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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
Chapter 9 : GRAFCET and Ladder Diagram

The GRAFCET is a tool for describing the specifications of the control unit of an
automated system.

The working of an automatic equipment may be described graphically by a group of:

• STEPS to which are associated certain ACTIONS
• TRANSITIONS which are conditions to be fulfilled
• DIRECTED LINKS linking steps and transitions
step 0
step 1
step 2
step 3
step 4
step 5
output 1
output 2
output 3
input 1
input 2
input 3
input 4
input 5
input 6
output 4
Transitions
Directed Links
Actions
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
The GRAFCET (cont’d)

Block Diagram of a PLC-controlled automatic system :






























CONTROL
UNIT
OPERATIVE
UNIT
COMMANDS
INFOMATION
OPERATOR
I
N
S
T
R
U
C
T
I
O
N
S
P
I
L
O
T

L
I
G
H
T
S


PSA2 FP2-C1 XY64D2T XY64D2T

|NPUTs
|NPUTs
0UTPUTs
0UTPUTs
PR06E88 |
HA6h|NE
PL6
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
The GRAFCET (cont’d)







1
2
3
extend cylinder A
extend cylinder B
retract cylinder A
retract cylinder B
start
cylinder A extended
cylinder B extended
cylinder A retracted cylinder B retracted

0
WAIT step
( - doing nothing, in this case )
Initial Step (double box)
Initiated by First Cycle Bit
Transitions
Transitions
(AND operation)
Actions
Two Actions
In One step
These are sensors !
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
Different parts of a GRAFCET
ACTIONS
ACTIONS
ACTIONS ACTIONS
1
2
3 6
4
5
7
8
9
1
9
Labelled Connector : indicating where
control has come from (source
Initial Step : defining the initial situation of
the automated system.
Transition : between steps and with which
logic conditions are associated.
Directed Link : connecting steps to
transitions, and transitions to steps.
Step : a steady state with
which command or actions
may be associated.
Simultaneous Activation :
indicated by transition followed
by a double horizontal line.
Start of Sequence Selection :
indicated by a single horizontal
line followed by two or more
transitions.
End of Sequence Selection :
indicated by one or more
transitions followed by a
single Horizontal line.
Simultaneous De-activation :
indicated a double horizontal line
followed by transition.
Labelled Connector :
indicating where control is going
to (destination Connector).
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
Grafcet Design – Sequence

How to do the sequence.

1. Represent the steps (step_1 and step_2) by internal
Relay bits R1 and R2.
R1 and R2 will either be “1” (active) or “0” (inactive).

2. Only 1 step should be active at any one time.

3. Do not worry about outputs at the moment.

4. The initial step should be activated by the PLC
internal scan cycle (the very first cycle). After
which it will be activated by step_2 and stop_PB
(during the return loop).

Step_1 activated by 1
st
cycle bit, but it will turn
off during the 2
nd
cycle onwards. Hence, the
need to on to the avtive state (therefore latch
It) using step_1.


Step_1 latched.


When step_1 is active and start_PB is pressed, step_2
will be active and need to be latched (because
start_PB will eventually be released!)





(But then there will be 2 active steps: step_1 and
step_2.We want to have only one active step. Therfore,
when step_2 becomes active, step_2 should de-activate
(kill-off) step_1.

Similarly, the step after step_2, that is step_1, should be
used to de-activate (kill-off) step-2.

Provision must be made to go back to step_1 again when
Step_2 is active and stop_PB is pressed.(This is to loop
back).

1
2
START
STOP
1
st
_cycle_bit
Step-1
Step-1
Step-2
1
st
_cycle_bit
Step-1
Step-1
Step-2
Start
Step-1
Step-2
Step-2
1st_cycle_bit
Step-1
Step-2
Step-1
Stop
Start
Step-2 Step-1
Occurs only once
upon PLC power
on
To kill Step 2
when Step 1
is active


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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
Grafcet Design – Output


How to do the output:


1. Now that we have got the sequence, (sequence
Ensures that step_1 and start_PB goes to step_2,
And step_2 and stop_PB goes back to step_1,
And so on) we can determine the outputs (i.e.
What happens at each step).


