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Chapter 1 Linear Algebra

Hints/Solutions
Practice Problems 1 x
C0 x
C1 x +1
C1
Solutions for questions 1 to 65: 9. 2 xC1 2 xC2 2 ( x +1)C2
1. Clearly option C is false. 6 xC 2 6 x C3 6 ( x +1)C3
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 x x +1
2. We know trace of A = sum of diagonal elements of A
2x x ( x - 1) ( x + 1)( x )
n( n + 1)
55 = 1 + 2 + 3 + . + n = 3 x ( x - 1) x ( x - 1) ( x - 2 ) ( x + 1) x ( x - 1)
2 
On solving, we get n = 10 or 11 C3 C3 - (C1 + C2)
But n being the order of A, cannot be negative
1 x 0
n = 10 2x x ( x - 1) 0 =0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
3 x ( x - 1) x ( x - 1) ( x - 1) 0
3. Trace is defined only for square matrices.
For any value of x = f(x) = 0.
Option C is false. Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
2 3+i -1
4. Consider the statement P, we have (A + B)2 = A2 + B2 + AB + BA
10. A + iB = 3 - i 0 -1 + i
p is true if A and B commute
-1 -1 - i 1
Now, consider (A + B) (A - B) = A2 + BA - AB - B2
(A + B) (A - B) = A2 - B2 if BA - AB = 0, that is if AB = BA 2 3-i -1
(A + B) (A - B) = A - B if A and B commute
2 2 A - i B = 3 + i 0 -1 - i
Statement q is true if A and B commute -1 -1 - i 1
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 3+i -1
2 1 2 -2 x 3 x = 3-i 0 -1 + i by interchange of rows
5. Given, 1 0 1 x -2

0 = I3 3 -1 -1 - i 1
2 2 1 2 -2 x - x and columns

- 4x + x + 4 = 1 - 3x = - 3 x = 1 = A + iB A is purely real
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (C).
6. We know that, the determinant of a matrix is the sum of prod- 11. The determinant of the lower triangle matrix is product of the
ucts of elements of any row or column with the correspond- diagonal elements = 1.
ing co-factors. Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (B). 12. In the given matrix 2R3 = R1.
7. Clearly C3 = -C2 We know that in any square matrix, if two rows are equal or
The determinant value is zero. one is the multiple of the other, then its determinant is zero.
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (C).
n! ( n + 1) n! ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1) n! 13. Determinant of new matrix = 2 times the determinant of orig-
inal matrix.
8. ~ ( n + 1)! ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1) ( n + 3) ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1)
Hence, the correct option is (C).
( n + 2 )! ( n + 3) ( n + 2 ) ( n + 4 ) ( n + 3) ( n + 2 )
14. Given: A is a square matrix of order K.
1 n +1 ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1) We know, det (KA) = Kr det (A), where r is order of A.
~ n! (n + 1)!(n + 2)! 1 n + 2 ( n + 3) ( n + 2 ) KK = 27 33 = 27
1 n+3 ( n + 4 ) ( n + 3) k=3
R2 R2 - R1 and R3 R3 - R2 Hence, the correct option is (D).
1 n +1 ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1) 15. |4AB| = 44 |A| |B| = 256 -2 5 = -2560.
~ n! (n + 1)! (n + 2)! 0 1 ( n + 2) 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
0 1 ( n + 3) 2 16. If the elements of determinant are functions of x, we can
= n! (n + 1)! (n + 2)! {2(n + 3 - n - 2)} express the determinant A = f(x), for some function f.
= 2 n! (n + 1)! (n + 2)! When x = k, = 0 f(k) = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B). (x k) is A factor of f(x) and hence of the determinant.

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2.2|Engineering Mathematics

1 1 1 BT. AT = -AB
Now, = a b c is A function of a, b, c. (-B) (-A) = -AB [using (A)]
a2 b2 c2 AB + BA = O
When a = b we get c1 and c2 identical Hence, the correct option is (A).
( )
T

