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Class G and H basic oilwell cements

John Bensted describes the nature, requirements and usage of the above

Summary pressures up to 140 MPa (20 000 psi)s. The use of one
Class G and H oilwell cements are discussed in some cement type on the rig site is important logistically for a
detail. The concept of their being basic oilwell cements smooth sequence of cementing operations during well
- in being able to be tailored to cope with a wide range drilling.
of well cementing conditions, by including suitable The older definition refers to Class G and H cements
dosages of appropriate additives to the particular being suitable for use down to 8000 ft (2440 m) as
cement slurries - is explained in terms of the cement manufactured, but this is not included in the new
quality requirements. Differences between these two definition. The reason for this is that the depths and
oilwell cement classifications, their specifications and a associated bottom hole circulating and static
description of other properties deemed desirable by the temperatures quoted previously in API Specification 10
users, such as adequate slurry rheology, are outlined, so were originally based upon data obtained from 71 wells
as to demonstrate the practical context in which these in the South Western United States and Gulf of Mexico
cements have to be utilised. regions. In other parts of the world where drilling
operations take place, different geothermal temperature
Introduction gradients exist, so that the API data relating specific
Previous articles in this series have discussed the API depths to bottom hole temperatures and pressures are
(American Petroleum Institute) retarded oilwell cements not truly valid in these locations. For this reason, all
of Classes D, E and Fl and the rapid-hardening oilwell references to specific well depths have been deleted in
cement of API Class C used for extending cement the latest specification.
slurries without encountering segregation (bleeding) The chemical and physical requirements for Class G
problem@. In the present work, the basic oilwell cements and H cements are given in Tables 1 and 2 respectively,
of Classes G and H are described. These latter two There are no differences in chemical and physical
Classes are the most extensively employed oilwell requirements, except that for the physical and per-
cements around the world for the cementing of oil- and formance requirements the mix water is 44% by weight
gas-wells. They are therefore the most important oilwell of cement for Class G and 38% for Class H.
cements within the API classification systems.
Characteristics of Class G and H cements
Definitions of Class G and H cements 1. What then is the difference between Class G and
Both these Classes of oilwell cement have the same
Class H cement?
definition. They are currently defined in API Specification
lOA as follows: In general Class H cements are more coarsely ground
0 The product obtained by grinding Portland cement sulphate-resisting Portland cements than Class 6
cements. Surface areas of Class H cements are
clinker, consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium commonly in the range 220-300 m2/kg (with some even as
silicates, usually containing one or more of the forms of low as 190 m2/kg), whilst for Class G cements the surface
calcium sulphate as an interground addition. No area range is usually 270-350 m2/kg (with some as highas
additions other than calcium sulphate or water, or both, 380 m2/kg). Surface areas of Class G cements from the
shall be interground or blended with the clinker during same manufacturing source as Class H cements are
manufacture of Class G/H well cement. This product is indeed more finely ground. However with cements from
intended for use as a basic well cement. Available in different sources, where clinker phases (through the use
moderate sulphate-resistant (MSR) and high sulphate- of different raw materials, fuels and processing) may
resistant (HSR) Grades. have different reactivities, a particular Class G cement
It is not defined what a basic well cement is. may indeed be coarser than a particular Class H cement.
The previous definition4of these two classes of oilwell The key factors in determining which class a basic
cements was as follows: oilwell cement belongs to are the performance tests,
conducted at 44% water for Class G and 38% water for
0 Intended for use as a basic well cement from surface Class H cements.
to 8000 ft (2440 m) depth as manufactured, or can be
used with accelerators and retarders to cover a wide 2. Are HSR Class G/H cements better than their MSR
range of well depths and temperatures. No additions counterparts?
other than calcium sulphate or water, or both, shall be The problem of whether HSR Class G or H cements are
interground or blended with the clinker during manu- intrinsically better than their MSR counterparts again
facture of Class G/H well cement. Available in moderate cannot be generalised. Sometimes HSR Class G or H
and high sulphate resistant types. cements are better in terms of their rheological
Cements in the Classes G and H shall be defined as properties than the corresponding MSR Class G or H
the product obtained by pulverising clinker consisting cements from the same plant. This can arise in respect of
essentially of hydraulic calflum silicates to which no the C,A (aluminate phase) content of the cement. In HSR
additions other than calcium sulphate or water, or both, cements the C3A content is limited to 3%, whilst in MSR
shall be interground or blended with clinker during cements the C,A limit is 8%. In MSR cements if the Cd
manufacture. content is high (= 6.5% or more) then cement slurries can
,Here the concept of a basic oilwell cement was inferred become more thixotropic than is desirable, even if the
as one which could be used with accelerators and cement is still within specification. This problem can
retarders to cover a wide range of well depths and often be overcome, or at least minimised, by keeping the
temperatures. Individual well conditions may require the CBA content as low as possible. Other factors like C$
use of slurries with densities ranging from = 1.0 to ~2.4 reactivity, free lime, free magnesia etc. also affecl
kg/l 8-20 lb/US gal), pumping times from 2 to 6 hours, rheological behaviour, so the level of C3A cannot be
temperatures from freezing to ~200 C (~400 OF) and considered in isolation.