2. We can decide to turn on red_light in step_1
And turn on green_light in step_2 (if that is
What is required).

3. That means upon powering up of PLC (remember
1
st
_ cycle_ bit → hence the initial step : step_1),
the red light turns. When start_PB is pressed,
green_light turns on. When stop_PB is pressed,
red light turns on, and so on.
(Remember : no change in sequence, only the output).


OR

We can decide to turn on the buzzer in step_2 and turn on both the lights in step_1.
So that when start_PB is pressed, the red_light and green_light will turn on.
(Remember : still no change in sequence, only the output).
















2
1
START
STOP
ON RED
ON GREEN
2
Step-1
Step-2 ON GREEN
ON RED
1
START
STOP
ON RED
ON GREEN
ON BUZZER
2
Step-1
ON RED
ON GREEN
Step-2 ON BUZZER
Work the
Outputs from
right to left

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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram

OR

Other examples.




































Note : Beware of repeated output in the ladder diagram program.

Even though the GRAFCET contains two instances of ON BUZZER
The OUTPUT ladder diagram should contain only one instance of ON BUZZER.
It is wise therefore to state the output first and see which steps need this output.
That is work the output part of the ladder diagram from right to left.
1
START
STOP
ON RED
ON GREEN
ON RED
ON BUZZER
2
Step-1
Step-2
Step-1
Step-2
ON BUZZER
ON GREEN
ON RED
1
START
STOP
ON RED
ON BUZZER
ON GREEN
ON BUZZER
2
Step-1
Step-2
Step-1
Step-2 ON GREEN
ON RED
ON BUZZER
Outputs may be
in any order
No Repeated
Outputs !!
Inputs may
be repeated
Outputs

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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram















































1
UNPROCESSED
MATERIAL
IN POSITION
LOWER STAMP

RAISE STAMP
LOWER DIE
EVACUATE PART
RAISE DIE
Material in position and cycle start
End of compression
Stamp in high position
Die in low position
Evacuation completed
Die in high position
2
6
5
4
3
GRAFCET of the Press
Start PB
Stamp
Die
( steps )
( input = sensor )
( outputs / actions )
Stamp
Stamp
Die
Die
Stamp
Stamp
Done manually by operator
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram



SEQUENCE
Step-2
1st_cycle_bit
Die-High
Step-6
Step-1
Step-2
Step-1
Step-1 Material Start
Step-2 Step-3
Step-2
Step-2 End-High
Step-3 Step-4
Step-3
Step-3 Stamp-High
Step-4 Step-5
Step-4
Step-4 Die-Low
Step-5 Step-6
Step-5
Step-6 Step-5 Evacuate
Step-6 Step-1
OUTPUT
Step-3
Step-4
Step-5
Step-6
Lower Stamp
Raise Stamp
Lower Die
Evacuate part
Raise Die
Ladder Diagram of the Press
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram















































Project 1 - Moving a Wagon
Left Side
Right Side
Moving A Wagon
1
2
Move Wagon to the Right
3
Start PB pressed
Left Side
reached
Right Side
reached
Move Wagon to the Left
Start PB

Step-3
Step-1
Step-2
1
st
_cycle_bit
Left-side
Step-1
Step-3
Step-2
Step-1 Start
Step-2 Step-3
Step-2 Right-side
Step-3 Step-1
SEQUENCE
OUTPUT
Step-2
Step-3
Move-right
Move-left
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram


Convert GRAFCET Ladder Diagram

0
On Red Light
Start
1
Extend Cylinder A
Cylinder A extended
Extend Cylinder B
Cylinder B extended
Retract Cylinder A &
Retract Cylinder B
Cylinder A retracted &
Cylinder B retracted
2
3
Sequence
Output
Use Ext_A
Use A+
Use On Red
Use R1 or Step 1
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram

1
2
3
Run & System initialised
Cylinder B extended
Cylinder A extended
On Green Light
Extend Cylinder A
Step 4 / TIM001 / 3s . Drill_low
Drill_ high
Cylinder A retracted . Cylinder B retracted
Extend Cylinder B
Lower Drill
Raise Drill
Retract Cylinder A
Retract Cylinder B
4
5
6
Drill-high
Drill-Low
Drill
Part / Material
Cylinder B
Cylinder A
GRAFCET of the Drill
Cylinder A and Cylinder B hold the
material (part to be drilled) tightly while
the drilling machine drills the hole.
A+
A -
B -
B+
System initialization :

