Hints/Solutions
Practice Problems 1 x
C0 x
C1 x +1
C1
Solutions for questions 1 to 65: 9. 2 xC1 2 xC2 2 ( x +1)C2
1. Clearly option C is false. 6 xC 2 6 x C3 6 ( x +1)C3
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 x x +1
2. We know trace of A = sum of diagonal elements of A
2x x ( x  1) ( x + 1)( x )
n( n + 1)
55 = 1 + 2 + 3 + . + n = 3 x ( x  1) x ( x  1) ( x  2 ) ( x + 1) x ( x  1)
2
On solving, we get n = 10 or 11 C3 C3  (C1 + C2)
But n being the order of A, cannot be negative
1 x 0
n = 10 2x x ( x  1) 0 =0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
3 x ( x  1) x ( x  1) ( x  1) 0
3. Trace is defined only for square matrices.
For any value of x = f(x) = 0.
Option C is false. Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
2 3+i 1
4. Consider the statement P, we have (A + B)2 = A2 + B2 + AB + BA
10. A + iB = 3  i 0 1 + i
p is true if A and B commute
1 1  i 1
Now, consider (A + B) (A  B) = A2 + BA  AB  B2
(A + B) (A  B) = A2  B2 if BA  AB = 0, that is if AB = BA 2 3i 1
(A + B) (A  B) = A  B if A and B commute
2 2 A  i B = 3 + i 0 1  i
Statement q is true if A and B commute 1 1  i 1
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 3+i 1
2 1 2 2 x 3 x = 3i 0 1 + i by interchange of rows
5. Given, 1 0 1 x 2
0 = I3 3 1 1  i 1
2 2 1 2 2 x  x and columns
 4x + x + 4 = 1  3x =  3 x = 1 = A + iB A is purely real
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (C).
6. We know that, the determinant of a matrix is the sum of prod 11. The determinant of the lower triangle matrix is product of the
ucts of elements of any row or column with the correspond diagonal elements = 1.
ing cofactors. Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (B). 12. In the given matrix 2R3 = R1.
7. Clearly C3 = C2 We know that in any square matrix, if two rows are equal or
The determinant value is zero. one is the multiple of the other, then its determinant is zero.
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (C).
n! ( n + 1) n! ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1) n! 13. Determinant of new matrix = 2 times the determinant of orig
inal matrix.
8. ~ ( n + 1)! ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1) ( n + 3) ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1)
Hence, the correct option is (C).
( n + 2 )! ( n + 3) ( n + 2 ) ( n + 4 ) ( n + 3) ( n + 2 )
14. Given: A is a square matrix of order K.
1 n +1 ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1) We know, det (KA) = Kr det (A), where r is order of A.
~ n! (n + 1)!(n + 2)! 1 n + 2 ( n + 3) ( n + 2 ) KK = 27 33 = 27
1 n+3 ( n + 4 ) ( n + 3) k=3
R2 R2  R1 and R3 R3  R2 Hence, the correct option is (D).
1 n +1 ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1) 15. 4AB = 44 A B = 256 2 5 = 2560.
~ n! (n + 1)! (n + 2)! 0 1 ( n + 2) 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
0 1 ( n + 3) 2 16. If the elements of determinant are functions of x, we can
= n! (n + 1)! (n + 2)! {2(n + 3  n  2)} express the determinant A = f(x), for some function f.
= 2 n! (n + 1)! (n + 2)! When x = k, = 0 f(k) = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B). (x k) is A factor of f(x) and hence of the determinant.
1 1 1 BT. AT = AB
Now, = a b c is A function of a, b, c. (B) (A) = AB [using (A)]
a2 b2 c2 AB + BA = O
When a = b we get c1 and c2 identical Hence, the correct option is (A).
( )
T
35. Augmented matrix of the given system of equations is 40. If the rank of the matrix is n, then the linear homogeneous
1 2 3 2 system of equations in n variables will have only one solution,
6 7 8 1 ; R  6R x=0
2 1
The rank of the matrix = n
13 14 15 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
1 2 3 2
41. If the given equations have a nonzero solutions
R3  13R1 ~ 0 5 10 11 clearly observing
2 1 1
0 12 24 24
A = 0 k 3 2 = 0 k2  8k + 7 = 0
R2 and R3, we can notice rank of A is not the same as rank of 3 2 k
[A B]
(k  1) (k  7) = 0 k = 1, 7
The system of equations are inconsistent.
Hence, the correct option is (C). If k = 1 or 7, then the rank of A is less than the number of
variables
36. For the equations to have a unique solution.
The equations have nonzero solution.
0 2 1 Hence, the correct option is (D).
A 0 1 k 3 0
42. For nonzero solution,
1 0 1
1  k 1
 2( 1  3) + 1 ( k) 0
k 1 1 = 0 ; C1 C1 + C3
8k0
1 1 1
k8
Hence, the correct option is (B). 0  k 1
 k 1
37. If the system of equations have no solution, then det A = O k  1 1 1 = ( k  1)
1 1
0 1 1
4 2 3
Here, A = 1 3 k = (k  1) (k + 1) = 0 = k = 1.
1 1 1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
1 1 1 = 46 (a + 3) (a  1)
38. System does not have solution if 4 l l = 0 A 0 a 1, 3 for these value of a, system has only
3 2 4 trivial solution
Hence, the correct option is (C).
0 0 1
4+l 2l l = 0 = 24 + 6l  14l = 0 2 p 6
7 6 4 44. D = 1 2 q = (p 2) (q 3)
1 1 3
l = 3.
The system will have a unique solution only if 0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
i.e. when p 2 and q 3,
39. The system of equations AX = B has a solution if [i] 0 or
Hence, the correct option is (D).
(ii) x = y = z = 0 =
45. The system has no solution, when p 2, q = 3.
2 3 1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Here, D = 1 2 3 = 0
5 8 1 46. When p = 2,
47. The given equations in matrix form are The characteristic roots are 1, 1, 5
2 1 1 x 4 The characteristic roots of A1 are reciprocals of 1, 1, 5.
3 2 4 y = 8 They are 1, 1, 1/5.
1 3 2 z 1 Hence, the correct option is (C).
The augmented matrix [A B] = 52. The sum of eigenvalues = The sum of diagonal elements
(trace of A) = 2 + 4 5 = 1
2 1 1 4 1 3 2 1 Product of eigenvalues = det A = 2(4 5 3 2) 
3 2 4 8 R 1
R3
3 2 4 8
1(0 3  4 1) = 24
1 3 2 1 2 1 1 4 Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 3 2 1 1 3 2 1 2 0 1
0 7 5 2 0 7 5 2
R 2 3R1, R 3 2 R1 R3 R 2
53. The eigen values of the matrix A = 0 2 p are 1, 2, 3
0 7 2 5 0 0 3 3 1 0 q
The matrix in echelon form We know that sum of the eigen value = Trace of A
x  3y + 2z = 1 (A) 1+2+3=2+2+qq=2
7y  5z = 2 (B) Also, product of the eigen values = Determinant of A
3z = 3(C) 2 0 1 2 0 1
from (C) z = 1 substituting in (B) We get y = 1, and then from 123= 0 2 p 0 2 p =6
(A) we get x = 2, 1 0 q 1 0 2
Hence, the correct option is (C).
2[4  0)  0[0  p] + 1[0  2] = 6
48. As the eigen values of an upper triangular matrix are the diag 8  2 = 6 p is any real number
onal elements of the matrix.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
The eigen values of the given matrix are 2, 1 and 3.
54. The eigenvalues of a real skewsymmetric matrix are purely
Hence, the correct option is (C). imaginary or zero.
49. The characteristic equation of the given matrix is A  lI = 0 The product of the eigenvalues = det A
1 l 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
4 5l 6 = 0 l3  15l2  18l = 0 1 0 4 6 1 0 4 6
7 8 9l = =
2 4 0 5 0 4 8 17
l = 0 is A root of it. 3 6 5 0 0 6 17 18
Hence, the correct option is (D). 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
2 3 4 =  4 8 17 = 4 8 17 = 0 0 29
50. Let A = 3 5 6 6 17 18 6 17 18 0 29 0
1 1 14
= 292. As det A 0, the product of all the eigen values is not
The characteristic equation of A is A  lI = 0 zero, i.e. 0 is not an eigen value.
2l 3 4 Hence, the correct option is (B).
3 5l 6 = 0 l3  21l2 + 101l = 0
5 2
1 1 14  l 55. Let A =
2 1
21 37 The characteristic equation of A is A  lI = 0
l(l2  21l + 101) = 0 l = 0; l =
2
5l 2
21 37 = 0 (5  l) (1  l) + 4 = 0
Clearly, l = are positive 2 1 l
2
So, the minimum eigen value is 0. l2  6l + 9 = 0 (l  3)2 = 0 l = 3, 3
Hence, the correct option is (A). The eigen values of A are l = 3, 3
x
51. The characteristic equation of the given matrix is Let x = 1 be an eigen vector of A corresponding to the
2l 2 1 x2
eigen value l = 3
A  lI = 0 1 3l 1 =0
AX = 3X
1 2 2l 2 2 x1 0
(A  3I) x = 0 =
l3  7l2 + 11l  5 = 0 2 2 x2 0
= 2A7 0  A4 [A3  9A2 + 20A  12I] + A(A3  9A2 + 20A  So, option (A) is TRUE (2)
12I] + 2A. (From (1)) 1
Similarly, by post multiplying with P on both sides of (1),
= A 0 + A 0 + 2A. (From (1))
4 we get DP1 = P1A
So, option (B) is also TRUE (3)
2 0 0 4 0 0
From (1), D = P AP
= 2 3 6 7 = 6 12 14 . 1
9 0 1 18 0 2 D2 = D.D = (P1AP) (P1AP)
P1A(PP1)AP P1AI AP
Hence, the correct option is (B).
D2 = P1A2P
63. The characteristic equation of the matrix
PD2 = P(P1A2P) PD2 = (PP1)A2P PD2 = A2P
3 1 1
A2P = PD2
A = 1 3 1 is A  lI = 0
So, option (C) is also TRUE.
1 1 1
Also, it can be easily observed that the relation DP = PA cannot
3  l 1 1 be obtained from (1)
1 3  l 1 = 0 So, option (D) need not be TRUE.
1 1 1  l Hence, the correct option is (D).
(3  l) [(3  l) (1  l) + 1] + 1[(1 + l) + 1]  1[1 (3 65. If P is A modal matrix of the 3 3 matrix A, then P1AP will
 l) = 0 become the diagonal form of A with its eigen values are same
l3  5l2 + 4l = 0 (1) as that of the matrix A
The characteristic equation of A is l  5l + 4l = 0
3 2 So, the eigen values of P1AP are 0, 2 and 3.
So, (P) is TRUE (2) Hence, the correct option is (A).
a1 + b1 0 ... 0 Consider
0 a2 + b2 ... 0 x
Cx r y
Cyr z
Cz r
A+ B =
.. .. ... .. D1 = C x  r 1
x y
C y  r 1 z
C z  r 1
0 0 ... an + bn x
Cx  r  2 y
Cy r 2 z
Cz  r  2
( a1 + b1 ) 2
0 ... 0
Cr x y
Cr Cr
z
0 ( a2 + b2 ) 2 ... 0
( A + B) =2 = C r +1
x y
C r +1 z
Cr +1 [Using (A)]
.. .. ... .. x
Cr + 2 y
Cr + 2 z
Cr + 2
0 0 ... ( an + bn ) 2
Cr x y
Cr Cr
z
for k 1 x+2
Cr + 2 y + 2 Cr + 2 z+2
Cr + 2
Hence, the correct option is (A).
= 2 1 : 2 = 1 : 1
5. Given A = (aij )n n, B = (bij)n n we have
Hence, the correct option is (A).
n
C = AB = (cij)n n where cij = aik bkj 1 1 1
k =1
n
13. = m C1n n +1
C1 n+ 2
C1
cii = aik bki n
C2 n +1
C2 n+ 2
C2
k =1
adj ( adjA) = A
n2  2 n + 1 22. For skewsymmetric matrices, diagonal elements are zeros
Trace = 0
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 3 2
23. None
18. let A = 3 0 5
Hence, the correct option is (D).
2 5 0
24. If A is any given matrix, then it is said to be involuntary, if
A = 1(0 + 25)  3(0 + 10)  2(15  0) = 25
A = I
Matrix is nonsingular and inverse exists.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
0 5
cofactor of 1 = (1) 1+1
= 25 25. A = 0 it is A Nilpotent matrix of index 2
5 0 Hence, the correct option is (D).
3 5 26. Matrix A is involutory A2 = I (1)
cofactor of 3 = (1) = 10
1+2
2 0 Matrix A is orthogonal AA = I T
(2)
Similarly, we get cofactors for other elements Premultiplying (2) by A, we have A2AT = A
25 10 15 I AT = A (using (1))
cofactor matrix of A = 10 4 1
AT = A A is symmetric.
15 11 9
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Adjoint of A = Transpose of cofactor matrix
5+ 2i 4i 5 2i
25 10 15
27. Let z = i  8 i i  8
= 10 4 11
15 1 1+ i 3 i 1 i
9
Taking its complex conjugate is
25 10 15
A = 1/A (Adj. A) = 1/25 10 4
1
11
5  2 i 4 i 5 + 2 i 5 + 2 i 4 i 5  2 i
15 1 9
z =  i 8 i i  8 =  i  8 ( i ) i  8
Hence, the correct option is (B). 1  i 3 i 1 + i 1+ i 3 i 1 i
0 6 8 0 6 8 5+ 2i 4i 5 2i
19. Let A = 6 0 5 AT = 6 0 5 (By interchanging C1 and C3) = i 8 i i  8 = z
8 5 0 8 5 0 1+ i 3 i 1 i
z = z z is A real number
0 6 8
AT = 6 0 5 = A AT = A Hence, the correct option is (A).