=0 24. Clearly, the given matrix satisfies A = A = A


(b a) is A factor of A is skew-hermition matrix.
Similarly for B = c, c = a, we get = 0. Hence, the correct option is (D).
And hence (a - b), (b - c), (a - c) are factors of . 25. Clearly idempotent matrices do not satisfy the relation A2 = I.
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (C).
17. A = (aij)nn be A lower triangular matrix 1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3
26. A2 = -1 2 3 -1 2 3 = O3 3
aij = 0 if i < j.
1 -2 -3 1 -2 -3
Now, |A| = a11 a22 ann (expanding along R1)
A is nilpotent.
A is singular atleast one of aii = 0, i = 1 to n
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
27. As the given matrix is of order 2 3 and there exits A minor
18. Clearly the product of the given matrix with the matrix in
of order 2 2 whose value is not zero.
2nd option results in a unit matrix.
The rank of the matrix is 2.
The inverse of the given matrix is option -B.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
28. In the given matrix, clearly R2 = -2R1 and R3 = -5R1
1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 4 5 det of the given matrix = 0 and det of all 2 2 minors also
2 3 4 5 6 2 1 1 5 6 becomes zero.
19. 3 4 5 6 7 = 3 1 1 6 7 Rank is 1.
4 5 6 7 8 4 1 1 7 8 Hence, the correct option is (B).
5 6 7 8 9 5 1 1 8 9 29. Rank is 1
(First C3: C3 - C2, and, then C2: C2 - C1) = 0. Hence, the correct option is (B).
-1
A does not exist. 30. AB = [14]1 1
Now, if |A| 0, i.e. A is non-singular and if AT = A, then AB contains non-zero element and its det 0
(AA-1)T = IT Rank of AB = 1
(A-1)TA = I Hence, the correct option is (B).
(A-1)T = A-1 31. Clearly choice (A) is in row echelon form.
A-1 is symmetric. Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (D). 32. Consider vectors in Choice (C) for some x, y, z R
20. We know, (AT)T = A and adj(adjA) = A for individual matrices. Let x (2, 1, 4) + y (1, -2, 2) + z (-3, 1, -6) = (0, 0, 0)
det (KA) = Kn detA 2x + y -3z = 0
Option (C) is false for any matrix. AX = 0, where
Hence, the correct option is (C). 4x + 2y - 6z = 0
21. If |A| is a 3rd order determinant, then |Adj A| = |A|2  (A) 2 1 3
Given that |Adj A|2 = 28561
det A = 1 2 1 = 0 ( R3 = 2R1)
|A|4 = 28561 (using (A))
4 2 6
|A| = 13, 13i but |A| = 13i as its elements are all real
The set of given vectors is linearly dependent.
|A| = 13
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
33. It is clear that crammers rule is applicable when m = n and
22. The product of a square matrix and its transpose is always
coefficient matrix is non-singular.
symmetric.
Hence, the correct option is (D).
As (AAT)T = (AT)T AT = AAT
34. In the given equations, we notice the rank of augmented
Hence, the correct option is (D).
matrix and the rank of coefficient matrix and the number of
23. Given that A and B are skew-symmetric we have unknowns equal the number of equations.
A = -AT and B = -BT  (A) There exists a unique non-zero solution.
AB is skew-symmetric (A.B)T = -AB Hence, the correct option is (A).

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Hints/Solutions | 2.3

35. Augmented matrix of the given system of equations is 40. If the rank of the matrix is n, then the linear homogeneous
1 2 3 2 system of equations in n variables will have only one solution,
6 7 8 1 ; R - 6R x=0
2 1
The rank of the matrix = n
13 14 15 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
1 2 3 2
41. If the given equations have a non-zero solutions
R3 - 13R1 ~ 0 -5 -10 -11 clearly observing

2 -1 -1
0 -12 -24 -24
|A| = 0 k -3 2 = 0 k2 - 8k + 7 = 0
R2 and R3, we can notice rank of A is not the same as rank of -3 2 k
[A B]
(k - 1) (k - 7) = 0 k = 1, 7
The system of equations are inconsistent.
Hence, the correct option is (C). If k = 1 or 7, then the rank of A is less than the number of
variables
36. For the equations to have a unique solution.
The equations have non-zero solution.
0 2 1 Hence, the correct option is (D).
|A| 0 1 k 3 0
42. For non-zero solution,
1 0 -1
1 - k -1
- 2(- 1 - 3) + 1 (- k) 0
k -1 -1 = 0 ; C1 C1 + C3
8-k0
1 1 -1
k8
Hence, the correct option is (B). 0 - k -1
- k -1
37. If the system of equations have no solution, then det A = O k - 1 -1 -1 = ( k - 1)
1 -1
0 1 -1
4 2 -3
Here, A = 1 3 k = (k - 1) (k + 1) = 0 = k = 1.
1 1 -1 Hence, the correct option is (A).

