displayed. C. Looking forward from the stern, the righthand side on which a green side light is displayed.

Question
When would you make an “Urgency Call” on your marine radio? A. When your vessel is threatened by grave and imminent danger and you are requesting immediate assistance. B. When you wish to broadcast an important navigational warning to other stations. C. When you cannot justify use of the Distress Call but you have a very urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a person on board.

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Boat Handling
Steering and sailing rules These rules are recognised worldwide as the basis for safe navigation of vessels. All vessels irrespective of type must comply with these rules while navigating on state waters. Minor differences exist on the River Murray and inland waters. Significant penalties apply for failure to observe these rules. Reaction to the type of situations the rules cover should be instinctive, positive and correct. You must be able to decide, immediately, what action to take. Sailing vessels approaching one another When each has the wind on a different side, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other. Power and sail vessels Powered vessels normally give way to sail. However, in harbours and channels small sailing vessels must give way to large powered vessels that cannot easily manoeuvre.

Power-driven vessels meeting head-on Power-driven vessels meeting head-on or nearly head-on shall alter course to starboard so that each may pass on the port side of each other.

When each has the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is leeward.

Power-driven vessels crossing When two power-driven vessels are crossing, the vessel with the other on its starboard side shall keep out of the way and avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel, by stopping, slowing down or changing course. The other vessel must maintain its course and speed until it is apparent that the vessel required to give way is not taking appropriate action.

When a sailing vessel with the wind on its port side sees another sailing vessel to windward and cannot determine with certainty whether that sailing vessel has the wind on its port or its starboard, it shall keep out of the way of that other sailing vessel.

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In narrow channels or channel approaches All vessels in narrow channels shall keep as far as practicable to the starboard side of the channel in the direction of travel. General notes: If in doubt, assume that you are the overtaking vessel and keep clear. Alteration of course by either vessel does not relieve the overtaking vessel of the responsibility of keeping clear. If you are approaching or about to overtake a vessel that is engaged in waterskiing, you must maintain a distance of 100 metres from the skier when you are directly behind the skier and vessel combination. Joint emergency action The giving-way vessel shall take early and positive avoiding action; make course/speed alterations obvious to the other vessel; avoid crossing ahead of the vessel with right of way; if necessary stop or reverse. A series of five or more short and rapid blasts on a whistle or horn will warn that insufficient action is being taken to avoid collision. The vessel with the right of way shall keep its course and speed, taking avoiding action only if that taken by the giving-way vessel is insufficient. If a power-driven vessel is taking action to avoid a collision with another power-driven vessel, it shall, if possible, avoid altering course to port. This action does not relieve the vessel operator of handling obligations. Restricted visibility In restricted visibility, reduce to minimum speed to retain steerage. When hearing the fog signal of another vessel ahead, proceed with caution until danger of collision is over or stop until you have ascertained the danger. Fishing vessels All vessels not engaged in professional fishing shall keep well clear of vessels fishing with nets, lines, trawls or other gear that restrict manoeuvrability. By day, a vessel engaged in fishing is required to display two black cones

A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any other vessel navigating within a narrow channel or fairway. A vessel shall not cross a narrow channel or fairway if such crossing impedes the passage of a vessel that can safely navigate only within such channel or fairway. Any vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid anchoring in a narrow channel. A sailing vessel and a vessel under 20m in length shall not impede the passage of any vessel which can safely navigate only within a narrow channel or fairway. Vessels in give way situations must keep to the starboard side of a marked channel. Overtaking vessels All vessels, whether sail or power, overtaking another vessel (when the boats are in sight of one another) shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken. That is, if a vessel is coming up with another from any direction, which is more than 22.5 degrees (in the shaded arc of the diagram) abaft her beam, it shall be deemed to be the overtaking vessel until finally past and clear. You may overtake either side only when it is safe to do so, keeping well clear of the other vessel.

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(apexes together) where it can best be seen. This does not apply to recreational anglers. By night, a professional fishing vessel is required to display either of two light combinations: • a red light over a white light, or • a green light over a white light. • A vessel engaged in fishing (with apparatus such as trawling gear restricting its ability to manoeuvre). Remember… • Large vessels cannot alter course quickly and cannot stop quickly. • Small craft may be hard to see from the bridge of a large vessel. • Small craft should not assume that they have been seen.

Responsibilities Between Vessels
A vessel under power gives way to: • A vessel not under command, a vessel which through some exceptional circumstance is unable to manoeuvre and keep out of the way of another vessel. • A vessel unable to manoeuvre easily, including large vessels navigating in or near a channel or fairway. • A vessel engaged in fishing, with apparatus such as trawling gear restricting its ability to manoeuvre. • A sailing vessel (but see below). A sailing vessel must keep clear of: • A vessel not under command. • A vessel unable to manoeuvre easily.

Big Ships Little Boats
What Recreational Boaters Should Know
• Commercial vessels operate 365 days a year, 24 hours a day. • The speed limit of a ship or tug can be deceptive. Large vessels may travel at speeds in excess of 20 knots. • Large vessels need speed to steer. In most cases they must stay in the channel, because it is the only place deep enough for them to operate. • A ship’s ‘blind spot’ can extend for many hundreds of metres in front of large vessels (even up to one kilometre for some vessels). •‘Prop’ or ‘Wheel’ wash is a strong underwater current caused by a tug or ship engines that can result in severe water turbulence hundreds of metres behind a large vessel. • ‘Bow Waves’ are large surface waves caused by the bow of a ship pushing through the water. A bow wave can swamp small craft hundreds of metres away from the ship. • Never pass closely behind a tugboat. A tug could be towing a barge or other objects on a long submerged line.

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• Sailing near large vessels can be hazardous. Yacht skippers and windsurfers should know that a large vessel can ‘steal your wind’. You won’t have the same ability to manoeuvre near a large vessel. • Emergency communication is conducted on VHF Channel 16 within the Port Limits. For further information the brochure Big Ships Little Boats depicted on the previous page is available from any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to page 100 for details. • Is the mooring apparatus suitable for the vessel intended to moor on it? It may be appropriate to have a professional put your mooring down to ensure your vessel is moored safely. Mooring attachments should be well maintained, lines appropriately set and protected from chafing. Mooring should be well maintained and lines appropriately protected from chaffing for ease of use and to ensure the vessel stays where it is left.

Safe Navigation
Most collisions between vessels result from carelessness: everyone on the water has a legal as well as moral duty to maintain a proper lookout and travel at a safe speed at all times. This duty includes observing the rules, knowing the limitations of your vessel, being aware of potential hazards and allowing for the actions of others, both reasonable and unreasonable.

Port Usage
Flinders Ports has established operating guidelines for users of port facilities in South Australia. The Port User Guides outline the use of facilities and services in Port Adelaide and regional ports. This includes information on the coordination of ship services, pilotage, towage, mooring labour, water taxi services, fresh water supplies, power, waste disposal, handling of dangerous cargoes, as well as port charges. For more information see the website at www.flindersports.com.au or telephone (08) 8447 0611.

It Pays to Take Care
A vessel operator can be deemed to be negligent if proper care is not taken in the prevailing circumstances. When a vessel is handled in such a way as to cause an obvious and serious risk of physical injury to a person, or to property, that is reckless navigation. The authorities and the courts regard both recklessness and negligence seriously. Propelling a vessel at speed or in a manner causing real or potential danger to any person or property is also a punishable offence. So is any use of a vessel resulting in nuisance or causing obvious annoyance to any other person, deliberately or accidentally. People foolish enough to act in an irrational or loutish way on the water must expect to be reported and prosecuted.

Moorings
A few of the issues to be considered where a mooring is used as a permanent method of “parking” a vessel include: • Do you have approval to place the mooring in the location you intend using? • Is the location protected from the effects of wind and tide? • Can the mooring be easily accessed for both use and ongoing maintenance of the mooring apparatus? • Will the mooring interfere with any other mooring or property? (Swing rates of vessels on a mooring differ for a number of reasons, so full swing clearance needs to be maintained.)

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Getting There and Back
Navigation for small vessels is normally a simple matter of knowing where you are and where you are going. On a clear day you will usually not be out of sight of land and familiar landmarks. However, conditions can change quickly. It is not uncommon on South Australian waters for there to be sudden onsets of fog, dust and rough weather that can severely restrict visibility. In poor visibility a compass, nautical chart, depth sounder and basic navigation aids are useful. A Global Positioning System (GPS) can also be a valuable piece of equipment to have on board. While a GPS is a great tool to assist navigation, the units are electrical items and batteries can go flat, either main power or internal memory saving batteries. This is why a suitable marine compass is required. This type is normally ball or dome-shaped and filled with a liquid which slows down the movement of the card, so that the compass holds a readable course to follow, regardless of the constant movement of the waves. The free-flowing needle used in bushwalking compasses will not remain still enough to get a readable course and is therefore not suitable. in relation to your vessel, constantly in mind. Spotlights and torches may be used, but take care not to dazzle other people on the water, or yourself. Always travel at reduced speed to increase your safety margin. Keep a careful lookout around you for hazards and other vessels and, for extra reassurance, travel in company with another vessel or vessels where possible. Only specified navigation lights can be shown at night. Any other lights onboard must not interfere with the range and arc of visibility of navigation lights. Refer to page 76 for details. A sharp lookout is important when the background of bright lights on shore tends to obscure the lights of other vessels, buoys and marks. This is especially true in waters close to populated areas.

