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# Lake Norman Watershed

The emergency spillway for the Lake Norman damn must safely pass the 100 year, 6-hr flood flow. During the
100 year event the damn discharges through a principal outlet (barrel and riser) as well as 2 emergency
spillways (weirs).

Loss function - SCS curve number method - initial loss estimate inputs should result in an initial abstraction
near 20%. NOTE - recall that Ia = 0.2 S is the standard assumption in the SCS runoff procedure. HMS does
not require that this relationship be met but will produce a warning if the initial abstraction ration is less than
20% and a note if it is greater than 20%. The values used should be based on best evidence from the
catchment.

Curve numbers - Ref: McCuen - Table 3.18 - curve number values are based on Ia = .2 S. This suggests that
curve numbers and initial abstraction values used should result in an initial abstraction ratio near 20%.

Curve numbers - An estimate of the degree of improvement (urbanization). Values in the range used in this
problem, 75 - 80, suggest residential areas. See McCuen, pg 161, 3rd edition.

Transform method - SCS UH method - The SCS lag is defined as the time from the center of mass of the
excess precipitation to the peak of the resulting hydrograph.

## Subwatershed Drainage Percent Curve Watershed

number Area (Acres) Imperviousness Number SCS Lag Time (min)
1 82 11 80 10
2 101 5 76 12
3 72 3 78 10
4 111 5 76 12
5 50 6 80 8

## reservoir storage principal emergency spillway total outflow

elevation volume flow outlet flow cfs
ft ac-ft cfs
516 0 0 0 0
517 9.5 39 0 39
518 20.5 107 330 437
519 31.5 110 933 1043
520 44.5 113 1715 1828
521 59.5 116 2640 2756
522 77 119 3690 3809

Comment - The storage-elevation-outflow data indicate that no outflow from the dam occurs until the water
surface elevation reaches 516.00' . Any water stored below this level is often referred to as dead storage
because that volume cannot be used for storing incoming flow. The active storage is ONLY that depth of
water above the outlet elevation, in this case 516.00'.

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 1 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
100 year Storm Event

## time (min) depth (in)

5 min 0.87
15 min 1.68
1 hr 3.15
2 hr 3.5
3 hr 3.85
6 hr 4.55

Principal outlet is a barrel and riser (Morning Glory) spillway. The emergency spillway consists of two weirs.

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 2 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
Lake Norman Schematic

## computational time interval used 1 minute

This document is a combination of HEC-HMS results and Mathcad post processing of those results. Results
were copied from HMS output tables using "Cntrl C" and pasted into external files in notepad using "Cntrl
V". These files were then read in as needed by Mathcad and plotted. Using Mathcad allowed much
manipulated at will using all available Mathcad functions.

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 3 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
DATA :=
servoir hydrographs, storage, and elevation.t

## rows ( DATA) = 541

i := 0 .. rows ( DATA) 1

t := 1 min

## storagei := DATAi , 0 acre ft elevationi := DATAi , 1 ft

3 3
ft ft
inflow i := DATAi , 2 outflow i := DATAi , 3
sec sec

## Reservoir Elevation and Storage Volume

519 30
Reservoir Elevation
518.7 Storage Volume 27
518.4 24
518.1 21
517.8 18
elevationi storagei
517.5 15
ft acre ft
517.2 12
516.9 9
516.6 6
516.3 3
516 0
0 0.9 1.8 2.7 3.6 4.5 5.4 6.3 7.2 8.1 9

i t
hr

Comments - The water surface elevation in the reservoir rises approximately 2' over a period of about 55
minutes. Both pieces of information are important if the WSE rises fast this means that there will be little
time to prepare once precipitation starts.

Also, note how long it takes the water surface to return to its starting point. Three hours after the rainfall it
still has not.

