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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

POWER SYSTEM MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF A COMBINED CYCLE


POWER PLANT USING ETAP
Ch. Siva Kumari1, D. Sreenivasulu Reddy2
1PG Scholar, Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
SreeVidyanikethan Engineering college, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Assistant Professor, Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,

SreeVidyanikethan Engineering college, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India.


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Abstract-This paper presents a methodology for keen plants, it refers to generated power is sold or supplied to
assessment of power supply reliability and quality of various customers and not for its own use. Combined
electrical network. Now a days power supply reliability cycle power plant is a type of captive power plant and it
and quality are major concern. Study of electrical power is the combination of steam turbine and diesel turbine.
system is an essential element in power system planning Each captive power plant has to be tailor made to suit
and design. The power system studies are conducted for particular customer/industry need. It includes setting up
ensuring the designed network is meeting the required and commissioning of generators, hooking up with grid,
specifications and standards with respect to safety, catering to the power plant auxiliaries as well as
flexibility in operation, etc.,. In this paper the major customers industrial loads to ensure availability of
emphasis will be given on performing load flow analysis, adequate reliable power supply to the industry.
short circuit analysis, transient stability analysis and relay
coordination. These analyses are done in this paper by 1.1 Designing Objectives:
using ETAP (Electrical Transient Analyser Program).
While designing a captive power plant and offerings as a
Key Words: ETAP software, over current relays, relay business solution, following are the major objectives to
settings, relay coordination and Transient stability be met:
analysis.
i. Ensuring optimization in equipment selection.
1. INTRODUCTION ii. Identifying and rectifying deficiencies in the system at
the design stage itself before it goes into operation.
Availability of various generation sources such as iii. Analysing different power plant operating scenarios
conventional and non-conventional sources. These for economic operation.
sources can significantly impact the power flow and iv. Establishing system performance and guarantees.
voltage profile as well as other parameters at customers v. Ensuring safe and reliable operation.
and utility side. Electrical networks/installations are vi. Establishing the provisions of the systems future
designed based on national and international standards expansion plans.
depending on the type of the project and its
requirements. In addition, some initial FEED (Front End 2. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM USING ETAP
Engineering Design) studies are taken before the system
single line diagram is frozen. The power system Studies Fig. 1 shows the combined cycle power plant consisting
are essential to pre-confirm the parameters of various of two steam turbine generators (STG) with a capacity of
equipments/components of the planned electrical 36MW each, two gas turbine generators (GTG) with a
facility. In electrical power systems, most of the electrical capacity of 34.5MW each and it is connected to grid [1].
parameters variation occurs dynamically due to sudden Different loads are connected at different bus levels
addition or sudden tripping of generators. The (33KV, 6.6KV, 415V). Different types of loads are lump
faulted/disturbance occurred part of the network is loads, HT motors and LT motors. Lump loads are the
isolated by analysing the electrical power system. combination of 70% motor load and 30% non-motor
load operating with a power factor of 0.88 lag. IEC
Electrical power generation broadly classified into standard ETAP software library data [2] is considered as
two types based on the utilization of power. The first one default data for impedances of the system components.
is captive power plants, it refers to power generated
from the plant set up by an industry is used for its own
exclusive consumption. Second one is utility power
3. LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS AND ITS
RESULTS
2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1331
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Checking of the system performance i.e., checking of the


adequacy of all system component ratings, transformer
sizes and their impedances and tap changer settings
under a variety of operating conditions including
contingency conditions [1]. The main objective of the
load flow analysis [3] is determination of the steady state
active and reactive power flows, current flows, system
power factor and system voltage profiles (magnitudes
and phase angles of load and generator bus voltages).
Fig. 2 shows the load flow analysis results of a combined
cycle power plant.

STG 1 STG 2 GTG 1 GTG 2


GRID I/C-1 36 MW 34.5 MW 34.5 MW
15242 MVAsc 36 MW

CB5 CB9 CB11


CB1 CB3

GEN TRAFO-1 GEN TRAFO-2 GEN TRAFO-4 GEN TRAFO-5


GRID TRAFO-1 50 MVA 50 MVA 50 MVA 50 MVA
50 MVA 11/34.5 kV 11/34.5 kV 11/34.5 kV 11/34.5 kV
220/33 kV 15.62 %Z 15.49 %Z 15.53 %Z 15.47 %Z
15 %Z
CB15
CB10 CB12
CB2 CB4
33 KV BUS-A 33KV BUS-B CB6
33 kV 33 kV