Notice to Mariners
This is a service advising of navigational warnings, changes to aids to navigation, navigation depths and any work affecting the safe navigation of vessels in South Australian coastal waters. Notice to Mariners are published in the Public Notice Section of the daily press and are available from the South Australian Government website: www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine

Night on the Water
It is more difficult to judge speeds and distances at night or in restricted visibility, than during day. Vessels underway must show the proper lights from sunset to sunrise and in restricted visibility. It is a good idea for everybody on board to be wearing a PFD-1 when boating at night and in periods of restricted visibility. You must familiarise yourself with navigation hazards, fixed or otherwise, lit and unlit, as their position may occasionally change. Know where they are, from unlit buoys to rocks and shoals, and keep their position,

Towing
Taking another vessel in tow may provide a major seamanship challenge. The following is a guide to those who find themselves in a situation where they may be required to tow another vessel. Depending on the conditions, a high level of seamanship may be required. Before towing Before undertaking a tow, consideration should be given to the following: • is there an alternative to taking the other vessel in tow? • is the tow within the capability of your vessel? • is adequate fuel available?

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Setting up a tow It is important to designate one person to control the operation (normally the operator of the towing vessel) and establish suitable communication signals, preferably by radio but hand signals should also be made known in the event of radio failure. Practical considerations in setting up a tow may include ensuring that the: • towline is strong enough • towline is long enough (preferably at least 2.5 times the wave spacing) • towline is secured to strong points on both vessels • steering of the towing vessel is not hampered (attach the towline forward of the rudder [engine] on towing vessel or set up a bridle) • towline can be easily slipped from either vessel (use cleats) • towline is protected from chafing • towline has some elasticity (stretch line, weighted or flexible link) • towed vessel is trimmed by the stern and is steered (or steering is fixed).

Operating Rules
The operation of a vessel will often be affected by physical conditions such as the direction of the wind, the depth of the water and visibility. When operating any type of vessel, always allow plenty of time and space in which to carry out any manoeuvre. Operators of small vessels should appreciate the difficulties of manoeuvring large ships in congested or restricted sea areas or ports and, as a general rule, keep well clear of shipping. Refer to page 63 for details. The steering and safety rules and the lights and shapes which must be displayed are set out in the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).

Speed Limits
A ‘safe speed’ cannot be expressed as maximum or minimum number of knots because it varies with circumstances and conditions. The vessel master/operator must continually assess the safety of the vessel’s speed. A safe speed is one at which the vessel can be stopped in time to avoid any sudden danger. If your vessel does not have a speedometer, you must be able to determine if you are exceeding a local speed limit. For example, if your boat is planing in a restricted speed zone you are exceeding the speed limit, so slow down. Speed limits are imposed on SA waters where high–speed boats present a hazard to other aquatic activities. If you intend boating in unfamiliar areas make sure you know of any restrictions that may apply, particularly if you intend waterskiing or using a PWC. Contact your local Transport Safety Compliance Officer - Marine. Refer to page 101 for details.

Yawing Problems
If the towed vessel yaws heavily (swerves off course), possible solutions may include: • changing course or speed • trimming the towed vessel further aft • fixing the towed vessels steering at an angle • streaming a drogue from the towed vessel or have another vessel attached astern of the tow.

Confined Waters
In confined waters it may be necessary to shorten the tow for better control or tow alongside. When towing alongside the towing vessel should be well aft to ensure good steerage.

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Outside these areas, additional speed restrictions apply to all vessels under the following conditions: 4 knots Within 50 metres of a person in the water, a vessel or buoy on which is displayed a flag indicating that there is a diver below (International Code Flag A), a person in a canoe, kayak, surf ski, surf board, sail board, kitesurfer or similar small unpowered recreational vessel. 4 knots Applies to many waters within marinas and restricted areas 4 knots Applies to all PWC (jet skis, wave runners, etc.) within 200 metres of the metropolitan shoreline (waters edge) (between Outer Harbor southern breakwater and the southern end of Sellicks Beach) and the back waters of the River Murray unless zoned otherwise. 4 knots Within 30 metres of any vessel (whether stationary or underway) that may be adversely affected by your wash. 4 knots Within 100 metres of a ferry crossing on the River Murray. 4 knots Within a mooring area or boat haven. 4 knots Within 30 metres of a jetty, wharf or other place at which a boat is being launched or retrieved. 7 knots Certain SA waters have a speed restriction of 7 knots. For details refer to Schedule 10 of the Harbors and Navigation Regulations 2009. 10 knots While a boat (not a PWC) is being operated by an unlicenced person. (Minimum age 12 years and a licenced person in charge). Speed restrictions apply to many localised areas. These restrictions are often on signs located near boat ramps. Details are also available from the the South Australian Government website: www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine

Visibility
Drive slowly in rain, fog, mist, smoke and glare. At night special caution is required because potential hazards may not be lit or may not be easily seen. Background shore lighting may confuse and disorient you. A proper look out must be kept by sight, hearing and all available means. The vessel operator must be fully aware of the boating environment, especially in bad weather, restricted visibility or darkness. Many dangers are unlit - it is important to keep a good lookout at night. Don’t forget to look all around you – even behind you. The operator is responsible at all times for keeping a proper lookout.

Surf Lifesaving Patrol Flags
Red/Yellow flags are used to designate an area along the beach that is supervised or patrolled by surf life-savers. All vessels including PWC (jet skis) and sailing craft should avoid operating within the flagged zone and approximately 200 metres to seaward. In addition, care should be taken when operating such craft adjacent to these flagged areas.

68 Alcohol and Drugs
How alcohol affects operating skills
No person can drink alcohol without affecting his or her ability to drive a vehicle or operate a vessel. You don't have to be drunk to be dangerous on the water. Although you may look and feel all right, your operating ability will be impaired, especially in an emergency, if you have been drinking alcohol. This is because alcohol is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream, where it travels to all parts of the body, including the brain. When it reaches the brain, alcohol acts like an anaesthetic. It slows down and gradually dulls parts of the brain that are needed for operating a vessel. Once alcohol is in the bloodstream, its effects on the brain cannot be stopped or controlled. Even small quantities of alcohol will affect your operating ability.

Other contributing factors
The effect of wind, waves and sun combine to multiply the effects of alcohol. This increases your chances of disorientation and drowning should you fall overboard. Alcohol increases body heat loss, reducing your survival time if you should fall overboard, and increases pulse rate, leading to quick exhaustion if you have to swim to safety.

Other drugs
Taking some drugs other than alcohol can also impair your operating skills. Whether they are prescribed, non-prescribed or illegal drugs, many have side effects which impair your driving ability. There is a great similarity between the drinking operator and the ‘drugged’ operator. Both are usually not aware of any impairment of their operating skills, alertness, capability, vision or reactions. When you are given a prescription for a drug by your doctor or obtain non-prescription drugs from the chemist, you should ask whether the drug will affect your ability to operate a vessel or participate in water activities such as waterskiing or swimming. If you are still unsure about the drug or medication you are taking, read the label on the container or the enclosed information, which describes the drug’s effects.

These effects include:
Slower reaction Time when something unexpected happens (e.g. vessels approaching from different sides). Poor judgement about your speed and the speed of other vessels, in estimating distances (e.g. other vessels seem further away than they really are). Visual attention and hearing are reduced. After drinking alcohol operators tend to focus on the area straight ahead ("tunnel vision") and avoid what is happening in their side vision (e.g. you won’t see or hear other vessels coming). Poor coordination when trying to do more than one thing at a time, especially in an emergency. A false sense of confidence but alcohol will leave you less able to cope with unexpected events. You may take risks you would not normally take. This can be extremely dangerous as most operators are not aware of how their operating skills have deteriorated after drinking alcohol.

69

Buoyage System
Ports and coastal waters
The buoyage system used in South Australian ports and around the coast is known as the IALA System A (International Association of Lighthouse Authorities) which is a combined Lateral and Cardinal system. Although called a buoyage system, marks may be buoys, piles or beacons. Markers may contain one or more of the characteristics as described in this handbook. For example, a marker may be colour coded but without a topmark. The operator of any vessel is prohibited from attaching a line to a navigational mark at any time.

Buoyage types
There are five types of marks under the IALA System A: Lateral, Cardinal, Isolated Danger, Special and Safe Water.

Direction of buoyage
When leaving port the port-hand mark (red) should be passed on the vessel’s starboard (right) side. Upon entering port the port-hand mark (red) should be passed on the vessel’s port (left) side. Note: (a) When the light exhibited is not white, the colour is indicated in the chart abbreviation by Y, R or G for yellow, red or green, for example, Fl (4) Y; (b) The period of a light (time between the start of successive sequences) is indicated in seconds by the letters, for example, FlR5s = single red flash every five seconds.

IALA ‘A’ light rhythm types

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Lateral Marks
These are used to indicate the port (left) and the starboard (right) sides of the channels when travelling in the direction of buoyage, that is, into port. Port-hand marks are coloured red and the basic shape is cylindrical (can) for buoy (and topmark when fitted). If lit, the light will be red and may have a rhythm. Such a mark would be on the port side of a vessel when travelling in the direction of buoyage. Starboard-hand marks are coloured green (exceptionally, black may be used) and the basic shape is conical (and topmark when fitted). If lit, the light will be green on any rhythm. This mark would be on the starboard side of a vessel when travelling in the direction of buoyage. Lights: Red when fitted may have any rhythm other than composite group-flashing (2+1) used on modified lateral marks indicating a preferred channel. Examples are:

Colour: Red Shape (buoys): Cylindrical (can), pillar or spar Topmark (if any): Single red cylinder (can)

Buoys, beacons and marks map (below)

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Colour: Green Shape (buoys): Conical (cone), pillar or spar Topmark (if any): Single green cone point upwards Lights: green when fitted, may have any rhythm other than composite group-flashing (2+1) used on modified lateral marks indicating a preferred channel.