8 5 0 28. Let A be the given matrix
A is skewsymmetric. 4 1+ i 7
Hence, the correct option is (A). A = 1  i 6
T
i
20. Let B = A AT 7 i 5
Now, BT = (A AT)T = AT (AT)T = AT A
4 1+ i 7
[ (AT)T = A ] = B B = A AT is skewsymmetric
Conjugate of A = 1  i 6
i ;
Hence, the correct option is (B). 7
i 5
21. Statement P: Let A be a skewsymmetric matrix. Then, all its
leading diagonal elements aii are zero. it may be observed that (A)T = A
n A is Hermitan but not symmetric
Trace ( A) = aii = 0
i =1 Hence, the correct option is (C).
2 a + 3i b  2i 1 4 8 16
3
0 10 20 36 R3 R3  R2
29. Given matrix is a  3i 4 c  8i
b  2i c + 8i 2
6 0 15 30 54
Consider any ith row and jth column, any element, aij is a
1 4 8 16
conjugate of the element aji.
0 10 20 36 Clearly (1) is in row echelon form.
It is a hermitian matrix.
0 0 0 0
Hence, the correct option is (C).
30. because the det. of 2 2 minor matrix 0; Also, rank A = rank [A/B] = 2 < 3 (= No. of unknows)
Hence, the given system of equations is consistent and has
1 6
= 8  30 = 22 0 infinitely many solutions.
5 8
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Rank = 2
38. Given equations are
Hence, the correct option is (B).
2x + z = 2,
31. Because A 0 Rank = 3
kx + y + 3z = 1
Hence, the correct option is (B).
x  y = 1
32. A 0 Rank A = 6
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 0 1
33. The system of equations is said to be consistent if there exists In matrix form, A = k 1 3
at least one solution. 1 1 0
Hence, the correct option is (A). In order to get A unique solution, det A 0
34. The given system of nonhomogeneous equations is consist 2 [0 + 3]  0 + 1 [k 1] 0
ent only when the rank of coefficient matrix A is the same as 6k10k5
the rank of the augmented matrix.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
r(A) = r[A B]
39. Given equations are:
Hence, the correct option is (A).
2x + ay + 5z = 3
35. Rank of A < Rank [A : B]
3x + y + 2z = 4
Hence, the correct option is (B).
x  7y + 8z = b
36. Given equations are:
In matrix form, it is
x + 2y + 3z = 2
2 a 5
6x + 7y + 8z = 1 A = 3 1 2
13x + 14y + 15z = 2 1 7 8
1 2 3 It has infinite number of solution when = 0 and 1 = 2
In matrix form, 6 7 8 = 3 = 0
13 14 15 =0
1 2 3 2[8 + 14]  A [24  2] + 5 (21  1) = 0
Determinant = 6 7 8 = 0 44  22a  110 = 0 22a = 66 A = 3
13 14 15 for getting b equate 1 or 2 or 3 = 0
( 1)
k 4
Hence, the correct option is (D). . Ck .a 4  k .l k = 0
k =0
45. The coefficient matrix is
Hence, the correct option is (D).
2 1 3 2 1 3
50. Eigen values are 1, 1, 0
A = 1 1 1 det A = 1 1 1 = 2 (1 + 1) +1 (1  1) + 3
For a lower triangular matrix, leading diagonal elements are
1 1 1 1 1 1
the eigen values.
(1 1) = 4  6 0 Hence, the correct option is (C).
System has trivial solution only
5l 4 7
Hence, the correct option is (C). 51. A  lI = 0 0 3  l 1 =0
46. Given equations are: 0 0 6l
4x  2y  2z = 0, kx  6y + 4z = 0 and 6x + 4y + kz = 0
(5  l) (3  l) (6  l) = 0
4 2 2 (l  5) (l + 3) (l  6) = 0
In matrix form, it is k 6 4 Solving, we get l = 5, 3, 6 as the characteristic values.
6 4 k
Hence, the correct option is (B).
A4 A3 A2 = I A I = A 1 2
From (2), A1 = [A + I]
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2
61. Given that matrix A satisfies A3 7A 6I = 0 and that A 0. 0 1 1 1 0 0
1
Premultiplying (1) by A1 (Inverse of A exists as A 0) = 1 0 1 + 0 1 0
2
A2 7I 6A1 = 0 1 1 2 0 0 1
1 2
6A1 = A2 7I A1 = ( A  7I ) 1 1 1
6 1
B= 1 1 1.
Hence, the correct option is (A). 2
1 1 1
62. The characteristic equation of the matrix
Hence, the correct option is (D).
5 8
A = is A  lI = 0
2 3 64. Multiplying (1) throughout by A2, we have
A2 [A3 + A  2I] = A2 = 0
5  l 8
= 0 (5  l) (3 l) + 16 = 0
3  l
1
2 A + A1  2A2 = 0 A2 = [A + A1]
2
l2  2l  15 + 16 = 0 l2  2l + 1 = 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
By CayleyHamilton theorem, we have 1 1
1 0 1 +
2 2 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
A2  2A + I = 0, where I = and 0 = 0 0
0 1
1 3 1
A2 = 2A  I (1) 1
B2 = 3 1 1 .
Now, consider A17 = A16.A = (A2)8.A 4
1 1 1
= (2A  I)8.A (From (1))
Hence, the correct option is (C).
= [(2A  I)2]4.A = [4A2  4A + I]4.A 2 3
65. The characteristic equation of the matrix p = is
= [(4(2A  I)  4A + I)2]2.A (From (1)) 1 5
= [(4A  3I)2]2.A = (16A2  24A + 9I]2.A 2l 3
P  lI = 0 =0
= [16(2A  I)  24A + 9I]2.A (From (1)) 1 5l
= (8A  7I)2.A = [64A2  112A + 49I].A (2  l) (5  l)  3 = 0 l2  7l + 7 = 0
= [64 (2A  I)  112A + 49I]A (From (1)) By CayleyHamilton theorem, we have
= (16A  15I).A = 16A2  15A P2  7P + 7I = 0 (1)
= 16(2A  I)  15A (From (1)) Consider the matrix polynomial
= 17A  16I. 2P9  14P8 + 14P7  3P6 + 21P5  22P4  7P3 + 11P2 + 3P
Hence, the correct option is (D).  2I
= 2P7 (P2  7P + 7I)  3P4(P2  7P + 7I) + 21P4  22P4  7P3
Solutions for questions 63 and 65:
+ 11P2 + 3P  2I
As it is given that the characteristic equation of a matrix
= 2P7 0  3P4 0  P4  7P3 + 7P2 + 4P2 + 3P  2I
0 1 1 (From (1))
A = 1 0 1 is l3 + l  2 = 0 = P2(P2  7P + 7I) + 4(P2  7P + 7I) + 28P  28I + 3P  2I
1 1 0 = P2 0 + 4 0 + 31P  30I (From (1)) = 31P  30I
Given B = A1 2 3 1 0 32 93
= 31  30 0 1 = .
By CayleyHamilton, we have 1 5 31 125
A3 + A  2I = 0 (1) Hence, the correct option is (B).
1
63. Multiplying (1) throughout by A , we have
x 2
A1 [A3 + A  2I] = A1 (0) 66. For the matrix A =
y 5
A2 + I  2A1 = O Sum of the eigen values = 9
1 2 i.e. Trace of A = 9 ( sum of the eigen values = Trace of A)
A1 = [A + I] (2)
2 x+5=9
x=4
0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
Also, the product of the eigen values = 0
Now, A2 = A.A = 1 0 1 1 0 1 = 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 i .e. Determinate of A = 0 ( product of eigen values is equal
to determinant of the matrix.)
From the options, it can be easily observed that Hence, the correct option is (C).
(i) sum of the numbers in option (C) 69. Suppose k1 = 3, then the determinant of the coefficients is
zero.
1 11
=1+1+ = (1) 1
5 5 k2  2 1
k2 2 1 3 1
(ii) Product of the numbers D1= 3 8 9 = 0 8 9 , C1  C3
3
1 1 1 1 3 0 1 3
=11 = (2)
5 5
Also, we know that 1
= k2  (249)
(i) sum of the eigen values = Trace (3) 3
and 1
If k2 , D1 0,
(ii) product of the eigen values 3
= Determinant (4) 1
System has no solution if k1 = 3 and k2
3
From (1) and (3), Hence, the correct option is (C).
Sum of the numbers in option (C) = Trace and from (2)
1
and (4) 70. Let k2 = and k1 = 3
3
Product of the numbers in option (C) = Determinant In this case, D1 = 0,
1
Hence, the eigen values of the matrix are 1, 1 and . 1
5 3 1
3
Hence, the correct option is (C).
D 2 = 5 3 9 = 0, as third column is a multiple of the
68. The characteristic equation of the matrix 2 1 3
1 6 5 second column.
A = 1 1 5 is A  lI = 0 1
2 7 10 3 2
3
1
Again, D 3 = 5 8 3 = 3(8  3) + 2(5  6) + (5 + 16)
1 l 6 5 3
2 1 1
1 1  l 5 =0
2 7 10  l = 15  22 + 7 = 0
1
(1  l) [(1 l) (10  l)  35]  6[10  l  10] + 5[7 + 2 That is, when k1 = 3, k2 = , D = D1 = D2 = D3 = 0
3
+ 2l] = 0 System has infinite number of solutions.
l3 + 10l2 + 52l = 0 l3  10l2  52l = 0 Hence, the correct option is (B).
3x 12 1 2
+ =0 12. Let A =
5 25
0 2
4 The eigen values of A are l = 1 and l = 2
x=
5
1 1
Hence, the correct option is (A). Let X1 = and X2 =
a
b
1 2 4
1 2 1 1 + 2a
10. One eigen value of the matrix 3 0 6 is 3 Now, AX1 = = = 1. X1
0 2 a 2a
1 1 p
Let l1 and l2 be the other two eigen values of that matrix 1 + 2a 1
=
l1 + l2 + 3 = trace of the matrix 2a a
l1 + l2 + 3 = 1 + 0 + p a=0
l1 + l2 = p  2 Similarly,
1 2 1 1
Hence, the correct option is (C). AX2 = 2X2 = 2
0 2 b
b
11. Given system of equations is
2x + 3y = 4 1 + 2b 2
= 1 + 2b = 2
x + y + z = 4 2b 2b
x + 2y  z = A (1) 1 1 1
b= a+b= 0+ =
2 2 2
Which can be written in matrix form as
Hence, the correct option is (B).
2 3 0
Where A = 1 1 1 ; 13. If A is a real symmetric matrix, then the eigen values of A are
1 2 1 always real.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
x 4
X = y and B = 4 s
2 1
14. Let A =
z a 0 2
l = 2 is the eigen vector of A
Consider the augmented matrix
x
2 3 0 4 Let X = 1 be an eigen vector of A corresponding to l = 2
x2
[A/B] = 1 1 1 4
AX = 2X (OR) (A  2I) X = 0
1 2 1 a
0 1 x1 0
=
R1 R2
0 0 x2 0
1 1 1 4 x1 = 0 and x2 is arbitrary.
~ 2 3 0 4
Let x2 = K, where k is arbitrary
1 2 1 a
x 0 0
R2 R2  2R1 X = 1 = = K
x
2 K 1
R3 R3  R1
0
Any eigen vector of A is a scalar multiple of
1 1 1 4 1
0 1 2 4
The number of linearly independent eigen vectors of A is 1
0 1 2 a  4 Hence, the correct option is (B).
R3 R3  R2 3 2
15. Given that the eigen values of S = are 5 and 1
2 3
1 1 1 4
The eigen values of S2 = S. S are S2 = 25 and 12 = 1
[A/B] 0 1 2 4
Hence, the correct option is (A).
0 1 2 a
16. * For a singular matrix, the determinant is zero.
The system of equations (1) has a solution, if the rank of So (P) should be matched with (3)
[A/B] = Rank of A. * For a nonsquare matrix, the determinant is not defined.
This happens if A = 0 Also, the eigen values are not defined.
Hence, the correct option is (B). So, (Q) can be matched with either (1) or (5)
1 2 + 24 6 ! + ____ 1 + 2 24 Lt 1
Lt x (3 x + 4 x ) x = 4 (by known theorem)
x 0 x6
1  x6 x8 1 1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
= Lt + + ____ = =
x 0 x 6 6 ! 8!
6 ! 720 9. Lt x  2 + [x  2]
x 2
24 cos x  24 + 12 x 2  x 4 1
Lt = = Lt  (x  2) + ( 1) =  1
x 0 24 x 6 720 x 2
1 x 2 x2
L.H.L R.H.L
x
n n n
1
x 1
4. ( y n + x n ) n = y 1 + as < 1 & lim 1 + = e limit does not exists.
y y n n
n
Hence, the correct option is (D).
x 1
y
n
y n 10. Statement II is false
n x
For example, consider the problem lim (sec x tan x )
= y 1 + x
p
y x
2
1 sin x cos x
= lim = lim =0
xn 1 1 x x
p cos x x sin x
p
y eo as n As < , as <1 2 2
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (A).
h0
f (3) = 3b
lim f (1) = f (1) ap cp
x 1 As f is continuous at x = 3 = = 3b
2 2
f(x) is continuous at x = 1 6b
Hence, the correct option is (C). a = c = (1)
p
15. sin x is continuous. At x = 4
x, x2 + 2 being polynomial functions are also c ontinuous, also 1 cp
L.H.L. = lim f ( x ) = lim c tan 1 =
x2 + 2 0 x4
x4 x 3 4
Hence, the function is continuous for all x.
R.H.L. = lim f ( x ) = lim cos1 (4 3) = ap
Hence, the correct option is (A). x 4+ x4
16. f(0) = a2 p
= + ap = f (4 )
2
sin2 ax
lim f ( x ) = lim f is continuous at x = 4
x 0 x 0 x2
cp p p
sin2 ax 2 = + ap = + cp (2) using (1)
= lim .a 4 2 2
x 0 a 2 x 2
2 p
2 c= =a b= (using (1))
sin2 ax 2 3 9
= lim .a = 1 a 2 = a 2
x 0 ax 2 p
a=c= & b=
f(x) is continuous at x = 0 3 9
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (B).
y ax
A x B
x
Let the side (AB) of the given triangle be x units.
