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0 OBJECTIVES

1. Applied knowledge that has been studied in class into the real life application.

4. Analyse data of fluid flow at any point we want to observe in a pipe that related to

Bernoullis Principle.

1

3.0 THEORY

through a pressure difference. It can be considered to be a statement of the conservation of

energy principle appropriate for flowing fluids. This principle shows the relation among the

pressure, velocity, and elevation in a moving fluid (liquid or gas), the compressibility and

viscosity (internal friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is steady or laminar

[1]. It states that an ideal fluid or for situations where effects of viscosity are neglected, with

no work being done on the fluid, the total energy is constant. This principle also states that the

sum of all forms of energy in a fluid flowing along an enclosed path (streamline) is the same

at any two points in that path [2].

In Bernoullis principle, we assume that the pressure, speed and height at two points

are in a steady-flowing, non-viscous, incompressible fluid. The equation is the sum of the

pressure energy, kinetic energy and potential energy:

1 1

+ 2 + = + 2 + +

2 2

Bernoullis principle also states that there will an increment in the speed of the fluid

simultaneously with a drop in pressure or a decrease in the fluids potential energy and the

pressure increases when the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate if a non-viscous flow along

a pipe of varying cross section [3]. Hence, the pressure of fluid will decreases when the velocity

of flowrate increases. This can be expressed in the following equation:

2

+ + = =

2

where:

2

z = Elevation head of the centre at the cross section with respect to a datum

One of the fundamental principles used in the analysis of uniform flow is known as the

Continuity of Flow. This principle can be expressed in the continuity equation. The continuity

equation of continuity states that for an incompressible fluid flowing in a tube of varying cross-

section, the mass flow rate is the same everywhere in the tube [4]. The continuity equation can

be written as

where

= Density

A = Cross-sectional area

V = Velocity

The flow rate of whole system is the same. Thus, the flow rate in theoretical method is

represented by:

where:

Q = Flow rate,

The head loss of the piping system is also important. If we could find out the head loss,

we could get the energy loss in the system and make adjustment. The head loss can be obtained

by using two important equations which are continuity equation and Bernoulli equation. The

continuity equation is used to substitute into the Bernoulli equation in order to obtain the head

loss.

3

4.0 LIST OF EQUIPMENT

PVC Pipe, PVC Glue, contraction valve, container, stopwatch, two ball pen shells, ruler,

measuring cylinder and pipe water.

b. Water is filled into the container until full and the valve is closed tightly to prevent

water from flowing out of container.

c. The stopwatch is started as the valve is opened. When the water filled 5 m3, the

stopwatch is stopped.

d. Once the height of water levels at Tube A and Tube B are stable, the heights are

measured from the datum to the end of water level.

e. The time taken for water to reach 5 m3 and the heights of water level in Tube A and

Tube B are recorded in Table 1.

f. The head loss is calculated by using formula and is recorded in Table 1.

g. The steps above are repeated using different volume of water which is 10 m3, 15 m3,

20 m3 and 25 m3.

4

6.0 RESULT

(m3)

where:

V = Volume of water

1 1

2 [ ( )2 ( )2 ]

= ( ) +

2

where:

= Heights of water level in Tube A

= Heights of water level in Tube B

Q = Water flow rate

A = Cross-sectional area of pipe

g = Gravitational force

5

MINUTES OF MEETING

Lai Jun Jet

Haslinda binti Habe

Mohamad Afiq bin Ahmad

Megat Luqman bin Megat Wazir

Members Apologies: -

Guests: -

Discussion: To determine the title of the project and the type of experiment that we are going

to conduct.

Action: Finally we decided to choose title Flow Rate and Head Loss.

6

Action: Mohamad Afiq bin Ahmad Objective and Learning Outcome.

Announcements: -

11am-1pm

Fluid Mechanics laboratory

7

Gantt Chart

No Tasks Weeks

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 Division of group members

Students are divided into groups

Discussion

Discuss the title of the

experiments that are going to be

conducted

Distributions of proposal task

2 Design

Design the apparatus

Discuss about where to find all

the apparatus needed

3 Fabricate an apparatus

Assemble the apparatus

4 Do the experiment

Conduct the experiment using

the apparatus

Take the reading

Do the calculation

Draft the report content

Collect the materials

Distribution of project report

Prepare the slide presentation

6 Final presentation

Submit the final report

Present the project

8

REFERENCES

2. Yunus A. Cengel and John M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and

Applications, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2014.

3. John F. Douglas, Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, Prantice Hall, 2011.

4. Robert W. Fox, Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition, John Wiley, 2012.

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