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TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT


DEPARTMENT OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT

BUILDING LABORATORY PRACTICAL

BTAR2012 STRUCTURAL STUDIES

EXPERIMENT 1 : PORTAL FRAME

PROGRAMME : BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE


(HONOURS), RAR YEAR 3, SEMESTER 1/2016

STUDENTS NAME : BRIAN WONG SIEW HORNG (15 WTR 10576)


SAW SINGH JOHN (14 WTR 10897)

LECTURER-IN-CHARGE : MS NG CHIEW TENG


SUBMISSION DATE : 25rd OCTOBER 2016

1
1.0 TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE

1.0 TABLE OF CONTENT 2

2.0 EXPERIMENT REPORT 3

2.1 TITLE OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3

2.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPERIMENT 3

2.3 EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIALS 3

2.5 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE 4-5

3.0 INDIVIDUALS REPORT

3.1 STUDENT NAME: BRIAN WONG SIEW HORNG

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

RESULT AND CALCULATION 6-17

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

3.2 STUDENT NAME: SAW SINGH JOHN

BACKGROUND INFORMATION 18-31

RESULT AND CALCULATION

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

4.0 DISCUSSION 32-33

2
2.0 EXPERIMENT REPORT
2.1 TITLE OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENT
Portal Frame
2.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPERIMENT
1. To establish the relationship between applied load and horizontal displacement at the roller
support.
2. To observe the effect of the load position on the roller displacement.

2.3 EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIALS


The apparatus comprises of:
1. Support frame;
2. Portal frame;
3. Dial gauge;
4. Vernier calliper;
5. Tape measure;
6. 1 set of load (five 10N weight) Diagram 1: Support frame Diagram 2: Dial Gauge
and Portal frame

Diagram 3: Vernier Calliper Diagram 4: Tape measure Diagram 5: Set of Load

Theory:
The equations for the horizontal displacement at the roller support of a portal frame with one
pinned support and one roller support are given below:

LPh = WaL1 (a L3) / (2EI)

3
2.5 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE
1. The pin attached to the load cell was removed so
that the roller is free to move.

Diagram 6: Using hex key to loosen the screws.

2. The load hanger was positioned at the intended


location, a and the load is applied.

Diagram 7: Using measuring tape to measure the


distance.

3. The dial gauge reading was reset to zero.

Diagram 8: Tapping the dial gauge in order to get


stable reading.

4. A 10N load was placed on the load hanger.

Diagram 9: Initial reading is taken for a new load


testing.

5. The reading on the dial gauge, the horizontal


displacement at the roller support, was recorded.

Diagram 10: Reading is recorded.

4
6. The load on the load hanger was increased and
the readings were recorded.

Diagram 11: Make sure load hanger is stable and


not moving.

7. Step 6 was repeated four times until the total load


on the load hanger reached 50N, and each
increments weight 10N.

Diagram 12: Repeat experiment in order to get


average reading.

8. The result was tabulated.

Diagram 13: Calculation is made using formula


given.
9. Step 1 to 8 was repeated with the load hanger
moved from 100mm distance to 200mm, and
300mm as a.

Diagram 14: Measure the distance using


measuring tape.

5
3.0 INDIVIDUALS REPORT

3.1 STUDENT NAME: BRIAN WONG SIEW HORNG


BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Figure 1: Special portal frame lattice.


Source: Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Portal frames are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey industrial
structures. They are constructed mainly using hot-rolled sections, supporting the roofing and side
cladding via cold-formed purlins and sheeting rails. They may also be composed of tapered
stanchions and rafters fabricated from plate elements. Portal frames of lattice members made of
angles or tubes are also common, especially in the case of longer spans.

Figure 2: Elevation of portal frames.


Source: Indian Institute of Technology Madras

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The slopes of rafters in the gable portal frames (Figure 2) vary in the range of 1 in 10 to 1
in 3. Generally, the center-to-center distance between frames is of the order 6 to 7.5 m, with eaves
height ranging from 6 -15 m. Normally, larger spacing of frames is used in the case of taller
buildings, from the point of economy. Moment-resisting connections are to be provided at the
eaves and crown to resist lateral and gravity loadings. The stanchion bases may behave as either
pinned or fixed, depending upon rotational restraint provided by the foundation and the connection
detail between the stanchion and foundations. The foundation restraint depends on the type of
foundation and modulus of the sub-grade. Frames with pinned bases are heavier than those having
fixity at the bases. However, frames with fixed base may require a more expensive foundation.