CB19 CB23
CB21 CB129
CB20
CB22
SAT-3 SAT-4
SAT-1 31.5 MVA 31.5 MVA
31.5 MVA 33/6.9 kV SAT-2 33/6.9 kV
33/6.9 kV
12.13 %Z
12.01 %Z 31.5 MVA 12.33 %Z
33/6.9 kV
100 MVA 12.13 %Z
60 MVA CB29 Open
Lump1
Lump16
CB24
6.6KV BUS A (BOARD 1) 6.6KV BUS B (BOARD 1) CB26 6.6KV BUS B(BOARD 2)
6.6 kV Open CB27 6.6KV BUS A(BOARD 2) 6.6 kV
6.6 kV 6.6 kV
CB25
CB28
CB30 CB31 CB32 CB33 CB34 CB35 CB36 CB37 CB38 CB39 CB40 CB41 CB42 CB43 CB44 CB60 CB61
CB45 CB46 CB47 CB48 CB49 CB50 CB51 CB52 CB53 CB55 CB57 Open CB62 CB63
CB54 CB56 Open CB58 Open
Open CB59

UAT-4 CAP-3
2.5 MVA
UAT-1 6.6/0.433 kV
3000 kvar
CAP-4
2.5 MVA 10.48 %Z
S/S-1-I/C2 BFP-HRSG-2 BFP-HRSG-3(S/B)CTP-2(S/B) GBC-2(S/B) 3000 kvar
S/S-1-I/C1 BFP-1(S/B)
3125 kVA BFP-2 CC-2 CC-3(S/B)
6.6/0.433 kV CWP-2(S/B) CAP-2 ACW-1 CTP-1 GBC-1 BFP-UB-1(S/B) BFP-HRSG-1 FD FAN-UB-1 BFP-UB-3 750 kW ACW-2(S/B) FD FAN-UB-2
3125 kVA 850 kW CC-1
CWP-1 CAP-1 UAT-7 315
650 kW 1250 kW3000 kvar 10.53 %Z 850 kW 650 kW 650 kW 1250 kW 3000 kvar 360 kW
2.5 MVA kW 750 kW 1750 kW 910 kW 1200 kW 910 kW 910 kW 315 kW 1750 kW 360 kW 1200 kW
UAT-3 UAT-2 6.6/0.433 kV
2.5 MVA UAT-5 10.55 %Z UAT-6
2.5 MVA 6.6/0.433 kV 2.5 MVA 2.5 MVA
6.6/0.433 kV 10.35 %Z 6.6/0.433 kV 6.6/0.433 kV
10.57 %Z 10.54 %Z UAT-8 10.28 %Z
2.5 MVA
6.6/0.433 kV
10.4 %Z
CB97

CB66

BUS-A(BOARD1)
0.415 kV
CB64
CB65 Open
BUS-B(BOARD1)
0.415 kV
BUS-A(BOARD 3)
0.415 kV
CB99 CB98
Open
BUS-B(BOARD 3)
0.415 kV
Fig-2: Load flow analysis results
CB67 CB68 CB69 CB70 CB71 CB72 CB92
UPS1 CB91 CB93 CB94 CB95 CB96 CB100 CB101
CB102
CB103 CB104
Open

4. SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS AND ITS


BOIL-1. 144 kVA
CB124 CB126 CB125 71.9 kVA Open
Open HRSG-2. CB344 CB345
CB107 CB109
HRSG-2LCO-1 AUG. AF-1 LCO-2 AUG. AF-2(S/B) 800 kVA CB286
75 kW 55 kW CB105 CB108

FAULTS
800 kVA 75 kW 55 kW CB106 LUBE-2 STG-2
BUS 58 ASB (CUS) 110V UPS-1 LUBE-1 STG-1 LUBE-1 STG-2BSCWP-1 -1. ACELDB. ACELDB 110 UPS-2 ASB(CUS) 110V UPS-3
BUS 57 71.9 kVA 144 kVA BUS-A(BOARD 4) BUS-B(BOARD 4) BUS 76 90 kW Open LUBE-2 STG-1 BOIL 71.9 kVA 144 kVA 71.9 kVA 144 kVA
0.415 kV 0.415 kV
0.415 kV
90 kW 90 kW 90 kW 0.415 kV 90 kW 71.9 kVA 71.9 kVA
0.415 kV
BUS-A(BOARD 5) BUS-B(BOARD 5)
0.415 kV 0.415 kV
Lump2 Lump3
160 kVA 160 kVA
Lump6 Lump7
85 kVA 85 kVA

