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Analysis of an Analog Sallen Key Band Pass Filter Based On Particle Swarm

Optimization Technique

Akash kumar1 Arjun Kumar1 Sunny Kushwaha1 Prof. Anil Kumar Singh2

1

M.tech student, Electronics dept. Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology Sultanpur (U.P.)

2

Professor, Electronics Engg. Department, Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology, Sultanpur

Abstract: -In this paper, an active second order RC sallen (no inverting configuration). Another advantage of this

key band-pass filter is designed at different values of quality configuration is that the rate change of the largest resistor

factor Q. The center frequency of filter is taken 15 kHz. value to the smallest resistor value and the largest capacitor

Analog filters depend upon the values of Resistors and value to the smallest capacitor value are low, which means

Capacitors which are taken from the series following sustain component spread is low, which is good for manufacturability.

values selected. It is very difficult to search on all probable The frequency and Q terms are independent, but they are very

combinations of value choices for an optimized design. Thus sensitive to the gain.

this paper presents one of the evolutionary computation The Sallen-Key is very Q-sensitive to element values,

techniques i.e. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the especially for high Q sections.

design of above filter. PSO is a random algorithm which

provides optimal filter coefficients. PSO provides many PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION:

advantages such that total error function is reduced, simple Particle swarm optimization is a population based

implementation, enhanced search capability and provides stochastic optimization technique evolved by Dr. Eberhart and

fast response. Simulation study affirms that the proposed Dr. Kennedy in 1995, inspired by social behavior of bird

algorithm is accurate and gives fast results. Various results flocking or fish schooling.

acknowledge the superiority of the algorithm. PSO deals many similarities with evolutionary computation

Keywords:-Band-pass filter, Quality factor, center techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA). The system is

initialized with a population of random solutions and searches

frequency,Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), MATLAB

for optimized by updating generations. However, unlike GA,

PSO has no progression operators such as crossover and

INTRODUCTION:-

mutation. In PSO, the potential solutions, called particles, fly

Filters which process signals in a frequency domain. through the problem space by following the current optimum

particles. The detailed information will be given in following

The basic concept of a filter can be explained by examining

sections.

the frequency dependent nature of the capacitors and

inductors. Consider a voltage divider where the shunt leg is a Compared to GA, the advantages of PSO are that PSO is easy

reactive impedance. As we change the frequency, the value of to implement and there are few parameters to adjust. PSO has

the reactive impedance changes, and the voltage divider ratio been successfully applied in many areas: function

also changes. This mechanism leads to the frequency optimization, artificial neural network training, fuzzy system

control, and other areas where GA can be applied.

dependent change in the transfer function that is defined as the

frequency response.

The Sallen-Key topology, also known as a voltage control Mathematical Formulation

voltage source. It is one of the most widely used filter

topologies. This topologyis used becausethis configuration The particle swarm process is stochastic in nature; it

shows the least dependence of filter performance on the makes use of a velocity vector to update the current position of

each particle in the swarm. The velocity vector is updated

performance of the op-amp because op-amp is configured as

an amplifier, as opposed to an integrator, which reduces the based on the "memory" gained by each particle, conceptually

gain bandwidth requirements of the op-amp. This leads to resembling an autobiographical memory, as well as the

design a higher frequency filter than with other topologies knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole (Eberhart &

since the op-amp gain-BW product will not limit the Kennedy, 1995). Thus, the position of each particle in the

swarm is updated based on the social behaviour of the swarm

performance of the filter as it would if it were configured as an

which adapts to its environment by returning to promising

integrator. The signal phase through the filter is maintained

regions of the space previously discovered and searching for

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1229

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better positions over time. Numerically, the position x of a If the fitness value is better than the best fitness value (pBest)

particle iat iteration k+1 is updated as: in history

set current value as the new pBest

PSO simulates the behaviors of bird flocking. Suppose the

following scenario: a group of birds are randomly searching End

food in an area. There is only one piece of food in the area

being searched. All the birds do not know where the food is. Choose the particle with the best fitness value of all the