For the design of portal frames, plastic methods of analysis are mainly used, which allows
the engineer to analyse frames easily and design it economically. The basis of the plastic analysis
method is the need to determine the load that can be applied to the frame so that the failure of the
frame occurs as a mechanism by the formation of a number of plastic hinges within the frame.

Figure 3: Details eaves of haunched gable portal frame.


Source: Indian Institute of Technology Madras
The most common form of portal frame used in the construction industry is the pinned-
base frame with different rafter and column member size and with haunches at both the eaves and
apex connections (Figure 3).

Due to transportation requirements, field joints are introduced at suitable positions. As a


result, connections are usually located at positions of high moment, i.e. at the interface of the
column and rafter members (at the eaves) and also between the rafter members at the apex (ridge).
It is very difficult to develop sufficient moment capacity at these connections by providing 'tension'

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bolts located solely within the small depth of the rafter section. Therefore the lever arm of the bolt
group is usually increased by haunching the rafter members at the joints. This addition increases
the section strength.

V
M M
T
T
M M
V
V
V
C C
C V C
V

M M

Figures 4 : Internal forces acting on section of the portal frame.


Source: Indian Institute of Technology Madras

For single-bay frames many analysts define moment as positive when it produces
compression stresses on the outside surface of the member, where inside is define as the region
within the frame. The positive direction for shear is then arbitrarily defined, as shown by the arrows
on figure 4.
Axial force on a cross section is evaluated by summing all forces perpendicular to cross
section. Forces acting outward from the cross section are tension forces: those directed toward the
cross section are compression force.
For statically determinate frame, the internal forces (shear forces, axial forces and bending
moments) can be calculated by using equation of equilibrium.
Fx = 0
Fy = 0
Mz = 0

8
Figure 5- Normal Portal frame. Figure 6- Mansard Portal Frame.

Figure 7- Mono-pitch Portal Frame. Figure 8- Portal frame with internal


mezzanine floor.

Source: http://www.steelconstruction.info/Portal_frames#Plastic_analysis
There are many types of portal frame as it developed from the 1960s until today, each with
their own functions. Such as portal frame with internal mezzanine floor are often used to provide
office accommodation in a factory, or warehouse; Mono-pitch portal frame are for smaller span;
Mansard portal frame for large ceiling height and so-on.

Figure 9: Bending moment diagram resulting from the plastic analysis of a symmetrical portal
frame under symmetrical loading.
Source: http://www.steelconstruction.info/Portal_frames#Plastic_analysis
For the design of portal frames, plastic methods of analysis are mainly used, which allows
the engineer to analyse frames easily and design it economically. The basis of the plastic analysis
method is the need to determine the load that can be applied to the frame so that the failure of the
frame occurs as a mechanism by the formation of a number of plastic hinges within the frame. The
various methods of plastic analysis are discussed in an earlier chapter. In describing the plastic
methods of structural analysis, certain assumptions were made with regard to the effect of axial
force, shear, buckling etc. Unless attention is given to such factors, the frame may fail prematurely
due to local, or stanchion or rafter buckling, prior to plastic collapse.
Portal frames can be a simple and rapid form of structure to erect, creating a wide, clear-
span, weather-proof enclosure at low cost, with little material. They tend to be lightweight and can
be fabricated off site, then bolted to a substructure. The portal frames themselves may be left
exposed to the internal space, and if carefully designed can be very beautiful.

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Results:

Height of portal frame, L1 = 600 mm

Width of portal frame, L3 = 400 mm

Width of member (b) = 25.4 mm

Thickness of member (d) = 9.2 mm

Second moment of area, I = 1641.73 mm

Dial gauge reading, 1 division = 0.01 mm

Material for the portal frame = Steel

Calculation:

A = -LPH

LPH = WaL1 (a L3) / (2EI)

10
For the value of a equals to 100mm,

Applied load Roller Displacement


Experimental Theoretical
N division mm mm

10 27 0.27 0.27

20 59 0.59 0.55

30 102 0.84 0.82

40 130 1.13 1.10

50 167 1.67 1.37

For 10 N,

LPH = 10(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.27 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.27 mm)

= 0.27 mm

For 20 N,

LPH = 20(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.55 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.55 mm)

= 0.55 mm

11
For 30 N,

LPH = 30(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.82mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.82mm)

= 0.82mm

For 40 N,

LPH = 40(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.10 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.10 mm)

= 1.10 mm

For 50 N,

LPH = 50(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.37 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.37 mm)