A = 4(-3 - k) - 2(-1 - k) - (-3)


det 43. System AX = 0 has trivial solution if |A| 0
O = -12 - 4k + 2 + 2k + 6 - 2k - 4 = 0 a 3 5
2k = -4; k = -2. Here, |A| = 2 -4a a = -46a2 - 92a + 138
Hence, the correct option is (A). -4 18 7

1 1 1 = -46 (a + 3) (a - 1)
38. System does not have solution if 4 l -l = 0 |A| 0 a 1, -3 for these value of a, system has only
3 2 -4 trivial solution
Hence, the correct option is (C).
0 0 1
4+l 2l -l = 0 = 24 + 6l - 14l = 0 2 p 6
7 6 -4 44. D = 1 2 q = (p 2) (q 3)
1 1 3
l = 3.
The system will have a unique solution only if 0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
i.e. when p 2 and q 3,
39. The system of equations AX = B has a solution if [i] 0 or
Hence, the correct option is (D).
(ii) x = y = z = 0 =
45. The system has no solution, when p 2, q = 3.
2 -3 1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Here, D = -1 2 3 = 0
5 -8 -1 46. When p = 2,

As the system has a solution x = 0 = y = z now 8 2 6 2 8 6 2 2 8


p -3 1 D1 = 5 2 q = 0 D 2 = 1 5 q = 0 D 3 = 1 2 5 = 0
Dx = 0 0 = q 2 3 = 22p 11q 11r = 0 4 1 3 1 4 3 1 1 4
r -8 -1 For all real values of q, there will be infinite number of
= 2p q r = 0 q, p, r are in A.P solutions.
Hence, the correct option is (D). Hence, the correct option is (A).

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2.4|Engineering Mathematics

47. The given equations in matrix form are The characteristic roots are 1, 1, 5
2 1 -1 x 4 The characteristic roots of A-1 are reciprocals of 1, 1, 5.

3 -2 4 y = 8 They are 1, 1, 1/5.
1 -3 2 z 1 Hence, the correct option is (C).

The augmented matrix [A B] = 52. The sum of eigenvalues = The sum of diagonal elements
(trace of A) = 2 + 4 -5 = 1
2 1 1 4 1 3 2 1 Product of eigenvalues = det A = 2(4 -5 -3 -2) -
3 2 4 8 R 1
R3
3 2 4 8
1(0 3 - 4 1) = -24
1 3 2 1 2 1 1 4 Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 3 2 1 1 3 2 1 2 0 1
0 7 5 2 0 7 5 2
R 2 3R1, R 3 2 R1 R3 R 2
53. The eigen values of the matrix A = 0 2 p are 1, 2, 3
0 7 2 5 0 0 3 3 1 0 q

The matrix in echelon form We know that sum of the eigen value = Trace of A
x - 3y + 2z = 1 (A) 1+2+3=2+2+qq=2
7y - 5z = 2 (B) Also, product of the eigen values = Determinant of A
3z = 3(C) 2 0 1 2 0 1
from (C) z = 1 substituting in (B) We get y = 1, and then from 123= 0 2 p 0 2 p =6
(A) we get x = 2, 1 0 q 1 0 2
Hence, the correct option is (C).
2[4 - 0) - 0[0 - p] + 1[0 - 2] = 6
48. As the eigen values of an upper triangular matrix are the diag- 8 - 2 = 6 p is any real number
onal elements of the matrix.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
The eigen values of the given matrix are 2, 1 and 3.
54. The eigenvalues of a real skew-symmetric matrix are purely
Hence, the correct option is (C). imaginary or zero.
49. The characteristic equation of the given matrix is A - lI = 0 The product of the eigenvalues = det A
1- l 2 3 0 -1 2 -3 0 1 2 3
4 5-l 6 = 0 l3 - 15l2 - 18l = 0 1 0 4 6 1 0 4 6
7 8 9-l = =
-2 -4 0 5 0 4 8 17
l = 0 is A root of it. 3 -6 -5 0 0 6 17 18
Hence, the correct option is (D). -1 2 -3 1 2 -3 1 2 -3
2 3 4 = - -4 8 17 = 4 8 17 = 0 0 29
50. Let A = 3 5 -6 -6 -17 -18 6 -17 -18 0 -29 0