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 4 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
Reservoir Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs
1500
inflow
1350 outflow

1200
inflowi 1050
3
ft 900
sec
750
outflowi
600
3
ft
450
sec
300

150

0
0 0.9 1.8 2.7 3.6 4.5 5.4 6.3 7.2 8.1 9

i t
hr

The effect of the reservoir is to attenuate the inflow hydrograph peak flow from a peak of 1219 cfs to an
outflow peak of 808 cfs. The degree of attenuation is a function of the size of the reservoir, the shape of
the reservoir and the design of the outflow structure(s). In general, attenuation is desirable and one of the
main functions of detention basins used for flood control during precipitation events

DATA1 :=
subasin 1.txt

## rows ( DATA1 ) = 541

3
ft
precip1i := DATA1 i , 0 in runoff1i := DATA1 i , 5
sec

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 5 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
Sub Basin 1
0.12 400
precipitation
0.11 hydrograph 360

0.096 320

0.084 280

0.072 240
runoff1i
precip1i
0.06 200 ft
3
in
sec
0.048 160

0.036 120

0.024 80

0.012 40

0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

i t
hr

Note : A six hour storm was input for the met model. However a 1 minute computational interval was used.
As a result the storm was interpolated and this apparently resulted in values so small they rounded to zero.
This is why the storm event does not appear to start at time zero and go out to 6 hours. If a computational
interval of 2 minutes is used the hour storm event is evident.

DATA2 :=
subasin 2.txt

## rows ( DATA2 ) = 541

3
ft
precip2i := DATA2 i , 0 in runoff2i := DATA2 i , 5
sec

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 6 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
Sub Basin 2
0.12 400
precipitation
0.11 hydrograph 360

0.096 320

0.084 280

0.072 240
runoff2i
precip2i
0.06 200 ft
3
in
sec
0.048 160

0.036 120

0.024 80

0.012 40

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

i t
hr

DATA3 :=
subasin 3 outflow hydrograph.txt

## rows ( DATA3 ) = 541

3
ft
inflow3i := DATA3 i , 5
sec

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 7 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
Sub Basin 3 Hydrograph
300

270
240
210

inflow3 i 180

ft
3 150
sec 120
90
60
30

0
0 0.9 1.8 2.7 3.6 4.5 5.4 6.3 7.2 8.1 9

i t
hr

DATA4 :=

reach3 subbasin4.txt
3 3
ft ft
inflow4i := DATA4 i , 0 outflow4 i := DATA4 i , 1
sec sec

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 8 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
Sub Basin 4
400
inflow hydrograph
360 outflow hydrograph

320
inflow4 i
280
3
ft
240
sec
200
outflow4 i
160
3
ft 120
sec
80
40
0
0 0.9 1.8 2.7 3.6 4.5 5.4 6.3 7.2 8.1 9

i t
hr

NOTE - There is no attenuation between the inflow hydrograph from the basin and the outflow hydrograph
from the end of the reach. This should be expected because we are using the "lag" option that simply
translates the hydrograph in time, no attenuation occurs. If the modeler's knowledge of the reach suggests
that storage will occur this option should not be used. One of the routing procedures should be used instead
to model storage as well as translation.

DATA5 :=

## rows ( DATA5 ) = 541

i := 0 .. rows ( DATA5 ) 1

3
ft 3
inflow i := DATA5 i , 0 ft
sec outflow i := DATA5 i , 1
sec

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 9 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
The plot below shows the hydrograph coming off reach subbasin 5 (inflow) and the hydrograph at the other
end of reach 1 (outflow)

Subsbasin 5, Reach 1
250
inflow
225 outflow

200
inflowi
175
3
ft
150
sec
125
outflowi
100
3
ft
75
sec
50

25

0
0 0.9 1.8 2.7 3.6 4.5 5.4 6.3 7.2 8.1 9

i t
hr

DATA :=
reservoir hydrographs, storage, and elevation.txt

## rows ( DATA) = 541

i := 0 .. rows ( DATA) 1

t := 1 min

3 3
ft ft
inflow i := DATAi , 2 outflow i := DATAi , 3
sec sec

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 10 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\
The plot below shows the rainfall hyetograph as well as the inflow and outflow hydrographs across the
reservoir. HMS sums both inflows to the reservoir (subbasin 1 and reach 2) and plots the the reservoir inflow
hydrograph.

## Reservoir Hydrographs and Hyetograph

1500 0.15
inflow
1350 outflow 0.14
precipitation
1200 0.12
inflowi 1050 0.11
3
ft 900 0.09
sec precip2i
750 0.075
outflowi in
600 0.06
3
ft
450 0.045
sec
300 0.03

150 0.015

0 0
0 0.9 1.8 2.7 3.6 4.5 5.4 6.3 7.2 8.1 9

i t
hr

## C:\myfiles\Mathcad application areas\Fluids- Lake Norman Watershed Model.mcd 11 of11

open channels-hydrology\HMS files\Lake
Norman Problem from Akan and Houghtalen\