= 1.37 mm

12
For the value of a equals to 200mm,

Applied load Roller Displacement

Experimental Theoretical
N division mm mm

10 41 0.41 0.37

20 84 0.84 0.73

30 122 1.22 1.10

40 150 1.50 1.46

50 205 2.05 1.83

For 10 N,

LPH = 10(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.37 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.37 mm)

= 0.37 mm

For 20 N,

LPH = 20(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.73 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.73 mm)

= 0.73 mm

13
For 30 N,

LPH = 30(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.10mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.10 mm)

= 1.10 mm

For 40 N,

LPH = 40(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.46mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.46 mm)

= 1.46 mm

For 50 N,

LPH = 50(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.83mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.83mm)

= 1.83mm

14
For the value of a equals to 300mm

Applied load Roller Displacement


Experimental Theoretical
N division mm mm

10 26 0.26 0.27

20 58 0.58 0.55

30 90 0.90 0.82

40 120 1.20 1.10

50 140 1.40 1.37

For 10 N,

LPH = 10(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.27 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.27 mm)

= 0.27 mm

For 20 N,

LPH = 20(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.55 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.55 mm)

= 0.55 mm

15
For 30 N,

LPH = 30(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.82mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.82mm)

= 0.82mm

For 40 N,

LPH = 40(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.10 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.10 mm)

= 1.10 mm

For 50 N,

LPH = 50(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.37 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.37 mm)

= 1.37 mm

16
BIBLIOGRAPH/REFERENCES

1. Archi Expo, 2016. Portal frame / lattice / steel. [ONLINE] Available at


http://www.archiexpo.com/prod/favaretti/product-105005-1035659.html. [Accessed at
20th of October 2016].

2. Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar, 2016. Design of Steel Structures-
Portal Frame. [ONLINE] Available at
http://nptel.ac.in/courses/105106113/2_industrial_building/6_portal_frames.pdf.
[Accessed at 20th of October 2016].

3. Frixos Joannides, Alan Weller, 2016. Structural Steel Design to BS 5950, Part 1. [E-
book]

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3.2 STUDENT NAME: SAW SHING JOHN
Background Information- Portal Frame

Portal Frame Structure in Single Storey Building


Source: http://www.steelconstruction.info/Cost_planning__Industrial_buildings

Portal frame design was invented and appeared during the period of Second World War
and become popular in 1960s because the need to achieve the low-cost building envelope. Now a
day, they are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey industrial structures. They
are constructed mainly using hot-rolled sections, supporting the roofing and side cladding via cold-
formed purlins and sheeting rails. It was because the structural efficiency and facts could utilize
more enclosed space with minimal materials needed and saving costs in construction.

With a better understanding to the structural behaviour of slender plate elements under
combined bending moment, axial load and shear force, many fabricators now offer a structural
frame fabricated from plate elements. These frames are composed of tapered stanchions and
rafters in order to provide an economic structural solution for single-storey buildings. The portal
frame structure design was mainly used by the industrial, storage, retail, warehouse, agricultural
buildings and commercial applications as well as for agricultural purposes for in single-storey
especially in long spans building for economic purpose.

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Portal frames with the advent of new cladding systems, it is possible to achieve roof slopes
as low as 10. But in such cases, frame deflections must be carefully controlled and the large
horizontal thrusts that occur at the base should be accounted for. Generally, the centre-to-centre
distance between frames is of the order 6 to 7.5 m, with eaves height ranging from 6 -15 m.

The foundation restraint depends on the type of foundation and modulus of the sub-grade.
Frames with pinned bases are heavier than those having fixity at the bases. However, frames
with fixed base may require a more expensive foundation. For the design of portal frames, plastic
methods of analysis are mainly used, which allows the engineer to analyse frames easily and
design it economically.

Portal frames are designed for the following loads:

roof load
wind load

Care should be taken:

joints
foundation
bracing

Steel portal frames are very efficient and economical when used for single-storey buildings,
provided that the design details are cost effective and the design parameters and assumptions are
well chosen. In countries where this technology is highly developed, the steel portal frame is the
dominant form of structure for single-storey industrial and commercial buildings.

It has become the most common structural form in pitched roof buildings, because of its
economy and versatility for a wide range of spans.