Examples are: When marks are numbered, odd numbers will lie on the starboard side, and even numbers on the port when travelling in the direction of buoyage. They are numbered from seaward.

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Cardinal Marks
These are used to indicate the location of the best navigable water; to show the safe side on which to pass danger (rocks, wrecks, shoals, etc) and to draw attention to features in a channel. To understand the meaning of individual cardinal marks, the navigator must be aware of geographical directions and, therefore, needs a compass to indicate where the best navigable water lies. The mark is placed in one of the four quadrants: north, south, east or west. If in doubt, consult the chart. The shape of a cardinal mark is not significant, but in the case of a buoy it will be a pillar or spar. The most important daylight feature of a cardinal mark is the black double cone topmark and the four different arrangements that indicate the relevant direction from the mark. Black and yellow horizontal bands are used to colour cardinal marks. If lit, the mark will exhibit a white light of: • Quick Flash (= about 1 per second) or • Very Quick Flash (= about 2 per second) characteristic. The rhythm of the light will indicate the particular quadrant of the mark.

West cardinal mark
Has two cones point to point. When lit a west mark exhibits a white light flashing in groups of nine quick or very quick flashes. Pass on the western side of this mark.

Special Marks

North cardinal mark
Has two cones pointing up. If lit, a north marker exhibits a continuous quick or very quick flashing white light. Pass on the northern side of this mark.

These are used to indicate a special area or feature, the nature of which may be found by consulting a chart or sailing directions. Some examples are at Port Lincoln (fish farms), Whyalla and West Beach. Special marks are always yellow, and the top mark (if fitted) is a single yellow X. If a light is fitted it will be yellow and may have any rhythm not used for white lights, for example, FlY, Fl (4) Y. In SA waters special marks are commonly used to indicate no boating zones or speed restricted areas.

East cardinal mark
Has two cones pointing away from each other. When lit an east mark exhibits a white light flashing in groups of three quick or very quick flashes. Pass on the eastern side of this mark.

Isolated Danger Marks
These are on, or moored above, an isolated danger of limited extent that has navigable water all around it. The colours are red and black horizontal stripes and the mark is, when practicable, fitted with a double sphere, vertically disposed, black topmark.

South cardinal mark
Has two cones pointing down. When lit a south mark exhibits a white light flashing in groups of six quick or very quick flashes followed by a long flash. Pass on the southern side of this mark.

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Operators of vessels are cautioned that large commercial vessels may pass close by these marks.

Lead Marks
Lead marks are a method used to define the correct course to be steered when in waters containing navigational hazards. If lit, the light will be white showing a group of two flashes. The association of two flashes = two spheres may assist the memory with this one. An example of the isolated danger mark is on the ballast ground in the North Arm. Isolated danger marks are not always positioned centrally over a danger and it is therefore advisable not to pass too close. They are often used to mark the correct approach to a navigational channel. The lead marks are two separate navigation aids (one in the foreground and one placed further back and higher on the shore), which when aligned provide the correct course for the vessel to steer. Lead marks may be day marks or may be lit for night use. These day marks are normally two triangles. To steer the correct course the boat should be manoeuvred so that the apex (point) of each triangle comes into alignment.

Safe Water Marks
These are used to indicate that there is navigable water all around the mark. These marks can be used as a centre line, mid-channel or landfall buoy (e.g. at Murray Bridge). The shape of the buoy is spherical, pillar or spar and is coloured with red and white vertical strips. The topmark, which is fitted when practicable to pillar and spar buoys, is spherical and red. If lit, an isophase occulting or single long flashing white light is exhibited. The buoy shape is optional but should not conflict with that used for a lateral or special mark.

Other Signs and Signals
The Port Closed or Channel Blocked signal is increasingly likely to be seen in the River Murragy and associated Lakes as the ongoing effects of low water levels cause restrictions to some areas of water. This signal may be exhibited from a shore station or by any vessel blocking the channel. DAY NIGHT

Three black shapes in a vertical line where they can be best seen. The highest and lowest of these shapes shall be a ball and the middle on a cone with apex upwards.

Three all round lights in a line where they can be best seen. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and middle light shall be green.

74 Zone Signage
Inland Waters
The marker buoy system of defining zoned water areas is now in common use on South Australian inland waters. Lights must be displayed from sunset to sunrise and in restricted visibility during daylight hours. Minimum ranges at which lights can be seen refer to conditions on a dark night with a clear atmosphere. Underway – a vessel is underway when it is not at anchor, tied to a jetty or shore, or aground.

Red
PWC restricted area: for PWC use only.

Visibility of lights Yellow
Restricted Area Controls: an area is set aside as a speed restricted zone because excessive speed is a risk to the operator, to other vessels or persons, or to the environment. The yellow buoys may be placed because of local or general requirements for slower speeds, e.g. 4 knots.

4

Mini-buoys
Small mini-buoys of the same colour may be used in conjunction with the larger buoys to delineate an area. Note: other buoy shapes may be used.

Navigation Lights
Fitting of navigation lights must be as per the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972. It is therefore recommended that lights be fitted by an authorised dealer. On the following pages the required navigation lights are described with diagrams, showing which lights would be visible from various angles.

Vessel Lights
Recognition of Lights

Sailboats and Rowing Boats
Sailing vessels underway

LIGHT Masthead light Sidelights Sternlight All-round light

ANGLE OF VISIBILITY 225º 112.5º 135º 360º

A sailing vessel underway shall exhibit sidelights and sternlight. If the vessel is less

75
than 20 metres in length, the sidelights and stern lights may be combined in one lantern (tricolour lantern), carried at or near the top of the mast where it can be seen. The white light will not be visible forward of the vessel. In addition to the sidelights and a sternlight, a sailing vessel may exhibit two all-round lights in a vertical line (the upper being red and the lower being green) at or near the top of the mast, where they can be seen. A sailing vessel, whenever using its engine, with or without sails, is a power-driven vessel within the meaning of the rules, and must act accordingly and show the appropriate shapes by day and lights by night. This means that a tricolour lantern must not be used under power. Sailing vessels underway (not using power) less than 7m in length and boats under oars.

Power-driven Vessels
Vessels under 12m in length must show the following lights:

OR

a) sidelights, masthead light and a sternlight or b) sidelights and an all-round white light. The masthead light or all-round white light must be carried at least 1 metre higher than the sidelights. Vessels under 7m in length and maximum speed under 7 knots

If practicable, any of the combinations for vessels under sail or an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light and exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision. Vessels under 7m in length not using an engine and unable to exhibit the above lighting configuration.

Power-driven vessels of less than 7m in length, whose maximum speed does not exceed 7 knots when underway, may exhibit an all-round white light. Sidelights should also be shown if practicable. Recreational vessels at anchor

OR
All recreational vessels must show an all-round white light while at anchor. If the vessel is drifting (underway but not making way) the vessel must display sidelights, masthead light and sternlight.

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Larger Vessels
Under 50m in length Vessels aground

Vessel under 12m length is not required to exhibit these lights. This signal does not mean distress or in need of help, but operators should navigate with caution. Anchor lights and two all-round red lights. For vessels under 50m in length, a second masthead light is optional. For vessels under 12m in length, sidelights may be a combined lantern – on fore and aft centreline. Vessels towing another vessel Vessels restricted in ability to manoeuvre (includes diving vessels)

When tow length is under 200m, two masthead lights are shown (three masthead lights if over 200m). A YELLOW towing light is situated over sternlight. Vessel towed shows side and sternlights. Vessels at anchor

This signal does not indicate distress or a need for help, but operators should navigate with caution. Three all-round lights, top and bottom lights red and the middle light white. When making way through the water, vessel also shows masthead lights, sidelights and sternlight. When at anchor, vessel also shows anchor lights. Vessels engaged in underwater operations or dredging

Length 50m or more: two all-round lights, the forward one higher than the aft one. A vessel of 100m or more length shall also illuminate her decks with lights. Length under 50m: second (lower) light at stern is optional. Vessel with an obstruction on one side shall, in addition to restricted ability to manoeuvre lights, carry two all-round red lights, on the side of the obstruction. Also two all-round green lights on the side that vessels may pass.

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Vessels constrained by their draught Commercial fishing vessels trawling

Power-driven vessel restricted to a narrow channel by her draught and thus unable to deviate from course. Lights for power-driven vessel underway and three all-round red lights. Pilot vessel on duty

Two all-round lights, the top light green and the lower light white. A rear masthead light is optional for fishing vessels under 50m in length. As making way through water, sidelights and stern lights are shown. Fishing vessels (other than trawling)

Two all-round lights, the top light white and the lower light red. When at anchor, shows anchor light or lights. When underway, shows sidelights and sternlight. Vessels not under command

Two all-round lights, the top light red and the lower light white. If outlying gear extends over 150m horizontally from fishing vessel, shows one all-round white light in direction of gear (sidelights and sternlight shown when making way through water). Vessels working in cables, e.g. River Murray

Two all-round red lights and, when making way through the water, sidelights and sternlight (vessels under 12m in length are not required to comply with these lights). This signal does not mean distress, but shows inability to manoeuvre. Vessels are required to keep clear of vessels not under command.