But they know how far the food is in each iteration. So what's particles as the gbest

the best strategy to find the food? The effective one is to

follow the bird which is nearest to the food. Foreach particle

PSO learned from the scenario and used it to solve the Calculate particle velocity according equation (a)

optimization problems. In PSO, each single solution is a "bird" Update particle position according equation (b)

in the search space. We call it "particle". All of particles have

fitness values which are evaluated by the fitness function to be End

optimized, and have velocities which direct the flying of the

particles. The particles fly through the problem space by While maximum iterations or minimum error criteria is not

following the current optimum particles. attained

PSO is initialized with a group of random particles (solutions)

and then searches for optima by updating generations. In every Particles' velocities on each dimension are clamped to a

iteration, each particle is updated by following two "best" maximum velocity Vmax. If the sum of accelerations would

values. The first one is the best solution (fitness) it has cause the velocity on that dimension to exceed Vmax, which is

achieved so far. (The fitness value is also stored.) This value is a parameter specified by the user. Then the velocity on that

called pbest. Another "best" value that is tracked by the dimension is limited to Vmax.

particle swarm optimizer is the best value, obtained so far by

any particle in the population. This best value is a global best Application to the Optimal Design of the Sallen Key Band

and called gbest. When a particle takes part of the population Pass Filter:

as its topological neighbors, the best value is a local best and

is called lbest. The architecture that has been used to implement the

After finding the two best values, the particle updates its second order band-pass filter is the Sallen-Key Topology. This

velocity and positions with following equation (a) and (b). topology is chosen due to its simplicity compared to other

known architectures such as multiple feedback and state

v[ ] = v[ ] + c1 * rand( ) * (pbest[ ] - present[ ]) + c2 * rand( ) variable. The circuit diagram below shows a second order

* (gbest[ ] - present[ ]) (a) Sallen-Key band pass filter:

(solution). pbest[ ] and gbest[ ] are defined as stated before.

rand ( ) is a random number between (0,1). c1, c2 are learning

factors. Usually c1 = c2 = 2.

Initialize particle

End

Fig.1: Second Order Sallen-Key Band-pass filter with Gain (A)

Do >1 [1]

For each particle

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1230

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

We use below specification for desired filter design. By using modifying the center frequency. A drawback is, however, that

these specification,the required filter characteristic is Q and A (gain at center frequency) cannot be adjusted

simulated with MATLAB: independently. When G approaches the value of 3, A and Q

tend to infinitely increase and cause the circuit to oscillate. As

Table 1: Sallen key band pass Filter specifications: G grows greater than 3, Q becomes negative and

Center Frequency 15 kHz consequently, A becomes negative too, thus from equation (4),

the s coefficient is equal to zero indicating that H(s) has

Stop band Attenuation -20 dB right half-plane poles [7]. This problem can be solved by

Pass Band Ripple 0.1 dB adding an input buffer that gives a gain adjustment so as to

10 mV just compensate for a Q adjustment with a change in the input

gain. This will increase the number of components used for

design and construction thereby raising the cost of the circuit.

Design Implementation Substituting, the above transfer function can be written in

standard form as:

The general transfer function of a second order band ( 0 /Q)

pass filter is given as: H(s) = (4)

2 + ( 0 /Q)s + 20

1

H(s) = (1) Let the design components be

2 +1 + 0

C = 10nF, R3 = 10k, R4 = 10k, fo = 15kHz

Where 1 , 1 and 0 are constants. R = 1/ (2**15000 * 10 x 10-9) = 1.06k

The transfer function of the second order Sallen-Key band G = 1 + (10/10) = 2

pass filter in Fig. 1 is: A = 2/ (3 - 2) = 2

Q = 1/ (3 2) = 1

H(s)=

2 2 5 Bandwidth = fo/Q = 15 kHz/ 1 = 15 kHz

2 1 2 1 2 5 + s [2 2 5 (1 G) + 2 1 5 + 2 1 2 + 1 1 2 ] + (1 + 2 )

(2) The transfer function:

188520

Equation (5) can be simplified by putting R1 = R2 = R, R5 = H(s) = 2 (5)

+94260 s + 8.88E09

2R, C1 = C2 = C this is known as the equal component Sallen-

Key band-pass filter [3]: The Quality factor can be varied by varying the gain G

through the resistor R4 or R3. In this paper, R3 is chosen to be

H(s) =

(3) constant at 10k, while R4 is chosen as the resistor to be varied.