1 1 14
= 292. As det A 0, the product of all the eigen values is not
The characteristic equation of A is |A - lI| = 0 zero, i.e. 0 is not an eigen value.
2-l 3 4 Hence, the correct option is (B).
3 5-l -6 = 0 l3 - 21l2 + 101l = 0
5 2
1 1 14 - l 55. Let A =
-2 1
21 37 The characteristic equation of A is |A - lI| = 0
l(l2 - 21l + 101) = 0 l = 0; l =
2
5-l 2
21 37 = 0 (5 - l) (1 - l) + 4 = 0
Clearly, l = are positive -2 1- l
2
So, the minimum eigen value is 0. l2 - 6l + 9 = 0 (l - 3)2 = 0 l = 3, 3
Hence, the correct option is (A). The eigen values of A are l = 3, 3
x
51. The characteristic equation of the given matrix is Let x = 1 be an eigen vector of A corresponding to the
2-l 2 1 x2
eigen value l = 3
|A - lI| = 0 1 3-l 1 =0
AX = 3X
1 2 2-l 2 2 x1 0
(A - 3I) x = 0 =
l3 - 7l2 + 11l - 5 = 0 -2 -2 x2 0

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Hints/Solutions | 2.5

2x1 + 2x2 = 0 and - 2x1 - 2x2 = 0 x1 = -x2 4 -6


So, A = .
Let x2 = k, where k is an arbitary constant 7 -9
-k -1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
x= =k
k 1 2 5 4
In particular if k = 1, then an eigen vector of a corresponding 59. The characteristic equation of A = 0 1 0
-1 0 -3 -2
to l = 3 is x =
1
2-l 5 4
Also, any other eigen vector of A will be a constant multiple
of x Is |A - lI| = 0 0 1- l 0 =0
Hence, the number of linearly independent eigen vectors of 0 -3 -2 - l
5 2 (2 - l) (1 - l) (- 2 - l) = 0
the matrix is 1.
-2 1 l3 - l2 - 4l + 4 = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B).
By cayley Hamilton theorem, we have
56. The characteristic equation of the given matrix is A3 - A2 - 4A + 4I = 0  (1)
1- l 4 Multiplying (1) throughout by A-1, we have
= 0 - (1 - l2) - 8 = 0 or l2 = 9
2 -1 - l A-1 [A3 - A2 - 4A + 4I] = A-1 0
l = 3 for l = -3, the eigen vectors are -1 2
A2 - A - 4I + 4A-1 = 0 A-1 = [A - A - 4I]
4
1 4 1 0 x1 0 -1 2
- ( -3) = B= [A - A - 4I]
2 -1 0 1 x2 0 4
4x1 + 4x2 = 0 and 2x1 + 2x2 = 0 x1 = -x2 Hence, the correct option is (A).
The eigen vectors corresponding to l = -3 are 60. Multiply (1) by A-2 we have
x -x -1 A-2 [A3 - A2 - 4A + 4I] = A-2 - 0
x = 1 = 2 = x2
x x
2 2 1 A - I - 4A-1 + 4A-2 = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B). -1
A-2 = [A - I - 4A-1]
57. Let l be the eigen value of the matrix 4
6 -6 2 -1
(A-1)2 = [A - I - 4A-1]
A = -6 5 -4 with the corresponding eigen vector 4

2 -4 1 -1
B2 = [A - I - 4A-1]
4
-2
-1
x = 2 , from the definition of the eigen vector, AX = lX B2 = [A - I - 4B].
4
-1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
6 -6 2 -2 -2 2 3
-6 5 -4 2 = l 2 61. The characteristic equation of A = is
4 6
2 -4 1 -1 -1
2-l 3
|A - lI| = 0 = 0 l2 - 8l = 0
-26 -2 -2 -2 4 6-l
26 = l 2 13 2 = l 2 l = 13 By cayley Hamilton Theorem, we have
-13 -1 -1 1
0 0
A2 - 8A = O, where O =
The corresponding eigen value is 13. 0 0
Hence, the correct option is (D). A2 = 8A  (1)
58. Given l1 = -2 and l2 = -3 are the eigen values of A and Now, A15 = A14.A = (A2)7.A
-4 6 = (8A)7.A (From (1))
x1 = and x2 = are their corresponding eigen vectors
-4 7 = 87.A8
We know that sum of the eigen values = Trace of the matrix = 87(A2)4
The matrixes in options (A), (B) and (C) will satisfy this = 87.(8A)4 (From (1))
property = 87.84.A4
Also, we know that the product of the eigen values = Determinant = 811.(A2)2
of the matrix = 811.(8A)2 (From (1))
The matrix in option (B) only will satisfy this property = 811.82A2