O
Then, the hypotenuse (BC) is a x units.
has minimum at x = 0, Choice B: y = x 3 y = x 3 as x 3 The third side of the triangle AC = ( a x )2 x 2
is always positive it is 0 when x = 3
The minimum of y is exist at x = 3 1 1
The area of the triangle = AB AC = . a 2 2 ax
2 2
y ds 1 1
= (2xa2 2a.3x2)
dx 2 2 a x 2 ax 3
2 2
ds
For the area to be maximum = 0 2xa2 2a.3x2 = 0
dx
a 3x = 0 a = 3x or x = a 3 AB = a 3 units
x
O (3, 0) a a 2a
When x = and hypotenuse (BC) = a x = a =
Choice C: 3 3 3
a 2a
1 The required ratio AB:BC = : = 1:2
y = , as 1 + x2 is greater than 1 for x R 3 3
1 + x2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 30. The angle between AB and BC i.e., B is obtained from
< 1 for all x R
1 + x2 AB 1
cos B = = B = 60
maximum value of y is 1. BC 2
When B = 60 then C = 30
y
Hence, the correct option is (B).
(0, 1) 31. Consider f(x) = x2 3 in 0 , 6
3 x2 , 0 x 3
x =
O
x 2 3, 3<x 6
1 As f is modulus function, it is continuous at all points but f is
y = has maximum at x = 0
1 + x2 not differentiable at x = 3
Hence, the correct option is (D). So, Rolles theorem is not applicable to f(x) in [0, 6]
x2 u 1 y
34. Given, f(x) = eu = . 2y = and
x+1 y 2
x +y
2 2
x + y2
2
f I(x) =
( x + 1) 2 x  x 2 (1) = x ( x + 2) .
u
=
1
. 1 +
1
2 x
( x + 1)2 ( x + 1)2 x x+ x + y
2 2
2
x +y2
2
5 1
g (b) g ( a) g 1 (c ) e aq e ap a.e ac order(k) =  = 2
2 2
e aq e ap u u u
= e 2 ac ea(p + q) = e2ac 2ac = a(p + q) By Eulers theorem x +y +z = ku = 2 tanf
1 1 x y z
ed eq e ap Hence, the correct option is (A).
p+q u f
c = 41. In the above problem, given u = tanf = sec2f
2 x x
Hence, the correct option is (B).
u f u f
Similarly = sec2f and = sec2f
36. Given x = cos(z + y2) z = cos1 x  y2 y y z z
Differentiating partially with respect to y Substituting these values in the result of the above we have
z f f f
= 2y ( x is constant) x sec2f + ysec2f + zsec2f = 2tanf
y x y z
Hence, the correct option is (D). f f f 2 tan f
x +y +z = = sin2f
x y 2 y z + x z 3 xyz
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
x y z sec 2 f
37. Given f(x, y, z) =
x 4 + y 2 z 2 + xy 2 z Hence, the correct option is (D).
42. Given f(x,y) = x3 + y4  27x + 32y + 100 At (0, 0), (3, 0), and (0, 3) it can be easily observed that rt  s2 < 0
fx(x, y) = 3x 27 and fy(x, y) = 4y + 32
2 3 and hence they are saddle poins
for stationary points fx = 0 and fy = 0 3x2 27 = 0 At (1, 1), rt  s2 = 4  1 = 3 > 0, and r = 2 1 = 2 < 0
x = 3 and 4y3 + 32 = 0 y = 2 f has a local maximum at (1, 1)
Stationary points are (3, 2), (3, 2) And from (3), z = 3  x  y = 3  1  1 = 1
Hence, the correct option is (D). The point where f has a local maximum is (1, 1, 1).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
43. Given f(x, y) = 2x2 + 4y2 + 4xy + 2x + 10y + 7
45. Let x, y and z be the length, width and height of the rectangu
f f
Fx = = 4x + 4y + 2 and fy = = 8y + 4x + 10 lar box, open at the top.
x y
The volume of the box = xyz = 64 (Given)
Fx = 0 4x + 4y + 2 = 0 2x + 2y = 1 (1) and
The material required for the construction of that box =
Fy = 8y + 4x + 10 = 0 2x + 4y = 5 (2) surface area of that box
3
Solving (1) and (2), we get y =  2 and x = = xy + 2yz + 2zx
2
3 Let f(x, y, z) = xy + 2yz + 2zx (1)
The stationary point of f(x, y) is 2
2 64
As xyz = 64 z = (2)
2 f 2 f f 2 xy
Now, r = fxx = = 4, s = fxy = = 4 and t = =8 From (1) and (2)
x 2
x y y 2
rt  s2 = 32  16 = 16 = 0 and r = 4 > 0 128 128
f = xy + + (3)
x y
3
f(x, y) has a local minimum at 2 . 128 128
2 fx = y  2 and fy = x  2
Hence, the correct option is (B). x y
128
44. Let f = x y z (1) fx = 0 y  2 = 0 x2y = 128 (4)
x
Where x + y + z = 3 (2)
128
z=3xy (3) and fy = x x  2
y
(1) becomes 128
fx = 0 y = 2 = 0 xy2 = 128 (5)
f = xy (3  x  y) = 3xy  x2y  xy2 y
fx = 3y  2xy  y2 and fy = 3x  x2  2xy from (4) and (5), we have x2y = xy2
Now, fx = 0 3y  2xy  y = 0 y(3  2x  y) = 0
2
xy (x  y) = 0 x  y = 0 (xy 0) x = y
y = 0, or 2x + y = 3 (4) 1 1
From (4), x3  128 x = 4 ( 2 ) , y = 4 ( 2 )
And fy = 0 3x  x2  2xy = 0 x(3  x  2y) = 0 3 3
x = 0, or x + 2y = 3 (5) (
The stationary point is 4 3 2 , 44 3 2 )
If y = 0, then from (5), x 2 0 = 3 x = 3 256 256
(3, 0) is a stationary point r = fxx = , s = fxy = 1 and t = fyy = 3
x3 y
If x = 0, then from (4) 256 256
And rt = (1)2
2 0 + y = 3 y = 3 x3 y3
(0, 3) is a stationary point
And from (4) and (5),
(
At 4 3 2 ,4 3 2 )
rt  s2 = 4  1 = 3 > 0 and r > 0
2x + y = 3, x + 2y = 3
f has a minimum value at x = 4 3 2 and y = 4 3 2
Solving these two equations, we have
From (2), z = 2 3 2
x = 1 and y = 1
The ratio of the dimensions of that box is
(1, 1) is a stationary point
= x : y : z = 4 3 2 : 4 3 2 : 2 3 2 = 2 : 2 : 1.
The stationary points of f are
Hence, the correct option is (A).
(0, 0), (3, 0), (0, 3) and (1, 1)
46. Among the options given, the step function is the only func
2 f 2 f tion which is discontinuous but integrable 10
Now r = fxx = = 2y; s = fxy = = 3  2x  2y
x 2
x y
[x] dx = 10 11/2 = 55
2 f
and t = fyy = = 2x Hence, the correct option is (A).
y 2
1 2n
rt  s2 = (2y) (2x)  (3  2x  2y)2 47.
n
(e + e 4 n + + e 2 n n )
= 4xy  (3  2x  2y)2
1 n 2r n
1 The area bounded by the curve y2 = x and x = 3 is the plane
e = e 2 x dx
n r =1
region OAB as shown in the figure
0
(Using the theorem of integral as the limit of a sum) Area of OAB = Area of OBC (=R1) + Area of OAC (=R2) (1)
1 2x In OBC, y2 = x (or) y = x
Let f (x) = e2x for all x [0,1] and g (x) = e x [0,1] 3 3
2 2 23
f (x) is continuous on [0,1], and hence integrable g(x) is deriv Area of OBC = xdx =
3
x =2 3
0
able on [ 0,1] and g1(x) = f(x) x =0
1
1 2 1 1 2 Also the regions R1 and R2 have same area
e 2 x dx = g (1) g (0 ) = e = (e 1)
2 2 2 Area of OAC = 2 3
0
p 2 = [x ]
3 2
0
= 8 sq units.
50.
0
sinm x cos n xdx Hence, the correct option is (D).
m1 m3 1 n1 n3 1 p 53. We have to find the volume V of the solid obtained by revolv
= ........ ..... ing the ABC as shown in the figure about x  axis
m+1 m+n2 n+2 n n2 2 2
7
here m = 4 and n = 6 then
p 2
Volume = V =
x=4
py dx 2
3 1 5 3 1 p 15p
sin 4
x cos6 xdx = = 7 7
0
10 8 6 4 2 2 2560 =
x=4
p ( x 4 ) dx = p ( x 4 ) dx
x=4
3p
= 7
512 x 92
= p 4 x = p cubic units.
2 4 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
51.
C
Y
y2 = x
(
B 3, 3 ) Y
R1
O A B X
O C X
R2 y 2= x  4
x=4
x=7
( )
3, 3 A x = 3
Hence, the correct option is (A).
It is convergent as p > 1 dx
1
b
1
0 4 x 5 + 1
II. x p
dx is convergent when p > 1
x
0
Lt 1.0001
dx
b
1 dx
x 0.0001
b
x 5
+1
is also convergent by comparison test.
4
= Lt = Lt  b+ 0.0001 0
b 0.0001 10000 Both are convergent.
1 b
e qb dydx 2 e2
Lt = The above integral is infinite. We have to evaluate
b q my 2
0 ex
The given integral is converges only when q > 0. Here, first we have to integrate w.r.t from y = ex to y = e2 along
the vertical strip from P to Q, and then we have to integrate
Hence, the correct option is (B).
w.r.t x from x = 0 to x = 2
1
62. The integral value = . Evaluation of this double integral can be made simple by
q changing the order of integration.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Then, we integrate w.r.t x from x = 0 to x = my among the
p 4 p 4
horizontal strip P Q from P to Q and then we integrate w.r.t
63. (3 cosq + 4 sinq ) dq df Y from y = 1 to y = e2
0 0 2 e2
dydx
e2
iny 1
p 4
0 0 iny 2 = dx dy
(3 cosq + 4 sinq )
q =p 4
= df y =1 x = 0
iny 2
q =0
0 x = iny
e2
x e2
iny  0
iny
p 4
3 4 1 p 4 4 2 1 p = 2
dy = dy
+ 4 df = 4
[f ] = . x =0 iny 2
2
y =1 y =1
0 2 2 2 4
e2 e2 e2
4 2 1 iny 1 1
= p
= y =1 2iny dy = 2 1 dy = 2 1
4 2
1 2
Hence, the correct option is (B). =( e  1) .
2
p
1 1
q
p
1 1
p Hence, the correct option is (B).
x y dy dx = x [log y ] dx = dx (log q log 2 )
y=q
64. y=2
2 x x2
1 1 1
68. Given integral is f ( x, y ) dxdy
p q x=2 y=
= log [log x ]1 = log log p
p
65.
dy dx = sin 1 y
dx
0
0 (1  x 2 )  y 0 1  x 2 0 a
1
1  x2 p1 p
= sin 1 dx = dx =
1  x2 2 2
0 0
(2,0)
Hence, the correct option is (C). (0,2) P X
log t
x x+ y log t log t
e dy dx = e e y = 0 dx = e ( e  1) dx
y=x
66. x y x x
0 0 0 0
xy = 2
log t log t
e2 x 1 1
=
0
(e  e )dx =
2x x
2
 e x = e 2 log t  e log t  + 1
0 2 2
By changing the order of integration, we first integrate w.r.t
t2 1 x along the horizontal strip from x = y + 2 to x = , then we
= t +
2 2 integrate w.r.t y from y = 0 to y =
Hence, the correct option is (A). x2
f ( x, y ) dxdy = f ( x, y ) dxdy.
67. Y 2 0 y =0 x = y +2
1 1
i.e. f ( u,J ) dudJ = J  u dudJ
R R Q Y = x2
1 1
f ( u, J ) = 
J u A 2,2
B 2,3
Hence, the correct option is (D).
P
70. Given x = u + 2J and y = 4u + 3J O X
x x
( x + y) u J 1 2
x 2 + y 2x = 6
J= = = = 5
( u,J ) y y 4 3
u J
By changing the variables from x and y to u and J, the
2 6  x2
given integral becomes The required area =
dydx
f ( x, y ) dxdy = f ( u + 2J , 4u + 3J ) J dudJ x= 2 x= x
R R
Hence, the correct option is (B).
= f ( u + 2J, 4u + 3J ) 5 dudJ 73. The volume of the region under the plane 12x + 4y  32 = 0
R
and above the region bounded by x = 1, x = 3, y = x2 and
i.e. f ( u + 2J , 4u + 3J )Y ( u,J ) dudJ
R y = 4x2 is given by
= f ( u + 2J , 4u + 3J ) = dudJ
3 4 x2
1
R V= (12 x + 4 y ) dydx
x =1 y = x 2 3
y (u, J) = 5.
1 3 4x 2
( x ( p, f, z ) , y ( p, fz ) , z ( p, fz ) ,Y ( p, f, z ) dpdfdz We have to find the volume of the solid generated by the revo
R lution of the triangle ABC about x  axis
= f ( p cos i , p sin fz ) pdpdfdz In triangle ABC, x varies from x = y to x = 4  y and
R
y = varies from y = 1 to y = 2
y (p, f, z) = p.
Volume of the solid V = 2p ydxdy
Hence, the correct option is (A). ABC
2 4 y 2
a = 482 ( sin 2 4t + cos 2 4t ) = 48
[ xy ]
4 y
= 2 (pydx ) dy = 2p x= y
dy
y =1 x = y y =1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
2 2
= 2p [ 4  y  y ] ydy = 2p ( 4 y  2 y 2 ) dy df
y =1 y =1 78. f = 0 f is a vector function of constant direction.