An all-round red light at each end and an all-round green light above the red light at the forward end to indicate the direction in which the vessel is proceeding. Vessels operating in the vicinity of the vehicular ferry must proceed with caution and keep clear of the ferry.

78 Daymarks for Vessels
These signals are shown by day in all weather conditions on vessels to denote certain activities in which they are engaged. If visibility during the day is restricted, daymarks may not be clearly visible, therefore the appropriate lights for your vessel type should also be displayed Vessels at anchor Not required for vessels of less than 7m when at anchor not in a channel or channel approach, or a usual anchorage, etc. Forward, where best seen, ONE BLACK BALL. Vessels under power with sails set (motor sailing) Forward, where best seen, ONE BLACK CONE, point down. Fishing vessels Trawls, nets or other gear. (underway or at anchor) TWO BLACK CONES, points inwards. Power-driven vessels towing Vessel being towed if length of tow exceeds 200m. On each vessel where best seen, ONE BLACK DIAMOND. Vessels restricted in ability to manoeuvre For example, vessels engaged in: flying aircraft, cable laying, replenishment at sea, underwater operations, servicing navigation marks, towing, where manoeuvre is restricted by tow. This signal does not indicate distress or a need for help. (When at anchor, vessel also shows anchor shape). BLACK BALL, BLACK DIAMOND, BLACK BALL. Vessels aground This signal does not indicate distress or a need for help (not required for vessels under 12m length). Where best seen, THREE BLACK BALLS.

Vessels not under command Not required for vessels under 12m. Not distress, but indicates inability to manoeuvre. TWO BLACK BALLS. Vessels constrained by their draught Power-driven vessel restricted to a narrow channel by her draught and thus unable to deviate from her course. Where best seen, ONE CYLINDER.

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Vessels engaged in underwater operations or dredging During night diving, a vessel must show the international signal for a ‘vessel restricted in its ability to manoeuvre’. These are three lights in a vertical line, top and bottom are red and the middle one is white.

Red White

Red

A four knot speed limit applies to vessel operators and waterskiers within a distance of 50m of a vessel or buoy on which a diver below signal is displayed. With an obstruction on one side shall, in addition to the above shapes, carry TWO BLACK BALLS on the side of the obstruction, and TWO BLACK DIAMONDS on the side on which vessels may pass. BLACK BALLS ON BOTH SIDES may be used to indicate passage or channel is blocked and vessels should await instructions before proceeding. Diving operations from a small vessel Any vessel with divers operating from it must always display signals by day or night to inform other vessel users. The signal flag for a letter “A” as illustrated, is used internationally to indicate “I have a diver below-keep well clear at slow speed”.

Sound and Light Signals
Definitions and Classifications
‘Whistle’ – means of making short or long blasts ‘Short blast’ – about one second duration ‘Prolonged blast’ – 4–6 seconds duration Vessels of 100m or more in length – use whistle, bell and gong Vessels of 12m or more in length – use whistle and bell Vessels of less than 12m in length – use any efficient sound signal.

Manoeuvring and warning signals when vessels are in sight of one another.
Whistle signals used below may be supplemented by light signals using the same code. The flag coloured white and blue and, for vessels less than 10 metres in length, must be displayed as a rigid replica, either from a vessel or a floating buoy. Vessels greater than 10 metres in length need only display the International signal flag ‘A’. ‘I am altering my course to starboard’ - Short blast (about one second) ‘I am altering my course to port’ - Two short blasts

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‘I am operating astern propulsion’ - Three short blasts

Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility
Adapt vessel’s speed to prevailing conditions and be prepared for instant course/speed alterations. Every vessel, hearing another vessel’s fog-signal apparently forward of the beam, should reduce speed to a minimum or stop. It should then use extreme caution until the danger of a collision is over.

Signal to alert another vessel that you are unsure of its intentions, or doubt whether you are taking enough action to avoid collision - Five short blasts

Warning signals – vessels in narrow channels.
When the vessel being overtaken must take action to permit safe passing. ‘I intend to overtake on your starboard, please alter your course to permit me to pass’ - Two long blasts and one short.

Sound signals for vessels in restricted visibility (day and night).
NB. You may not use manoeuvrability signals in restricted visibility. Power underway, and making way - every two minutes

Power underway, and not making way ‘I intend to overtake on your port, please alter through water your course to permit me to pass’ - every two minutes - Two long and two short blasts Not under command Agreement by overtaken vessel Restricted manoeuvring - One long, one short, one long, one short blast Constrained by her draught Sailing ship – not under power Vessel fishing A vessel in doubt about signals, intentions or Vessel towing or pushing safety of the proposed manoeuvre of an - every two minutes overtaking vessel - Five short blasts Vessel towed – if manned - every two minutes

Vessel nearing blind bend in channel - One long blast

Vessel other side of bend repeats - One long blast

Pilot vessel on duty – gives normal signals above and may sound four short blasts

Vessel at anchor (under 100m in length) BELL rung for five seconds every minute

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Vessel at anchor (100m or more in length) BELL rung for five seconds every minute from the bow of the vessel and then – GONG rung five seconds every minute from the aft of the vessel immediately following bell signal. A ferry shall indicate her intention of not proceeding by showing, by day and by night, a flashing green light where it best can be seen, until the other vessel has passed. At night ferries show an all-round red light at each end, as well as an all-round green light above the red light at the forward end, to indicate the direction in which the ferry is proceeding.

Vessel at anchor – may give WARNING of possibility of collision to approaching vessel.

Locks on the River Murray
Traversing a lock is quite simple, provided a few basic rules are observed. When you are between 600 metres and 400 metres from the lock, indicate to the Lock Master your intention to proceed, preferably by using one of the following signals: • three prolonged blasts (4-6 seconds each) on a whistle, portable air horn or other suitable device • waving a flag • flashing a light. Do not approach within 150 metres of the lock until the signal to proceed has been given by the Lock Master, indicated by: • a green flag, or • a green fixed or flashing light. Slowly proceed into the lock. Holding ropes are dropped down in all South Australian locks and should be used to help counter the water surge when the water level is altered inside the chamber. Never tie up to anything inside the lock. Wait for the Lock Master to indicate that it is safe to proceed. For further information on lock operating times, please contact SA Water, Berri office. Telephone (08) 8595 2222.

Vessel aground – as ‘anchor’ but preceded and followed by three separate and distinct BELL strokes.

Vessels under 12m in length – may make the appropriate signals given above but, if not, must make some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than two minutes. A person who uses or displays, or causes another to use or display, a signal in circumstances not within the intent of the Regulations is guilty of an offence.

Ferries on the River Murray
When approaching a ferry crossing, speed must be reduced to 4 knots within 100 metres of either side of the ferry. Never pass close to a ferry that is crossing the river – the heavy steel cables used to guide the ferry may be close to the surface and can seriously damage a boat. Always slow down, if necessary stop and wait for the ferry to reach the bank before proceeding. A power-driven vessel, when approaching a ferry crossing, shall sound a prolonged blast when not more than 800 metres and not less than 400 metres away and then proceed with caution.

82 Waterskiing
Waterskiing is a popular and exciting recreational boating activity. Overcrowding of some areas, together with the relatively high speeds associated with waterskiing, creates an element of risk for all concerned. To minimise these risks, a number of special rules apply to waterskiing, in addition to those that apply to boating generally. • Waterskiing is not permitted between sunset and sunrise, except with written permission from DTEI. • No more than three waterskiers, or one device with no more than three persons aboard it, may be towed at one time except with written permission. • Every waterskier (or person being towed in any other manner) must wear an approved PFD Type 2 or 3 that complies with any of the approved standards for those PFD listed in Chapter 2. • Any vessel (including PWC) engaged in waterskiing must carry an observer in addition to the licensed operator. In general both the operator and observer must be at least 16 years of age. However, a person between 12 and 15 years of age may act as an observer, provided that he or she holds a Special Permit and the boat operator is at least 18 years of age. • A Special Permit holder cannot operate a vessel towing a waterskier. • The observer must continually watch the skier and give directions necessary to ensure the safety of the skier. • Blood alcohol limits (must be below 0.05) apply to observers, waterskiers and boat operators. • A skier falling into the water must hold an arm or ski vertically in the air to signal their presence and indicate they are not hurt. • All turns on the River Murray must be in an anti-clockwise (lefthand) direction. • On leaving a take-off / landing area, keep your vessel to the starboard side of the waterway and keep well clear of any vessel approaching • On returning to a take-off / landing area, approach from the starboard side and clear the area as quickly as you safely can. • Ski ropes, devices or skis trailing from a boat must be removed from the water and booms brought onboard before returning to a take-off area. • Dropped skis must not be left in the water so as to present a hazard to other traffic. • Skiers must be dropped off in the water before returning to the ramp and n o t at the ramp. • Applicable to all vessels: a vessel must not travel within 100 metres of and directly behind a person who is being towed by another vessel.

83 Chapter 3 Sample Test Questions
Question
When operating a vessel in a river or channel, on which side should you keep your vessel? A. On any convenient side. B. To the starboard side of the channel in the direction of travel. C. To the port side of the channel in the direction of travel.

