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CE2007 - Functional Design of Buildings

Module 3
Vertical Transportation (Building Services)
Mr. Ramesh Nayaka, (M.Tech. - IITM)
Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering
National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala
India - 673601
Vertical Transportation ??
To provide an accessible path, leading from one level to
another by targeting to meet the needs of all target groups.
What is a stair and its components??
A stair is a series of steps, each elevated a measured distance,
leading from one level of a structure to another.
Stair parts and terms
Unit rise
Unit run
Total rise
Stair well
Total run
Winding stairs
Run of stairs or flight
Straight run
Wall rail
Newel Post
1. Headroom: The clear space between the floor line and ceiling.
2. Tread: Horizontal walking surface of a stair
3. Riser: The vertical stair member between two consecutive stair treads.
4. Unit rise: The height of the stair riser; the vertical distance between two treads.
5. Unit run: The width of a stair tread minus the nosing.
6. Total rise: Vertical distance from one floor to another
7. stringer: A stringer to which blocking has been added to form a base for adding treads and risers.
8. Stairwell: The rough opening in the floor above to provide headroom for stairs.
9. Total run: The horizontal distance occupied by the stairs; measured from the foot of the stairs to a point directly
beneath where the stairs rest on a floor or landing above.
1. Platform: A horizontal section between two flights of stairs. Also called a landing.
2. Winding stairs: A curving stairway that gradually changes direction; usually circular or elliptical in shape. Also called
3. Run of stairs: A series of steps that is a continuous section without breaks formed by landings or other constructions.
Also called a flight of stairs.
4. Straight run: A stairway that does not change direction.
5. Winders: Wedge-shaped treads installed where stairs turn.
6. Handrail: A pole installed above and parallel to stair steps to act as a support for persons using the stairs. also called
a stair rail.
7. Baluster: The vertical member (spindle) supporting the handrails on open stairs.
2. Newel: The main post at the start of a stair and the stiffening post at the landing.
3. Nosing: The part of a stair tread that projects beyond the riser
Balustrade: An assembly with a railing resting on a series of balusters that, in turn, rest on a base, usually the treads
Wall rail: In closed stairs, the support rail that is
Types of Stairs
All steps lead in one direction
This may be continuous with two flights
with an intermediate landing
Adopted when staircase is narrow and
Provided mostly in porch, entrance etc.

Consist of two straight flights running in
opposite directions
There is no space between the flights in
Landing is provided at level which
direction of flight changes
Types of Stairs
These stairs may have any geometrical
shape and they require no newel post
This type of stair is similar to open newel
stair except the well formed between
forward and backward flight is curved
Change of direction in such stairs is
achieved by winders and not by landings

all the steps are radiate from a
newel post or well hole
all the steps are winders
this is provided where space is
limited and traffic is casual
mostly located at rear of building
Types of Stairs
A stair turning through 90 with the
help of level landing
Used in shops and public buildings


Popularly known as open well
A well or opening is left between
forward and backward flight
The opening is generally used
for installation of lift
A short flight may or may not
provided in these stairs
Design Consideration
the width of the landing should not be less than the width of stairs

Width of stairs
Residential:-0.8 to 1 m
Public :- 1.8 to 2 m
Residential:-220-250 mm
Public:- 250-300mm
Not less than 200mm in any case

residential:-150-180 mm
Public:- 120-150mm
Not more than 200mm in any case

Should not be more than 38
Dimensions of a Step
Comfortable ascent and descent
Thumb Rules
(2 x Rise in cm) + (Going (tread) in cm) = 60
(Rise in cm) + (Going in cm) = 40 to 45
(Rise in cm) x (Going in cm) = 400 to 450
Adopt Rise = 14 cm and Going = 30 cm as standard;
then for every 20 mm subtracted from going, add 10 mm to the