2 dt
2 2
= 2p 2 y 2  y 3 = 2p 2 ( 4  1)  (8  1) Hence, the correct option is (C).
3 y =1 3
79. rn
8
= p cubic units. = i /x (rn) = i nrn1 r/x
3
Hence, the correct option is (D). = i n rn1 x/r = nrn2 x i = nrn2 r
Hence, the correct option is (C).
75. For the solid V, formed by the planes
Solutions for questions 80 and 81:
X = 0, y = 0, z = 0 and x + y + z = 4
Given surfaces f = xy2z  2y + z2 and g = x2 + yz  x  2
Z varies from z = 0 to z = 4  x  y,
Y varies from y = 0 to y = 4  x and x varies from x = 0 to x = 4
grad f = i + j + k f
x y z
Volume of the solid bounded by the planes
X = 0, y = 0, z = 0 and x + y + z = 4 is = y2z i + (2xyz  2) j + (xy2 + 2z) k
4 4 x 4 x y
dxdydz = dzdydx grad g = i + j + k g = (2x 1) i + z j + y k
V x =0 y =0 z =0 x y z
4
4 x 4 x y Let n be the normal vector to surface f at P (1, 1, 2),
= [ x ]z = 0 dy dx i.e. n1 = (grad f )P n1 = 2i  6j + 5k
x =0 y =0
Let n2 be the normal vector to surface g at P (1, 1, 2),
4
4 x
= ( 4  x  y ) dx dx i.e. n2 = (grad g)P
x =0 y =0
n2 = i + 2j  k
4 x
4
y2 80. The normal vector to the surface g is n2 = i + 2j  k
= 4 y  xy  dx
x =0 2 y =0 Hence, the correct option is (B).
81. The acute angle q between the two surfaces is the angle
4
( 4  x ) dx
2
dv
Acceleration a = =  48 sin 4ti  48 cos 4tj = i + j + k (2xy2  xyz + y2 z)
dt x y z
= 48 (sin 4ti+ cos 4tj) = i (2y  yz) + j (4xy  xz + 2yz ) + k ( xy + y2)
2
= a1 i + a2 j + a3 k = a (2)
F . dr = (5 x ( x )  6 x ) dx + ( 2 x
1
3 2
1
3
 4 x )( 3 x 2 ) dx
j i k = ( 5 x 4  6 x 2 + 6 x 5  12 x 3 ) dx
1
ra =(x
) y z
2
= x 5  2 x 3 + x 6  3 x 4 1 = 35
a3 y a2 z a1 z a3 x a2 x a1 y Hence, the correct option is (A).
1 1 2p
= 1 cos 4t dt dr
8 r =0 0
0 (2, 0) x
2p
1 1 sin 4t 1 p
dr = 2p r ]0 =
1
= t 
80 4 0 8 4 21 2
x
96. 2
x
2
y3 2 x3 x3
C B (1, 2) = 0 3  x 2 y 0 dx = 0 24  2 dx
2 2
11 11 x 4 11
= (  x 3 ) dx = =
O A x 24 0 24 4 0 6
Hence, the correct option is (C).
F .dr F.dr 100. By Greens theorem, the area A of the region bonded by a
1
2 C
closed curve C is given by A = (x dy  y dx)
= y dx  2 xydy = pdx + qdy
c
2
c
x 1
= ( q /x  p /y ) dx dy (Greens theorem) here C consists of the curves C1: y = , C : y = and
S 4 2 x
2 1
C3 : y = 4x
= ( 2 y  2 y ) dydx =  4
x =0 y =0 y
Hence, the correct option is (C). (1/2, 2)
y = 4x y = 1/x
97. Given F = 2x2 i + (y  3xz) j + 2zk and let r = xi + yj
(2, )
+ zk. Given as x = 2t, y = t2, z = 3t2  2
y = x/4
r = 2t i+ t2 j + (3t2  2) k dr = (2i + 2tj + 6tk) dt
O x
F . dr = (2x2 i + (y  3xz) + 2zk). (2i + 2tj + 6tk) dt
x 1
F .dr = 16t2 + 2t3  18t4 + 12t2 + 36t3  24t Along C1: y = dy = dx: x is from 0 to 2
4 4
= (36t4 + 38t3 + 40t2  24t) dt.
1 x
I1 = dx  dx = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B). x
4 4
B
98. Work done from A to B = F .dr Along C2: y =
1 1
dy = 2 dx: x is from 2 to
1
1
A x x 2
= ( 36 t4 + 38 t3 + 40t2  24t ) dt 12
1 1 12
2
dx = 2 [log x ]2
0 12
I2 = x  2 dx  dx =
t5 t4 t3 t2
1 2 x x 2 x
= 36 + 38 + 40  24
5 4 3 2 0 = 4 log 2.
1
36 38 40 24 109 Along C3:y = 4x dy = 4 dx, x is from to 0
= + +  = 2
0
5 4 3 2 30
Hence, the correct option is (D).
I3 4 xdx  4 xdx = 0
12
1 1
99. 0 x 2, 0 y X Area =log 16 = log 4.
2 2
f1 = x y and f2 = xy
2 2
Hence, the correct option is (C).
curl F = y k i
= + j + k . (xi + yj + zk) dv
Hence, the correct option is (C). v
x y z
103. By Stokes theorem
C
F . dr =
S
curl F. ds = 3 dv = 3V
v
Practice Problems 2 2x + 5x
p= when x; p 2.
Solutions for questions 1 to 115: x2 + x  1
p
x + x 1
2
cos x  sin x
1. Given Lt 1 + 2 x + 5 2 x + 5
P p Lt
x
 2x x x 2 + x  1
4
2
Lt p
1 1 1
Lt (1 + y ) y e2
x 0
2 sin x  cos x
Lt 2 2 y 0
x
P p
Hence, the correct option is (B).
4 2 x 
4
3. Let y = x2x
p
sin x  log y = 2x log x
4
Lt log x
x
p p Lt logy = Lt 2xlogx = 2 Lt xlogx = 2 Lt
4 2x  x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0 1x
4
 (by L.Hospitals Rule)
p
sin x  1x Lt
1 p Lt
4 1 = 2 x0 =0
= x  4 0 = 1 x 2
2 p 2
x 4 log y = 0 y = e0 = 1
Hence, the correct option is (B). Lt x2x = 1
x 0
x 2 + 3 x + 4 x 2 x + 5 2 x +5
2. Lt 2 = Lt 1 + 2 1
x + x 1
x + x 1 4. L.H. limit = L im f ( x ) = Lim (= L say)
x x
x 0 x 0 1
5 + 3x
x ( 2 x + 5) 2x + 5 1
where p = 2 Let y = 2 when x = ; y = 0 As x 0 , .
x + x 1 x + x 1 x
As x 0+,
1
Lt f ( x ) = Lt ( 3 x  1) = 1
x 0+ x 0
x
1 1
1 Lt  f ( x ) Lt f ( x ) f(x) is not continuous at x = 0
so that 3 x and 5 + 3 x R = =0 x 0 x 0+
10. Lt f (x) = Lt
x2  4
= Lt
( x + 2) ( x  2) = 4
x 2 x 2 x  2 x 2 x2
1
1x + 2 x + ... + n x x But given f (2) = 6
5. y
n Lt f (x) f (2)
x 2
1 1 + 2 + ... + n
x x x
f is discontinuous at x = 2
log y = log
x n Hence, the correct option is (D).
1 1x + 2 x + ... + n x 0
lim log y = lim log form 4x2  9
= Lt
( 2 x  3) ( 2 x + 3) = Lt (2x + 3) = 6
x 0 x 0 x
n 0 11. Lt
x
3 2x  3 x
3 2x  3 x
3
n 2 2 2
= lim x
x 0 1 + 2 x + ... + n x Given f (x) is continuous at x = 3/2
1 x 3
1 log1 + 2 x log 2 + ....n x log n Lt f (x) = f = 6
n x
3
2
2
1
( log ( n!) ) = log ( n!) n lim y = ( n!) n
1 1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
n
x 0
12. Given, f (x) = [x]; [x] represents greatest integer x,
Hence, the correct option is (C).
we know [x] is discontinuous at all integers or having jump
6. We know that when x < 3 x 3 = (x 3) discontinuity at all integers and continuous at all irrational
points
x3  ( x  3)
Lt = Lt = 1 The statements p, q are only correct
x 3 x3 x 3 x3
Hence, the correct option is (D).
When x > 3 x 3 = (x 3) like
1 + px  1  px 1 + px + 1  px
Lt
x3
= Lt
( x  3) =1
13. Lt f (x) = Lt
x 0 x 0 x
x
1 + px + 1  px
x 3
+
x3 x 3
+
x3
1 + px  1 + px 2p
Limit does not exist. = Lt = =p
Hence, the correct option is (D).
x 0
x ( 1 + px + 1  px ) 2
2 x + 1 1
7. x 3
Lt [ x] + x = x
Lt
3
[ x] + 1 Lt f (x) = Lt =
x 0+ x 0+ x2 2
x x
When x < 3 [x] = 2 Given, f (x) is continuous = L.H.L = R.H.L
1
x 3
Lt [ x] + 1 = h
Lt
0
[3  h] + 1 = h
Lt
0
2
+1 =
5 p =
2
x 3+ h 3 h 3
Hence, the correct option is (C).
When x >3 [x] = 3
14. As x is continuous every where, so is f(x)
x 3
[ x] + 1 = h
Lt + Lt
0
[3 + h] + 1 = h
Lt
0
3
+1 = 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
x 3 h 3+ h
Left limit Right limit 15. Lt f (x) = Lt (ax  b) = a  b (1)
x 1 x 1
and Lt f (x) = Lt 3x = 6 20. Consider (I) it X cos 1/x2 = 0, as x 0. Using the definition
x 2 x 2
of limits.
Lt f (x) = Lt bx2  a = 4b  a
x 2+ x 2+ Let > 0 be given,
If f (x) is continuous at x = 2, then 4b  a = 6 (4) choose d = x cos 1/x2  0 x<
Solving (3) and (4), we get b = 3 (
cos 1/x2 1).
given f (x) is not continuous at x = 2 so b 3 However, f(0) is given as 1, if it can be replaced with 0, then
a = 3 + b, b 3 the discontinuity stands removed.
Hence, the correct option is (C). Option II and III have infinite discontinuities
16. As polynomial functions are continuous everywhere Hence, the correct option is (A).
3 x + 1, x 1 21. We can draw the graph of the function by noting the following:
f(x) = is continuous everywhere except
2  ax , x > 1
2 Case (i) x 0
possibly at x = 1 f(x) = x  (x) = 0
For f(x) to be continuous at x = 1 also we must have Case (ii) x < 0
f(1) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) f(x) = x  ( x) = 2x
x 1+ x 1
y
lim 2 ax 2 = lim 3 x + 1 2  a = 4 a = 2.
x 1 x 1
3 sin x
2
1
lim x . (dividing numerator and denominator by x)
x 0 tan x
+4
x 
2 1 2
3 2 1
= =
1+ 4 5
f(x) = x sin x. We can rewrite f(x) as
Hence, the correct option is (B).
19. At all odd multiples of p/2, x sin x , x < 0
f(x) = 0 , x =0
tan x has discontinuity of second kind
x sin x , x >0
Hence, the correct option is (B).
As polynomials and sine functions are differentiable f(x) is By intermediate value theorem f takes all values between  4
differentiable at all points except perhaps at x = 0. At x = 0, and 2 which includes 0 as well. (atleast once)
we have Further, f (x) = 15x2  4x + 3
 ( sin x + x cos x ) , x < 0
f ( x) = f (0) = 0 f 1(x) > 0 x (0, 1).
( sin x + x cos x ) , x > 0
so f is increasing on [0, 1]
f (0+) = 0
f has only one root on [0, 1]
As f(0) = f(0+) we have x = 0 as a point of differentiability
Hence, the correct option is (A).
f(x) is differentiable everywhere.
28.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
25. For k = 0, F(x) = x 0 x < 1, For k = 1 r r
F (x) = x  1 1 x < 2 and so on. We now draw the graph.
y
l
If is length of arc and r is radius of the sector, we have
+ 2r = 24
1 0 1 2 3 x = 24  2r
1 1
Clearly 0 f(x) < 1 Area of sector A = l r = (24  2r) r = 12r  r2
2 2
So f is bounded above by 1 and below by 0
dA
As we see breaks at all integer points it is not continuous at all = 12  2r
integer points and hence not differentiable at all integer points. dr
{
Hence, the correct option is (D). dA d2A
= 0 12  2r = 0 r = 6 =2<0
dr dr 2
x x Area is maximum at r = 6
26. Given f (x) = = for x < 0
1+ x 1 x 1
Maximum area is A = (12) (6) = 36 sqcm
= 0 for x = 0 2
Hence, the correct option is (B)
x
for x > 0 29. Statement of the theorem
1+ x
Hence, the correct option is (D).
if the function is differentiable at x = 0, it is differentiable at
every value of x. 30. f satisfies all the necessary conditions of Rolles Theorem,
x So, f (c) = 0 for c ( p, p). sin c = 0
f ( x  h)  f ( h) 0
= Lt 1  x
Lt c=0
h 0 
h x 0 x0 
x 2 x3 Fx = 0 and fy = 0
33. f(x) = x  + ...........
2 3 4x3  4x = 0 and 4y3 + 4y = 0
1 x3  x = 0 and y3  y = 0
f(x) = log(1 + x) and f (x) = which is
1+ x x(x2  1) = 0 and y(y2  1) = 0
not defined at x = 1 x = 0, x = 1 and y = 0, y = 1
Hence, the correct option is (D). The stationary points of f(x, y) are (0, 0), (0, 1),
(1, 0), (1, 1)
u Lt f ( x + dx , y )  f ( x , y )
34. = x 0 = fx Also, maximum or minimum, if they exists for f(x, y) only at
x dx
stationary points
2u Lt f ( x + dx , y )  f x ( x , y ) Among the options, the point (1, 2) given in option (B) is
= x 0 x
x 2
x not a stationary point
Hence, the correct option is (A). f(x, y) has neither maximum nor minimum at the point (1, 2).