Question
Why are holding ropes dropped down after a vessel enters a lock in South Australia? A. To enable the vessel operators to tie up the vessel. B. To enable the passengers to climb to the top of the lock if they wish to. C. To enable the vessel operator to hold onto the rope to help counter the water surge when the water level is altered inside the chamber.

Question
What is the speed limit within 30 metres of a jetty, wharf or any other place at which a vessel is being launched or retrieved? A. 5 knots. B. 10 knots. C. 4 knots.

Question
What are “Isolated danger marks”?

A. These are used to indicate that there is navigable water all around the mark. B. These are used to indicate the location of the best navigable water. C. These are moored above an isolated danger of limited extent that has navigable water all around it.

Question
If a vessel showing these lights approached you at night, what type of vessel would it be? A. A motor vessel. B. A dredge. C. A sailing vessel.

84 CHAPTER 4 What To Do In An Emergency
Reporting Incidents and Accidents
If you are operating a boat that is involved in a collision or other casualty, you are obliged to: • Stop your boat. If the accident results in death or injury of any person, or damage to another vessel that affects the seaworthiness or the safety of those on board, render any assistance possible without serious danger to your own passengers or crew. • Give your name and address and, if requested, the name of the owner of the boat to the operator of any other boat involved, any injured person or the owner of any damaged property. If the accident has resulted in death or injury requiring medical attention to any person or damage to any vessel or property apparently exceeding $300, you must report the matter to a Transport Safety Compliance Officer Marine or a Police Officer near the place of the accident as soon as possible and within 48 hours, stating the: • time and place of the accident • circumstances • name and address of any person killed or injured • names and addresses of any witnesses • the nature of property damage. A Vessel Accident Report form for reporting boating accidents or incidents is available from Transport Safety Compliance Officers Marine or most South Australia Police stations. If you are not directly involved in the accident, but see one occur you have a legal obligation to assist where possible, providing that in doing so you do not seriously endanger your own passengers or crew.

Coping with Emergencies
Most emergencies afloat can be avoided by good seamanship. Emergencies are something we cannot foresee, but with a little common sense, risks can be reduced.

Sinking
A number of basic steps should be followed if you find that your vessel is sinking. • Brief all on board on the location and use of all the safety equipment. • Do not panic, remain as calm as possible. • The skipper or operator is to take control and create a calm atmosphere. • Identify and brief all on board concerning the nature of the emergency and take appropriate action. • Hand out PFDs and wear according to the instructions. • Attempt to stop the leak by blocking the access point with any suitable material that will slow down the entry of water. • Remove water by bucket or manual bilge pump (if fitted). • Check to make sure there is no danger of fire or explosion. • If there is a fire attempt to extinguish it. • Attract attention from any passing vessel or if close to shore, a person on land, by waving or using a torch or flare if the situation becomes desperate. • If you have a ‘V’ distress sheet, place it on top of the vessel or trail it in the water and secure properly. • If in grave and imminent danger and you have a marine radio, transmit a ‘MAYDAY’ call. • If in grave and imminent danger and you have an EPIRB, activate it.

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Capsize
A vessel can capsize as a result of excessive speed, rough seas, surf, high wind, inexperience and stupidity. A capsize can happen in seconds. Always have your PFD in an accessible position. Survivors from a capsize should remain together. It is recommended that you stay with the capsized vessel as it easier for aircraft to spot an upturned vessel than persons in the water. Huddle together to reduce heat loss. Avoid excessive physical activities such as swimming. It increases body heat loss (see section on First Aid Afloat and Hypothermia).

Engine Failure
Even the best maintained engine may fail, so it is important to have at least some basic knowledge of what to do. Always carry a kit of essential tools. Before attempting to carry out any running repairs while on the water, use an anchor to stop drift and keep the bow facing into the sea. This will assist in keeping the water off the engine. Wet ignition can often frustrate attempts to re-start an engine, so it may also be necessary to work under a waterproof cover large enough to keep spray off the engine. Learn to distinguish the sound of an engine that is not running normally – you may then be able to take action in time to avoid a complete breakdown. Wherever possible it is good practice to carry an auxiliary motor. This motor should be maintained in good operational order so that it is ready for immediate use if required.

Abandoning the Vessel
The operator of a recreational vessel must ensure that all hatches and doors on the vessel are kept unlocked and clear of obstruction at all times while the vessel is underway. There may be instances where a vessel is involved in a sudden disaster, which despite the best intentions of those on board, puts the boat into such a state of distress that abandonment is necessary. If faced with this course of action ensure that everyone is wearing a correctly fitted PFD before going over the side. Survival in cold water is hard enough without struggling to stay afloat, too. If the boat is equipped with a radio send a distress message. Use flares only if there is a reasonable likelihood of them being seen - it is pointless to waste a small stock of distress flares. Activate your EPIRB, if the vessel is carrying one. Stay with the boat. Most boats involved in accidents don’t actually sink and can be more readily sighted than a person in the water. Even a partially submerged boat can be used as a means of support. Resist impulses to swim ashore. Distances over water usually appear much less than they actually are. Unless land is known for certain to be within swimming distance, it is always safer to stay with the boat.

Fire
Most vessel fires start during fuelling procedures, or just after, when fumes are still present. Where there is fuel, there is always the risk of fire. Fuel safety is the critical factor in prevention of fire. Smell is often the best method detecting fumes or spillage. Take sensible steps to minimise the risk.

Elements of fire
There are THREE (3) elements of fire. If these elements are bought together in sufficient quantities then a fire will occur. The elements are: • FUEL • HEAT • AIR (OXYGEN).

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There is an exception to this rule and that is SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION. Therefore removal of any of these elements will result in the fire being extinguished. The element that is to be removed depends upon the agent used to extinguish the fire. • REMOVAL OF FUEL – STARVING • REMOVAL OF HEAT – COOLING • REMOVAL OF AIR – SMOTHERING For information on the types of fire extinguishers available refer to Chapter 2, Minimum Safety Equipment - Fire Extinguishers. • Do not stow fire extinguishers in the areas of potential fire risk eg. next to fuel caddies. • Check fire extinguishers regularly. • Fit a smoke alarm (if you sleep onboard) and check it regularly. • Keep a fire blanket in the galley and stow it away from the stove. • Correctly install fuel and LPG systems. • Regularly check perishable fuel lines for wear and tear and carry a spare. • Fit a reminder notice above gas appliances (‘turn off gas when not in use’). • Fit detection devices for gas and fuel vapour and check regularly. • Keep the vessel neat and tidy and free of oil or fuel in the bilges. • Don’t fit curtains above the stove. • After refuelling, ventilate bilges by opening hatches and operating a blower fan if fitted. • On hot days, if the engine has been turned off for some time, always lift the engine cover before attempting to start engine. This will dissipate any built up fuel vapours.

Causes
• Defective equipment. • Carelessness. • Incorrect operation.

Prevention (on the vessel)
Fuel fires aboard vessels spread rapidly and generate intense heat. You can avoid explosion and fires on boats by following a few commonsense safety tips. • Shut down the engine, motors, fans and heating devices before refueling. Never smoke whilst refueling. • Leave room for expansion in the tank and wipe up any spills. • Refill portable tanks on shore, not on the boat. • Check bilges for leakages, fuel odour and ventilation. • Use only marine stoves. • Carry the appropriate approved fire fighting appliances. The preferred location for the fire extinguisher is adjacent to the drivers seat or adjacent to the exit.

Prevention (at the marina)
• Know where fire fighting equipment is located within the marina and how to use it. • Don’t leave shore supply electrical cables wound on a reel or drum as the cables may overheat. • When re-fuelling use a wide-mouthed funnel or use a siphon hose and clean up any splashes (fuel spills will make the deck dangerously slippery). • If possible fill the portable fuel tanks away from the vessel in a well ventilated, no smoking area. • Remember – do not fuel with persons onboard. • Secure spare fuel in a tightly capped secure container designed for fuel storage. • Don’t keep oily or fuel soaked rags onboard.

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Fighting the Fire
• Raise the alarm (to others onboard and to rescue organisations). • Manoeuvre the vessel to operate with the least wind effect (generally down wind). • If within an enclosed or confined space, close all the hatches, vents and ports to reduce oxygen. • If a burning object can be safely moved, get it over the side quickly. • Shut off fuel lines and gas lines as soon as possible as flexible fuel lines may collapse and add to the fire. • Try to extinguish the fire with fire fighting appliances and remember to direct the extinguisher into the heart of the fire not the flames. • Maintain a watch on the area once the fire has been extinguished to monitor any reignition. • If you need to abandon the vessel do not motor alongside another vessel. • Do not leave the vessel on the leeward (downwind side) as the vessel may drift onto you or any fuel may spread in the water (you should be wearing your PFD).

Person Overboard
When you hear someone call loudly “man overboard” do not jump in after the person, it only doubles the problem. A lifebuoy or buoyancy aid can be thrown to the person. Delegate one person on board to keep the person in sight at all times. Don’t panic; remain as calm as possible. At night, use the best available light to illuminate the area.

Recovery of person overboard
1 2 Steer the vessel as if to pass the person within one metre. When the person is opposite the bow, select neutral and turn the vessel away from the person. (For dinghies, point the tiller at the person). Approach the person from downwind. Leave the motor running until the person is being held. Switch the motor off, so that when the person climbing over the stern of the vessel (being the most stable point of entry, the boat may capsize if you try pulling the person over the side) the gears are not engaged accidentally causing injury to the person in the water. If you don’t have a boarding ladder, use a rope to make one. On yachts with overhanging sterns, the person should be pulled in at the lowest point of freeboard.