CB73
CB74
CB75
Open
Lump8
460 kVA
CB112
Lump9
185 kVA
Lump10
185 kVA
CB111
Fault level (short circuit) analysis are used to determine
both maximum and minimum three phase faults and
BUS-A(BOARD 2) BUS-A(BOARD 6) CB110 Open
BUS-B(BOARD 2) BUS-B(BOARD 6)
0.415 kV 0.415 kV 0.415 kV 0.415 kV

earth fault level at all switch boards under fault make


CB81 CB82 CB115 CB116 CB118
CB77 CB79 CB80 CB86 CB87 CB113 CB114
CB76 CB78 CB83 CB84 CB85 Open CB117
CB88 CB90 CB89

and fault break conditions including the dc component


0.415 kV CB120 CB119
Open 0.415 kV
BOIL-3
BUS 66 BOIL-2. 71.9 kVA 220V DC-2
BUS 67 BOARD 8 71.9 kVA
LT HEAT-1 0.415 kV
71.9 kVA

[4]. Types of short circuit faults are line to ground (LG)


CB121 BOIL-3.
BOIL-2 LUBE-3 LUBE-4 220V DC-1 71.9 kVA
MHU-1 RCC CTID-1 RCC CTID-2 RCC CTID-3 MHU-2 LT HEAT-2 RCC CTID-4 Mtr1 RCC CTID-6 90 kW 71.9 kVA
71.9 kVA 90 kW CB122
110 kW 55 kW 110 kW 110 kW 110 kW 110 kW 55 kW 110 kW 75 kW 110 kW

Lump4
235 kVA
Lump5
235 kVA
BUS-A(BOARD 7)
0.415 kV
Lump11
542 kVA BUS-B(BOARD 7)
0.415 kV
fault, line to line (LL) fault, double line to ground (LLG)
Lump12
125 kVA
CB123
Open
Lump13
125 kVA
fault, three phase (LLL) fault and three phase to ground
(LLLG) fault.
Fig-1: Single line diagram of combined cycle power
plant IEC standards use the following definitions, which
are relevant in the calculations and outputs of ETAP for
Short circuit analysis.

Initial Symmetrical Short Circuit Current (IK): This is


the RMS value of the AC symmetrical component of an
available short circuit current applicable at the instant of
short circuit if the impedance remains at zero time value.

Peak Short Circuit Current (Ip): This is the maximum


possible instantaneous value of the available short
circuit current.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1332
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Symmetrical Short Circuit Breaking Current (Ib): This 415V BUS-B (BOARD 3) 0.25 37.97
is the RMS value of an integral cycle of the symmetrical
AC component of the available short circuit current at 415V BUS-B (BOARD 6) 0.25 38.32
the instant of contact separation of the first pole of a
switching device.

Steady-State Short Circuit Current (Ik): This is the RMS The following table-2 and table-3 gives the short
value of the short circuit current, which remains after circuit fault currents and voltages at different bus boards
the decay of the transient phenomena. considering LLG Fault and three phase fault respectively.

Voltage Factor (c): This is the factor used to adjust the Table-2: Fault currents at different buses
value of the equivalent voltage source for minimum and considering LLG Fault
maximum current calculations.
FAULTED BUS VOLTAGE FAULT CURRENT
4.1 CALCULATION METHODS: (KV) (KA)
33KV BUS-A 19.67 31.9
Initial Symmetrical Short Circuit Current Calculation:
Initial symmetrical short-circuit current (Ik) is 6.6KV BUS-A 5.64 0.311
calculated using the following formula: (BOARD 1)
415V BUS-A 0.26 37.26
cU n (BOARD 1)
I
''
k
3Z k 415V BUS-B 0.25 35.93
Eqn (1) (BOARD 3)

Where, Zk is the equivalent impedance at the fault 415V BUS-B 0.26 36.1
location. (BOARD 6)