Residential building = 16 cm x 26 cm

Public building = 17 cm x 24 cm
Requirements of a Good Stair
Provide easy, quick and safe mode of communication between the floors.
Following are the general requirements which a stair should fulfill.
Location :
It should be so located as to provide easy access to the occupants
It should be so located that it is well lighted and ventilated directly from
the exterior.
It should be so located as to have approaches convenient and
Width of Stair:
It should be wide enough to carry the user without much crowd
and in convenience.
Depends upto its location in the building and type of the
In a domestic building, a 90cm wide stair in sufficient while in
public building, 1.5 m to 1.8 m width may be required.
Length of flight:
The number of steps are not more than 12 and not less than 3.
Pitch of stair:
a comfortable slope is achieved when twice rise plus going is
equal to 60 cm approx. pitch should however, be limited to 30o
degree to 45O
Head Room:
Clear space between tread and soffit of the flight immediately
above it should not be less than 2.1 to 2.3 m.
Open well stair should always be provided with balustrade, to
provide safety to users.
Step dimensions:
the rise and tread should be of such dimensions as to provide
comfort to the users. Their proportion should also be such as
to provide pitch of the stair. The going should not be less than
25 cm, though 30 cm going is quite comfortable. The rise
should be between 10 cm to 15 cm. The width of landing should
not be less than width of stair.
Materials of Construction :
The materials used for stair construction should be such as to
provide a) Sufficient strength and b) fire resistance
Stairs of Different Materials
Light in weight and easy construct, but poor fire resistance
Used for small rise residential buildings, unsuitable for high rise
residential and public buildings. Hardwood ( oak, mahogany etc.)
It should be free from fungal decay and insect attack.
Widely used where ashlar stone is readily available.
Quite strong and rigid, though they are very heavy.
Stone should be hard, strong and resistance to wear and fire
resistance also.
Stone stairs may have following types of steps:
1. Rectangular steps with rebated joint.
2. Spandril steps
3. Tread and riser steps
4. Cantilever tread steps
5. Built up steps
Very common except at entrance.
It contains either solid wall or arched openings may be left for
obtaining storage space.
Frequent maintenance.
Mild steel or cast iron steel are used only as emergency stairs.
Not common, though they are strong and fire resistant.
R.C.C stairs are the one which widely used for residential, public
and industrial buildings.
Strong, hard wearing and fire resisting.
Usually cast in situ, and a variety of finishes can be made on
R.C.C stairs may be divided into two categories
1. Stair with slab spanning horizontally.
2. Stair with slab spanning longitudinally.
Design of a staircase.
Plan a dog legged stair for a building in which the vertical
distance between the floor is 3.6 m. the stair hall measures 2.5 m
x 5m.

Shows the plan of a stair hall of a public building, which

measures 4.25 m x 5.25 m. the vertical distance between the floor
is 3.9 m.
Elevator has been used in buildings having more than 4 stories.
Lift An appliance designed to transport persons or
materials between two or more levels in a vertical or
substantially vertical direction by means of a guided car or
platform. The word elevator is also synonymously used for
Lift Car The load carrying unit with its floor or platform,
car frame and enclosing bodywork.
Lift Landing That portion of a building or structure used
for discharge of passengers or goods or both into or from a lift
Lift Machine The part of the lift equipment comprising the
motor and the control gear therewith, reduction gear (if any),
brake(s) and winding drum or sheave, by which the lift car is
raised or lowered.
Lift Pit The space in the lift well below the level of the
lowest lift landing served.
Lift Well The unobstructed space within an enclosure
provided for the vertical movement of the lift car(s) and any
counterweight(s), including the lift pit and the space for top
Lift Well Enclosure Any structure which separates the lift
well from its surroundings.
Passenger Lift A lift designed for the transport of
Position and/or Direction Indicator A device which
indicates on the lift landing or in the lift car or both, the
position of car in the lift well or the direction or both in which
the lift car is traveling.
Rated Load (Lift) The maximum load for which the lift
car is designed and installed to carry safely at its rated

Rated Speed (Lift) The mean of the maximum speed

attained by the lift car in the upward and downward
direction with rated load in the lift car.
Overview of Types of Elevators

Generally Two Categories

Traction (Electric)
Virtually limitless rise (high & mid rise)
High speeds, but high installation cost

Limited to heights of about 60 ft. (6 stories)
Lower speeds
Lower initial cost higher power consumption

The systems are distinguished primarily by their hoisting mechanisms.

Overview of Types of Elevators

Generally Two Categories

Traction (Electric)
Geared Traction

Drive shaft is connected to the sheave

by gears in a gear box. Geared traction
systems are designed to operate in the
range of 100 to 500 fpm, which restricts
their use to mid rise buildings.
Overview of Types of Elevators

Generally Two Categories

Traction (Electric)
Geared Traction
Gearless Traction

Gearless traction systems are designed

to operate in the range of 350 to 1200
fpm and typically installed in high-rise
buildings. Greater speeds are also
Overview of Types of Elevators

Generally Two Categories

Holed Hydraulic

In-ground cylinder extends to a depth

equal to the rise of the elevator cab.
Current codes require double-bottom
cylinders with leak detection and
Overview of Types of Elevators

Generally Two Categories

Holed Hydraulic
Holeless Hydraulic

Holeless hydraulic elevators use a

telescoping hydraulic piston as the
driving machine, eliminating the need
for an in-ground cylinder. Currently
limited to a height of about 3 stories.
Overview of Types of Elevators