Retract Cylinder A
Retract Cylinder B
Off Green Light
sensors
sensors
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
Project 2

















































SEQUENCE
1
st
_cycle_bit
Step - 1 Step - 2
Step - 6
Cyl.A ret
Cyl.B ret
Step - 1 Run
Step - 2 Step - 3
Step - 2
Cyl.A ext
Step - 3 Step - 4
Step - 4 Tim001
Step - 5 Step - 6
Initialise ?
d
Drill - Low
Step - 5 Drill - high
Step - 6 Step - 1
Step - 3
Cyl. B ext
Step - 4
Step - 5
Step - 1
Step - 2
Step - 3
Step - 4
Step - 5
Step - 6
E xt . C yl A
Step - 2
Step - 4
Step - 3
Step - 5
OUTPUT
Step - 6
Step - 4
TIM
001
3 s
RAISE - DRILL
R et . C yl A
R et . C yl B
E xt . C yl B
Ladder Diagram of the Drill
ON GREEN LIGHT
LOWER -DRILL
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
Grafcet Design

Automatic Hand Dryer

The system incorporates a diffuse sensor to detect the the presence of a pair of hands. When a pair
of hands are placed just below the the Automatic Hand Dryer, heated air flow is turned on. When
the person has completed drying his hands, the removal or absence of hands will be detected. The
heated air will continue to flow for a further 3 seconds before the heated air flow is turned off.




































1
2
Off Hand Dryer
3
Presence of Hands

Step 3 / Timer5 / 3s
Absence of Hands

On Hand Dryer
Automatic Hand Dryer
Fill in the blanks :
Inputs Outputs
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
Automatic Hand Dryer

















































Step - 1
Step - 2
DIF
Ste p - 0
Step - 0
1
st
_cycle_bit
Step - 0 Step - 1
Step - 2 Tim 005
Step - 1
Step - 0
Step - 1
DIF
Step - 2
SEQUENCE

Step - 2
Step - 0
Step - 1
Step - 2
OUTPUT

Step - 2
OFF HAND DRYER
ON H AND DRYER
Presence

Absence

DIF (=ON) = Presence of hands
Timer5
3s
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
GRAFCET with multiple selections














































A Grafcet is generally made up of several sequences (several series of steps that
execute one after the other) and it is often necessary to exclusively select one of
these sequences.

Example:
5
8 6 9
10 7
11
Action A Action C
Action G Action D
Action E
x y z
a c
g
b
d
The above GRAFCET consists of a switch which allow to select one out of three
possible sequences depend on the transition conditions x, y and z. The different
transitions corresponding with their conditions x, y and z may be enable
simultaneously and they could be cleared simultaneously if the transition conditions
x, y and z were true at the same time. In order to avoid this from happening, the
transition conditions must be mutually exclusive. It is also possible to introduce the
priorities among the different sequences.
k
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram
GRAFCET with multiple selections
















































12
13 14
a.b
The transition conditions a.b
and a.b are mutually exclusive.
If a and b are both present, the
transition from step 12 will not
be cleared.
a.b
12
13 14
a
The transition 12-13 has higher
priority than 12-14: the
transition 12-13 will be cleared
if both a and b are true at the
same time.
a.b
f.e
Action E
15
14
13
12
Action G
Action H
Action J
g
h
j
f.e
Jump from step 12 to step 15
if condition f.e is true.
k
Action K
19
18
17
16
Action L
Action M
Action P
l
n.m
p
n.m
Repeat 17-18 if condition n.m
is not obtained and n.m is true.
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram


















































Step-6 A
Step-11 E
Step-8 C
Step-10 D
OUTPUT
Step-5
Step-6
x
Step-7
Step-6
Step-5
Step-9
z
Step-10
Step-9
Step-9
Step-10
b
Step-11
Step-10
Step-5
Step-8
y
Step-11
Step-8
Step-6
Step-7
a
Step-11
Step-7
Step-4
Step-5
?
Step-6
Step-5
Step-7
Step-8
g
c
Step-11
Step-10
Step-11
d
Step-12
Step-8 Step-9
SEQUENCE
Step-7 G
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram

















