35. Given, u = exy Hence, the correct option is (B).
u 39. Let z, x and y be the first, second and third parts of 30, such
= exy . x
y that x + y + z = 30 (1) and
2u u zx2y3 is maximum
= = ( e xy x ) = exy . y . x + exy = (1 + xy) exy Let f = zx2y3 (2)
x y x y x
From (1), z = 30  x  y (3)
= u(xy + 1)
(2) becomes
Hence, the correct option is (C).
F = (30  x  y) x2y3 f = 30x2y3  x3y3  x2y4 (4)
36. Given, u = log (x3 + y3 + z3)
Now fx = 60xy  3x y  2xy
3 2 3 4
x +y + z e u = 3e u x +y +z = 3.
x y z x y z x2y2 (90  3x  4y) = 0
90  3x  4y = 0 ( x2y2 0)
Hence, the correct option is (B).
3x + 4y = 90 (6)
y
37. Given, u = tan1 Solving (5) and (6), we have x = 10 and y = 15
x
The stationary point is (10, 15)
u 1 y y
ux = = . = Now r = fxx = 60y3  6xy3  2y4
x 1 + y 2 x 2 x 2 + y 2
2
x s = fxy = 180xy2  9x2y2  8xy3
u
2
1 2 xy at (10, 15), r = 1,01,250, s = 67, 500 and t = 38,70,000
uxx = =y. . 2x =
x 2 (x + y ) ( x + y2 ) rt  s2 > 0 and r < 0
2 2
2 2 2
a a
1
g(x) =
2
log(1+2x) x [0, 1] 46. f ( x ) dx = 2 f ( x ) dx is true only when f(x) is an
a 0
f is continuous on [ 0,1] and integrable in [0, 1] and g1(x) =
even function.
f(x) x [ 0, 1 ]
Hence, the correct option is (C).
By fundamental theorem,
1
1 log 3 47. Y A
1 + 2 x dx = g(1)  g(0) = 2 y = x2
0
n2
n
1 n 1 O
41. Lt = Lt
X
r =1 ( r + n ) r =1 (1 + r )3
n 3 n n
n
y = 6x x=2 y=6
1
1
= (1 + x )
0
3
dx
The area to be found is as shown in the figure
1 Here, y = 6x y = x2 for 2 x 6
Let f (x) = defined on [0,1] is continuous
(1 + x )
3 6
1 Area A = 6 x  x 2 dx
and integrable on [0,1] and consider g(x) =  x x=2
2 (1 + x )
2
[0,1] and g1(x) = f(x) x [0,1] x3 80
6
= 3 x 2  = sq units.
By fundamental theorm. 3 2 3
1
1 1 1 3
(1 + x )
0
3
dx = g(1)  g(0) = + +=
8 2 8
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (A). 48.
1 1
n 1
dx R S
42. t = = log ( a + x ) )
n
r =1 n a + 0 + x
r a A
n
= log ( a + 1)  log a P O Q X
Hence, the correct option is (B). y = 6x 2
n n 1
1 1 1 dx
43. Lt
n
n r
2 2
= Lt
n
n r 2
=
1  x2
x=2
r =1 r =1
1 2 0 x=1
n
p The required area A is the plane region PQRS as shown in the
= ( sin 1 x )0 =
1
figure
2
Hence, the correct option is (C). Also, y = 6  x2 0, 2 x 1
1 1
x3
tan x n 1 Area A = (6  x 2 ) dx = 6 x 
44. tan n xdx = n 2 In = tan n
xdx x = 2
3 2
n 1
here n = 5; = 15 sq units.
tan x 4
tan x 4 Hence, the correct option is (C).
tan 5 xdx = 3 = tan 3 xdx
4 4 49. Y
tan 4 x tan 2 x tan 4 x tan 2 x
=  + 1 =  + tan xdx
4 2 4 2 x + 2y = 6
tan 4 x tan 2 x
=   log cosx
4 2 D C y=2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
45. If m is even, y=1 A B
p 2 X
m 1 m  3 m  5 1 p O
0
sin m xdx = .
m m2 m4
. ....... .
2 2
Standard result , the correct option is (B).
1 +
dx
dx =
f (x) = lim
h0 h
= lim
h0 h
x =0 0
f ( h)  1 f ( h)  f (0 )
= f ( x ) lim
4 4
f(x) lim
(3x 2 + 1)
2
= 1 + 9 x 4 + 46 x 2 dx = dx h0 h h0 h
0 0
4 = f ( x ) f (0) = 2 f ( x )
(3x + 1) dx = x 3 + x 0 = 68.
4
= 2
Hence, the correct option is (A).
0
1 f ( x) = f (0) = 0
= Lt
x 0.999 +1 1
= 0.001 1  a
0.001 ( sin x + cos x ), x>0
0 . 999 + 1
a0
a f (0+) = 0,
= 1000 (1  0) = 1000. As f(0) = f(0+) we have x = 0 as a point of differentiability
Hence, the correct option is (D). f(x) is differentiable everywhere.
b b Hence, the correct option is (A).
e 2 x
53. e 2 x
dx = Lt e 2 x dx = Lt
b b
2 0
3 93 y2
0 0
58. We have to evaluate ydxdy
y = 0 x =  93 y2
1 1 1
= Lt e 2 b + =0+ = From the limits, the region of integration is the upper half of
b 2 2 2
x2 y2
the ellipse + = 1 as shown in the figure
Hence, the correct option is (B). 9 3
Hence, the correct option is (A).
9 x2
3
61. The bottom part of the required solid is the triangle OAB as
y2 3
= dx shown in the figure in xy plane
x = 3
2 y =0
Y
3
1 9  x2
=
2 3 dx
x = 3 B (0, 2)
x+y=2
3
1
= 2 ( 9  x 2 ) dx [(9  x2 is an even function] X
6 0
O A (2, 0)
3
1 x3 1 27
= 9x  = 27  = 6.
3 3 0 3 3
Hence, the correct option is (C). Here, x varies from x = 0 to x = 2  y and y varies from
y y = 0 to y = 2.
4 2
59. Given integral is f ( x, y ) dxdy Also, the surface is x + y2 + z = 4 z = 4  x2  y2  (1)
2
y =0 y2
x=
8 The volume of the solid below the surface x2 + y2 + 2 = 4
From the limits of x and y, the region of integration is as and above the triangular region OAB is
shown in the figure V = Zdxdy
OAB
Y 2 2 y
P A (2, 4) = ( 4  x 2  y 2 ) dxdy
y =0 x =0
S Q
Hence, the correct option is (C).
R 62.
Y
X y=6 (9, 6) C
O
P
A Q
R y=1
B
y = 2x y2 = 8x O X
63. Given integral is r 2 ( sin q + cos q )  sin 2q dxdq = f ( u cot J , u tan J ) 4u cosec 2J dudJ
2
R R
r r dxdydz = dxdzdy
V y =0 z =0 x =0
( r ,q ) x y 3 y 3 y
Where J = = = [ x ]x = 0 dzdy = ( 9  y 2 ) dzdy
4 y2
( x, y ) q q y =0 z =0 y =0 z =0
x y 3 3
= ( 9  y 2 ) z dy = ( 9  y 2 ) ydy
y
x y y =0 z =0 y =0
1 1
(x ) (x )
3
2
+y 2 2 2
+y 2 2
x 2 3
9 y2 y4
= = 1
+ = ( 9 y  y 3 ) dy = 
y x ( x2 + y2 ) + ( x2 + y )
2 2 y =0 2 4 0
( x2 + y2 ) ( x2 + y2 ) =
81 81 81
 = cubic units.
2 4 4
y2
1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
( x2 + y2 ) + ( x2 + y2 )2 66. Given the integral is f ( x, y, z ) dxdydz
R
( F a)
1
= i (2u  2)  j ( 3u2  8u + 4) + k (6u  3)
J = r sin q
2
dF c r = c1 x + c2 y + c3 z
So F should have n as a factor.
dt
/x ( c r ) i = c1 i
Hence, the correct option is (C).
/y ( c r ) j = c2 j
i j k /z = ( c r ) k = c3 k
74. F a = u2  u 2u + 1 Thus c1 i + c2 j + i3 r k = c
2u  3 1 u Hence, the correct option is (B).
x + y +1 1  ( x + y)
Hence, the correct option is (A).
83. Let f = xy  z Hence, the correct option is (D).
f = y i  x j  2 z k 90. div(curl F) = 0
f 4i  j  4 k Hence, the correct option is (C).
n1 = =
f 33 91. If r is solenoidal, div r = 0 and is irrotational curl r = 0
(1, 4 , 2)
Hence, the correct option is (A).
f 3i  3 j  6 k
n2 = = 92. div F = 0 for F to be solenoidal
f 54
( 3, 3, 3)
1+p5=0p=4
9
cos a = n1.n2 = Hence, the correct option is (D).
33 54
a = cos1 1 ( 22 ) 93. By definition div ( F ) = 0 F is solenoidal.
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
94. By definition curl ( F ) = 0 F is irrotational.
84. Angle between surfaces is same as the angle between their
Hence, the correct option is (A).
normals at the common point
95. All are standard results, the correct option is (D).
f1 = 2x i + 2y j + 2z k
96. ( f ) = ( . f )  2 f .
f1 at (2, 1, 2) = 4 i  2 j + 4 k
f = 2x i + 2y j  k Hence, the correct option is (C).
2
1
Hence, the correct option is (C). x x 2 5
= 10. = 3/2
4 4 0
103. f(r) = f(r)
Hence, the correct option is (D).
= i /x f(r)
= i df/dr . r/x 1/2 xdy  ydx = 1/2 (Q /x  P /y ) dxdy
108.
C S
= . i df/dr x/r = 1/2 2dxdy = S
S
= /x [df/dr x/r) + df/dr (r  x x/r) / r]
Thus the integral is basically area enclosed by the ellipse.
d 2 f x 2 df r 2  x 2
= dr 2 2
+
r dr r 3
X = 3cos q and y = 4sin q
p 3 4 = 12p
d f x + y + z df 3r  r
2 2 2 2 2 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
= + dr r 3
dr 2 r2 109. curl grad f = 0
= df/dr + (2/r) df/dr So F . ds = 0
s
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 1 1
104. i t 2 dt + j 3t 2 dt + k 2tk 110. F . dv
0 0 0
v
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (B).
Y f 2
=  dxdy (from (2)) = (x z) + (xy) + (yz2)
x y z
R
x y
1 Div F = 2xz + x  2yz
Where R is the inside region of the circle x2 + y2 =
4 Div F = 2(1) (1) + (1)  2(1) (1) = 5.
= ( 1  1) dxdy = ( 2 ) dxdy Hence, the correct option is (C).
R R
= 2 dxdy ( x  1) sin ( x  1)
2 2
= 2R
R 9. Let I = 0 ( x  1)2 + cos ( x  1) dx
1
= 2 Area of the circle x2 + y2 =
[2  x  1] sin ( 2  x )  1
2
4 2
1 = 2  x  1 dx
) + cos 2  x  1)
2
= 2 pr , where r = Radius =
2
2
0
1
=  2p a a
4 f ( x ) dx = f ( a  x ) dx
p 0 0
= .
(1  x ) sin (1  x )
2
2 2
=
1
Lt
e2 x
=
1
= 0.5.
= 0 ( x  1)2 + cos ( x  1) dx
2 x 0 cos 4 x 2
( x  1) sin ( x  1)
2 2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
= 0 ( x  1)2 + cos ( x  1) dx
5. Given F = x2 z2 i  2x y2z j + 2y2z3 k
I = I 2I = 0 I = 0
i j k ( x  1) sin ( x  1)
2 2
0 ( x  1)2 + cos ( x  1) dx = 0.
Curl F = F =
x y z Hence, the correct option is (B).
x2 z2 2 xy 2 z 2 y 2 z 3 2x 2
x
10. e x + y dydx =
00
y =0
e x . e y dy dx
= (4yz3 + 2xy2) i + 2x2z j  2y2z k . x =0
2
x
Hence, the correct option is (A). = e x e y y = 0 dx
x =0
6. Let f(x) = ex sin 100x
2
We know that 1 sin 100 x 1, x =
x =0
e x e x  e x . e 0 dx
x
Also, for x > 0, 0 < e < 1
3p 2
e2 x
2
And sin 100x will have the minimum value 1 at x =
which ex = 0.954 200
, at = ( e 2 x  e x ) dx =
x =0
2
 ex
x =0
0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
1
x x 2
1 1 1 3
q3 q5 q7
=  =  =
2 3 0 2 3 6 q=q
18. sin +  + ..
3! 3! 3!
Hence, the correct option is (A). Standard definition.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
14. f(x) =  x when  1 x < 0 = x when 0 x 1
Lt Lt sin 3q
x 0  f (x) = x 0  x = 0 19. Lt =1
q 0 q
Lt Lt
x 0 + f(x) = x 0 + x = 0 Hence, the correct option is (D).
Lt
x 0 f (x) = 0 and f(0) = 0 20. Given f(x) is an even function
f(x) is continuous at x = 0 f(x) = f(x)
Lt f ( x + h)  f ( x ) a 0 a
f (x) = h 0
h f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx
a a 0
Lt f ( 0  h)  f ( 0 ) h 0
= h 0 = = 1
h h Consider f ( x ) dx
a
Lt f ( 0 + h)  f ( 0 ) h Let x =  t
= h 0 = =+1
h h dx = dt
L.L a = t 25. Y
U.L 0 = t
a 0 a B
f ( x ) dx = f ( t ) (  dt ) + f ( xt ) dt
a a 0
X
a a 0 a A
f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx Equation of the unit circle is x2 + y2 = 1
a 0 0 0
a Along the path AB,
= 2 f ( x ) dx In polar coordinates,
0
X = cosq and y = sinq
Hence, the correct option is (D). p
And q Varies from q = 0 to q =
21. The volume of the solid of revolution of 2
p 2
( x + y) ( cosq + sin q )
2 2
y = f(x) about x  axis; a x b is = dq
b AB q =0
V = py 2 dx p 2
a = (1 + sin 2q ) dq
Here a = 1, b = 2 f(x) = x =y 0
p 2
1
2 = q  cos 2q
( x ) dx
2
Volume V = p 2 0
1
p 1 1
2
=  cos p  0  cos 0
2
x 2 3 2 2 2
= p xdx = p = p p
1 2 1
2 = +1
2
Hence, the correct option is (D). Hence, the correct option is (B).