Generally Two Categories

Holed Hydraulic
Holeless Hydraulic
Roped Hydraulic

Roped holeless hydraulic elevators use

a telescoping hydraulic piston and a
hoist rope and pulley system to increase
speed and travel heights.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Major Components
Machine Room

Machine rooms for traction elevators generally

located directly above the hoistway. Hydraulic
elevator machine rooms typically located at the
basement or lowest level adjacent to the hoistway.
Hydraulic Elevators

Telescoping Plunger

Hydraulic Tank /

Car Buffer
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Machine Room

Hoist Machine
Can be geared traction machines
in which the power from the
motor is transmitted to the drive
sheave through reduction gears,
or a gearless machine in which
the hoist ropes pass over a
traction drive sheave which is an
integral part of the armature.
The grooved wheel of a traction-type hoisting machine over which
the hoist ropes pass, and by which motion is imparted to the car and
counterweight by the hoist ropes.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Machine Room

Hoist Machine
Hoist Motor

Also called drive machines and

used for traction elevators.
They are the power units that
apply the energy to the hoist
machines. Can be AC or DC.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Machine Room

Hoist Machine
Hoist Motor
Generators are electro-
mechanical devices that
convert mechanical energy
to electrical energy (usually
direct current).
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Machine Room

Hoist Machine
Hoist Motor

A mechanical speed control mechanism. Usually a wire-rope driven

centrifugal device used to stop and hold the movement of its driving
rope. This initiates the activation of the car safety device. It opens a
switch which cuts off power to the drive motor and brake if the car
travels at a preset overspeed in the down direction.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Machine Room

Hoist Machine
Hoist Motor

A device, or group of devices, which serve to control, in a

predetermined manner, the floor selection, drive speeds, car
selection and general operation of the elevators.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Machine Room

Hoist Machine
Hoist Motor
Switches to disconnect the power to the controller and cab lights and
located in the machine room.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Hoistway / Pits

Roller Guides

Roller guides or guide rails are

steel T-section with machined
guiding surfaces installed
vertically in a hoistway to guide
and direct the course of travel
of an elevator car and elevator
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Hoistway / Pits

Roller Guides

A weight that counter-balances the

weight of an elevator car plus
approximately 40% of the capacity
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Hoistway / Pits

Roller Guides
Door Interlocks

An electro-mechanical device that prevents operation of an elevator

unless the hoistway doors are in the closed and locked position; and
prevents opening of a hoistway door from the landing side unless the
elevator is in the landing zone and is either stopped or being stopped.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Hoistway / Pits

Roller Guides
Door Interlocks
Top of--Car Station

Controls on the top of the car used by an elevator maintenance

contractor to operate the car at inspection speed. It provides a
means of operating an elevator from on top of the car at slow speed
during adjustment, inspection, maintenance and repair.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Hoistway / Pits

Roller Guides
Door Interlocks
Top of Car Station
A device designed to stop a descending car beyond its normal limit
of travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic
energy of the car. Spring buffers are used for elevators with speeds
less than 200 fpm. Oil buffers (for speeds greater than 200 fpm) use a
combination of oil and spring to cushion the elevator.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Elevator Cabs

Cab Finishes

Decorative features in a
passenger elevator including
carpet or other flooring, wall
panels, door finishes, ceilings
and lighting.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Elevator Cabs

Cab Finishes
Cab Controls
A car-operating panel with a
faceplate that is mounted in a fixed
(non-swing) panel or sidewall.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Elevator Cabs

Cab Finishes
Cab Controls
Safety Features
Door Safety Edges
Two way communication devices in the
cab required by ADA and national
elevator codes for safety.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Elevator Cabs

Cab Finishes
Cab Controls
Safety Features
Door Safety Edges

A door protective and automatic door reopening device, used with

automatic power door operators.
Elevator Components & Descriptions

Elevator Cabs
Cab Finishes
Cab Controls
Safety Features
Door Safety Edges
The Door Operator monitors the
Door Operators speed and position of the car
doors and compares performance
against standards. Deviations in
kinetic energy during door travel
is corrected within milliseconds.
Preliminary Design or Design Consideration

P.S: Complete description refer NBC-

NBC-2005 (Part 8)
No. of lifts and handling capacity
Number of floors to be served by the lift; Floor to
floor distance;
Population of each floor to be serve~ and Maximum
peak demand; this demand maybe unidirectional,
unidirectional, as
in up and down peak periods,
periods, or a two-
two-way traffic
Preliminary Lift Planning
population or the number of people who require lift
Design Consideration
handling capacity of the maximum flow rate required
by these people.
interval or the quality of service required.
Average population density can vary from about one person per 4 m2
to one person per 20 m2
Quantity of service
Design Consideration

