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Monitor and Measure Marine Engine Performance

Marine engine on ships are used for 2 main purposes for propelling the ship and for
generating electricity, which assists in powering the ships propulsion plant.

The efficiency of any machinery on board ship is directly related to its performance. In
order to get the best out of marine engines, it is very important to monitor their
performances and take measures to achieve an efficient combustion.

Ensuring this will not only reduce generation of pollution from engines but also the
overall operating cost of the ship.

Following are ways to monitor and measure the performance of the engine:

1. Measure the Peak Pressure by Mechanical Peak Pressure Gauge: This method is
normally applied in 4 stroke generator engine where a peak pressure gauge is used for
individual cylinder and pressure generated during combustion is noted. With the same
gauge, the compression pressure of the cylinder is also measured when the unit is not
firing. The variation in the peak pressures generated is then taken into account for
drawing out faulty units, adjusting fuel racks and overhauling combustion chamber parts
in order to achieve efficient combustion.

2. Indicator Card Measurement: This is another mechanical method to measure the


performance of engine cylinders by applying indicator drum and plotting graph on cards.
Two types of cards are used for this purpose-power card and draw card. With the help
of these two diagrams, we can determine the compression pressure, peak pressure and
engine power.

3. Digital Pressure Monitoring by DPI: Digital pressure indicator is an electronic mode


to monitor the power and performance of the engine. With the help of DPI, the variation
in the cylinder performance can be plotted and interpreted in graphical form and
corrective action can be taken.

4. Intelligent Combustion Monitoring (ICM): The new generation engines are


continuously monitored by ICM, which measures the real time in-cylinder pressure in all
engine cylinders. This package offers a broad range of data processing tools for
evaluating performance and for helping to determine engine malfunctions (extensive
blow by, exhaust valve operation, fuel injection etc.).

5. Monitoring of Engine Control Parameters: The engine control parameters like fuel
injection timing, exhaust valve timing, variable turbocharger vane opening angles,
lambda control etc. are monitored and any variation is set to achieve the best possible
efficient combustion.
6. Engine Parameters: The engine parameters are the best source for finding out any
fault or variation in the engine performance. Variation in temperature, pressure and
power produced by each cylinder must be frequently monitored and adjustment must be
done accordingly to achieve efficient combustion.

7. Log Book Monitoring: This is the most basic but commonly ignored method for
monitoring engine performance. The log book record for engine room machinery is kept
onboard for years on ship. The log book of current month and of previous months must
be compared for recorded parameters, which will give the exact variation of
engine parameters. If the variation figure is more, engine controls, parameters and parts
to be adjusted/ overhauled.

8. Engine Emission: The marine engine releases exhaust smoke as waste product
after the combustion. The color and nature of the exhaust should be monitored
continuously and engineers must know which exhaust trunk discharge is dedicated for
which engine. The change in exhaust smoke is a prominent indication of problem in the
combustion chamber.

Advantages of Diesel Performance System

1) Efficient and reliable operation of the engine.


2) Helps in saving fuel and optimizing SFOC( Specific Fuel Oil Consumption.
3) Helps in predicting the necessary repairs and preventing engine failure.
4) Helps in reducing spare parts cost and increasing time between overhauls.

Understanding Indicator Diagram and Different Types of Indicator Diagram


Deficiencies
Indicator diagrams are used to assess the performance of each unit of the ships main
engine. It is based on the indicator diagram that the overall performance of the engine is
assessed.

Indicator diagrams are taken at regular intervals of time and matched with that of the
ships sea trial diagrams to check if there is any significant difference in performance. If
there is any difference, it is important that the problem is rectified before starting the
engine.

Understanding Indication Diagram

There are four types of indicator diagrams:


1. Power card
2. Draw card
3. Compression diagram
4. Light spring diagram

With the help of these diagrams, we can determine and interpret the following:

The compression pressure inside the cylinder


peak pressure generated inside the cylinder
The actual power generated
Faulty combustion chamber parts (worn out piston, liner, rings, etc.) of the particular unit
Faulty injection parts and wrong fuel timing
Exhausting and scavenging process

High loading is to be prevented on main engines units or else it can lead to several
problems such as bearing damage, cracking, etc. It is therefore very important to read
these diagrams correctly as they provide several details about the cylinder working
pressures and load.

In earlier days, the indicator diagram was taken with the help of mechanical indicator
which was to be fitted on top of the indicator cocks.