26. Let P(x, y, z) be a point on the surface
dx 1
22.  1 + x 2 = 0 1 + x 2 dx z2 = 1 + xy (1)
Distance of P(x, y, z) from the origin
\
1
is an even function and =d= x2 + y2 + z2
1 + x2
Now we have to find the minimum value of d.
a a
f ( x ) dx = 2 f ( x ) dx for an even function f (x ) D is minimum, if d2 is minimum.
a 0 So, let f(x, y, z) = d2 = x2 + y2 + z2
= 2tan x 0
1
f = x2 + y2 + 1 + xy, (from (1))
= 2[tan1 tan10] f f
= 2x + y and = 2y + x
x f
p
= 2  0 = p f f
2 Now f is minimum = 0 and =0
x y
Hence, the correct option is (D).
2x + y = 0 and x + 2y = 0
23. We know that x is continuous x R and differentiable x=y=0
everywhere except at x = 0 (0, 0) is a stationary point of f
f(x) = 2  3 x 2 is continuous x R and d ifferentiable
x 3 2 f 2 f
Now, r = = 2; s = = 1 and
R except at 2  3x = 0 x y x y
(i.e., x = 2/3) 2 f
t= =2
Hence, the correct option is (C). y 2
rt  s2 = 4  1 = 3 > 0, and r = 2 > 0
24. let F = 3xz i + 2xy j  yz2 k
f has a minimum value at x = y = 0
Also, at x = 0, y = 0, from (1); z2 = 1 + 0 0
DivF = . F = (3xz ) + ( 2 xy ) (  yz 2 )
x y z Z = 1
Div F = 3 z + 2 x  2 yz The points (0, 0, +1) and (0, 0, 1) are nearest to the origin
on the surface z2 = 1 + x y
DivF at (1,1,1) = 3 + 2  2 = 3 And the distance is d = 0 + 0 + 1 = 1
Hence, the correct option is (C). Hence, the correct option is (A).
y 2 = 4x 2 2 y
1
x2
The area enclosed between the curves y2 = 4x and x2 = 4y and
4
= y = 0 2 y
0
dy
x2
A = 2 x  dx 1
x =0
4 1
( 2  2 y )  0] y dy
2 y= 0
2
=
4
4 x3 16
= x3 2  = 1
3 12 0 3 1
( 4 y 3  8 y 2 + 4 y ) dy
2 y= 0
=
Hence, the correct option is (A).
28. The coefficient of (x  a)n in the Taylors series expansion of 1 4 8 3
1
f ( n) ( a ) = y  y + 2 y2
f(x) about x = a is 2 3 y =0
n!
1 8
Here f(x) = ex; a = 2 and n = 4 =
1  + 2
2 3
f iv(x) = ex f iv(a) = f iv(2) = e2.
1
The coefficient of (x  2)4 in the Taylors series expansion =
6
f iv ( 2 ) e 2
of ex about x = 2 is = Hence, the correct option is (A).
4! 4!
Hence, the correct option is (C). 32. Given f(x, y, z) = x2 + 2y2 + z
x1 3  2 x1 3  81 3 f f f
29. Lim = Lim f = i + j+ k
x 8 x 8 x 8 x 8 x y z
1 13 1 x n  an = 2 xi + 4 y j + k
= 8 Lim = na n 1
3 xa xa fat (1, 1, 2) = 2 i + 4 j + k
1
= a = 3i  4 j a = 32 + ( 4 ) = 5
2
12
Hence, the correct option is (B). a 3 4
n= = i j
30. Let F = ( x  y ) i + ( y  x ) j + ( x + y + z ) k a 5 5
The directional derivative of f(x, y, z) in the direction of a
is f . n
Div F = ( x  y ) + ( y  x ) + ( x + y + z )
x y z
3 4
=1+1+1=3 ( 5
)
= 2 i + 4 j + k . i  j = 2
5
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
31. Y 33. option (A):
p 4
p 4
1 tan x dx = log (sec )
0
0
p
P = log sec  log ( sec 0 )
S 4
R
X
= log 2  log1
0 2
= log 2 , not unbounded.
Here x  intercept = a = 2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Y  intercept = b = 1
Equation of the line joining (2, 0) and 1
0 x 2 + 1 dx = tan 1x
(0, 1) is 0
x y
+ =1 p
= tan1  tan1 0 = , not unbounded.
2 1 2
x + 2y = 2 (1) Hence, the correct option is (C).
Also, it was given that the second derivatives of f(x, y) and
xe
0
x
dx = e  x x 2 1dx = (2) = 1!, not unbounded.
0
y(x, y) are continuous.
Hence, the correct option is (D). f f y y
So, , , and are continuous.
1
1
A
1 x y x y
1  x dx = Lt  x dx
A1 So, W = f(z) = f + iY can be represented as an analytic
0 0
function, if f and Y satisfy cauchy  Riemann equations.
Lt (  log (1  x ) )
f y f y
A1 0 i.e, = and =
x y y x
= Lt  log1 + log (1  A)
A1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
= Lt ( log (1  A) )
A1
38. Given y = x + x + x + x + ............ (1)
= log 0, unbounded.
Hence, the correct option is (D). y  x = x + x + x + ............
34. The length of the curve y = f(x) between x = a and x = b Squaring on both sides,
b dy 2 (y  x)2 = x + x + x + ............
is 1 + dx
dx (y  x)2 = y (from (1))
a
y2  2xy + x2 = y (2)
2
Here y = f(x) = x 3 2 ; a = 0 and b = 1 When x = 2; (2) becomes
3
y2  4y + 4 = y
dy 2 3 1 2
= x = x1/2 y2  5y + 4 = 0
dx 3 2
(y  1) (y  4) = 0
The length of the curve
y =1 or y = 4
(1 + ( x ) ) dx
1
From (1), when x = 2
2
= 12
0
y = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + ................ > 2
1
2 1
(1 + x ) dx = (1 + x ) y = 4 only
12 32
=
3 0
0 Hence, the correct option is (B).
2 2 39. Area of the triangle formed by the tips of vectors a , b and c
= 23 2  = 1.22
3 3 is equal to
Hence, the correct option is (D). 1
35. f = yx A = a b + b c + c a
2
f 2 f 1
y
= xyx  1 and = ( xy x 1 )
x y x
= (
2
)
a  b (a  c )
41. The statements given in options (A), (B) and (D) are all correct. and here sin6x is even and sin7x is odd)
Consider the statements (C) a
1
y5= ( x  0) y=
x
( 1 3) 4
y  5 = 3x
y = 3x + 5
Hence, the correct option is (B). 8 2
(2x 2 7x + 3)
Given I = f ( x, y ) dy dx
43. Lim f ( x ) = Lim 0 x 4
x 3 x 3 (5x 2 12x 9) 8 2
= f ( x, y ) dy dx
= Lim
(x 3) (2x 1) x 4 y=x 4
x 3 ( x 3) (5x + 3)
Here the region of integration is the triangle OAB as shown in
= Lim
(2x 1) = 5 the figure
x 3 (5x + 3) 18 By changing the order of integration, we first integrate w. r. t
x, from x = 0 to x = 4y along the strip PQ, followed by integra
Hence, the correct option is (B). tion w.r.t y from y = 0 to y = 2
44. Stokes theorem says that 8 2 2 4y
F . dr = cur F . ds
c s
47. Given x(u, v) = uv
y(u, v) = v/u
So, Stokes theorem relates a line integral and a surface
In change of variables, the integrand in f(x, y) changes to
integral.
v
Hence, the correct option is (A). f uv, f ( u, v ) , where
a
u
45. (sin 6
x + sin 7 x ) dx x x
a
( x, y )
u v
f(u, v) = J = =
a
( u, v ) y y
= sin
a
6
xdx + sin 7 xdx
u v
a v u
= 2 sin 6 xdx + 0 v v
= v 1 = +
0 u u
u2 u
a
a
2 f ( x ) dx; If f ( x ) is even f (u, v) =
2v
.
f ( x ) dx = 0 u
a 0 ; If f ( x ) is odd
Hence, the correct option is (A).
48. p (1,1,1)
B
The value of the line integral
o(0 , 0 , 0)
V . d r is Independent of
1m the path along which the integration is done and will be equal to
D
p p
H
1m H1 V .dr = . f dr (1)
0 0
A O
R Where f = V
f f f
i.e. i + j+ k = 2xyz i + x2z j + x2y k
x y z
Let R be the radius and H be the height of the right circular
cone that is to be inscribed in the sphere of radius 1 m f f f
= 2xyz; = x2z and = x2y
Now OAD is a right angled triangle x y z
By Pythagoras theorem, we have f (x, y, z) = x2yz
AD2 = OA2 + OD2 From (1)
p p
1 = R2 + (H  1)2
R2 = 1  (H  1)2 = 2H  H2
V .dr = .dr = fatP fatO
0 0
1 = x2yzat(1,1,1)  x2yzat(0,0,0) = 1.
Volume of the cone = V = pR2H
3
Hence, the correct option is (A).
p
= (2H  H2)H
3 50. Given x = a(q + sin q) and y = a(1  cos q)
p
V= (2H2 H3) dx dy
3 = a (1 + cos q) and = a sin q
dq dq
dV p
= ( 4 H  3H 2 ) dy
dH 3 dy dq a sin q
Now = =
dV dx dx a (1 + cos q )
For V to be maximum, =0 dq
dH
p
(4H  3H2) = 0 sin q
3 =
1 + cos q
4
H = 0; H = q q
3 2 sin cos
= 2 2
d 2V p 4 d 2V p 4 2q
And = ( 4  6 H ) At H = ; = 4 6 2 cos
dH 2 3 3 dH 2 3 3 2
2 dy q
= p <0 = tan .
3 dx 2
4
V is maximum, when H = m. Hence, the correct option is (C).
3
Hence, the correct option is (D). 51. Given P = (0.86, 0.500, 0) and
q = cos1(0.70074) p 1
2p 3
q = 45. = dq sin f df r 2 dr
Hence, the correct option is (C). q =0 q =0 r =0
p
p 3 1
52. Volume = V =
2p 3 1
r 2
sinf drdf dq (
= q ]0
2p
)
 cos f ] r
3
0 .
3 0
0 0 0
p
2p
p
1
=
3
3
= r
q =0 f =0 r =0
2
sinf drdf dq
Hence, the correct option is (A).
dv x  vx 1  v a1 b1 dy dt
v+x = = We have = Put x 2y = t 1 2 =
dx x + vx 1 + v a2 b2 dx dx
dv 1  v  v  v 2 1  2v  v 2 dy 1 1 dt
x = = = 
dx 1+ v 1+ v dx 2 2 dx
1+ v dx 1+ v dx
.dv = dv = 1 1 dt t +1 1 dt t +1 1
1  2v  v 2 x 1  2v  v 2 x = =
2 2 dx 2t + 3 2 dx 2t + 3 2
let 1 2v v2 = t
1 dt 2t + 2  2t  3 1
dt = =
( 2 2v) dv = dt (1 + v) dv =  2 dx 2 ( 2t + 3) 2 ( 2t + 3)
2
dt dx (2t + 3) dt = dx (2t + 3) dt = dx
2t x
=
t2
+ 3t = x + c = ( x  2 y ) + 3 ( x  2 y ) = x + c
2
2
 log (1  2v  v 2
) = log x + log c 2
1 log t = log x + c
2 2 x2 4xy + 4y2 + 2x 6y = c
1 1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
log = log xc 1 2v v2 = 2 2
1  2v  v
2 xc
dy
15. Given cos y + 3 x 2 sin y = x 2
2 y y2 1 dx
but v = y/x 1  = x2 2xy y2 = k
x x 2 x 2c 2 dy dz
Put sin y = z cos y =
x2 2xy y2 = k (constant) dx dx
dz
Hence, the correct option is (C). Then, the above equation becomes + 3x 2 z = x 2
dx
13. The given equation can be written as The above equation is linear
y y Hence, the correct option is (C).
y x cos + y sin
dy x x
= 16. Comparing the given D.E. with M dx + N dy = 0
dx y y
x y sin x cos We have M = yexy
x x
which is a homogeneous equation. M
= e xy + ye xy x
dv dy y
So, we put y = vx v + x =
dx dx N
N = xexy + 2y = exy + x exy.y
dv v [cos v + v sin v ] x
x = v
dx v sin v  cos v M N
= given D.E. is exact
v cos v + v sin v  v sin v + v cos v
2 2 y x
=
v sin v  cos v Solution is Mdx + (the term not containing x in N) dy = c
dv 2v cos v yexydx + 2ydy exy + y2 = c
x =
dx v sin v  cos v Hence, the correct option is (B).
dx v sin v  cos vdv 17. Given (x2 + xy y2)dx + (xy x2 )dy = 0
2 =
x v cos v there M = x2 + x y y2 and N = x y x2
dx 1 M N
2 = tan v  dv = x  2 y and = y  2x
x v y x
dx 1 M V
2
x
= tan v  dv The equation is not exact as
v y x
2 log x + log c = log sec v log v M x + N y = x3 + x2y xy2 + xy2 x2y = x3
sec v y y Integrating factor of the given equation is 1/x3
cx2 = or cx2 = sec
v x x Hence, the correct option is (B).