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2.6|Engineering Mathematics

= 813.(8A) (From (1)) Again from (1), l(l2 - 5l + 4) = 0


= 814.A. l(l - 1) (l - 4) = 0 l = 0, 1, 4
Hence, the correct option is (A). The eigen values of A are l = 0, 1 and 4
62. The characteristic equation of the matrix Product of the eigen values = 0 1 4 = Det of A
2 0 0 Determinant of A = 0, A is a singular matrix
A = 3 6 7 is |A - lI| = 0 So, A-1 does not exist Hence (Q) is NOT TRUE  (3)
9 0 1 As the three eigen values of A are distinct, their corresponding
eigen vectors will be independent.
2-l 0 0
Hence, A is diagonalizable
3 6-l 7 =0
So, (R) is TRUE  (4)
9 0 1- l
From (2), (3) and (4)
(2 - l) (6 - l) (1 - l) = 0 l3 - 9l2 + 20l - 12 = 0
P and R are TRUE, but not Q.
By cayley Hamilton theorem, we have
Hence, the correct option is (B).
A3 - 9A2 + 20A - 12I = 0 (1)
64. We know that D = P-1AP  (1)
Consider the given matrix polynomial
Where P is a modal matrix and D is a spectral matrix of a
2A10 - 18A9 + 40A8 - 25A7 + 9A6 - 20A5 + 13A4 - 9A3 + 20A2 diagonalisable matrix A
- 10A
From (1), we have PD = P(P-1AP)
= 2A7 [A3 - 9A2 + 20A - 12I] -A7 + 9A6 - 20A5 + 12A4 + A4
- 9A3 + 20A2 - 12A + 2A PD = (PP-1)AP PD = IAP PD = AP

= 2A7 0 - A4 [A3 - 9A2 + 20A - 12I] + A(A3 - 9A2 + 20A - So, option (A) is TRUE  (2)
12I] + 2A. (From (1)) -1
Similarly, by post multiplying with P on both sides of (1),
= -A 0 + A 0 + 2A. (From (1))
4 we get DP-1 = P-1A
So, option (B) is also TRUE  (3)
2 0 0 4 0 0
From (1), D = P AP
= 2 3 6 7 = 6 12 14 . -1

9 0 1 18 0 2 D2 = D.D = (P-1AP) (P-1AP)
P-1A(PP-1)AP P-1AI AP
Hence, the correct option is (B).
D2 = P-1A2P
63. The characteristic equation of the matrix
PD2 = P(P-1A2P) PD2 = (PP-1)A2P PD2 = A2P
3 -1 -1
A2P = PD2
A = -1 3 -1 is |A - lI| = 0
So, option (C) is also TRUE.
1 1 -1
Also, it can be easily observed that the relation DP = PA cannot
3 - l -1 -1 be obtained from (1)

-1 3 - l -1 = 0 So, option (D) need not be TRUE.
1 1 -1 - l Hence, the correct option is (D).
(3 - l) [(3 - l) (-1 - l) + 1] + 1[(1 + l) + 1] - 1[-1 -(3 65. If P is A modal matrix of the 3 3 matrix A, then P-1AP will
- l) = 0 become the diagonal form of A with its eigen values are same
l3 - 5l2 + 4l = 0  (1) as that of the matrix A
The characteristic equation of A is l - 5l + 4l = 0
3 2 So, the eigen values of P-1AP are 0, 2 and 3.
So, (P) is TRUE  (2) Hence, the correct option is (A).

Practice Problems 2 a10 0 0



A = 0 b
1. Unequal matrices may be comparable but comparable matri- 10 10
0 .
ces need not be equal. 0 0 c10
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
2. Standard result, the correct option is (D).
a1 0 ... 0 b1 0 ... 0
a 0 0 a 0 0 a 2
0 0 0 a2 ... 0 0 b2 ... 0
4. Let A = & B=
3. A2 = 0 b 0 0 b 0 = 0 b2 0 .. .. ... .. .. .. ... ..
0 0 c 0 0 c 0 0 c 2 0 0 ... an 0 0 ... bn