44 WORLD CEMENT APRIL 1992


In the exacting well cementing environment of the Classes.
North Sea, only HSR basic cements have been used, until The chemical analysis and physical tests would have
recently Class G but now sometimes Class H in addition. been the same as those for Class G and H cements. The
This does not mean that MSR cements would not work proposal was not accepted, because in the different
satisfactorily. It means that because &A content is operational areas of the world, most users were satisfied
limited to 3% or below, one of the potential causes of with the existing basic cements of Class G and Class H
high thixotropy in cement slurries has been controlled. and had extensive data bases of cement slurry
However, even when &A level is kept low a Class G or H formulations, which would have been less useful for
cement slurry can still be thixotropic if other factors are comparisons with a Class L cement based upon a
not suitably controlled5s6. Generalisations cannot be different water water requirement.
made across the board, because there are numerous 4. Does oilwell cement quality depend upon the type of
instances of some MSR Class H cement having better manufacturing process, viz. wet, semiwet, semidry or
rheological properties than other HSR Class H cements. dry?
Similar comments apply to comparisons of MSR and
HSR Class G cements too. Again, one cannot generalise with clear-cut answers. At
In the United States, MSR cements of Class H and one time in older plants it was probably easier to control
Class G have traditionally been preferred, but now the manufacturing process when it was wet rather than
increasingly HSR cements of both Class H and G are dry. However, with modern and updated plants involving
being produced and used in well cementing. This has computerised process technology, the type of manufac-
arisen because rheological parameters have sometimes turing process should not matter from the oilwell cement
been easier to control in the HSR cements because of quality angle. Each particular cement plant can be
the inherently lower C,A content. Sometimes MSR adapted to produce good quality oilwell cement with the
cements are more convenient to manufacture as a right process technology and staff skills, so the actual
particular works raw materials may not need iron oxide type of process per se should not present any inherent
additions to produce them, whereas for the HSR cements disadvantages.
such additions and maybe those of some silica sand as
well as usually necessary to produce the required CBA Points arising from these questions
content. Clearly one cannot depend upon generalisations of basic
cement Class, level of sulphate resistance or the kind of
3. Why are there two basic oilwell cement types - Class manufacturing process to determine which oilwell
G and Class H? cements give the best downhole cementing performance.
The reasons for this are historical and began within the Suitably simulated performance tests are the only true
United States. The original concept of the basic oilwell guide for assessment of which particular, individual
cement was developed in California, where a standard Class G/H cements are acceptable at a given time for a
water requirement of 44% by weight of cement was set, given situation.
and this was called Class G. However, in the more
traditional oil areas of Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana Manufacture
there was concern about this, since they liked the 38% Oilwell cements are manufactured using the normal raw
water requirement of the medium and deep oilwell materials and processes employed as for ordinary,
cements of Classes D, E and F which was well under- moderate or high sulphate resistant Portland cement.
stood. Accordingly there was an insistence upon having The compound composition obtained will, of course, vary
a water requirement of 38% for a basic cement. Certainly within the set limits of the appropriate specification,
in areas like South Louisiana they wanted a basic oilwell depending upon the targets set by the manufacturer. This
cement like the Class D, E and F cements, but without takes into consideration the materials and plant avail.
added retarders. The API then agreed to have a second able, as well as the route which gives the best quality
basic oil well cement with a fixed water requirement of control. Figure 1 shows an aerial view of a cement plant
38% for standard testing, which was designated Class where HSR Class G cement is produced.
H. Originally only the MSR Class H cement was fully The manufacture of oilwell cement is summarised by
sanctioned, the HSR designation being tentative for reference to the basic cement Class G. Certain
some time before being fully accepted. An interesting modifications are necessary in comparison with the
point is that in practice in cementing formulations, Class production of sulphate-resisting Portland cement for the
H cement is often utilised at higher water levels than construction industry. Construction cements need to be
38% by weight of cement - sometimes as high as 46% more reactive so that satisfactory compressive strength
or even more. Also, Class G cement is commonly used at development can be achieved at early stages, whilst for
water levels other than 44% by weight of cement. oilwell cementing the cements need to be less reactive to
Traditionally Class H cement has been employed for give an adequate placement time that can allow for
well cementing in most of the United States, with Class stoppages, and also to prevent excessive quantities of
G cement being used in California, the Rocky Mountain additives like retarders and dispersants being necessary
region and Alaska. Elsewhere in the world Class G to control the rate and manner of thickening of the
cement has generally been preferred as the basic oilwell cement slurry. For consistency of response to the effect
cement. In the North Sea, HSR Class G cement was the of additives, during oilwell cement manufacture,
only basic oilwell cement type utilised until recently, variations in materials, proportioning and processing
when HSR Class H cement also began to appear on the must be minimised at all stages during the process. The
scene. In the United States MSR cements of Class G and onus is on the manufacturer to consistently maintain a
H have been used, as mentioned above, but now HSR good housekeeping policy at the plant.
Class G and H too cements are increasingly making their Class G cement is made from a raw meal containing a
appearance. MSR Class H cement is also produced in calcareous component (such as chalk or limestone), an
Venezuela6, where it is extensively employed. argillaceous component (clay or shale), a source or iron
Some years ago the API proposed to rationalise the oxide (such as haematite or pyrites residues) and, if
two basic oilwell cements of Class G and Class H into necessary, a small addition of quartz sand to allow
one. It was suggested that there should be just one basic sufficient silica to be present in toto in the raw meal. The
oilwell cement, to be called Class L, which would be composition of the raw meal is designed to produce a
tested for physical (cementing) requirements at a water clinker of suitable reactivity for oiiwell cement usage. For
level of 42% by weight of cement, in between that HSR as opposed to MSR Class G cement, relatively more
already pertaining to Class G and H cements, and thus iron oxide needs to be incorporated in the raw feed to
be able to supersede these two established basic produce more ferrite phase at the expense of tricalcium