18. I.F of the equation is e = e
pdx 3 x dx 2
= ex
3
y
The general solution is sec = c xy
x Solution is z IF = QIF dx
Hence, the correct option is (D). z e x = x 2e x dx + C
3 3
dy x  2y +1 1
3
14. Given: = (1) ze x =
3
3 x 2e x dx + C
3
dx 2 x  4 y + 3
1 dy du
sin y e x = e x + C
3 3
Let y1 = u y 2 = . Using this result (1) can be written
3 dx dx
 du
Hence, the correct option is (D). as + cot xu = sin x
dx
dy x 1 x
19. The given equation can be written as  y = du
dx 1 + x 1+ x  cot xu =  sin x
dy dx
which is a linear D.E of the form + Py = Q
dx I.F = epdx = ecotx dx = e log(sinx) = cosecx
x 1 x I F = cosec x
Here, P = ,Q=
1+ x 1+ x Hence, the correct option is (A).
Integrating factor (I.F.) = epdx
22. Solution of the equation is u. I. F = QIF dx + c
x 1 u cosec x = sinx cosecx dx + c
pdx = dx =  1 dx = log (1 + x )  x
1+ x 1 + x u cosec x = Idx + c
log (1+ x )
e 1+ x 1
I.F epdx = elog (1 + x) x = = cosec x =  x + c
ex ex y
solution is y I.F = Q.I.F dx p
When x = and y = 1
1+ x 1 x 1+ x 2
The y x = dx cos ec p 2 p
e 1 + x ex = +c
1 2
1+ x
y x = (1 x ) e  x dx = (1 x ) ( e  x )   ( e  x ) dx p +2
C = 1 + p/2 c =
e 2
= (1 x) ex ex = ex (1 1 + x) = xex + c cosec x p +2
The solution is +x=
y (1 + x) = x + cex at x = 0 and y = 1, c = 1, y 2
The solution = y (1 + x) = x + ex Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (B). dy
23. Given + 3 xy = y n x
dy dx
20. The given equation is x + y = y2 log x which is a Bernoullis
equation dx Dividing the equation throughout with y n we get
dy
1 dy 1 log x 1 1 dy du + 3 xy  n +1 = x
yn
+ = Put y = u 2 = dx
y dx xy
2
x y dx dx
dy du
y  n +1 = u (1  n ) y  n +11 =
Substituting in the given equation we have dx dx
 du u log x du u  log x 1 du du
+ = or  = + 3 xu = x, + 3 (1  n ) xu = (1  n ) x
dx x x dx x x 1  n dx dx
3(1 n ) xdx
1 log x I F = e = e 3(1 n) x
pdx
=e 2
2
x x x 1
y1 n = + ce 2
1 1 3
= 1 + cx + log x u = Hence, the correct option is (A).
y y
Hence, the correct option is (D). 24. Given 2x y d y + (x2 + y2 + 1)dx = 0 (1)
here, M = x2 + y2 + 1 and N = 2xy
dy
21. Given + ( cot x ) y = y 2 sin x M N
dx = 2 y and = 2y
Dividing the equation throughout by y2 we get y x
dy M N
y 2 dx + ( cot x ) y = sin x
1
(1) The equation (1) is exact as =
y x
d4 y d3 y d2y dy 4 4 16
 8 3 + 24 2  32 + 16 y = 0 (1) is
dx 4
dx dx dx Hence, the correct option is (D).
D  1 D
here, u(x) = e3x and v(x) = e2x
1 2
= (1 D)1 (x2 2x + 4) (x 2x + 4) VR
D A =  dx
x 3 2x 2 dv du
= (1 + D + D2 +..) (x2 2x + 4) + 4x u v
3 2 dx dx
 x3 2x 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
= ( x2 + 2x 4 2x + 2 2) + +  4x
3 2
UR
x 3 41. B = dx
= 4x 4 udv vdu
3 
dx dx
Hence, the correct option is (D).
udv vdu
 = e 3 x ( 2e 2 x )  e 2 x ( 3) e 3 x = e 5x
37. Auxillary equation m2 m 2 = 0 m = 1, 2 dx dx
C.F. is c1 ex + c2 e2x e 3 x e 5 x e7 x
B= 5 x
dx = e 7 xdx =
1 e 7
P.I is 2 e2x sinx
( D D 2) Hence, the correct option is (C).
3 3 s 1 3 s 1
L {ei3t sinh 3t} = F (s 3i) =
3
= 2
3 s e  s2 e + s2
( s  3i )  9
2
( s  18 )  6i =
(1  e 3s )
( s 2  18 ) + 6 si
= 3 or L {sinh 3t (cos 3t + isin 3t)} 1
2 = 1  e 3 s  3se 3 s
( s  18 )  ( 6 si ) s (1  e 3 s )
2 2
2
= 2
e e  st
 st
=
( s 2 + 9 ) ( 2s3  18s  36 s + 4 s3 ) +
s 0 s 1
( s2 + 9)
4
2e  s 2 e  s 1
2s 2 54s 2 s ( s 2  27 )
s
+ +
s
=
s
= 2  e  s , s > 0
s
= =
(s 2 + 9)3 ( s2 + 9 )3 Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (B). 9 7
1 t2
1
t2
s 66. L1 9 = =
61. We know L {cos 4t} = = F (s) 9 75 31 p
s 2 + 16 s 2 G
2 2 2 2 2
cos h4t
x 1
L = 2 dx = log ( x 2 + 16 ) 16 t 7
t s x + 16 2 =
s 105 p
1 1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
= Lt log ( x 2 + 16 )  log s 2 + 16
2 x 2
As Lt log ( x 2 + 16 ) is infinite the above value does not exist. 8 4 2s
x 67. L1  
Hence, the correct option is (D).
3 s  2 16 s 2
 25 16 s 2
 25
3
62. Clearly f(t) is a periodiC Function of period p = 3
We know that f(t) is a periodiC Function with period p, then
8 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 s
p
e  st f ( t ) dt 3
te  st dt = L L L
L { f ( t )} = = 3 s 2 16 s 2 25 16 s 2 25
0 1 e  sp
0 1 e
3 s
3 16 16
1
= et + 2et e3t + 3.e3t L1 2
8 1 1 1 1 1 1 s s
= L1  L  L = et + 2et e3t + 3.e3tt.
3 s  2 4 2 5 2 8 2 5 2
3 s  4 s  4 Hence, the correct option is (C).
s4
8 11 5t 1 5t = log ( s  4 )  log ( s + 3)
72. Let F(s) = log
= e 2 3t  sin h  cos h . s+3
3 45 4 8 4
1 1
4 (s) =
F 
8 1 5t 1 s4 s+3
= e 2 3t  sin h  cos h 5t 4
3 5 4 8 L1 {F ( s )} = e 4 t  e 3t ( 1) tL1 {F ( s )} = e 4 t  e 3t
Hence, the correct option is (C). 1 3t
\ L1 {F ( s )} =
( e  e 4t )
t
1
1 1 Hence, the correct option is (C).
68. L1 2 =L
s  8s + 20 ( s  4 ) + 4
2
73. From the above solution we have
s  4 1 3t
1 e 4t L1 log = (e  e )
4t
sin 2t =
= e4t sin 2t . s + 3 t
2 2
t
Hence, the correct option is (B). 1 s  4
= f ( x ) dx where
s + 3 0
L1 log
1 s
1
69. We have L1 5
= e 4 t L1 5 e 3t  e 4 t
t
e 3 x  e 4 x
( s  4 ) s f ( t ) = L1 {F ( s )} = = dx
t 0 x
t4 1
= e4t = t 4 e 4 t Hence, the correct option is (D).
4! 24
t
1 1
70. As L1 2 = sin 2t 1 1 d 1 1 1 1 1
s + 4 2 = L 2 = t ( 1) L 2
By division theorem 2 ds s + 1 2 s + 1
1 t cos 2t t
L1 2 = sin 2xdx = +1 = sin t
s ( s + 4 ) 0 2 2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 t 1 cos 2 x t sin 2t
= 
t
dx = 
1
L 2 2
s ( s + 4 ) 0 2 2 2 4 75. We know that f * g = f ( x ) g ( t  x ) dx
0
t
1 x 1 t 2
cos 2t 1 t
L1 3 2 = sin 2x dx = + 2 * 2 2.2dx = 4t = 22.t
(s s + 4 ) 0 2 4 4 8 8 0
t
1 1 1 t 2 cos 2t 1 2 * 2 * 2 = 4t * 2 = 8 x dx = 4t 2
L1 2 2 L = + 
s (s + 4 )
0
24 8 8 t2
t
= 8 (2 * 2 * 2) * 2 = ( 4t 2 ) * 2 = 4 x 2 2dx
t 2 cos 2t 1 2! 0
= + 
8 16 16 t3 t3
8 or 16
Hence, the correct option is (A). 3 3!
2 s3  13s 2 + 34 s  15 Proceeding like this 2 * 2 * 2 * ..* 2 for n times
71. L1 2 n t n 1
( s  1) ( s  3)
2
2
= ,for n = 1, 2, 3,.....
(n 1)!
1 2 1 3
= L1 + + Hence, the correct option is (C).
2
s 1 s + 1 s 3 (s 3) 76. Given (D4 16)y = 1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1 Taking Laplace transform on both sides we have
= L1
+ 2L  L + 3L 2
s  1 s + 1 s  3 ( s  3) L {yIV} 16L {y} = L {1}
or s4 L {y} s3y (0) s2y1 (0) sy11 (0) y111 (0) 16L{y} The general solution of the above equation is
1 1
= or (s4 16)L {y} = u = Ae sx
+ Be  sx
s s
But u (x, t) must be bounded as x
1 1
L{y} = = u (x, s) = L {u (x, t)} must also be bounded as x
s ( s  16 ) s (s 2) (s + 2) (s 2 + 4 )
4
Degree of D.E is 3, as the power of highest order derivative is 3. 6. The equation of the parabola whose vertex is at the origin and
Hence, the correct option is (A). focus on yaxis is x2 = 4ay (1)
I.F = e
pdx
= e
e x dx
= ee
x dy du dy 1 du
1+2 = = 1
dx dx dx 2 dx
Solution is u I F = QIF dx
1 du u + 1
u ee = ( e 2 x ) ee dx = ex (e e dx) The given D.E. is changed to 1 =
2 dx 2u + 3
x x x
= te t dt where ( t = e x ) du (u + 1) 4u + 5
=2 +1 =
U e e = te t  e t + c dx 2u + 3 2u + 3
x
e  y e e = e e ( e x  1) + c
x x 2u + 3
du = dx
4u + 5
Hence, the correct option is (C). 1 4u + 5 + 1
du = dx
11. Given xdy + ydx = x dx 2 4u + 5
d(xy) = x dx 1
Integrating on both sides 1 + du = 2dx
4 u + 5
d(xy) = xdx
On integrating both sides,
x2
x y = +c 1
2
1 + 4u + 5 du = 2 dx
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1
u + log(4u + 5) = 2x + c
dy x + y  2 4
12. Given: =
dx 2 x  y  1 1
x + 2y + log (4x + 8y + 5) = 2x + c
Solving x + y 2 = 0, 2x y 1 = 0 we get x = 1, y = 1, 4
( u = x + 2y)
Substituting x = X + 1, y = Y + 1 we have
(8y 4x) + log (4x + 8y + 5) = c is the general solution of the D.E.
dy X +Y
= which is homogeneous Hence, the correct option is (B).
dx 2 X  Y
dY dv 14. Given: (a2 2xy y2) dx (x + y)2 dy = 0
put Y = vX = =v+X
dX dx Comparing with M dx + N dy = 0 we have
dv 1 + v M
v + X = M = a2 2xy y2 , = 2x 2y
dX 2 v y
dv 1 + v 1 + v  2v + v 2 N
X = v= and N = (x + y)2, = 2 (x + y)
dX 2  v 2v x
dv 1 v + v 2 2  v dX M N
X = dv = ; = = 2 (x + y)
dx 2 v v  v +1
2
X y x
The solution is u e = e 2 y dy
y2 y2 3 dy y 2 x 2
26. Given: = (1)
dx 2 xy
ue y = e y (y2 1) + c
2 2
dy dy D4 + 8D2 + 16 = 0
=  x or = 4 x (D2 + 4)2 = 0
dx dx
dy = xdxordy = 4 xdx D2 + 4 = 0; D2 + 4 = 0
D = 2i; D = 2i
x2
Y = + y = 2 x 2 + c As the roots of the auxiliary equation are complex c onjugates
2
that are repeated, the general solution of (1) is y = [(C1 + C2t)
x 2
y + + c ( y + 2 x 2 + c ) = 0 cos 2t + (C3 + C4t) sin 2t.
2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (B). 37. Auxillary equation is m2 4m + 4 = 0
(1  D )  1  (x2 + x)
1
1 1
2 2 = e3z z = e3z 2 z=
q 2 + 6q + 9 + 1 q + 6q + 10
1 D D2
(1 + D + D2 + ..)(x2 + x) 1 + + + ...... (x2 + x) e 3 z q 2 + 60
1
e 3 z q 2 + 60
2 2 4 = + 1 + z= 1 
1
x2 + x + 2x + 1 + 2 x 2 + x + 2 x + 1 + 2 10 10 q 10
2 2 4
x2 5 e3 z e3 z e3 z
+ 2x + = z 6= (10z 6)
2 2 10 100 100
The solution is y = C.F + P.I e3 z
G S = C F + P I = C1 cos z + c2 sin z + (10 z  6 )
x2 5 100
y = c1ex + c2e2x + + 2x + x3
2 2 = c1 cos (log x) + c2 sin (log x) + (10 log x 6)
Hence, the correct option is (B). 100
Hence, the correct option is (D).
d2y dy 43. Given (D2 + 4)y = sec2x
41. Given + 3 = e2 x
dx 2 dx AE = m2 + 4 = 0 m2 = 2i
dy d y dp
2
Let = p, 2 = CF = yc = C1cos 2x + C2 sin 2x
dx dx dx
dp U(x) = cos 2x ; V(x) = sin 2x
The given equation becomes + 3 p = e2 x
dx Yp = AU(x) + B V(x)
x y dx dy
(2) becomes Hence, the correct option is (B).