But nowadays digital pressure indicator instrument is used which is a compact hand
held unit. A pressure transducer is mounted on the indicator cocks and connected to the
hand held unit know as data acquisition unit with the help of which the indicator diagram
can be taken at any moment and displayed on the computer.

An incremental encoder is fitted on the engine and plugged into the data acquisition unit
during the time of operation, which provides accurate data about the position of the top
dead center, or of the crankshaft angle.

Preparation and procedure for taking indicator diagram:


Check the battery of Data Acquisition unit and change/ charge if needed
Prepare the Digital Pressure indicator instrument and check all the wires/sensors are
visually ok
Do proper PPE, especially high-temperature gloves and eye protection
Take the reading of all the relevant engine parameters
Ensure the ship, and its engine is running at a constant speed in open sea
ensure the weather is calm
Use correct tool to open the indicator cock valve
Connect the probe from incremental encoder to data acquisition unit
Connect the pressure transducer probe to hand held data acquisition unit
Carefully open the indicator cock of the cylinder for few seconds and blow out the
cylinder. It is done to remove any stuck impurity (soot and other combustion particles)
inside the cock
Fix the pressure transducer unit on indicator cock and open the cock to register the
cylinder data
Repeat the procedure for all the cylinders
After finishing the process, disconnect the pressure transducer probe and keep it aside
for cooling it down
Disconnect the incremental encoder probe from hand held data acquisition unit
Fill the required data in the Digital Pressure Indicator software and wait for result to be
generated

It is possible that the digital pressure indicator instrument is not available in all ships or
is not working. A mechanical engine indicator device is provided which consists of
springs, drums and pointer to draw the diagram from the engine cylinders pressure via
indicator cock.

Procedure for taking indicator diagram using mechanical engine indicator


instrument:

Do proper PPE, especially high-temperature gloves and eye protection


Take the reading of all the relevant engine parameters
Ensure the ship, and its engine is running at a constant speed in open sea
ensure the weather is calm
Use correct tool to open the indicator cock valve
Take the paper provided with the instrument and fix it firmly over the drum
Carefully open the indicator cock of the cylinder for few seconds and blow out the
cylinder. It is done to remove any stuck impurity (soot and other combustion particles)
inside the cock
Fix the instrument on the indicator cock so that the cord is firm.
Draw the atmospheric line with the cock shut
Slowly open the indicator cock and press the stylus against the paper lightly. Make
straight vertical lines as the piston moves up and down and then pull the roller string, till
the cycle is drawn on the paper
Close the indicator cock and remove the instrument
Ensure the tool does not get exposed to high temperature for an extended period as its
mechanical parts like springs, the stylus will respond differently and may affect the
accuracy

Similarly, take compression pressure line with the fuel cut off.

Why 2-stroke Engines are Used More commonly than 4-stroke on Ships?
When a ship is being constructed in a shipyard, the most important machinery that is to
be selected is the main propulsion machinery. Both 2 stroke and 4 stroke engines are
widely available in the market but for large ocean going merchant vessel, a 2 stroke
engine is more commonly used as main engine and has much better market.

Even with wide variety of advantages that 4 stroke engine offers like compact size of
plant, much more RPM or speed etc, a 2 stroke engine outshines with few but vital
advantages. Some of the important reasons why 2 stroke engines are more popular
than 4 stroke engines as main propulsion engine on ships
Fuel Selection: The fuel prices have gone sky high and better grade fuel is
adding higher costs to vessel operation. A two stroke engine can burn low grade
fuel oil and hence reduce running cost of the ship.

Efficiency: The thermal and engine efficiency of 2 stroke engine is much better
than that of a 4 stroke engine.

Power: Most of the 2 stroke engines are now large stroke engines that produce
more power. Hence they have high power to weight ration as compare to 4
stroke engine.

More Cargo: Ship can carry more weight and hence more cargo with 2 stroke
engines because of high power to weight ratio.

Reliability: Two stroke engines are more reliable in operation as compare to 4


stroke engine.

Less Maintenance: The maintenance requirement of two stroke engine is much


lesser than 4 stroke engine.
Direction control: Direct starting and reversing is easier with two stroke engine.

No reduction attachments: As two stroke engines are low speed engine, there
are no requirement of reduction gear or speed reduction arrangement as
required for high speed four stroke engine.