46 WORLD CEMENT APRIL 1992


ire 1. Aerial view of a cement factory where HSR Class G oilwell cement is manufactured.

aluminate. These components are ground together to development of compressive strength, poor handling
achieve a fine homogeneous mix either with water in a problems, normally faster thickening, and a greater
slurry (wet process) or in a grinding mill in the dry state susceptibility to aeration. Slowly cooled clinker also
Mry process). From the slurry tanks or grinding mills the gives rise to a faster setting (thickening) cement.
raw meal is fed to a rotary kiln, where it is burnt to the After cooling, the clinker is ground with ca. 24%
point of incipient fusion (ca. 1400-1450 C). Combination gypsum in a grinding mill to produce a Class G cement
is completed and a clinker is produced, which is cooled with a surface area in the range ~270350 mYkg. The
on leaving the kiln. The free lime content of the clinker grinding temperature should be kept as low as possible
should not exceed ca. 1% for low MgO cements or ca. to minimise dehydration of gypsum to hemihydrate or
0.5% for high MgO cements, otherwise the cement is soluble anhydrite. Excessive gypsum dehydration can
likely to have poor retardation, rheology and fluid loss cause two problems: (i) false set or early stiffening, which
properties. Worldwide there are some individual can give rise to rheological problems during pumping
exceptions to this, but in general this is a useful rule-of- and/or placing: (ii) extra sulphate ions in solution in the
thumb guide. slurry which can accelerate alite (tricalcium silicate)
Oil and gas are commonly used kiln fuels, although hydration and thus cause the cement to be unacceptably
coal or lignite of low ash content and some petroleum reactive. Gypsum addition is normally kept low, giving a
coke may be used if reducing conditions within the kiln total cement SO3 content within the range 1.7-2.3%
can be avoided. Reduction causes some change of iron (again to minimise the acceleration of the hydration
(ill) to iron (II), as a result of which less ferrite phase is reaction of alite with sulphate). Higher SO3 levels may be
formed and more tricalcium aluminate is produced than tolerated if the total alkali content is low.
would normally be expected. The iron (II) substitutes for Class H cement is produced by a similar process,
calcium in the clinker phases being formed, which except that the clinker and gypsum are ground relatively
creates more difficult combinability and necessitates coarser than for a Class G cement at the same plant, to
?arder burning. Overburning should in any event be give a cement with a surface area generally in the range
avoided, because it produces a clinker insufficiently 220300 mYkg. Experience involved in the production of
qactive from the oilwell cementing viewpoint. In MSR Class H oilwell cement has been described6.
addition. reduction in the kiln assists dissociation of
alkali sulphates present in small quantities, which Quality control
causes the released alkali metal ions to become Generally speaking, for oilwell cement usage, higher
incorporated in solid solution in the main clinker phases. levels of product quality and of quality control at the
Such incorporation in the tricalcium aluminate phase plant are required than for the different types of Portland
alters its chemical reactivity and causes potential cements made for the construction industry. This is
deliquescence in the clinker produced. Sulphur dioxide necessary because of their being subjected to more
woduced by the effects of the volatilisation may assist in exacting conditions of reaction-thickening and
producing undesirable kiln build-ups and possible hardening - under different conditions of temperature
blockages. The overall effects of reduction on the cement and pressure downhole.
are to give rise to poor rheological properties, poor The API have introduced a specification for quality
- -. ___._.
KIRLD CEMENT APRIL 1992 47
programmes, API Specification Q17. However, this is not merely a setting time under controlled pressure and
fully compatible with the IS0 9000 series. Under the API- temperature conditions, designed to simulate the
IS0 liaison, this matter is being looked into with a view to conditions under which given cement slurries are
API Specification Ql and IS0 9001 being made fully pumped into position downhole. The need for a
compatible. maximum consistency of 30 Bc during the first 15.30
It needs to be emphasised that the basic oilwell minutes of this test is an indicator that Class G and H
cements of Class G and Class H are expected to perform cement slurries should be sufficiently fluid to enable
satisfactorily over a wide range of well conditions5. In pumping downhole into position in the annulus to be as
usage, they are commonly mixed with different types of trouble-free as possible. An example of a Schedule 5
additives for producing satisfactory slurry performances thickening time curve for an MSR Class H cement is
in given wells. Details of such additives have been shown in Figure 2.
described5. Consequently such cements need to give The compressive strength minimum requirements for8
consistent batch-to-batch performance wherever hours at atmospheric pressure at 100 F (38 C) and
possible, in order to optimise well cementing operations. 140 OF (60 C) of 300 psi (2.1 MPa) and 1500 psi (10.3 MPa)