Label Addr Label Addr
Head
Tail
X1
X2
TOSS COIN
GREEN
RED
Y1
Y2
Y3

1
2
TOSS
COIN
ON
GREEN
ON
RED
3
TAIL

HEAD
STEP - 2 - 3/ Timer7 / 3s
GRAFCET : COIN TOSSER
TOSS COIN

1
st
_cycle_bit
Step - 1 Step - 2
Step - 1
Step - 1
Step - 2
Head
Step - 1
Step - 2
Step - 1
Step - 3
Tail
Step - 1
Step - 3
Step - 2
Step -
Input

Output

3
Timer7

Step - 1
Step - 3
ON RED
Step - 2
ON GREEN
Step - 2
Timer7
3s
Step - 3
OUTPUT
SEQUENCE
Step - 3
IO Listing or
IO Address Assignment Table
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram


























SOLUTION : Sequence & Output
























FAIL-PUSHER-EXT
EXTEND
FAIL-PUSHER
EXTEND
PASS-PUSHER
LOAD NEXT
COMPONENT
START
PASS
PASS-PUSHER-EXT
FAIL
MATERIAL (IN POSITION)
1
2
4 3
5
GRAFCET: COMPONENT INSPECTION
E02098 : lrdusl(|a| E|ecl(or|cs ard Corl(o| Top|c 9 21

GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram

(c) Design a GRAFCET for the following system in Fig 1 (initial step = step 1):

Detection of clasps on cardboard box:

The system incorporates a through-beam (TB) optical sensor, an inductive
sensor (IND) and a counter.

The presence of a new clasp increments the counter (INCR_CTR).

The counter serves only to show the number of clasps on each box that
passes by. No other action need to be taken by the system based on the
number of clasps detected.

The counter is reset (RESET_CTR) for every new box that arrives.







(inputs) (outputs)

PLC input-output diagram




Fig. 1 : Detection of clasps on cardboard box

PLC
INCR_CTR

RESET_CT
R
TB

IND


Counter
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GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram

Solution :
E02098 : lrdusl(|a| E|ecl(or|cs ard Corl(o| Top|c 9 23

GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram

(d) Design a GRAFCET for the following system in Fig Q3d (initial step = step 1):

Automatic gauge level monitoring: The system incorporates two through-
beam (TB) optical sensors to monitor the level of the fluid in the stationary
glass gauge as shown in Fig Q3d. When the level falls below the lower limit,
a valve situated on top of the gauge is turned on automatically to add more
fluid. When the fluid level reaches above the upper limit, the valve is turned
on for a further 10 seconds before it is turned off.

Note : The control of filling level through glass gauge makes use of the laws of refraction. The
fluid, being the optically denser medium, breaks the light beam. Without the fluid the sensor is
activated.






(inputs) (outputs)

PLC input-output diagram





Automatic On/Off Valve

Emitters Detectors


















Fig. Q3d : Automatic Gauge Level Monitoring

PLC
On Valve

Off Valve
TB_Top

TB_Bottom
detecting
not detecting
TB_Bottom
TB_Top
E02098 : lrdusl(|a| E|ecl(or|cs ard Corl(o| Top|c 9 21

GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram

Solution :













































The GRAFCET (cont’d)

Block Diagram of a PLC-controlled automatic system :

OPERATOR

INSTRUCTIONS

PILOT LIGHTS

COMMANDS

CONTROL UNIT
INFOMATION

OPERATIVE UNIT

PSA2

FP2-C1

XY64D2T

XY64D2T

GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram

The GRAFCET (cont’d) Initial Step (double box) Initiated by First Cycle Bit 0 start WAIT step ( . in this case ) Transitions 1 extend cylinder A cylinder A extended Actions 2 extend cylinder B cylinder B extended 3 retract cylinder A retract cylinder B cylinder A retracted cylinder B retracted Transitions (AND operation) Two Actions In One step These are sensors ! GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .doing nothing.