However, the ease-of-manoeuvring a two stroke engine is less than that of a four stroke
engine and the initial cost of installation of a two stroke propulsion plant is also much
higher than running and maintenance cost of a 4 stroke engine. In 2 stroke engine, the
amount saved on high grade fuel can compensate all other disadvantages and also
reduce the whole operating cost of a ship.

How to Use Main Engine Performance Curve for Economical Fuel


Consumption on Ships?
After the building of the ship is complete and before handing over it to the owners, sea
trials are done to test that the ship is able to deliver the contractually guaranteed speed.
The primary purpose of the sea trial is to determine the speed of the ship with reference
to the RPM and the power produced for the same.

Apart from the sea trial of the hull part of the ship, the important machinery of the engine
room such as boilers, auxiliary engines and the main engine are also tested.
Machineries have a test record apart from the sea trial data, which is done in the
manufacturing plant and is called as test bed data. It is normal to have main engine,
generators, motors and pumps etc. having these test bed data.
This data pertaining to sea trials/machinery trials, shop trials/ test bed trials and the
obtained performance curves enables the Chief Engineer to run the ship safely and
economically.

Under the charter party the speed and fuel consumption are fixed among other
things. There is little margin for error and if the speed is not enough then there is a
speed claim; moreover, if there is over consumption to maintain speed then too there is
a fuel claim.

The main engine has to perform satisfactorily and give the rated power at the rated
RPM within narrow but allowable limits of temperature and pressure and with correct
specific fuel oil consumption.

In addition to all these the lubricating oil and cylinder oil consumption must be kept to
minimum to keep the owners happy and the engine maintenance must be up-to-date to
match the engine with the performance curves given in the shop trial.

PERFORMANCE CURVES

During the test bed or shop trial the performance curves of the engine are plotted. The
performance curves are the graphs of different parameters on x-axis plotted against
engine power or load on the y-axis. These different plotted curves are as follows:

Engine RPM vs. Load: This curve helps in ascertaining whether main engine is overloaded
or not. A higher power generated at a lower RPM indicates an over loaded main
engine.
Mean effective pressure vs. Load: Mean effective pressure is used to calculate horse
power hence these two values should co-relate. In case they dont then there may be
some error in calculation or instrumentation.
Maximum pressure vs. Load: This curve helps in knowing the condition of fuel injection
equipment, injection timing and the compression in the cylinder etc.
Compression pressure vs. Load: This curve indicates the condition of the parts maintaining
compression like piston, piston rings and exhaust valves.
Scavenge air pressure vs. Load: It indicates the condition of the turbocharger and
associated equipment.
Exhaust gas temperature in receiver vs. Load: It indicates the enthalpy of the exhaust gas
prior to entry in turbocharger. This value compared with the value after the turbocharger
gives the temperature drop across the turbocharger, is an indicator of turbocharger
efficiency.

Exhaust gas temperature after exhaust valve vs. Load: This curve sheds light on the
combustion, fuel injection, timing and compression etc. A higher temperature may be
caused due to after burning.
Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger vs. Load: This curve is very useful as it
indicates the enthalpy captured from the exhaust by the turbocharger and hence its
condition. In case the receiver temperature is within range but the outlet temperature is
higher it may indicate fouling of the turbocharger and hence the associated lower
scavenge air pressure and high exhaust gas temperature.
Total excess air ratio vs. Load: This curve is scarcely used by ship staff and is useful for
design engineers. This curve sheds light on scavenging and the turbocharger capacity
and condition. It shows that as the power increases the excess air decreases due to
consumption.
Specific fuel oil consumption vs. Load: This curve helps to counter check whether the
engine is consuming fuel oil correctly as per the load.

There may be other parameters listed as per manufacturer. A typical performance curve
for a slow speed two stroke marine diesel engine is given below.
Economical Fuel Consumption

The main engine will run economically if the engine is well maintained and is run at the
rated economic rating where the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption is the least. An engine
is said to be performing well or well maintained if it can be safely run at the rated RPM
at the rated load. For example if an engine is having a continuous service rating of
15000 BHP at 104 RPM but cannot reach the rated RPM and is developing 15000 BHP
prematurely at 98 RPM, there is a loss of ships speed and a subsequent speed claim. It
also tells that there is a problem, the ship cannot give speed, it is over consuming fuel
and that the engine is over loaded. It points to either hull fouling, damaged propeller or
faulty prime mover etc.