respectively are well above the minimum values required
Chemical requirements (Table 1) to support a metal casing in the well (generally = 150 psi)
These are the same for both Class G and Class H and thus represent a valuable inbuilt safety margin.
cements, differences lying in the MSR and HSR require- The free water test has now been renamed the free
ments for both classes of oilwell cement. fluid test and is a measure of the amount of bleedina that
C$.S is limited to 4858% for MSR cements and 4865% takes place under the test conditions.
for HSR cements to assist with obtaining cements of
reasonable batch-to-batch consistency. Total alkali
content is limited to 0.75% Na,O equivalent and SO3 to Table 2. API Specification 10A: Physical and performance
requirements for Class G and Class H cements
3.0% for guarding against over-reactive cements. MgO is
limited to 6.0% as a precaution against unsoundness. Mix water (% by weight of cement)
C,A is limited to 8% for MSR cements and 3% for HSR - Class G 44
cements. Maximum requirements for loss-on-ignition - Class H 38
(3.0%) and insoluble residue (0.75%) are taken from Schedule 5 Thickening Time (minutes) 90-120
ASTM construction cement requirements and are
Maximum consistency during first 15-30
indirectly useful parameters for maintaining product minutes of Schedule 5 test (Bc) 3Omax
quality.
No free lime limits are specified, although it is well Compressive strength L psi (MPa)
- 8 hours, atmospheric pressure,
known that high free lime can create difficulties with 100 OF (38 C) 300 (2.1) min
cement slurry rheology and retarder response. As a - 8 hours, atmospheric pressure,
general rule-of-thumb, free lime should normally be 140 OF (62 C) 1500 (10.3) m
below 0.5%, although up to 1.0% may be satisfactory if Free fluid (ml) 3.5 max
the total MgO content of the cement lies below 1.5%.
A free lime limit of 2.0% is actually specified in the
Brazilian standard for Class G oilwell cement*. Although
this limit may appear to be on the high side, it reflects the Other performance tests
national Class G cements where free lime can lie well Operators and cementing service companres normally
above 1.0% and the cement can still be satisfactory in want Class G and H cements to perform well beyond
use, due to the specific conditions pertaining to the these specification limits. As a result, many cement
cements concerned. manufacturers often undertake additional retardation
tests using appropriate API Scedules4 and typical
Table 1. API Specification IOA: Chemical requirements for retarders as a rough check on likely downhole perform
Class G and Class H cements ante. Some also undertake rheological tests using a
rotational (Fann-type) viscometer for checks on the
Cement type: MSR HSR rheological properties of the cement slurries.
MN 6.0 Cement rheology is an extremely complex subject.
itif 3.0
so3
Loss on ignition 3:o Cement slurries are non-Newtonian fluids that are
Insoluble residue 0.75 E5 chemically reacting all the time they are being mixed and
p u m p e d i n t o p o s i t i o n i n t h e annulus. The exact
48-68 48-65
rehological behaviour is dependent upon the precise
2: 8 3
C4AF +!2 x &A conditions to which the cement slurry is subjected.
Na,O Equivalent 0.75 0?5 Laboratory simulations of cement rheology provide a
rll figures are % maximum, except for C,S where the permiti rough guide to likely downhole performance. Rotational
ange is given. viscometers like the Fann have been used extensively in
laboratories for obtaining data using the procedure
described in Appendix H of API Specification 104.
Physical and performance requirements (Table 2) The Brazilian standard for Class G oilwell cement has
The physical and performance requirements of Class G defined limits for rheological parameters using rotational
and Class H cement are the same, the only difference viscometers (see Table 3) which are satisfied by the
being that Class G cements are tested at 44% water ,Brazilian Class G cements. In practice elsewhere, some
whilst Class H cements are examined at 38% water. Class G and H cement slurries have yield points in these
In the latest specification3, the previous requirement of standard rotational viscometer tests above 100 lb/l00 ftr
an autoclave expansion test limit of 0.8% for unsound- and are still readily pumpable. It is often difficult with
ness4 has been deleted. Since most Class G and H cement slurry rheology to differentiate between what is
cements give autoclave expansions of 0.05% or less desirable and what is essential in terms of rheological
(over an order of magnitude lower than the former test characteristics obtained by rotational viscometers in the
limit), this test had for some time been widely regarded laboratory, since the labortory conditions do not reliably
as being superfluous for these two types. simulate those in the field. Consquently it is much more
The requirement for Schedule 5 thickening time (to difficult on a worldwide basis to have strict pass/fail
52 C) of 90-120 minutes, which only offers a leeway of 30 rheological requirements for standard slurries of the
minutes in thickening time, is a useful test for seeking to whole range of Class G and H cements.
promote batch-to-batch consistency. Thickening time is A more explicit description of the procedure for Farm.