1 2 Directed Link : connecting steps to transitions. 3 ACTIONS 6 ACTIONS 4 ACTIONS 7 ACTIONS 5 8 9 Simultaneous De-activation : indicated a double horizontal line followed by transition. Step : a steady state with which command or actions may be associated.Different parts of a GRAFCET 9 Labelled Connector : indicating where control has come from (source Initial Step : defining the initial situation of the automated system. Simultaneous Activation : indicated by transition followed by a double horizontal line. End of Sequence Selection : indicated by one or more transitions followed by a single Horizontal line. 1 Labelled Connector : indicating where control is going to (destination Connector). GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram . Start of Sequence Selection : indicated by a single horizontal line followed by two or more transitions. Transition : between steps and with which logic conditions are associated. and transitions to steps.

that is step_1. 4. Represent the steps (step_1 and step_2) by internal Relay bits R1 and R2. Only 1 step should be active at any one time.(This is to loop back). Step_1 latched. 3. step_2 will be active and need to be latched (because start_PB will eventually be released!) 1 START 2 STOP 1st_cycle_bit Step-1 Occurs only once upon PLC power on 1st_cycle_bit Step-1 Step-1 Step-1 Start Step-2 Step-2 (But then there will be 2 active steps: step_1 and step_2. should be used to de-activate (kill-off) step-2. To kill Step 2 when Step 1 is active 1st_cycle_bit Step-1 Step-1 Step-2 Step-2 Stop Step-1 Start Step-2 Step-2 Step-1 GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram . 2. After which it will be activated by step_2 and stop_PB (during the return loop).Grafcet Design – Sequence How to do the sequence. Step_1 activated by 1st cycle bit. R1 and R2 will either be “1” (active) or “0” (inactive). 1. Similarly. when step_2 becomes active. The initial step should be activated by the PLC internal scan cycle (the very first cycle). but it will turn off during the 2nd cycle onwards. Therfore. Hence. Provision must be made to go back to step_1 again when Step_2 is active and stop_PB is pressed. When step_1 is active and start_PB is pressed. step_2 should de-activate (kill-off) step_1. Do not worry about outputs at the moment.We want to have only one active step. the step after step_2. the need to on to the avtive state (therefore latch It) using step_1.

(Remember : no change in sequence. And so on) we can determine the outputs (i. Now that we have got the sequence. And step_2 and stop_PB goes back to step_1. When stop_PB is pressed. When start_PB is pressed. 2. Work the Outputs from right to left 1 START ON RED 2 STOP ON GREEN Step-1 ON RED Step-2 ON GREEN 1 START ON RED ON GREEN Step-1 ON RED ON GREEN Step-2 ON BUZZER 2 STOP ON BUZZER GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram . only the output). 3.Grafcet Design – Output How to do the output: 1. We can decide to turn on red_light in step_1 And turn on green_light in step_2 (if that is What is required). (sequence Ensures that step_1 and start_PB goes to step_2. (Remember : still no change in sequence. That means upon powering up of PLC (remember 1st_ cycle_ bit → hence the initial step : step_1). the red light turns. the red_light and green_light will turn on. OR We can decide to turn on the buzzer in step_2 and turn on both the lights in step_1. What happens at each step). and so on. So that when start_PB is pressed. only the output). red light turns on. green_light turns on.e.

That is work the output part of the ladder diagram from right to left. Even though the GRAFCET contains two instances of ON BUZZER The OUTPUT ladder diagram should contain only one instance of ON BUZZER. It is wise therefore to state the output first and see which steps need this output.OR Other examples. Step-1 ON GREEN 1 START ON RED ON GREEN Step-2 ON BUZZER 2 STOP ON RED ON BUZZER Step-1 Step-2 ON RED Inputs may be repeated Outputs Outputs may be in any order Step-1 ON RED 1 START ON RED ON BUZZER Step-2 Step-1 ON GREEN ON BUZZER 2 STOP ON GREEN ON BUZZER Step-2 No Repeated Outputs !! Note : Beware of repeated output in the ladder diagram program. GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

GRAFCET of the Press Stamp Done manually by operator Start PB 1 UNPROCESSED MATERIAL IN POSITION Material in position and cycle start Die Stamp ( steps ) 2 LOWER STAMP Stamp End of compression ( input = sensor ) RAISE STAMP Stamp 3 Stamp in high position LOWER DIE 4 ( outputs / actions ) Die in low position EVACUATE PART Stamp Die 5 Evacuation completed RAISE DIE Die 6 Die in high position GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