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Hints/Solutions | 2.7

a1 + b1 0 ... 0 Consider
0 a2 + b2 ... 0 x
Cx -r y
Cy-r z
Cz -r
A+ B =
.. .. ... .. D1 = C x - r -1
x y
C y - r -1 z
C z - r -1
0 0 ... an + bn x
Cx - r - 2 y
Cy -r -2 z
Cz - r - 2
( a1 + b1 ) 2
0 ... 0
Cr x y
Cr Cr
z

0 ( a2 + b2 ) 2 ... 0
( A + B) =2 = C r +1
x y
C r +1 z
Cr +1 [Using (A)]
.. .. ... .. x
Cr + 2 y
Cr + 2 z
Cr + 2
0 0 ... ( an + bn ) 2
Cr x y
Cr Cr
z

In general (using mathematical induction we can prove that) = x +1


C r +1 y +1
C r +1 z +1
Cr +1 (Using (B) and
x +1 y +1 z +1
( a1 + b1 ) k 0 ... 0 Cr + 2 Cr + 2 Cr + 2
0 ( a2 + b2 ) k ... 0 R2 : R2 + R1 R3 : R3 + R2)
( A + B)k =
.. .. ... .. x
Cr y
Cr Crz
0 0 ... ( an + bn ) k
= x +1
C r +1 y +1
C r +1 Cr +1 (Using R3 : R3 + R2) and (B)
z +1

for k 1 x+2
Cr + 2 y + 2 Cr + 2 z+2
Cr + 2

Hence, the correct option is (A).
= 2 1 : 2 = 1 : 1
5. Given A = (aij )n n, B = (bij)n n we have
Hence, the correct option is (A).
n
C = AB = (cij)n n where cij = aik bkj 1 1 1
k =1
n
13. = m C1n n +1
C1 n+ 2
C1
cii = aik bki n
C2 n +1
C2 n+ 2
C2
k =1

For illustration let us take n = 3, then trace (AB) = trace (C) = 1 1 1


C11 + C22 + C33 C2 C2- C1
=m n n +1 n+2
= a11 b11 + a12 b21 +a13 b31 + a21 b12 + a22 b22 + a23 b32 + a31 b13 C3 C3 - C 2
n ( n - 1) ( n + 1) n ( n + 2 ) ( n + 1)
+ a32 b23 + a33 b33  (A)
2 2 2
From (A) we observe that trace (C) cannot be obtained from
trace (A) and trace (B)
1 0 0
Hence, the correct option is (D). = m.
= m n 1 1
6. Trace of a matrix = Sum of the principal diagonal elements of
n ( n - 1)
a square matrix = 1 - 1 + 5 = 5. n n +1
2
Hence, the correct option is (A).
7. Except the second option remains are true. Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (B). 14. Let = |A201 A200| = |A200 (A I)| = |A|200|A I| (A)
8. The sum of the product of elements of any row or column 1 2 3
with their corresponding co-factors gives the determinant. Now, A = 1 2 4 = 1 (on expansion)
Hence, the correct option is (C). 1 1 5
9. a13 A13 + a23 A23 + a33 A33 = and not 0 0 2 3
Hence, the correct option is (A). and A - I = 1 1 4 = 0 [ R2 and R3 are identical]
10. In option (C), each element of 2nd row is multiplied by the 1 1 4
corresponding co-factors, so its sum is but not zero.
(A) becomes, = 1200 0 = 0
Option (C) is false
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
15. 1/4 times
11. The determinant of a upper triangular matrix is the product of
the diagonal elements Hence, the correct option is (B).
The diagonal elements are 2, -1, 3, -2 2 -1 3 -12 = 12. 16. When a matrix is multiplied by a constant, every element is
multiplied with the constant. In case of determinant the com-
Hence, the correct option is (C). mon factor in any row can be taken out from that row.
12. We know that nCm = nCn m (A) and that |5A| = 55|A|
n
Cm + Cm + 1 =
n n+1
Cm + 1 (B) Hence, the correct option is (C).