2 2 2 + 3 +1 Thus, the different values of Q will be obtained for R4 = 10k,

16k, 17.5k, 18.75k, 19k, 19.9k from the table below:

Bandwidth () 0 /Q (k)

Op-amp gain (G) 4 Q 1.0 2.5 4 8 10 100

1+

3 Table 2: Values of R4 and respective Q

Gain at 0 (A)

3 By using the transfer function, the frequency response of the

Quality factor (Q) 1 filter at varying Qs can be plotted using MATLAB to verify

3 the design. The cutoff frequency ( , ) and the selectivity

factor (1 ,2 ) of filter, which depend only on the values of the

The poles of the transfer function are: passives components For comparison reasons, the

specification chosen here is: 1 =0.7654 2 =1.8478 The values

1,2 = [ (G 3)/RC {((3 G)/RC)2 + 4(1/RC)2 }] / 2 of the resistors and capacitors to choose must be able to

generate , , 1 and 2 approaching the specified values.

From equation (4) it can be seen that the quality factor is For this, define the Total Error (TE) which expresses the offset

governed by the term G (op-amp gain). Hence, the quality values, of the cut-off frequency and the selectivity factor,

factor (Q) can be varied via the inner gain (G) without compared to the desired values, by:

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1231

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

TE = + Q (6)

Where

+| |

=

1 1

Q = |1 | + |2 |

0.7650 1.8478

calculated for the different values of and . The decision

variables are the resistors and capacitors forming the circuit.

optimization of a second order Sallen-Key band pass filter.

The optimal values of resistors and capacitors forming the

considered filter and the performance. Associated with these

values for the different series are shown in Table 3: Simulation of PSO1.

performances

C 4 B.W Q 0

(pf () (KHz (KH . (K

) ) z) (KH Hz

z) )

PS 0. 0. 680 18. 14.02 15.9 1.95 7.6 15.

O 98 01 4.7 696 3 77 46 744 0

1 5 5

O 99 01 8.9 920 1 09 88 66 0

2

O 98 00 7.3 994 4 56 25 177 0

3 1 9

O 99 00 1.7 902 6 74 2584 .86 0

4 99 01 18

O 99 00 0.9 836 6 24 4886 364 0

5 98 01 9

5 5

O 99 00 3.6 903 7 73 5568 .34 0

6 99 00 94

3 7

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1232

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Simulation of PSO2.

Simulation of PSO4.

Simulation of PSO3.

Simulation of PSO6.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1233

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Applications, China water power press, Beijing, 2006.

[5] Bachir Benhala, Ant Colony Optimization for Optimal

Low-Pass Butterworth Filter Design, E-ISSN: 2224-266X

Volume 13, 2014.

and phase specifications using geneticalgorithm, in: 46th IEEE

International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems

MWSCAS 2003,

2003, pp. 648-651.

Benlahbib, A. Mecheqrane, M. Loulou, F. Abdi and E.

Abarkane, Application of the ACO Technique to the

Optimization of Analog Circuit Performances, book; Analog

Circuits: Applications, Design and Performance, Ed., Dr.

Tlelo-Cuautle, NOVA Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, pp. 235-

255.

: Simulation of PSO6.

[8] B. Benhala, A. Ahaitouf, A. Mechaqrane, B. Benlahbib, F.

CONCLUSION:

Abdi, E. Abarkan and M. Fakhfakh, Sizing of current

In this work an application of the Particle Swarm conveyors by means of an ant colony optimization technique,

Optimization is presented for optimal design of a Second The International Conference on Multimedia Computing and

Order Sallen Key Analog Band pass filter. Investigation for Systems (ICMCS'11), 201, pp. 899-904, Ouarzazate,

the selection of passive components has been done. The Morocco.

design of the analog filter with high accuracy and short

execution time is successfully realized using the PSO. It is [9] L. D. Paarman, Design and Analysis of Analog Filters,

shown that the tolerances of the spacing values associated to Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 2007.

the components affect significantly the performance of the

filter. MATLAB simulations confirm the validity of the

proposed algorithms. For the future work one can apply the

proposed PSO technique in dealing with the optimal design of

complex analog circuits.

REFERENCES:

Implementation Of An Active RC Band-Pass Filter At

Varying Quality Factors Using Matlab ,International Journal

of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 3, Issue 5, May

2014.

Algorithm for IIR Digital Filters Design,Journal of Circuits

and Systems, vol. 8, no. 4, 2003,pp.16-20.

Particle Swarm Optimization and Its improved Algorithm

Based on Chaos, Control and decision,2006,21(6):636-640,

645.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1234

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