4x1y + 5xy1 = 0 63. Standard result, the correct option is (C).
4x 5 y
1 1 1
+ =0 64. L {e 3t } =
x y s+3
d n 1 ( 1) .( 1) n!
n n
4 x1 5 y1 n!
L {t n e 3t } = ( 1)
n
= = k (say) where k is a constant = =
( s + 3) ( s + 3)
n +1 n +1
x y ds n s + 3
4 x1 5 y1
= k and =k Alternate method
x y n!
kx ky We know that L{eat tn} =
( s  a)
n +1
x1 = y1 =
4 5 n!
kx ky L{e3t tn} =
( s  3)
n +1
x1 = 0 y1 + =0
4 5
dX kx dx k Hence, the correct option is (B).
= = dx
dx 4 x 4
t n 1 ( n  1)! 1
dx k k 65. L = n = n
= dx
x 4
logx = x + c1
4 ( n  1) ( )
! s n  1 s
kx kx
e 5t .t n 1 1
X = e 4 + c1 = e 4 c1 L =
( n  1)! ( s  5 )
n
kx kx
x =ce 4 ; where c = e c X (x) = ce 4
1
1
1 1 1
0 0 2 1
= 5 L1 2L + 3L 2
( s 2 )
(t  2)
2 s 2 s 2
2
 e  st + ( t  2 ) e  st dt
s s2 1
2 = 5e 2t 2e 2t + 3e 2t L1 2
s
2 ( t  2 )  st e  st 2e 2 s = 5e 2t 2e 2t + 3e 2t .t
 e  2
= 3
s s s 2 s Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (A).
5s + 3 5 ( s  3) + 18
1
73. L1 2 =L
( s  3)  6
a
s  6 s  27
2
68. L { g ( t )} = e  st g ( t ) dt = e  st 0 dt + e  st f ( t  a ) dt
2
0 0 a
( s 3) 1
5L1 + 18 L1
( s 3) 6 ( s 3) 6
2 2
= e  st f ( t  a ) dt ,Let t  a = x dt = dx,
2 2
a
1
s 3t 1
1
L.L. = 0, U.L. = = 5.e3tL s 2 62 + 18e L s 2 62
= e  s ( a + x ) f ( x ) dx = e  sa e  sx f ( x ) dx 18
0 0
= 5.e3tcosh 6t + 3t sinh 6t
6
= e3t (5cosh 6t + 3sinh 6t)
= e sa e st f ( t ) dt = e sa L { f ( t )} = e sa F ( s )
0 Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
69. We know that Heavisides unit step function  
1
4 s 3 4 s 3
H (t a) = 0, t < a = 1, t > a
74. L1 2 =L
9 s  30 s  25 9 s 2 + 10 s + 25
3 9
L {H (t a)} = e  st H ( t  a )dt
0 5 29
a 4 s +
3 3
e  st
H ( t  a ) dt + e  st H ( t  a ) dt = L1 2
0 a 9 s + 5
a
e
e  as  st
3
0dt + e
s a
=
st
s
dt =
0 a
4 1 1 29 1 1
Hence, the correct option is (B). = 4 L1 1 29 L 1
9 L s + 55 27 L1 2
5 2
9 s + s +
3 27 5
1 s 3 3 s + 3
70. L1 5 + 2 3
s 2 s 9 s + 4 4 53 t 29 53 t 1 1
= e e L 2
1 9 27 s
s 1
1
= L1 5 + L1 2 3L 4  5 t 29  5 t t
s 2 s 9 4
s + = e 3  e 3
9 27 1!
5 3
1
t2 t2 1 5t 29
+ cosh 3t  3e 4 t = + cosh 3t  3e 4 t = e 3 4  t
5 3 1 9 3
G . . p
2 2 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
3
4t 2
5 ( s  2 ) + 13
+ cosh 3t 3e 4t 5s + 3 1
3 p 75. L1 2 =L
s  4 s + 13 ( s  2 ) + 9
2
( s 4 ) s ( 4 1)! 3!
s 2 t 1
1
Hence, the correct option is (B). = 5.e 2t L1 2 + 13e L 2
s + 32 s + 32
3s 2 + 11s 22 5 1 e 2t
2 3 = 5e 2t cos 3t + 13e 2t sin 3t = (15 cos 3t + 13 sin 3t )
72. L1 2
= L1 + 2 3 3
( s + 2 ) ( s 2 ) s 2 s + 2 ( s 2 ) Hence, the correct option is (D).
s 2 + 2s + 3
1 t
76. The partial fraction of = e  st e  bt a f dt
( s + 2 s + 5) ( s 2 + 2 s + 2 )
2
0
a a
1 t
2 1 1 1 = L e  bt a f dt
= 2 +
3 s + 2 s + 5 3 s 2 + 2 s + 2 a a
1  tba t
s 2 + 2s + 3 L1 {F ( as + b )} = e f
= L1 2 a a
( s + 2 s + 5 ) ( s 2
+ 2 s + 2 ) Hence, the correct option is (C).
2 1 1 1 1
L = + L
1
79. Given ( D 2 2 D 8) y = 0
3 ( s + 1) + 2 3 ( s + 1) + 1
2 2 2 2
s + 2 s 4
s Hence, the correct option is (D).
L1 4
s + 7 s 2 + 16 80. Given ty + y + 9ty = 0 taking Laplace transform on both sides
1 1 1 1 1 1 we have
= L 2 + L 2
2 s + s + 4 2 s  s + 4 L {ty} + L { y} + 9 L {ty} = 0
 1 1
= 11 11 11
+ 1 1 11 d
 L { y11} + L { y1} + 9 ( 1) L { y} = 0
d
= 2 L + 2L
(( )) (( ))
L 2 15 L 2 15 ds ds
2 s + 11 2
+ 15 2 ss  11 2
+ 15
s + 22 + 44  22 + 44 d d
 s 2 L { y}  sy ( 0 )  y ( 0 ) + sL { y}  y ( 0 )  9 L { y} = 0
ds ds
1 1 t 1 +d1 e 2 t L1
1
1
= e 12 L1  1 s12tL { y}  sy (10 )  y2 ( 0 ) + sL { y}  y ( 0 )  9 d L { y} = 0
21 2 t 1 1 2
e L 2 15 2 +ds2e 2 L1 2 15 2 ds
s + s +
2 2 15 2 2 15
s + 2 s + 2 d 2 d
 s L { y}  3s + sL ( y )  3  9 L { y} = 0
2 2
ds ds
1 1t 1 15 1 1t 1 15
= e 2 .sin t + e2 . sin t Let L { y} = u
2 15 2 2 2 15 2
d 2 du
2 ( s u  3s )  su + 3 + 9 = 0
ds ds
1 15 12 t 1
t
= sin t e  e 2 du du
15 2 =s 2
+ 2 su  3  su + 3 + 9 =0
ds ds
2 15 ht du
= sin t sin ( s 2 + 9) + su = 0
15 2 2 ds
du s
Hence, the correct option is (A). or + ds = 0
u s2 + 9
78. We know that L1 {F ( s )} = f ( t ) Integrating on both sides we get
1
log u + log ( s 2 + 9 ) = log A
F ( s ) = L { f ( t )} = e  st . f ( t ) dt 2
0
A A
or u = L { y} =
F ( as + b ) = e ( as + b)t f ( t ) dt = e ast. e bt f ( t ) dt s +9
2
s +9
2
0 0
1
or y = AJ 0 ( 3t )
1 y = AL1
Put at = x dt = dx
a s2 + 9
1
as L {J 0 ( 3t )} =
bx
1 x
F ( as + b ) = e  sx e

a . f dx
0 a a s +9
2
1 1 1 1
2 L1 3 2 L1 4 6 L1 5 2 L1 3 3 3
s s
s s 1 C .F = .1 = =
2 s2 s 2 s3
t3 t4 4s D 4s
y = 4 + 2t  t 2    2e t 4 4
3 4
s s
1 x  x 3
\G.S .u = c1e 2 + c2e 
{48 + 24t 12t 2 4t 3 3t 4 24et }
2
= s3
12
Hence, the correct option is (B). du
As Lt = 0 c1 = 0
x dx
u 2u
83. Given=2 2 s
x 3
t x u = c2e 2
Applying Laplace transform on both sides we have s3
d 2u 3 3
su ( x, s )  u ( x, 0 ) = 2 2 u ( 0, s ) = 0 c2  = 0 c2 = 3
dx s3 s
d 2u 3  2s x 3
2  s.u = 10 sin 4px \u = .e  3
dx 2 s3 s
Applying inverse transform on both sides we have using the boundary conditions we get
2s x d 2u
1
1 1
e  su = sinpx
u ( x, t ) = 3L 3 + 3L 3 dx 2
s s
Auxiliary equation D 2  s = 0 D = s
3t2 1 x
2
x x C.F is u = c1e sx
+ c2e sx
= + 3 t  , if t = 0, if t
2 2
2 2 2
 sin p x  sin p x sin p x
P .I . is = =
3 D 2  s p 2  s p 2 + s
8 ( 4tx  x ) if x 2t
2
= 2 Given u ( 0, t ) = 0 c1 + c2 = 0 c1 = c2
3t f x 2t
8 u (1, t ) = 0 c1e s
+ c2e  s
= 0 c1 e ( s
 e s
)=0
Hence, the correct option is (B).
c1 = c2 = 0
sinpx
u 2 u \u =
85. Given = s +p2
t x 2
Applying inverse Laplace transform we have
Applying Laplace transform to the above equation we get
sin px
u 2u u = L1 = sin px.e
p t 2
L = L 2 s + p2
t t x
u = e p t sin px
2
d 2u
su ( x, s )  u ( x, 0 ) = 2 Hence, the correct option is (D).
dx
x1 ( t ) x2 ( t ) B=
U
;A=
U
cot t sin t
W(t) = dx ( t ) dx2 ( t ) = e KL  1 1  e KL
1  sin t cos t
dt dt U U
u= + KL e kx
= cos2t + sin2t = 1 1 e KL
e 1
p 1 e kx
W(t) at x = = 1. =U +
2 1  e KL e KL  1
Hence, the correct option is (A). 1  e kx
=U
1  e KL
dy
4. Given differential equation is Hence, the correct option is (B).
dx
= 2xy (1) d2 f
8. 2 + f = 0
Where y (0) = 2 (2) dt
From (1) D2 + 1 = 0
1 D2 = 1
dy = 2xdx
y D = i
Integrating on both sides, we have f(t) = C1 cos x + C1 sin x
ln y = x + c 2
f(t) = 0, Solving C1 = 0
y = e x + c C2 = 4
2
y = c1e  x2
where c1 = e c f(t) = 4 sin x
The general solution of (1) is 4
L [f(t)] = 2
y = c1e  x
2
(3) s +1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
From (2), y (0) = 2 y = 2 at x = 0
From (3) 1
9. F(s) =
2 = c1 e 0 c1 = 2 s ( s + 1)
2
s s
L[cos4t] = = 2 10. Let x = ez or log x = z
s +4 2
s + 16
2
dx D = 1, 1
1 the general solution of (1) is
Where P(x) = ; Q(x) = x3
x
P ( x ) dx y = (C1 + C2x)ex (2)
Integrating factor = I.F. = e
Given y(0) = 0 y = 0 at x = 0
1
= e x = e loge x
dx
From (2); (C1 + C2 0) e0 = 0
I. F = x C1 = 0
y = C2x e x
(3)
= e
2 xdx
= ex
2
As y = 0xex
y=0 ye x = dx + c
2
y(0. 5) = 0
Given y(0) = 1, y = 1 at x = 0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
From (2), 1 e = 0 + c c = 1
18. Given partial differential equation is
Substituting the value of C in (2), we get
2f 2f f f ye x = x + 1
2
+ + + = 0
x 2 y 2 x y y = (1 + x ) e  x2
Order = order of the highest ordered derivative = 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Degree = Degree of the highest ordered derivative = 1 22. Given differential equation is
Hence, the correct option is (A). d2y dy
+ 4 + 3 y = 3e 2 x
dy 2 dx 2 dx
19. Given =y (1) 1
dx Particular Integral = X
1 f (D)
dy = dx
y2 1
= 3e 2 x
Integrating on both sides, ( D 2
+ 4 D + 3)
dy 1
y 2 = dx = 3e 2 x
( 2 2
+ 4 2 + 3)
1
= x+c (2) 1
y
= e 2x
5
Given y(0) = 1 y = 1 at x = 0
1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
From (2) ; = 0 + c = c = 1
1 dy
23. Given differential equation is x2 + 2xy
Substituting the value of c in (2), we get the solution of (1) as dx
1 2ln x
=x1 = (1)
y x
1 dy 2 2 ln x
y = (3) + y= 3
1 x dx x x
From (3), y is bounded if 1  x 0 Which is in the form of a linear equation
x1 dy
+ p(x)y = Q(x)
x < 1, x > 1 dx
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 2 ln x
Where p(x) = and Q(x) = 3
20. Given L [f(t)] = F(s) x x
t F ( s) Integrating Factor = I.F = e
p ( x ) dx
L f (T ) dT =
0 s The general solution of (1) is
Hence, the correct option is (A). Y I.F = Q ( x ) I. F dx + c
dy 2 ln x
21. Given + 2xy = e x (1)
2
dx yx2 = x 2 dx + c
x3
Clearly (1) is in the form of a linear equation 1
x2y = 2 (ln x ) . dx + c
dy x
+ P ( x) y = Q( x)
dx x2y = (lnx)2 + c (2)
Where P(x) = 2x; Q(x) = e x Given y(1) = 0 y = 0 at x = 1
2
Practice Problems I
( )
12
1 i 3
 12
Solutions for questions 1 to 40: = 2 = w 2 = 1.
3 + 5i ( 3 + 5i ) ( 2 + i ) 1+ i 3

w ( )
1. = 2
2i (2  i)(2 + i)
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 + 13i