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Angina Angina is discomfort or pain that occurs when your heart is not getting enough oxygen
Angina
Angina is discomfort or pain that occurs when your heart is not getting enough oxygen and
nutrients.
Angina may be caused by a narrowing of the arteries or muscle spasms in the coronary
arteries. These spasms may be induced by cigarette smoke, cold temperatures, strong
emotions, and other sources.
It is important to note that angina isn't a heart attack and doesn't usually cause permanent
heart damage, even though it causes pain.
The causes of angina are generally atherosclerosis or coronary artery spasm. Angina is not
the same for everyone. While it usually occurs when the heart is working harder than normal,
such as after a meal or during physical or emotional stress, it can also occur when resting.
Traditionally, angina occurs primarily in the chest and radiates down the left arm. However, it
can be any discomfort that radiates in the chest, across the shoulders, in the upper back,
arms (both left and right), neck, throat, or jaw.
Symptoms of Angina           Aching Burning Cramping
Symptoms of Angina
Aching
Burning
Cramping
Discomfort
Heaviness
Indigestion
Shortness of Breath
Sweating or Dizziness
Squeezing
Tightness
Stop your activity, sit or lie down, and relax.
Take a nitroglycerin (NT6) tablet or use NTG spray as prescribed by your physician.
Be sure to notify your physician if these symptoms increase in frequency or severity but
are not so severe that you feel the need to go to an emergency room.
If angina lasts longer than 15 minutes or worsens, call 911 or get to a hospital emergency
room immediately. Never drive yourself.
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) Part of the heart muscle can be damaged or die as a
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
Part of the heart muscle can be damaged or die as a result blood flow is blocked.
Warning signs of a heart attack include:  Heavy feeling, pressure, or intense pain or squeezing
Warning signs of a heart attack include:
Heavy feeling, pressure, or intense pain or squeezing in the chest that lasts for more
than a few minutes.
Lightheadedness or fainting
Nausea or vomiting
Pain that radiates to the shoulders, neck or arms.
Profuse Sweating
Rapid heartbeat
Shortness of breath
Severe weakness
Arrhythmia Sometimes the heart’s electrical system does not function normally . It may race, become slow,

Arrhythmia

 

Sometimes the heart’s electrical system does not function normally. It may race, become slow, irregular, skip beats or sometimes the heart’s electrical signal does not move in the proper sequence. This causes the heart to beat faster or slower than normal, or erratically. These abnormal rhythms are called arrhythmias.

Symptoms: dizziness, fainting, fatigue, shortness of breath and chest pain or rapid palpitations

Bradycardia: Occurs when the heart’s electrical signal is delayed too long or blocked, resulting in a slower than normal heartbeat.

Ventricular Tachycardia (VT): Occurs when the heart’s electrical signal begins in the ventricles (lower chambers of the heart) and the heart beats too rapidly.

Irregular or extra heartbeats: Even people with excellent health have irregular or extra heartbeats every once in a while.

Cardiomegaly An enlarged heart may have several causes. But it's usually the result of high blood pressure or coronary artery disease. It may not pump blood effectively, which can bring congestive heart failure. It may improve over time. But most people with an enlarged heart need life-long treatment with medications.

Types

The heart enlarges because of damage to the heart muscle. Up to a point, an enlarged heart can still pump blood normally. As the condition progresses, though, the heart's pumping ability declines.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is the main type of enlarged heart. The walls of both sides (also known as ventricles) become thin and stretched. This enlarges your heart. In the other types, the muscular left ventricle becomes very thick. High blood pressure may cause your left ventricle to enlarge (a type known as hypertrophy). The thickening (which doctors call hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) can also be inherited. An enlarged heart keeps more of its pumping ability when it's "thick" rather than "thin."

Causes The most common trigger is blockages that affect the heart's blood supply (coronary artery disease) and high blood pressure. There can be other causes, including:

Viral infection of the heart

Abnormal heart valve

Pregnancy, with the heart enlarging around the time of delivery (your doctor may call this

peripartum cardiomyopathy) Kidney disease that needs dialysis

HIV infection Genetic and inherited conditions

Frequently, no cause is known. Your doctor may refer to this as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Symptoms Most often, an enlarged heart causes no symptoms. If it becomes unable to pump blood well enough, you may get symptoms of congestive heart failure, such as:

Shortness of breath (especially when active or when lying flat)

Leg swelling

Weight gain, particularly in your midsection

Tired feeling

Palpitations or skipped heartbeats

Some folks may never have symptoms. Others may have little things that don’t change for years. Still

others may have shortness of breath that steadily gets a little worse.

Diagnosis

An enlarged heart may be discovered after you and your doctor talk about symptoms you have that could be tied to congestive heart failure. Other times, it’s found out through a test for something else.