3 4 5

Helping another vessel on fire
• Fires on other craft are indicated by large black smoke pales. • Be extremely cautious as you approach and keep to the windward side of the vessel on fire. • Remember most fires on small vessels originate from fuel, heating appliances, stoves, leaking gas or fat. Fuel and gas fires spread very quickly. Even a minor spill can create an almost explosive spread of flames.

6

Victims may be hurt, cold or exhausted. If they cannot help themselves, it is difficult to get them back into the vessel. Practice this procedure with your crew members. If they know the procedure, there is a good chance that they will be able to perform the rescue.

88 First Aid Afloat
First Aid Kit
Every vessel should have on board a suitable First Aid kit. These kits can be purchased from a First Aid provider such as St. John or Red Cross. A simple kit can also be purchased from a chemist shop and be supplemented with sunscreen lotion, seasickness tablets, a felt-tip pen and a pair of side-cutting pliers for removing fishhooks. Make sure the kit contains adequate wound and burn dressings. The kit should be kept in a sturdy, watertight plastic container clearly marked and secured in a position where anyone on board can reach it if necessary. A booklet giving basic First Aid procedures is an essential part of the kit. • skin cold and bluish-grey • pupils dilate and lack response • victim may appear dead, but not be so.

Hypothermia avoidance
To minimise the risks of hypothermia on board: • keep warm and dry • avoid fatigue • eat and drink normally (avoid alcohol) • prevent dehydration • avoid seasickness • be aware of special medical needs. To slow the development of hypothermia in the water: • put on extra clothing before entering the water • protect head, neck, hands, feet, chest and groin from heat loss • minimise swimming and strenuous activity • adopt the Heat Escape Lessening Posture (HELP).

Hypothermia
Hypothermia is a serious medical condition in the maritime industry. It may cause death quickly as a result of a loss of core body temperature in vital organs (heart, lungs, kidneys). It results from prolonged heat loss due to immersion or insufficient protection in cold, wet and or windy conditions. Anxiety, hunger, exhaustion and low morale all increase the risk. Hypothermia may not be easily recognisable and the victim may not realise the risks (may not even feel cold any longer). Early signs may include: • lethargy and difficulty in reasoning • poor sense of touch and clumsiness • slurred speech • developing muscle rigidity • swollen lips, hands and feet. More critical symptoms include: • rigid muscles • very slow, weak pulse and breathing • uneven heartbeat • unconsciousness

Hypothermia treatment
Severe hypothermia is a critical medical condition and careful treatment is essential to facilitate recovery. Treatment steps may include: • sheltering victim from wind and cold • replacing wet clothes with dry • keeping victim horizontal (shock position) • gradually restoring core temperature (rapid warming may kill) • warm environment • sharing body warmth • breathing across the mouth and nose • applying gentle warmth to head, neck, chest and groin • minimising movement and gentle handling • not massaging the skin • warm sweet drinks, if conscious (excluding alcohol) • administering Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation if necessary

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• seeking medical advice • keeping the patient under continuous observation. Note: Alcohol increases body heat loss, reducing survival time if you should fall overboard, and increases pulse rate, leading to quick exhaustion if you have to swim to safety. Prescription medications and other drugs can also pose problems. been applied incorrectly and should be released and reapplied. Once correctly applied, record the time of applying the constrictive bandage on the forehead of the casualty. This is usually the first place where medical assistance will look for signs relating to the general condition of the casualty. The constrictive bandage must not be covered by clothing or other material. It is essential to transport the patient to hospital as soon as possible. Remember: • a constrictive bandage is only used as a last resort for the control of massive, uncontrollable bleeding • should the constrictive bandage be removed, it should be removed slowly so as not to create a surge of blood to the limb causing further bleeding • the constrictive bandage should be re-applied if necessary - that is, if bleeding continues. In all other cases the use of direct pressure on a bleeding point with fingers or a pad should be the first method used to arrest bleeding.

Bleeding
A small cut can be treated easily by washing with a disinfectant solution and closing with a suitable dressing. Pressure applied directly to the wound is the most effective way to stop bleeding. Elevation of the injured part will also help to control bleeding. Occasionally, more serious injuries can occur, particularly those associated with propeller injuries involving the limbs. Massive bleeding can result. This can only be controlled by the use of a constrictive bandage, which is used only as a last resort in such serious cases. The constrictive bandage should be applied to the upper leg or arm, keeping well clear of the knee and arm joints. Use a broad (5-7.5cm) soft roller bandage, strip of material or wide belt and encircle the limb a number of times. The arterial pulse should disappear completely below the bandage. If bleeding appears to increase rather than decrease, the constrictive bandage has

Burns
Immediately and gently cool the burned skin with plenty of cold water (sea water is excellent), but never burst blisters or cut away clothing unless the burn is from a chemical which might continue to eat into the cloth and skin beneath. Cover the area lightly with a clean, dry, sterile burns dressing or clean cloth and keep the patient calm and quiet. Seek medical assistance as soon as possible.

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Seasickness
In many cases, seasickness can be avoided if you sleep aboard the vessel the night before the voyage to let your body get used to the boat’s motion. Of course, this may not be possible in small vessels. Otherwise, you can take seasickness tablets as advised by a chemist or a doctor, but be wary as some may make you drowsy. If you feel seasick, keep busy and stay in the fresh air. Avoid the head down position, as this aggravates illness. Nibble on a dry biscuit, chew barley sugar or dried fruit. Ginger is also considered a good anti-seasickness remedy. Stay out of enclosed areas where fumes from fuel and food odours may temporarily collect. Experienced sailors keep their diet free of rich, fatty foods and alcohol both before going to sea and while aboard. To treat sunburn, apply a cool, moist compress to the affected area but do not break any blisters. Give the patient plenty of fluids and seek medical attention quickly.

Bites and Stings
Bites or stings from sea snakes, blue ringed octopus and some jelly fish can cause breathing and circulation to stop. It is vital to monitor ABC (Airway, Breathing and Circulation) and if necessary, begin resuscitation immediately and continue until medical help arrives.

Jelly fish
• prevent victim from rubbing the area • keep victim calm, assured and rested • pour vinegar over the affected area, this de-activates the stinging capsules and prevents further venom release • icepacks applied to the areas can relieve pain • monitor ABC (Airway, Breathing and Circulation) • Get medical help urgently.

Exposure to the Sun
Australia has the highest rate of skin cancer in the world, which is caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Ultraviolet radiation is strongest between 11am and 3pm daylight saving time and is present all year. The boater is particularly susceptible, as reflected radiation from the water gives an additional radiation effect. Preventative measures are important and clothing provides the best protection. Cover exposed areas with a hat (a dark colour under the brim of the hat will help reduce sun glare reflecting off the water) that covers the face, ears and neck and wear a long-sleeved shirt. Apply a sunscreen to exposed areas with a maximum sun protector factor – SPF 15+ or above – water-resistant broad spectrum sunscreen and a solar lip screen. Apply the sunscreen 20 minutes before going out and reapply every two hours. For information about skin cancer protection contact The Cancer Council South Australia on free call 1800 188 070.

Blue Ringed Octopus and sea snakes
• keep victim calm, assured and rested • apply a pressure immobilisation bandage to the effected limb and immobilise the limb • monitor ABC (Airway, Breathing and Circulation) • get medical help urgently.

Stingrays and other venomous spines
• immerse area in water that is as hot as can be tolerated by the victim. This will help to relieve the pain • get medical help urgently • do not use pressure immobilisation.

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Basic Guide for Patient Assessment and if not Breathing; how to administer EAR (Expired Air Resuscitation)

Distress Signals
The following signals are some of those that are internationally recognised and indicate distress and need of assistance. Use of these signals except for the purpose indicated is prohibited. 1. Rockets or shells, throwing red stars fired one at a time at short intervals.

3. A square flag having above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball. 4. A rocket parachute flare or a hand-held flare showing a red light.

2. (a)

A signal made by any light or sound signalling method consisting of the group in the Morse Code. SOS.

5. A smoke signal giving off orange coloured smoke.

(b)

A signal sent by radio consisting of the spoken word – MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY.

6. Slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms out-stretched to each side.

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7. (a) A rectangle of the internationally accepted colour orange material with a black letter V: or To prepare, all loose articles above deck should be securely stowed or lashed down and a clear area prepared before the arrival of the aircraft. The winch (or rescue line) must never be attached to the vessel. It can literally pull the aircraft from the sky, particularly in rough seas. The increased danger of snagging a winch cable in these circumstances must also be guarded against.

(b)

A black square and circle.

8. A dye marker. 9. The international Code Signal of Distress indicated by NC.

Australian Search and Rescue (AusSAR)
Australian Search and Rescue’s Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC Australia) has national responsibility for coordinating all aviation and large-scale maritime search and rescue operations. A team of specialists from police, merchant marine, military and civil aviation backgrounds operate RCC Australia 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.