In such cases the careful study of the sea trial data, engine shop trial data and the
performance curves will help to determine the cause of the problem.For trouble shooting
first the main engine performance must be taken on a good weather day when the
engine load is steady. The main engine must be run to its rated power. Thereafter the
data found must be super imposed on the performance curves.After superimposing the
measured parameters on the performance curves, we come to know whether the
parameters are normal or abnormal. A complete study of the parameters helps us to pin
point the problem. An example of the performance data superimposed on the
performance curve is given below.

From above diagram the following points are inferred:

At 75% MCR the RPM attained is lower that the sea trial.
The average maximum cylinder pressure P max is lower than the sea trial.
The compression pressure P comp is almost same as sea trial confirming that the running
gear like piston, piston rings and exhaust valves are ok.
The scavenge pressure is almost normal suggesting that the turbocharger is in
satisfactory condition and the enthalpy of the exhaust gas is higher than normal for this
RPM.
Exhaust temperatures are all increased suggesting abnormal combustion, after burning
or change of timing. It may also indicate faulty fuel injection equipment.

The above example will help to understand the use of performance curves for a ships
engineer. After the main engine performance has been taken and plotted on the original
performance curves from the sea trial data, the problem can be found out and SFOC
restored to normal values. In this way at any stage during the life time of the ship, we
can understand why she is not performing based on plotting her parameters on the
performance curves.
The indicator diagram shown above is a normal diagram (Diagrams taken before the
use of the engine), and the diagrams that are drawn from the engine are adopted and
compared for the deficiency.

When the above diagram is compared with the general graph, it can be seen that the
compression pressure is normal and the maximum firing pressure is too high.

This can be due to early injection, a result of incorrect fuel timing of the cams, wrong
VIT setting, or leaking fuel injector.

Vibrations in the cord, or drive, give a wavy indicator diagram, but a smooth draw diagram.

The drum hits the stop at one of the end points, before the diagram is completed: The cord is too
long or too short.
The indicator piston works sluggishly in the cylinder, and moves in jerks: If only the expansion
curve is wrong (wavy), the cause may be gas pulsations in the combustion chamber or indicator
bore.

The indicator spring is too weak. The piston strikes against the top of the indicator cylinder.
Change to a more rigid spring.

The indicator valve


leaks: Gives an untrue atmospheric line.

Irregularities in Indicator Diagram


Irregularities in the shape of indicator diagrams are indications of faulty engine operations. If
irregularity seems for all units, problem may be common like faults in fuel oil system, intake air,
turbocharger, air cooler, exhaust, etc. When the irregularity is confined to a single unit, problem could be
of fuel injectors, fuel pump, exhaust valve, etc.

Early Ignition

Indications and Effects

Abnormally high peak pressure of the unit is recorded at the top of the piston stroke.
Knocking sound comes out of the engine due to heavy loads passed to bearings via running gear.
Early ignition causes increased thermal efficiency of the engine. Also exhaust temperature reduces
since combustion starts long before it is supposed to. But the shock loads and vibrations results in
damage of the engine.
Causes

Incorrectly adjusted or accidentally changed fuel pump timing


Damaged or incorrectly set fuel valve or fuel injector
Undesired fuel quality
Parts inside the cylinder are overheated.
Late Ignition

Indications and Effects

Low peak pressure is indicated for the unit after top dead center.
Combustion continue during expansion stroke, give rise to incomplete combustion of fuel, loss of
energy, elevated exhaust gas temperature for the unit, and black smoke at the engine exhaust.
Reduced power of the engine due to incomplete combustion of the fuel and energy lost in the
exhaust.
Causes

Faulty fuel injector or injector spring tension tighten beyond setting.


Poor fuel quality
Wrongly timed or leaking fuel pump
Engine parts inside cylinder are under cooled
Incorrect atomization
Compression pressure low
Combustion air supply is low
After Burning

Indication and Effects

A rise in expansions line is recorded in the later part of piston stroke


Since burning of fuel continues, exhaust gas temperature and pressure increases, causing black
smoke at engine exhaust.
Unburnt carbon deposits fouls exhaust system, cause damage to exhaust valve and seat,
turbocharger surges and there are chances of uptake fires in exhaust gas economizer.
Elevated temperatures inside cylinders cause breaking up of lubrication and increased wear of
liners, piston rings, burning of piston crown, etc.
Causes

Slow fuel combustion


Quality of fuel is less
Low temperature of fuel (Means high viscosity)

Leaky Fuel Injector


Indications and Effects

Reduced power in the affected unit, high exhaust temperature and presence of black smoke in
exhaust.
Possible knocking sounds or pressure waves in fuel injection system.
Sudden up and downs in indicated diagram in the fuel injection and expansion side.
After burning due to incomplete combustion of fuel.
Causes

Leaking fuel injector.


