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1.

0 OBJECTIVES

At the end of this experiment, we will able to:

1. Applied knowledge that has been studied in class into the real life application.

3. Prove the theory with evidence based on calculation and experiment.

4. Analyse data of fluid flow at any point we want to observe in a pipe that related to
Bernoullis Principle.

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3.0 THEORY

Bernoullis principle is an important principle involving the movement of a fluid

through a pressure difference. It can be considered to be a statement of the conservation of
energy principle appropriate for flowing fluids. This principle shows the relation among the
pressure, velocity, and elevation in a moving fluid (liquid or gas), the compressibility and
viscosity (internal friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is steady or laminar
[1]. It states that an ideal fluid or for situations where effects of viscosity are neglected, with
no work being done on the fluid, the total energy is constant. This principle also states that the
sum of all forms of energy in a fluid flowing along an enclosed path (streamline) is the same
at any two points in that path [2].

In Bernoullis principle, we assume that the pressure, speed and height at two points
are in a steady-flowing, non-viscous, incompressible fluid. The equation is the sum of the
pressure energy, kinetic energy and potential energy:

1 1
+ 2 + = + 2 + +
2 2

Bernoullis principle also states that there will an increment in the speed of the fluid
simultaneously with a drop in pressure or a decrease in the fluids potential energy and the
pressure increases when the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate if a non-viscous flow along
a pipe of varying cross section [3]. Hence, the pressure of fluid will decreases when the velocity
of flowrate increases. This can be expressed in the following equation:

2
+ + = =
2

where:

v = Mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section

2
z = Elevation head of the centre at the cross section with respect to a datum

One of the fundamental principles used in the analysis of uniform flow is known as the
Continuity of Flow. This principle can be expressed in the continuity equation. The continuity
equation of continuity states that for an incompressible fluid flowing in a tube of varying cross-
section, the mass flow rate is the same everywhere in the tube [4]. The continuity equation can
be written as

where

= Density

A = Cross-sectional area

V = Velocity

The flow rate of whole system is the same. Thus, the flow rate in theoretical method is
represented by:

where:

Q = Flow rate,

V = Average velocity of fluid flow.

The head loss of the piping system is also important. If we could find out the head loss,
we could get the energy loss in the system and make adjustment. The head loss can be obtained
by using two important equations which are continuity equation and Bernoulli equation. The
continuity equation is used to substitute into the Bernoulli equation in order to obtain the head
loss.

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4.0 LIST OF EQUIPMENT

PVC Pipe, PVC Glue, contraction valve, container, stopwatch, two ball pen shells, ruler,
measuring cylinder and pipe water.

a. The apparatus is setup as shown in Figure 1.

b. Water is filled into the container until full and the valve is closed tightly to prevent
water from flowing out of container.
c. The stopwatch is started as the valve is opened. When the water filled 5 m3, the
stopwatch is stopped.
d. Once the height of water levels at Tube A and Tube B are stable, the heights are
measured from the datum to the end of water level.
e. The time taken for water to reach 5 m3 and the heights of water level in Tube A and
Tube B are recorded in Table 1.
f. The head loss is calculated by using formula and is recorded in Table 1.
g. The steps above are repeated using different volume of water which is 10 m3, 15 m3,
20 m3 and 25 m3.

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6.0 RESULT

(m3)

The equation of measuring flow rate is:

where:

V = Volume of water

t = Time taken reaching the setting fluid volume head loss

1 1
2 [ ( )2 ( )2 ]

= ( ) +
2
where:
= Heights of water level in Tube A
= Heights of water level in Tube B
Q = Water flow rate
A = Cross-sectional area of pipe
g = Gravitational force

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MINUTES OF MEETING

Members Present: Lee Kent

Lai Jun Jet
Haslinda binti Habe
Megat Luqman bin Megat Wazir

Members Apologies: -

Guests: -

Agenda Item #1: Tittle of the project

Discussion: To determine the title of the project and the type of experiment that we are going
to conduct.

Action: Finally we decided to choose title Flow Rate and Head Loss.

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Announcements: -

Next Meeting: 04/10/2017

11am-1pm
Fluid Mechanics laboratory

Minutes Prepared By: Haslinda binti Habe

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Gantt Chart

1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Division of group members
Students are divided into groups

Discussion
Discuss the title of the
experiments that are going to be
conducted

2 Design
Design the apparatus
Discuss about where to find all
the apparatus needed

3 Fabricate an apparatus
Assemble the apparatus

4 Do the experiment
Conduct the experiment using
the apparatus
Do the calculation

5 Prepare the full report

Draft the report content
Collect the materials
Distribution of project report
Prepare the slide presentation

6 Final presentation
Submit the final report
Present the project

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REFERENCES

1. Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill,2011.

2. Yunus A. Cengel and John M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and
Applications, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2014.
3. John F. Douglas, Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, Prantice Hall, 2011.
4. Robert W. Fox, Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition, John Wiley, 2012.