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The objective of this experiment is to:

1. Determine the flow rate of fluid.

2. Determine the head loss of the flowing system.

3. Determine the suitable condition in applying Bernoullis Principle.

4. Check the understanding of student in learning process.

5. Prove theory based on experiment, observation, data processing and information.


At the end of this experiment, we will able to:

1. Applied knowledge that has been studied in class into the real life application.

2. Understand concept of Bernoullis Principle clearly.

3. Prove the theory with evidence based on calculation and experiment.

4. Analyse data of fluid flow at any point we want to observe in a pipe that related to
Bernoullis Principle.


Bernoullis principle is an important principle involving the movement of a fluid

through a pressure difference. It can be considered to be a statement of the conservation of
energy principle appropriate for flowing fluids. This principle shows the relation among the
pressure, velocity, and elevation in a moving fluid (liquid or gas), the compressibility and
viscosity (internal friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is steady or laminar
[1]. It states that an ideal fluid or for situations where effects of viscosity are neglected, with
no work being done on the fluid, the total energy is constant. This principle also states that the
sum of all forms of energy in a fluid flowing along an enclosed path (streamline) is the same
at any two points in that path [2].

In Bernoullis principle, we assume that the pressure, speed and height at two points
are in a steady-flowing, non-viscous, incompressible fluid. The equation is the sum of the
pressure energy, kinetic energy and potential energy:

1 1
+ 2 + = + 2 + +
2 2

Bernoullis principle also states that there will an increment in the speed of the fluid
simultaneously with a drop in pressure or a decrease in the fluids potential energy and the
pressure increases when the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate if a non-viscous flow along
a pipe of varying cross section [3]. Hence, the pressure of fluid will decreases when the velocity
of flowrate increases. This can be expressed in the following equation:

+ + = =


P = Fluid static pressure at the cross section

= Density of the flowing fluid

g = Acceleration due to gravity

v = Mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section

z = Elevation head of the centre at the cross section with respect to a datum

h = Total (stagnation) head

One of the fundamental principles used in the analysis of uniform flow is known as the
Continuity of Flow. This principle can be expressed in the continuity equation. The continuity
equation of continuity states that for an incompressible fluid flowing in a tube of varying cross-
section, the mass flow rate is the same everywhere in the tube [4]. The continuity equation can
be written as


= Density

A = Cross-sectional area

V = Velocity

The flow rate of whole system is the same. Thus, the flow rate in theoretical method is
represented by:


Q = Flow rate,

A = Cross sectional area of pipe

V = Average velocity of fluid flow.

The head loss of the piping system is also important. If we could find out the head loss,
we could get the energy loss in the system and make adjustment. The head loss can be obtained
by using two important equations which are continuity equation and Bernoulli equation. The
continuity equation is used to substitute into the Bernoulli equation in order to obtain the head


PVC Pipe, PVC Glue, contraction valve, container, stopwatch, two ball pen shells, ruler,
measuring cylinder and pipe water.


Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of Pipe System

a. The apparatus is setup as shown in Figure 1.

b. Water is filled into the container until full and the valve is closed tightly to prevent
water from flowing out of container.
c. The stopwatch is started as the valve is opened. When the water filled 5 m3, the
stopwatch is stopped.
d. Once the height of water levels at Tube A and Tube B are stable, the heights are
measured from the datum to the end of water level.
e. The time taken for water to reach 5 m3 and the heights of water level in Tube A and
Tube B are recorded in Table 1.
f. The head loss is calculated by using formula and is recorded in Table 1.
g. The steps above are repeated using different volume of water which is 10 m3, 15 m3,
20 m3 and 25 m3.


Volume Time (s) Q (m3/s) LA (m) LB (m) LA-LB (m) hL


Table 1 Collection of Data Experiment

Formula for calculation;

6.1 Flow Rate

The equation of measuring flow rate is:


V = Volume of water

t = Time taken reaching the setting fluid volume head loss

6.2 Head Loss

1 1
2 [ ( )2 ( )2 ]

= ( ) +
= Heights of water level in Tube A
= Heights of water level in Tube B
Q = Water flow rate
A = Cross-sectional area of pipe
g = Gravitational force


Chapter Name: Flow Rate

Date/Time of Meeting: 27 September 2017 (11am - 1pm)

Location of Meeting: Fluid Mechanics Laboratory

Members Present: Lee Kent

Lai Jun Jet
Haslinda binti Habe
Mohamad Afiq bin Ahmad
Megat Luqman bin Megat Wazir

Members Apologies: -

Guests: -

Reading and Approval of Minutes: 12pm

Agenda Item #1: Tittle of the project

Discussion: To determine the title of the project and the type of experiment that we are going
to conduct.

Action: Finally we decided to choose title Flow Rate and Head Loss.

Agenda Item #2: Writing a proposal.

Discussion: We distribute the proposal task among our group members.

Action: Mohamad Afiq bin Ahmad Objective and Learning Outcome.

Lai Jun Jet Theory.

Lee Kent - List of Apparatus and Experiment Procedure.

Megat Luqman bin Megat Wazir Result.

Haslinda binti Habe Minutes of Meeting and Gantt chart.

Announcements: -

Future Agenda Items: To design the apparatus.

Next Meeting: 04/10/2017

Fluid Mechanics laboratory

Minutes Prepared By: Haslinda binti Habe

Gantt Chart

No Tasks Weeks
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Division of group members
Students are divided into groups

Discuss the title of the
experiments that are going to be
Distributions of proposal task

2 Design
Design the apparatus
Discuss about where to find all
the apparatus needed

3 Fabricate an apparatus
Assemble the apparatus

4 Do the experiment
Conduct the experiment using
the apparatus
Take the reading
Do the calculation

5 Prepare the full report

Draft the report content
Collect the materials
Distribution of project report
Prepare the slide presentation

6 Final presentation
Submit the final report
Present the project


1. Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill,2011.

2. Yunus A. Cengel and John M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and
Applications, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2014.
3. John F. Douglas, Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, Prantice Hall, 2011.
4. Robert W. Fox, Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition, John Wiley, 2012.