Peak Short Circuit Current Calculation: Peak short- Table-3: Fault currents at different buses
circuits current (ip) is calculated using the following considering LLL Fault
formula:
FAULTED BUS FAULT CURRENT (KA)
i p 2kI k'' 33KV BUS-A 33.1
Eqn (2)
6.6KV BUS-A (BOARD 1) 25.9
Where, k is a function of the system R/X ratio at the fault 415V BUS-A (BOARD 1) 46.1
location.
415V BUS-B (BOARD 3) 40.5
In this paper, we considered three faults i.e., LG, 415V BUS-B (BOARD 6) 41.1
LLG and three phase faults at randomly considered
buses. The following table-1 gives the short circuit fault
current at different buses considering LG Fault.
5. TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS
Table-1: Fault currents at different buses
considering LG Fault Determination of the system response due to different
disturbances which are the source of instability i.e.,
FAULTED BUS VOLTAGE FAULT CURRENT which lead to loss of synchronism or stalling or
(KV) (KA) overloading of generators and motors. Switching
transients [5] are mostly associated with mal-
33KV BUS-A 19.76 32.07 functioning of circuit breakers and switches, switching of
capacitor banks and other frequently switched loads.
6.6KV BUS-A (BOARD 1) 6.55 0.63
In this we considered that three phase fault is
415V BUS-A (BOARD 1) 0.26 41.09 occurred at 0.5 Sec on 33KV bus, then the system may
goes into unstable condition. After making some trails
we can conclude that the critical clearing time [6] is 0.74
2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1333
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Sec i.e., the system is stable if the fault is cleared before relays which are placed at different branches in the
0.24 Sec after the fault is created otherwise the system network. In this paper, we considered the relays of
goes into unstable condition. The following fig. 3 and fig. relay140, relay146, relay157, relay198, relay205 and
4 shows the power angle of the system and speed of the relay 382 and the characteristics of these all relays are
generator respectively. shown in following fig. 5.

Fig-3: Power angle

Fig-5: Characteristics of relays

Plug setting multiplier (PSM) and time setting


multiplier (TSM) are to be calculated for the co-
ordination of the relays. The definitions which are
relevant in the calculations and outputs of ETAP are as
Fig-4: Generator speed follows:

6. RELAY CO-ORDINATION TMS adjusts the operating time of the relay. If the TMS
value is low then the operation of relay is fast.
Typical power system comprises number of important
equipments which have to be protected. In order to Fault current
PSM =
provide sufficient reliable protection to ensure smooth Plug setting X CT ratio
working of power system, installation of relay and circuit
...Eqn (3)
breaker sets are required. Primary protection relay
must operate within its pre-determined time period [7].
In this paper we considered that if the three phase
In case of failure of primary protection relay operation
fault is occurred at lump load of 235KVA which is
which may be because of any reason, back-up protection
connected at bus6, then the relays will operate as
[8] has to take care by its operation and hence relay
follows:
coordination is very important to minimize the outages
which are occurring frequently. Over current relays [9]is
one of the most important protection devices in the
captive power plants. The primary protection and
backup protection are provided by co-ordinating the

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1334
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 06 | June-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3. Rohankapahi, Load flow analysis of 132kV


substation using ETAP software, IJSER, volume 4,
Issue 2, Feb 2013.
4. Bruce L. Graves Short Circuit, coordination and
harmonic studies Industry Applications Magazine,
IEEE Volume:7, Issue: 2, PP:14-18, Publication Year:
2001.
5. Jignesh S. Patel, Manish N. Sinha, Power System
Transient Stability Analysis Using ETAP Software,
National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering
& Technology, 13-14 May 2011.
6. Lewis G. W. Roberts, Alan R.Champneys, Keith R. W.
Bell, Mario di Bernardo, Analytical Approximations
of Critical Clearing Time for Parametric Analysis of
Power System Transient Stability, IEEE Journal on
Emerging And Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems,
Vol.5, No.3, PP:465-472, September 2015.
7. Prof. vipul N. Rajput, Prof. Tejas M. vala, Co-
ordination of over current relays for chemical
industrial plant using ETAP, International journal of
futuristic trends in Engineering and Technology,
vol.1(2), PP.36-39, 2014.
8. BhuvaneshOza, Nirmalkumar Nair, Rashesh Mehta,
Vijay Makwana, Power System Protection &
Switchgear Tata McGraw Hill Education Private
limited, New Delhi, 2010.pp 1-50, 175-270.
9. PrashantP.Bedekar, Sudhir R. Bhide, and Vijay S.
Kale, Coordination of Overcurrent Relays in
Distribution System using Linear Programming
Technique, IEE International conference on Control,
Automation, Communicated & Energy Conservation
June 2009.
Fig-6: Relay co-ordination of the system

7. CONCLUSION
Thus, in this paper, we have modelled the combined
cycle power plant in the ETAP software and different
power system analyses are done in single network. The
network is very complicated, so the calculations cant
able to do by hand calculation. ETAP is very helpful to
reduce the malfunctioning of network and to increase
the efficiency of the system by operating proper relay co-
ordination within less time.

REFERENCES :

1. Raja Nivedha.R, Sreevidya.L, V.Geetha, R.Deepa,


Design of Optimal Power System Stabilizer Using
ETAP, International Journal of Power System
Operation and Energy Management, ISSN (PRINT):
22314407, Volume-1, Issue-2, 2011.
2. https://ETAP.com.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1335