SEQUENCE 1st_cycle_bit Step-6 Step-1 Step-1 Step-2 Step-2 Step-3 Die-High Step-2 Material Step-3 End-High Step-4 Start Step-2 Step-1 Ladder Diagram of the Press Step-3 Step-3 Step-4 Stamp-High Step-5 Step-4 Step-4 Step-5 Die-Low Step-6 Step-5 Step-5 Step-6 Evacuate Step-1 Step-6 OUTPUT Step-2 Step-3 Step-4 Step-5 Step-6 Lower Stamp Raise Stamp Lower Die Evacuate part Raise Die GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

Moving a Wagon Left Side Start PB Right Side 1 Start PB pressed 2 Right Side reached 3 Left Side reached Move Wagon to the Left Move Wagon to the Right Moving A Wagon SEQUENCE 1st_cycle_bit Step-1 Step-3 Step-2 Left-side Start Step-3 Step-3 Step-2 Step-1 Step-2 Step-3 OUTPUT Move-right Move-left Step-1 Step-2 Step-2 Step-3 Right-side Step-1 GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .Project 1 .

Convert GRAFCET Ladder Diagram Use On Red Use R1 or Step 1 Use A+ Use Ext_A Sequence Output GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

Drill_low 5 Drill_ high Raise Drill 6 Retract Cylinder A Retract Cylinder B Cylinder A retracted . Drill-high Drill-Low Part / Material Cylinder B Cylinder A A+ sensors B+ A- BGRAFCET & Ladder Diagram . Cylinder B retracted sensors Drill Cylinder A and Cylinder B hold the material (part to be drilled) tightly while the drilling machine drills the hole.GRAFCET of the Drill 1 Run & System initialised System initialization : Retract Cylinder A Retract Cylinder B Off Green Light 2 On Green Light Extend Cylinder A Cylinder A extended 3 Extend Cylinder B Cylinder B extended 4 Lower Drill Step 4 / TIM001 / 3s .

Cyl B LOWER -DRILL Step-2 Step-3 Cyl.Project 2 Ladder Diagram of the Drill SEQUENCE 1st_cycle_bit Step-1 Step-6 Step-2 Cyl.B ret Step-3 Step-1 Step-2 Run Step-3 Initialise ? d Step-2 Step-4 OUTPUT Step-1 Step-2 ON GREEN LIGHT Ext . Cyl A Ext .A ext Step-4 Step-3 Step-5 RAISE-DRILL Step-6 Step-3 Step-4 Cyl.B ext Step-5 Step-4 Step-4 Step-5 Tim001 Step-6 Drill-Low Step-5 Step-4 Ret . Cyl A Ret . Cyl B TIM 001 3s Step-5 Step-6 Drill-high Step-1 Step-6 GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .A ret Cyl.

When the person has completed drying his hands. The heated air will continue to flow for a further 3 seconds before the heated air flow is turned off. When a pair of hands are placed just below the the Automatic Hand Dryer. heated air flow is turned on. Fill in the blanks : 1 2 3 Step 3 / Timer5 / 3s Inputs Presence of Hands Absence of Hands Outputs Off Hand Dryer On Hand Dryer Automatic Hand Dryer GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .Grafcet Design Automatic Hand Dryer The system incorporates a diffuse sensor to detect the the presence of a pair of hands. the removal or absence of hands will be detected.

Automatic Hand Dryer SEQUENCE 1st_cycle_bit Step-0 Step-2 Step-1 Tim005 Step-0 Presence Step-0 Step-1 DIF Step-2 Step-1 Absence Step-1 Step-2 DIF Step-0 Step-2 DIF (=ON) = Presence of hands OUTPUT Step-0 OFF HAND DRYER Step-1 Step-2 ON HAND DRYER Step-2 Timer5 3s GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