10. EPIRB 11. Oar with cloth on the end.

Rescue by Helicopter
The helicopter is a fast, efficient method of recovering or deploying personnel to aid injured or stricken persons aboard vessels or in the sea. The search for a stricken vessel can pose a problem if direct communications cannot be established. An EPIRB is the ideal method of location. Smoke flares, and/or a ‘V’ sheet will also aid location. For easier, safer recovery, it is preferable for a helicopter to carry out any winching operation into wind. For ease of operation, the vessel should be underway and steering 20 to 30 degrees to port or starboard off the relative wind line. This will allow the aircraft to format on the vessel, giving the pilot and crew better visibility, and ensuring any downwash will lie behind the vessel and aircraft. Recovery from a disabled vessel requires a technique where the helicopter is required to maintain position over the target.

Rescue Coordination Centre
The RCC’s functions are to • locate distress beacons using satellite technology and aircraft • coordinate search and rescue missions • coordinate medical evacuations from ships • broadcast maritime safety information. AusSAR is alerted to emergencies by: • distress beacons • radio distress calls (MAYDAYs) • flare sightings • phone calls from worried relatives and friends • overdue ship/aircraft reports. Once alerted to an emergency, AusSAR may call on the following organisations to carry out a mission: • civil search and rescue helicopters and aeroplanes • emergency medical helicopters • Police and volunteer marine groups • State Emergency Services

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• • • • • • Australian Communication Authority commercial airlines the Defence Forces shipping industry fishing industry general public

Report any suspicious border activities to the Customs Hotline.
The Customs Hotline is a community participation program. It draws on the knowledge and expertise of people living and travelling throughout Australia to report potential or actual illegal activities. You can help protect Australia’s borders. You know your local area and you know what looks or sounds suspicious at sea. Your information could be the small piece of information that leads to another successful Customs operation. Report suspicious border activities to the Customs Hotline 24 hours a day on 1800 06 1800 (free call). Callers can choose to remain anonymous and all information is treated confidentially. What you can do: • Report any unlawful, unusual or suspicious border activities. • Don’t get involved – simply report what you see or hear. • Do not disturb or remove anything as this could destroy vital evidence. • Act as soon as possible. Your prompt action could make a difference. What to tell Customs: • The time, date and place of the incident. • What you saw or heard. • A description of the people and the transport involved (eg planes, boats, trucks). • Registration numbers or call signs you saw or heard. What to look for at sea: • Possible unauthorised landings by foreign vessels. • Merchant ships at anchor unusually close to land, islands or other vessels. • Vessels outside the normal shipping lanes. • Ships signalling or being met by small craft.

AusSAR 24-Hour Emergency Numbers: Maritime: 1800 641 792 Aviation: 1800 815 257

Search and Rescue Coordination
The South Australia Police has the responsibility for sea search and rescue in the State. This is achieved through close liaison with the Volunteer Marine Rescue Groups and other South Australian Government agencies. Police are available to assist you with any marine emergency or to help you with general enquiries. The SA Police Water Operations Unit staff are fully trained in the use of the latest technology for search and rescue planning and have access to a state-wide database of appropriate resources and information. Should you require emergency assistance, SA Police or Volunteer Marine Rescue Groups will arrange for the appropriate response for your situation. If you require any further advice, contact the SA Police Water Operations Unit. Water Operations Unit Police Attendance Crime Stoppers 8242 3466 131 444 1800 333 000

Customs
Customs plays a vital role in protecting Australia’s borders from the entry of illegal and harmful goods and unauthorised people. Counter terrorism and improved quarantine intervention remain top priorities, as well as intercepting illicit drugs and other things potentially harmful to the community.

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• Yachts and pleasure craft in remote or unusual areas. • Anyone making landings in remote areas. • Unusual objects at sea or ashore (eg buoys, rubbish, signalling devices). • Salvage operations on shipwrecks. • Cryptic or unusual radio messages. Customs internet site can be found at: www.customs.gov.au

Chapter 4 Sample Test Questions
Question
What types of boating accidents should be reported? A. Accidents involving loss of life, personal injury or damage to any vessel or property over $300. B. All accidents involving motor vessels or waterskiers. C. All accidents.

Question
Where a person has fallen overboard on what part of the vessel should you assist them to climb back on board the vessel after you have switched the motor off? A. The side of the vessel that is on the side opposite to that from which the wind is blowing. B. The stern of the vessel as this is the most stable point of entry. C. The side of the vessel that protects the person from the waves.

Question
What action is recommended where you are forced to abandon your vessel but it remains afloat? A. Attempt to swim ashore even if it appears to be further than you can swim. B. Stay with the vessel as it is more readily sighted than a person in the water. C. Keep active by swimming around the vessel to keep warm.

Question
Should you wish to signal your distress during the hours of darkness what type of flare would you not use? A. Orange smoke flare. B. Red hand flare. C. Parachute (Rocket flare – red).

Question
What steps should you take if your engine fails? A. Drop the anchor immediately to stop the vessel drifting and keep the bow facing into the sea. B. Attempt to repair the engine first before deciding to drop your anchor. C. Signal your distress immediately by radioing for help or setting of your flares.

95 CHAPTER 5 Personal Watercraft (PWC)
Personal Watercraft (PWC) are often referred to as Jet Skis®. These include Waverunners®, Sea Doos®, Wet Bikes®, Wave Jammers® and other similar vessels. The term Personal Watercraft (PWC) is defined as a device that is propelled by a motor, has a fully enclosed hull, is designed not to retain water if capsized and is designed to be operated by a person who sits astride, stands or kneels on the device. Regardless of the type of PWC, it is important for operators to remember that these are just another type of vessel and they are required to be operated within the rules pertaining to ‘power-driven vessels’. However, PWC are much more manoeuvrable than traditional power-driven vessels and in the wrong hands, can present a danger to the operator and to other people using the State’s waters. PWC operators should make sure that they know the boating rules applicable to any waterway they intend to use and the general rules outlined in this handbook. Always read signage placed at boat ramps and on beaches and check for local rules, which may apply specifically to PWC. When being used to tow a waterskier, aquaplaner, wakeboarder, or paraflyer, the rules for waterskiing must be followed. Refer to page 85 for details. to the part of the hull above the waterline (as depicted in the two examples below), in a contrasting colour to the hull so as to be clearly visible from 50 metres. These legal ‘decals’ must take preference over decals and striping provided to decorate or customize the PWC.

Operator Licensing
The operator must be the holder of a Boat Operator’s Licence. A person holding a Special Permit cannot operate a PWC under any circumstances. It is illegal for a person to allow an unlicensed person to operate a PWC.

Education
PWC clubs and organisations are more than happy to introduce you to the sport and to assist with instruction and participation in recreational events.

General Rules
The rules below apply to the operation of all powered vessels including PWC. • The requirement for a Boat Operator’s Licence for every operator. • A need for the craft to be currently registered. • An obligation to display registration numbers. 100 mm high for vessel under three metres in length and 150mm high for vessels three metres or over in length and an obligation to display a current registration label.

Registration
All PWC must be registered with DTEI if they are to operate on South Australian inland and coastal waterways. Owners can register their vessels at any Service SA Customer Service Centre. Refer to page 100 for details. The minimum size of the registration numbers is 100mm if the vessel is under 3m and 150mm if the vessel is over 3m and must be attached on both sides of the PWC. The registration numbers must be attached

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• From 1 September 2009 a PWC may not • The requirement to be familiar with and be operated in unprotected waters, i.e. comply with the give way rules. beyond two nautical miles seaward from • An obligation to comply with speed limits the coast of the mainland or of Kangaroo where they apply. Island, without the approval of the Chief • The requirement to operate with sufficient Executive Officer (CEO) of the Department care for the safety of others and to for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure. operate in a considerate manner. • All operators and passengers on PWC • Navigate on the correct (right hand) side must wear an approved PFD Type 2 or of a river or channel. Type 3 that complies with one or more of • A 4 knot speed limit applies within 50 metres the approved standards for those PFDs of a person in the water, a vessel or buoy on listed in the ‘Safety Equipment Standards’ which is displayed a flag indicating that section of this addendum. there is a diver below (International Code A PFD Type 1 can lead to restricted Flag A), a person in or on a canoe, kayak, movement and may lead to injury if a surf ski, surfboard, sail board or similar person falls off a PWC at high speed. For small unpowered recreational vessel. this reason a PFD Type 1 is not suitable to PWC Specific Rules be worn when on a PWC by either the operator or a passenger. In addition to the general rules PWC • A person must not operate a PWC in operators are required to observe the unprotected waters, i.e. more thantwo following: nautical miles seaward from the coast of • A person must not operate a PWC on the mainland or Kangaroo Island, without any State waters after sunset or 8pm written permission of the CEO of the (whichever is the earlier) on any day, Department for Transport, Energy and or before 9am on a Sunday or before Infrastructure. 8am on any other day. • A Special Permit holder cannot operate a PWC. • A person may operate a PWC on the River Murray for the purpose of towing another person at any time between sunrise and sunset on any day. • Unless zoned otherwise a 4 knot speed limit applies to all PWC within 200 metres of the metropolitan shoreline (waters edge) between Outer Harbor southern breakwater and the southern end of Sellicks Beach and the back waters of the River Murray. • Some regional areas have a 4 knot speed limit within 200m of the coast. • Some special zones have been created in State waters where additional speed restrictions apply to PWC. Some special areas also exist in which only PWC can be used. Except for PFDs there is no legal requirement to carry safety equipment on your PWC. The department recommends however, that while operating in semi-protected waters, i.e. up to two nautical miles seaward of the coast of the mainland or Kangaroo Island, you should consider carrying flares and other items of safety equipment that you can safely carry. For further details ask your local Transport Safety Compliance Officer - Marine.