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Form of Portal Frame
Source: http://www.steelconstruction.info/Cost_planning__Industrial_buildings

Through the example that list above design method portal frames allow engineer analysed
the structure easily and design it in more economical ways. Portal frame normally construct in
simple and rapid form of structure to creating a wide, clear span, weather proof enclose space,
low cost minimalized of material required for the building. Portal frame was built in lightweight
structure, left exposed at the internal space to represent the beauty and design of the structure

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Type of Portal frames
Types described below give an overview of types of portal construction with typical features
illustrated. This information only provides typical details and is not meant to dictate any limits
on the use of any particular structural form.
Pitched roof symmetric portal frame
Portal frame with internal mezzanine floor
Crane portal frame with column brackets
Tied portal frame
Mono-pitch portal frame
Propped portal frame
Mansard portal frame
Curved rafter portal frame
Cellular beam portal frame
Main Frame
A span between 15 and 50 m
An clear height (from the top of the floor to the underside of the haunch) between 5 and 12 m
A roof pitch between 5 and 10 (6 is commonly adopted)
A frame spacing between 6 and 8 m
Haunches in the rafters at the eaves and apex
A stiffness ratio between the column and rafter section of approximately 1.5
Light gauge purlins and side rails
Light gauge diagonal ties from some purlins and side rails to restrain the inside flange of the
frame at certain locations.

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Type Of Portal Frame Description

Portal frame pier - Portal frame pier was one of the efficient ways
to coordinate the construction line with existed
underground pipelines to provide open space
under bridge and avoids a larger span
superstructure such as high-speed railway and
bridge.

Pitched roof symmetric portal frame - pitched roof symmetric portal frame was known
as normal portal frame that used by the
manufacture provide substantial eaves haunch
section that cut from fabricated from plate are the
most efficient and commonly span can be seen
nowadays.

Tied portal frame - Tied portal frame was horizontal movement of


eaves and bending moment in column and rafters
than a tie may useful to limit spread in a crane
supporting structure.

Mono-pitch portal frame - Mono-pitch portal frame was chosen for


smaller spans or proximity to construct for
smaller building.

Mansard portal frame - Mansard portal frame was a large clear height at
the mid span is required in eaves height of
building.

Curved rafter portal frame - curved rafter portal frame was built commonly
because of transport limitations rafter require
longer so detailing of structure was required for a

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curved membrane for purlin cleats of varying
height to achieve curved external profile.

Results:

Height of portal frame, L1 = 600 mm

Width of portal frame, L3 = 400 mm

Width of member (b) = 25.4 mm

Thickness of member (d) = 9.2 mm

Second moment of area, I = 1641.73 mm

Dial gauge reading, 1 division = 0.01 mm

Material for the portal frame = Steel

Calculation:

A = -LPH

LPH = WaL1 (a L3) / (2EI)

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For the value of a equals to 100mm,

Applied load Roller Displacement


Experimental Theoretical
N division mm mm

10 27 0.27 0.27

20 59 0.59 0.55

30 102 0.84 0.82

40 130 1.13 1.10

50 167 1.67 1.37

For 10 N,

LPH = 10(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.27 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.27 mm)

= 0.27 mm

For 20 N,

LPH = 20(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.55 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.55 mm)

= 0.55 mm

24
For 30 N,

LPH = 30(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.82mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.82mm)

= 0.82mm

For 40 N,

LPH = 40(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.10 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.10 mm)

= 1.10 mm

For 50 N,

LPH = 50(100) (600) (100-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.37 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.37 mm)

= 1.37 mm

25
For the value of a equals to 200mm,

Applied load Roller Displacement

Experimental Theoretical
N division mm mm

10 41 0.41 0.37

20 84 0.84 0.73

30 122 1.22 1.10

40 150 1.50 1.46

50 205 2.05 1.83

For 10 N,

LPH = 10(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.37 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.37 mm)

= 0.37 mm

For 20 N,

LPH = 20(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.73 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.73 mm)

= 0.73 mm

26
For 30 N,

LPH = 30(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.10mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.10 mm)

= 1.10 mm

For 40 N,

LPH = 40(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.46mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.46 mm)

= 1.46 mm

For 50 N,

LPH = 50(200) (600) (200-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.83mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.83mm)

= 1.83mm

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For the value of a equals to 300mm

Applied load Roller Displacement


Experimental Theoretical
N division mm mm

10 26 0.26 0.27

20 58 0.58 0.55

30 90 0.90 0.82

40 120 1.20 1.10

50 140 1.40 1.37

For 10 N,

LPH = 10(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.27 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.27 mm)

= 0.27 mm

For 20 N,

LPH = 20(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.55 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.55 mm)

= 0.55 mm

28
For 30 N,

LPH = 30(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -0.82mm

A = -LPH

= - (-0.82mm)

= 0.82mm

For 40 N,

LPH = 40(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.10 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.10 mm)

= 1.10 mm

For 50 N,

LPH = 50(300) (600) (300-400) / 2(2.0x105) (1641.733867)

= -1.37 mm

A = -LPH

= - (-1.37 mm)

= 1.37 mm

29
Reference

Steel Construction Info. 2015. Portal frames. [ONLINE] Available at:


http://www.steelconstruction.info/Portal_frames [Accessed at 22th of October 2016.]