48
Thickening time - 103 minutes
Maximum consistence during
first15-30 minutes of the
Schedule 5 examination - 15 Bc

8 0 I- (Water: Cement ratio 0.38)

60

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I Thickening time

0 I I I I 1

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time (minutes) --)

$ure 2. API Schedule 5 thickening time curve of an MSR Class H cement.


:ype rotational viscometers in terms of standard speeds of the 600 and 300 rpm readings (designated here
rrxn or radians/second) was contained in a previous respectively as A and B) to calculate:
edition of API Specification log. EarlierlO, a 800 rpm (10.0
radians/second) speed was also recommended in API apparent viscosity $ (cP)
Specification 10. This was subsequently deleted from the
loecification. because it was felt that the shear rate plastic viscosity A-B(cP), and
I=1000 set-l) was far greater than that likely to be yield point 2B-A (lb f/l00 ft2),
encounteredby a cement slurry being mixed and pumped
the field. However, when dial reading (corrected for Q which are based upon 1 CP g 0.002089 lb f sec/lOO ft2.
range factor as appropriate) is plotted against speed, the Whilst this rule of~thumb might disturb the rheological
800. 300, 200 and 100 rpm-based results commonly purist, in most instances the results for plastic viscosity
@proximate to a straight line. In consquence many users and yield point are of the same order of magnitude as
#ill make use of the 600 rpm reading. Normally when the those plotted out by computer best-fit or manual
slurries are not too thick, this does not significantly procedures from the full range of rotational viscometer
change the results, even though strictly speaking the readings. This rule of thumb 600 or 300 rpm reading
non-mandatory API practice now is to recommend the usage is probably most appropriate for cement
@e of a rotational viscometer capable of measuring manufacturers quickly checking out rheological
shear stress at shear rates in the rate from near zero properties of production batches, to see if there are any
-) to as high as 511 (set-l) which corresponds to the very significant differences in rheological behaviour
rpm reading. between one cement batch and another under the
For convenience, various laboratories make use solely standard slurry conditions employed. Cementing
services companies and operators generally need to
fabls 3. Rheologlcal propsrtla~s of Class G cement slurries as in make use of the full range of readings.
kc Brazflian standard An example of a computer best fit curve for shear
- - - - ___ __ -
27 OC (BB OF) 52 Yi (125 =F) stress plotted against shear rate for an HSR Class G
8 seconds gel strength at cement (making use of the 800, 300, 200 and 100 rpm
kpm -Pa (lb/100 ft2) 12 (25) max 12 (25) max readings) is illustrated in Figure 3.
W minutes gel strength at
3rpm -Pa (lb1100 ftg2, 16.8 (35) max 16.8 (35) max
Zrnsistency after 1 minute Conclusion
at 3rpm -Pa (lb/lOCl ft2) 9.6 (20) max 9.6 (20) max Class G and H basic oilwell cements have been
msistency after 5 minutes .
considered from both the producer and user aspects.
at drpm -Pa (lb/lOfJ ft2) 9.6 (20) max 9.6 (20) max Differences between these two classes have been