Chocking of fuel injector spray holes, which leads to improper atomization and dripping of fuel.
Partly Choked Fuel Valve

Indications and Effects

Low exhaust gas temperature of the unit


Power card and draw card indications
Loss of engine power
Causes

Fuel oil contamination and improper purification


Carbon formation at injector tip
Carbon deposits on fuel valve due to over heating
Low Compression

Indications and Effects

Low pressure in the indicator card


Reduced power of engine
Causes

Improper combustion
Insufficient air for combustion
Leakage of air in between piston rings and liner while compression stroke due to worn out liner or
piston rings.
Exhaust Valve Opening
Light spring diagram gives indications on faulty exhaust valve and intake port operations.

Early Opening

Elevated exhaust gas temperature and fouling of exhaust system


Loss of engine power
Late Opening

Reduced blow down effect and hence reduced scavenging efficiency


Low quality of exhaust gas delivered to the turbocharger inversely affect its operation
Choked Exhaust

Indications and Effects

Power loss in the unit


Increased exhaust temperature
Turbocharger surging
adversely affect scavenging efficiency
Causes

Improper combustion
Increased cylinder lube oil

Precautions While Taking Indicator Cards

Always lubricate indicator instrument parts to prevent seizure at high temperatures.


Tightness of the indicator piston inside the cylinder to be checked. It should be a free sliding fit.

The cock to be free from accumulated carbon particles.

Do not apply much pressure on the stylus while taking the diagram.

Allow sufficient cooling time for the instrument after taking diagrams from each units.

This can be as a result of the following:

Exhaust valve opening too late i.e. incorrect exhaust valve timing

Overload of the engine

Why Breaking in and Running in?

The newly fitted liner, piston, or piston rings are machined prepared in the workshop ashore.
They have surface asperities and there is no bedding between the moving surface i.e. liner and
rings.

Under such situations, if proper step running is not followed then it may lead to heavy blow past
of combustion gases. The blow past can be dangerous as it can lead to scavenge fire. Hence
initially a step running program is required for newly fitted piston, piston rings and liner.

For a complete dcarb engine, it is important to keep an eye on various parameters of the engine
under increasing load which can be achieved by breaking in and running in.

Breaking in

It is a short period of running of the marine engines under no load so that the piston rings are
allowed to seat and lubricated properly. The breaking in time may differ from engine to engine
and is provided in the engine manual by the makers An average breaking-in time for a four
stroke engine is 48 hours.

Breaking in is carried out to achieve maximum wear rate, so that asperities break faster. For this
reason HFO and low TBN oil is used. If low sulphur fuel or marine diesel oil is used, the
breaking in period will increase. A low jacket water temperature is maintained to increase the
rate of wear.

Running in

It is a program followed after breaking in and it is a long run program with step by step increase
in the load and speed of the engine.
Just like breaking in, the running in schedules are also provided in the engine manuals and differ
for parts to parts.

In two stroke engine, the cylinder lubrication is kept in higher side in terms of oil quantity for
proper lubrication of piston rings and liner.

For four stroke engines with common sump lubrication, low TBN lube oil is used initially and
after 30 % of load, the new recommended oil is used.

Conclusion

If the proper Breaking In and Running In period is not followed after the maintenance, it may
lead to blow past of the combustion gases, leading to scavenge fire. It can lead to heavy scuffing
resulting in increase in liner wear.

Heat Recovery from Exhaust gases


1. Bunker Calculation:

Mentioned below is the procedure for measuring and calculating the bunker quantity:

Once the total quantity (tonnes) of bunker fuel to be received is confirmed, take sounding of
ships bunker tanks & calculate the available quantity of fuel oil onboard to formulate a
bunkering plan denoting how much tonnes of fuel to be bunkered on each tank & the tank
sequence of bunkering.
Before commencing of bunker operations, confirm the temperature at which the bunker is to be
received and note down the standard density of the fuel oil. With this parameters calculate the
volume of bunker to be received in each tank as per bunkering plan and note down the final
sounding level of each tank after bunkering using capacity table for the ease of stopping &
change over to next tank.