Steel insdag. 2015. Portal frame. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.steel-


insdag.org/TeachingMaterial/chapter36.pdf[Accessed at 22th of October 2016.]

Nan Hu, Gonglian Dai. 2015. THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PORTAL-FRAME.


[ONLINE] Available at: http://www.egr.msu.edu/~hunan2/_doc/c8.pdf[Accessed at 23th
of October 2016.]

STEEL BUILDINGS IN EUROPE Single-Storey Steel Buildings Part 4: Detailed Design


of Portal Frames [ONLINE] Available at:
http://sections.arcelormittal.com/fileadmin/redaction/4-Library/4-
SBE/EN/SSB04_Detailed_design_of_portal_frames.pdf.[ Accessed at 24th of October
2016].

Rakenteiden Mekaniikka (Journal of Structural Mechanics) Vol. 43, No 1, 2010, pp. 44-
60 [ONLINE] Available at:
http://rmseura.tkk.fi/rmlehti/2010/nro1/RakMek_43_1_2010_4.pdf. [Accessed at 24th of
October 2016].

Steel Constrcution.info. 2015. Portal frame. [ONLINE] Available at:


http://www.steelconstruction.info/Portal_frames [Accessed at 24th of October 2016].

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DISCUSSION
1. Draw the shape of the portal frame under test and give the important dimension.
2. Calculate the stiffness (i.e. the load per unit deflection, W/) of the frame at the point of
loading.
3. Using the data in the Table above, draw the graph of load verses displacement at the
roller support. Draw the best fit curve through the plotted points.
4. From the graph determine the stiffness of the frame at the point of loading.
5. Plot the graph of load position against displacement.

CONCLUSION

1. From the result of this experiment, deduce the relationship between load and displacement at
the roller.

-As horizontal displacement was visible when load applied on it, the more horizontal load added
in displacement the more the roller support.

2. Describe briefly the effect of load position on the roller displacement.

-the load applied shorter in distance the lesser the displacement of roller to portal frame and the
column will become stiffer in load. The portal frame will receive lesser bending force when the
load closer to the column during the load transfer.

3. Comment on the accuracy of the experiment results.

- The dial gauge must be checked to make sure the equipment remain in the condition for zero
error. So, the experiment needs to repeat for few times to get the average reading of the experiment.
During the process do not hit or shake the apparatus when taking reading. This was to prevent the
final reading for experiment affected. Then Tap lightly on the frame close to the dial gauge to get
the accurate reading.

4. List the probable factors that affect the accuracy of the results and steps to be taken to overcome
it.

-The problem factor that would affect the accuracy of the result was vibration of the apparatus,
existence of zero error and the experiment not taking place of repetition to get the nearest reading.

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4.0 Discussion
1. Draw the shape of the portal frame under test and give the important dimensions. Indicate
the position where the frame is loaded.

2. Calculate the stiffness (i.e. he load per unit deflection, W/ ) of the frame at the point of
loading.

Applied Roller Displacement Load per unit deflection


Load () (W/)
(W)
100 200 300 100 200 300

10 0.370 0.244 0.385


27 41 26
20 0.339 0.238 0.345
59 84 58
30 0.294 0.246 0.333
102 122 90
40 0.308 0.267 0.333
130 150 120
50 0.299 0.244 0.357
167 205 140

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3. Using the data in the table above, draw the graph of load verses displacement at the roller
support. Draw the best fit curve through the plotted points.
4. From the graph determine the stiffness of the frame at the point of loading.
a = 100mm, applied load = 48N, displacement = 1.18mm, stiffness = 40.68N/mm

a = 200mm, applied load = 51N, displacement = 1.70mm, stiffness = 30.00N/mm

a = 300mm, applied load = 51N, displacement = 1.26mm, stiffness = 40.48N/mm

5. Plot the graph of load position against displacement.


When the load, W= 30 N

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