hstic viscosity -Pa.s (cp) 0.055 (55) max 0.055 (55) max outlined from the viewpoint of specification and other
%ld point -Pa (lb1100 ft2) 14.4-33.5 (30-70) 14.438 (3080) properties favoured by the users. The importance of
Cimum increment of 10 minute having a Class G or H cement slurry with good batch-to-
pl strength with temperature rise batch consistency, which can be tailored with different
klm27~C(85V=)to52C(125~F)
hNJ/1Orl ft2) 4.6 (10) max types of additives to achieve a satisfactory bond in the
annulus between the metal casino and the borehole, is

49
I 1 I I I
200 400 600 800 1000

Shear rate /s
Figure 3. Shear stress versus shear rate for an HSH Class ci cement.
emphasised in terms of the greater quality control
required during manufacturing and for performance
testing compared with most construction cements.

Acknowledgements
The author wishes to thank the following:
Regis Nivesse and the directors of Cedest SA for permission to

WORLb
use the photograph of their cement works at Dannes, France.
Fernando J Parente Neiva Santos and Maria das Gracas Pena
Silva of Petrobras - CENPES, llha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil, and Cesar Arbelaez of CA. Venezolana de Cementos
(Vencemos), Barquisimeto, Venezuela, for helpful discussion.
BP international Ltd. for permission to publish this work.
CEMENT
References
1. BENSTED J.; Retarded oilwell cements of API Classes D, E
and F. World Cement, January 1991, pp 31-35.
Can we help you with
2. BENSTED J.; API Class C rapid-hardening oilwell cement.
World Cement, May 1991, pp 38-41. Back issues?
3. AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. Specification for Well
Cements, API Specification IOA, Twenty First Edition. American
Petroleum Institute, Washington DC, September, 1991. Reprints of any articles?
4. AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. Specification for
Materials and Testing for Well Cements. API Specification 70,
Fifth Edition. American Petroleum Institute, Washington DC,
Run ons?
July 1990.
5. BENSTED J.; Oilwell cements. World Cement, October 1989,
pp 346357.
6. ARBELAEZ, C. Experience at CA Venezolana de Cementos
in the Production of API Class H Oilwell Cement. Proceedings of Call us for estimates
the Twelfth International Conference on Cement Microscopy,
2nd.6th April 1990, Vancouver, Canada. pp 264-279. International
Cement Microscopy Association, Duncanville, Texas (1990).
and rapid follow up
7. AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. Specification for
Quality Programs. API Specification Q7, Third Edition. American service.
Petroleum Insti&te, Washington DC, June 1990.
8. ASSOCIACAO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TECNICAS. NBR
9831 - Cimento Portland Destinado a Cimentaczo de Pocos

Telephone:0252 703900
Petroliferos. (NBR 9831 - Portland cement for use in the
cementation of oilwells). ABNT, Rio de Janeiro (1987).
9. AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. Specification for
Materials and Testing for Well Cements. Third Edition. American
Petroleum Institute, Washington DC, July 1986. Fax:0252 703901
10. AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. ibid., 1st Edition,
June 1982.
Enquiry no.12

50 WORLD CEMENT APRIL 1992