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Noise
One of the most common complaints received about PWC is noise. Many PWC operators tend to congregate near residential or popular recreation areas and drive around repeatedly in the same area. This noise can be irritating to people using the foreshore and to the residents often some distance from the water. Individually, most PWC are not excessively noisy when compared to other vessels. However, if continually operated close to the shore, or when operating in groups, or when ‘porpoising’ or performing manoeuvres, noise levels do increase. Avoid operating a PWC when the winds are blowing onshore if you are in populated areas – including campsites. Respect the peace of other people and wildlife. Remember the less number of complaints – the greater the chance to enjoy the sport. Observe and follow speed signs and buoys marking the waterways. Remember, spectacular stunts and manoeuvres must be done well away from other people, other vessels and the shore. A 4 knots maximum speed limit applies within: • 30 metres of vessels affected by your wash, vessels being launched or retrieved, jetties and wharves • 50 metres of swimmers, small non-powered craft and divers’ flags.

Avoiding Accidents
The boating rules made under the Harbors and Navigation Act 1993 and Regulations 2009 apply to the operators of all vessels and that includes PWC riders. A PWC must give way to: • larger vessels operating in confined channels • sailing vessels • other vessels crossing from the right. One of the most important rules is the requirement to keep a good lookout at all times. In particular, remember: • in surf areas, swimmers may be hidden from view by waves and swell. Keep well away from areas where swimmers are likely to be present, or slow right down • do not cut blind corners – slow down • if vision is affected by the sun or spray – slow down or stop • keep well clear of anchored and moored vessels. In channels and narrow stretches of water, you must drive on the right hand or starboard side in the direction of travel.

Waterskiing
PWC are frequently being used for waterskiing. Remember that the normal waterskiing rules apply to PWC towing skiers, including the need to carry an appropriate observer on the PWC. The observer must be facing the skier at all times during the skiing operation. The carrying capacity of the PWC must have seating for at least two persons - the operator and observer. It is also advisable to use a PWC that has been designed with towing capability.

Safe Speed and Distance
All vessels are required to travel at a safe speed at all times. Depending on the circumstances even a slow speed can be potentially unsafe. The PWC operator must constantly monitor the speed of the vessel to ensure that a safe speed is being maintained.

Safety First
• you must wear an appropriate and approved PFD. Suitable footware, goggles and gloves are also a good idea • avoid swimming areas • always attach the ignition cut-out safety line

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• ensure the Ride Smart sticker is visible. • don’t drink alcohol and ride • obey all speed limits, boating regulations and signs • consider other people. • A suitable and properly equipped rescue boat must be ready for immediate use at the water’s edge at all times. • A fully equipped first aid kit is to be kept on site at all times for use in an emergency. • A telephone, mobile telephone or two-way radio must be available for any emergency. • Unlicensed operators of PWC must be provided by the licensee with and wear a bright coloured bib over the PFD, and to be clearly visible at all times during the hire operation.

Hire and Drive Requirements
A person wanting to hire and drive a PWC will require a Boat Operator’s Licence to hire that vessel in South Australia, unless operating within the conditions of a Boat Hire Business Licence. If the person is operating in the waters defined within a Small Boat Hire Business Licence issued by DTEI, the hirer must comply with the following conditions: • Vessels for hire must be clearly marked with the word “HIRE” on each side of the vessel and abaft the registration number, in letters not less than 150mm in height. • The licensee is to give all hirers practical instruction in the safe operation of the vessel for hire. • The licensee must have the hirer sign a statement to the effect that they have received adequate instruction. • The licensee must advise all hirers that any operator with a concentration of alcohol of blood of .05 is guilty of an offence. • The unlicensed operator must be at least 16 years of age. • An unlicensed person is not permitted to carry any other person on a PWC. • Operation hours are between sunrise and sunset, during fine weather and safe navigable conditions. • All PWC for hire must have a Ride Smart sticker attached, and the hirer’s attention must be drawn to the requirements listed on the sticker. • The operation of a hire vessel outside the area defined by cones for the operation of vessels by an unlicensed operator is not permitted. • Adequate staff members are to be on hand to ensure the hirers are adequately supervised.

99 Chapter 5 Sample Test Questions
Question
What is the minimum size of registration numbers to be displayed on a PWC under three metres in length? A. 100mm. B. 150mm. C. 75mm.

Question
How can PWC operators reduce complaints regarding the noise of the vessels? A. Do not congregate near residential or popular recreational areas and drive around repeatedly in the same area. B. Avoid operating a PWC when the winds are blowing onshore if you are in populated areas, including campsites, and avoid excessive “porpoising” or performing other manoeuvres that increase noise levels. C. All of the above.

Question
What is the speed limit when operating a PWC, within 200 metres of the metropolitan shoreline between Outer Harbor southern breakwater and the southern end of Sellicks Beach and the backwaters of the River Murray? A. 5 knots. B. 10 knots. C. 4 knots.

Question
When operating a PWC in a river or channel, on which side should you remain? A. On any convenient side as a PWC is extremely manoeuvrable and can easily avoid other vessels. B. To the starboard side of the channel in the direction of travel. C. To the port side of the channel in the direction of travel.

Question
Under what conditions can a Special Permit holder operate a PWC? A. When the Special Permit holder is under the direct supervision of a person with a Boat Operator’s Licence. B. A Permit Holder is not permitted to operate a PWC under any circumstances. C. When the Special Permit holder is under the direct supervision of a person with a Boat Operator’s Licence and the PWC is only operated at a maximum speed of 10 knots.

100 CHAPTER 6 Customer Service Centres
Customer Service Centres
Service SA and other Country Agencies provide ALL recreational vessel registration and operator licensing services. Office hours are 9.00am – 5.00pm, Monday to Friday. Marion 493 Morphett Road Oaklands Park 5046 PO Box 480 Oaklands Park SA 5046 Mitcham 17 Princes Road Torrens Park 5062

PO Box 756 Mitcham Shopping Centre SA 5062 DTEI Officers at Victor Harbor and Kingscote Modbury perform duties that may leave their offices 116 Reservoir Road unstaffed at times. You are advised to call Modbury 5092 ahead before attending these offices. PO Box 936 Modbury SA 5092

Customer Service

General Enquiries: 13 10 84 Email: dtei.recreationalboatingunit@sa.gov.au Credit Card payments for registration renewals: www.ezyreg.sa.gov.au 24 hours a day or 1300 363 805, 8am-6pm Monday to Friday. Boat Operator’s Licence and Special Permit Examinations are conducted between 9am and 4.15pm, Monday to Friday. No appointment is necessary.

Port Adelaide 64 Dale Street Port Adelaide 5015 PO Box 3800 Port Adelaide SA 5015 Prospect Northpark Shopping Centre 264 Main North Rd Prospect 5082 PO Box 560 Prospect East SA 5062 Regency Park 18 Kateena Street Regency Park 5010 PO Box 2262 Regency Park SA 5010 Tranmere 172 Glynburn Road Tranmere 5073 PO Box 1117 Firle SA 5070

Service SA Metropolitan Centres
Adelaide EDS Centre 108 North Terrace Adelaide 5000 PO Box 8045 Station Arcade Adelaide SA 5000 Christies Beach 111 Beach Street Christies Beach 5165 PO Box 111 Christies Beach SA 5165 Elizabeth Shop 42 North Mall Elizabeth Shopping Centre Elizabeth 5112 PO Box 71 Elizabeth SA 5112

Service SA Country Centres
Berri 29 Vaughan Terrace Berri 5343 Locked Bag 233 Berri SA 5343

101
Gawler Northern Market Shopping Centre Cnr Murray and Cowan Streets Gawler 5118 Locked Bag 1811 Gawler SA 5118 Kadina 10 Digby Street Kadina 5554 PO Box 480 Kadina SA 5554 Mount Gambier 11 Helen Street Mount Gambier 5290 Private Mail Bag 124 Mount Gambier SA 5290 Murray Bridge 19 Seventh Street Murray Bridge 5253 Locked Bag 100 Murray Bridge SA 5253 Naracoorte 10 Butler Terrace Naracoorte SA 5271 Port Augusta 9 MacKay St Port Augusta 5700 PO Box 2077 Port Augusta SA 5700 Port Lincoln 73 - 75 Tasman Terrace Port Lincoln 5606 Locked Bag 1 Port Lincoln SA 5606 Port Pirie Shop 7-8, 72-80 Ellen Street Port Pirie 5540 Locked Bag 1 Port Pirie SA 5540 Whyalla 171 Nicolson Avenue Whyalla Norrie 5608 PO Box 2196 Whyalla Norrie SA 5608 Other Country Agencies Ceduna (District Council) 44 O’Loughlin Terrace Ceduna Victor Harbor (DTEI) Kingscote KI (DTEI)

8625 3407 8552 2069 8553 2064

An appointment may be required.

Service SA Rural Agents
Services are restricted to Recreational Vessel Operator Licensing for new applicants only. An appointment may be required. General Enquires: www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine 13 23 24

Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure
77 Grenfell Street Adelaide 5000 www.dtei.sa.gov.au

Transport Safety Compliance Officers - Marine
Are stationed at: Walkley Heights Berri Kadina Murray Bridge Goolwa Port Lincoln

102 Notes

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MR160 FEBRUARY 2010

www.sa.gov.au/boatingmarine

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