The basic formula used for calculating the bunker quantity in weight is:

Mass = Volume x Density

It is to be noted that in the above formula, the density and volume of bunker fuel should be
known at same temperature.
After receiving the bunker, take sounding/ullage of all the bunker tanks using sounding tape and
note down the tank temperature. Use sounding paste in the tape while measuring distillate fuel
such as MDO for easy reading.
Ship always does not float with even keel so the floating conditions of the ship such as trim and
list should be well noted while taking the sounding of bunker tanks.
Every ship is provided with a tank capacity table in which each tank capacity in volume is marked
against the successive levels of sounding/ullage with correction factors under various trim and
heel conditions of the ship. The volume of fuel oil at tank temperature for the corresponding
tank sounding is thus measured using tank capacity table, which gives the actual sounded
volume.
The density of fuel oil (in kg/m3) at standard reference temperature of 15C is always provided
by the supplier in Bunker Delivery Note. With this the density of fuel oil at tank temperature can
be determined using ASTM table or using software most commonly installed on all ships
computer.

The formula used to calculate the Temperature Corrected Density is:

= (Density of Fuel Oil @ 15C) x [1- {(T-15) x 0.00064}]

Where:
T = temperature of oil in bunker tanks in degree celsius,
0.00064 = Correction factor

Since the bunker oil is normally supplied to the vessel at temperature higher than 15C,
the formula used for calculating the bunker quantity in weight will be:

Metric Tonnes = (Actual Sounder Volume) X (Temperature Corrected Density)


The corresponding values of each tank are tabulated for easy reading and the total weight of
bunker quantity is calculated.

2. Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (SFOC):

Specific fuel oil consumption is the measure of mass of fuel consumed per unit time to produce
per KW. The marine engine efficiency is usually determined using the SFOC.

In order to achieve accuracy, the fuel consumption and power developed is always measured
over a suitable time period on a good weather. The formula used for calculating SFOC is:

SFOC (g/kwh) = Mass of fuel consumed per hour / Power developed in KW

The readings of flow meter to main engine should be noted over the specified time interval say
1 hour. With the difference in readings the volume of fuel consumed is obtained. It can also be
measured by noting down the HFO service tank reading provided the oil is being supplied only to
main engine.
The mass of observed volume of fuel consumed can be determined by following the above said
bunker calculation procedure.
The horse power can be measured using dynamometer if fitted on the shaft of the engine which
will indicate the BHP in digital indicator. If not, the horse power can also be calculated using
engine rpm and average pump fuel index with the aid of engine characteristic curve of various
sea trials which is supplied by the manufacturer. However the calorific value of the fuel used for
sea trial may differ and hence compensation factor has to be determined to obtain the accuracy
in calculation.

3. Percentage of Slip:

Slip is considered as the difference between the speed of the engine and actual speed of the ship.
It is always calculated in percentage. Positive slip is influenced by various reasons such as fouled
bottom or hull part which offers resistance to the movement of ship, environmental factors such
as water current and wind against the ship direction. Slip may be negative if the ship speed is
influenced by following sea or wind. Engine slip is calculated daily onboard the vessel and
recorded in log book.

Engine distance Observed distance

Percentage of Slip = X 100%

Engine distance

The actual distance (nautical mile) covered by the ship from noon to noon is measured using
ships log.

The total revolutions of the propeller from noon to noon is obtained using revolution counter.
The engine distance can be calculated using the pitch of the propeller provided by the
manufacturer. Care must be taken in unit conversion of pitch from meter to nautical mile (in
general 1 NM = 1800m).

Engine distance in nautical mile = (Pitch x revolutions per day)

Obtaining the accuracy of value in all the above calculations are always challenging onboard as
the parameters recorded are more sensitive to dynamic conditions of the ship and also depends
on various environmental factors.

Layout Diagrams

Layout diagrams used to determine the optimum engine type and the load diagram
defines the limits for engine continous operation.
Sea margin. A provision for an increased resistance caused by wind, sea state, fouling
of hull and propeller, shallow water, currents, etc. Usually a sea margin of 10-25% is
applied.

Engine margin. An engine margin, normally 10-15% of its maximum continuous rating
(MCR), is recommended in order to lower fuel and maintenance costs and to have
reserve power for increased speed.