Quality of service

Traffic peak
The minimum size of car recommended for a single purpose buildings
is one suitable for a duty load of 884 kg. Generally, for large office
buildings cars with capacities up to 2040 kg are recommended
according to the requirements.
Design Consideration

Design Consideration
Preliminary Design of Elevator
The handling capacity is calculated by the following formula:

H = Handling capacity as the percentage of the
peak population handled during 5 min period,
Q = Average number of passengers carried in a car,car,
T = Waiting interval in seconds, and
P = Total population to be handled during peak
morning period. (It is related to the area served by a
particular bank of lifts).
Preliminary Design of Elevator

The waiting interval is calculated by the following

T = Waiting interval in seconds,
N = Number of lifts, and
RTT = Round trip time, that is, the average time required by
each lift in taking one full load of passengers from ground
floor, discharging them in various upper floors and coming
back to ground floor for taking fresh passengers for the next
Escalator A power driven, inclined, continuous stairway
used for raising or lowering passengers.
Named Escalator by Charles
Seeberger in 1897 by combining
the latin word for steps scala and
Charles Seeberger sold rights
to Otis Elevator Company in 1902
which is currently the dominant player in the industry.
Most applications include department stores, airports,
shopping malls, convention centers, hotels, and public
One of the largest, most expensive machines people use
on a regular basis, but also one of the simplest.
Escalator Installation
It includes the escalator, the track, the trusses or girders,
the balustrading, the step treads and landings and all
chains, wires and machinery directly connected with the
operation of the escalator.
Features of escalator (Benefits)
Escalators are required to provide continuous mass transport
of people.
Escalators in department stores rise at an angle of between
(30-35). The 35 escalator is more economical, as it takes
up less surface area.
Have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they
can be placed in the same physical space as one might install
a staircase.
Have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic)
They can be used to guide people toward main exits or
special exhibits, and may be weatherproofed for outdoor use.
Escalator speeds vary from 90 180 ft per minute, an
escalator moving 145 ft per minute can carry more that 10,000
people in an hour
Escalator operation and operating guidelines
As the escalators operate at a constant speed, serve only two levels
and have a known maximum capacity, the traffic study is rather easy.
Provided the population to be handled in a given time is known, it is
easy to predict the rate at which the population can be handled.
Regularly (at least monthly) apply a silicone friction reducer on skirt
Document any unusual noises or vibrations.
Remove any debris
Monitor for broken comb teeth
Always remove the start-up key from the "on direction.
If an escalator or moving walkway makes an automatic emergency
stop, perform a detailed equipment check before returning to
Do not permit overloading of passengers or freight.
Do not permit the use of an inoperative escalator as a stairway
Design Consideration
For normal peak periods, the recommended handling capacities for
design purposes should be taken as 3200 to 6400 persons per hour
depending upon the width of the escalator.
In accordance with a worldwide standard, the width of the step to be
used is 60 cm (for one person width)80 cm (for one- to two people
width) and 100 cm (for two people width).
The theoretical capacity then is: 3 600x (rated speed in m/s x k)/O.4
K = 1, 1.5 or 2 for 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 m step widths.
Escalator Arrangements
Crisscross Arrangement
Parallel Arrangement
Escalator Arrangements
Ramps are sloping surface that can be used to provide an easy
connection from floor to floor especially when large numbers of
people or vehicles are moving from time to time.

Ramps are adopted for buildings, such as stadiums, railroad

stations, exhibition halls, garage buildings, etc.

it is generally built with slopes up to 15% (15 cm in 100 cm) but

10% is preferred. With 10% slope and a storey height of 12 feet
a ramp connecting two floors would have to be 120 feet long.

It can be curved, zigzagged, u-shaped or spiraled and bin all

cases should be constructed with a non-slip surface.
Design Consideration
An exterior location is preferred for ramps. Indoor ramps are not
recommended because they take up a great deal of space.
Ideally, the entrance to a ramp should be immediately adjacent
to the stairs.
Ramps configuration
Design Consideration
The minimum width should be 0.90 m.
Design Consideration
Ramps should be provided with landings for resting,
maneuvering and avoiding excessive speed.
Landings should be provided every 10.00 m, at every change of
direction and at the top and bottom of every ramp.
A protective handrail at least 0.40 m
The ramp surface should be hard and non-slip.
Tactile marking
A colored textural indication at the top and bottom of the ramp
should be placed to alert sightless people as to the location of the
The marking strip width should not be less than 0.60 m.
Moving walks
Inclined ramps
B.C. Punmia; Ashok Kumar Jain; Arun Kumar Jain (2005).
Building Construction." . Lakshmi Publishers Limited, New
Delhi 110002.

National Building Code (2005) Published By Bureau of

Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar
Marg, NEW DELHI 110002.
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