Example: 5 x y z 6 a Action A 8 c Action C 9 b 7 g Action G 10 d Action D 11 k Action E The above GRAFCET consists of a switch which allow to select one out of three possible sequences depend on the transition conditions x. y and z were true at the same time. the transition conditions must be mutually exclusive.GRAFCET with multiple selections A Grafcet is generally made up of several sequences (several series of steps that execute one after the other) and it is often necessary to exclusively select one of these sequences. GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram . In order to avoid this from happening. It is also possible to introduce the priorities among the different sequences. y and z. The different transitions corresponding with their conditions x. y and z may be enable simultaneously and they could be cleared simultaneously if the transition conditions x.

b 13 14 12 f.b and a.b 13 14 12 The transition 12-13 has higher priority than 12-14: the transition 12-13 will be cleared if both a and b are true at the same time.e 13 g 14 h 15 j f. a.b are mutually exclusive.m Action J 19 p Repeat 17-18 if condition n.m 18 Action M n.e Action E 16 k Action K Action G 17 l Action L Action H n.m is true. the transition from step 12 will not be cleared. GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram Action P Jump from step 12 to step 15 if condition f. a a. . If a and b are both present.b a.GRAFCET with multiple selections 12 The transition conditions a.e is true.m is not obtained and n.

SEQUENCE Step-4 Step-5 Step-5 Step-6 Step-6 Step-7 Step-5 Step-8 Step-5 Step-9 Step-9 Step-10 Step-7 Step-8 Step-10 Step-11 ? Step-6 x Step-7 a Step-11 y Step-11 z Step-10 b Step-11 g c d Step-12 Step-11 Step-10 Step-9 Step-8 Step-11 Step-7 Step-8 Step-9 Step-6 Step-8 Step-5 Step-6 Step-7 OUTPUT A G C Step-10 D E GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

GRAFCET : COIN TOSSER 1 TOSS COIN HEAD TAIL ON GREEN STEP-2-3/ Timer7 / 3s 3 ON RED 2 Input Label Head Tail Output Label TOSS COIN GREEN RED Addr X1 X2 Addr Y1 Y2 Y3 IO Listing or IO Address Assignment Table SEQUENCE 1st_cycle_bit Step-1 Step-2 Step-3 Step-2 Step-2 Step-3 Timer7 Step-1 OUTPUT TOSS COIN Step-1 Step-2 ON GREEN Step-3 Head Step-1 ON RED Step-1 Step-2 Step-2 Step-3 Step-3 Timer7 3s Step-1 Step-3 Tail Step-1 GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

GRAFCET: COMPONENT INSPECTION 1 START 2 PASS FAIL EXTEND PASS-PUSHER 3 4 EXTEND FAIL-PUSHER FAIL-PUSHER-EXT PASS-PUSHER-EXT 5 LOAD NEXT COMPONENT MATERIAL (IN POSITION) SOLUTION : Sequence & Output GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

1 : Detection of clasps on cardboard box GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram . The counter is reset (RESET_CTR) for every new box that arrives. TB IND (inputs) PLC INCR_CTR RESET_CT R (outputs) PLC input-output diagram Counter Fig. an inductive sensor (IND ) and a counter.(c) Design a GRAFCET for the following system in Fig 1 (initial step = step 1): Detection of clasps on cardboard box: The system incorporates a through-beam (TB) optical sensor. No other action need to be taken by the system based on the number of clasps detected. The counter serves only to show the number of clasps on each box that passes by. The presence of a new clasp increments the counter (INCR_CTR).

Solution : GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

being the optically denser medium. TB_Top TB_Bottom PLC (inputs) On Valve Off Valve (outputs) PLC input-output diagram Automatic On/Off Valve Emitters TB_Top Detectors TB_Bottom Fig. When the level falls below the lower limit. Note : The control of filling level through glass gauge makes use of the laws of refraction. the valve is turned on for a further 10 seconds before it is turned off. Q3d : Automatic Gauge Level Monitoring GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram . Without the fluid the sensor is activated. a valve situated on top of the gauge is turned on automatically to add more fluid. When the fluid level reaches above the upper limit. The fluid.(d) Design a GRAFCET for the following system in Fig Q3d (initial step = step 1): Automatic gauge level monitoring: The system incorporates two throughbeam (TB) optical sensors to monitor the level of the fluid in the stationary glass gauge as shown in Fig Q3d. breaks the light beam.

Solution : GRAFCET & Ladder Diagram .

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