Chapter 1 solution .indd 7 9/1/2015 3:37:11 PM


2.8|Engineering Mathematics

17. Let A be an nth order nonsingular matrix A = k ( 0 ), then Statement P is true.


1 2
adj A = A . A-1 = k A-1 Statement Q: Let A= . Then,
3 -1
1 Trace (A) = 1 1 = 0
\ adj A = k A-1 = k n A-1 = k n = k n -1.
A But A is not a skew-symmetric matrix.
Let B = adj A. Statement Q is not true always
= ( k n -1 )
n -1 n -1 n -1
Then, adj B = B = adj A = kn - 2 n +1
2

Hence, the correct option is (C).

adj ( adjA) = A
n2 - 2 n + 1 22. For skew-symmetric matrices, diagonal elements are zeros
Trace = 0
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 3 -2
23. None
18. let A = -3 0 -5
Hence, the correct option is (D).
2 5 0

24. If A is any given matrix, then it is said to be involuntary, if
|A| = 1(0 + 25) - 3(0 + 10) - 2(-15 - 0) = 25
A = I
Matrix is non-singular and inverse exists.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
0 -5
cofactor of 1 = (-1) 1+1
= 25 25. A = 0 it is A Nilpotent matrix of index 2
5 0 Hence, the correct option is (D).
-3 -5 26. Matrix A is involutory A2 = I  (1)
cofactor of 3 = (-1) = -10
1+2

2 0 Matrix A is orthogonal AA = I  T
(2)
Similarly, we get cofactors for other elements Premultiplying (2) by A, we have A2AT = A
25 -10 -15 I AT = A (using (1))
cofactor matrix of A = -10 4 1

AT = A A is symmetric.
-15 11 9
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Adjoint of A = Transpose of cofactor matrix
5+ 2i 4i 5- 2i
25 -10 -15
27. Let z = i - 8 -i -i - 8
= -10 4 11

-15 1 1+ i 3 i 1- i
9
Taking its complex conjugate is
25 -10 -15
A = 1/A (Adj. A) = 1/25 -10 4
-1
11

5 - 2 i -4 i 5 + 2 i 5 + 2 i -4 i 5 - 2 i
-15 1 9
z = - i -8 i i - 8 = - i - 8 -( -i ) -i - 8
Hence, the correct option is (B). 1 - i -3 i 1 + i 1+ i -3 i 1- i

0 6 8 0 -6 -8 5+ 2i 4i 5- 2i

19. Let A = -6 0 5 AT = 6 0 -5 (By interchanging C1 and C3) = i -8 i -i - 8 = z

-8 -5 0 8 5 0 1+ i 3 i 1- i

z = z z is A real number
0 6 8
AT = -6 0 5 = -A AT = A Hence, the correct option is (A).
-8 -5 0 28. Let A be the given matrix

A is skew-symmetric. 4 1+ i 7
Hence, the correct option is (A). A = 1 - i 6
T
i

20. Let B = A AT 7 -i 5

Now, BT = (A AT)T = AT (AT)T = AT A
4 1+ i 7
[ (AT)T = A ] = B B = A AT is skew-symmetric
Conjugate of A = 1 - i 6
i ;
Hence, the correct option is (B). 7
-i 5
21. Statement P: Let A be a skew-symmetric matrix. Then, all its
leading diagonal elements aii are zero. it may be observed that (A)T = A
n A is Hermitan but not symmetric
Trace ( A) = aii = 0
i =1 Hence, the correct option is (C).

Chapter 1 solution .indd 8 9/1/2015 3:37:16 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.9

2 a + 3i b - 2i 1 4 8 16

3
0 -10 -20 -36 R3 R3 - R2
29. Given matrix is a - 3i 4 c - 8i
b - 2i c + 8i 2
6 0 -15 -30 -54
Consider any ith row and jth column, any element, aij is a
1 4 8 16
conjugate of the element aji.
0 -10 -20 -36 Clearly (1) is in row echelon form.
It is a hermitian matrix.
0 0 0 0
Hence, the correct option is (C).
30. because the det. of 2 2 minor matrix 0; Also, rank A = rank [A/B] = 2 < 3 (= No. of unknows)
Hence, the given system of equations is consistent and has
1 6
= 8 - 30 = -22 0 infinitely many solutions.
5 8
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Rank = 2
38. Given equations are
Hence, the correct option is (B).
2x + z = 2,
31. Because |A| 0 Rank = 3
kx + y + 3z = 1
Hence, the correct option is (B).
x - y = -1
32. |A| 0 Rank A = 6
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 0 1

33. The system of equations is said to be consistent if there exists In matrix form, A = k 1 3
at least one solution. 1 -1 0

Hence, the correct option is (A). In order to get A unique solution, det A 0
34. The given system of non-homogeneous equations is consist- 2 [0 + 3] - 0 + 1 [-k -1] 0
ent only when the rank of coefficient matrix A is the same as 6-k-10k5
the rank of the augmented matrix.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
r(A) = r[A B]
39. Given equations are:
Hence, the correct option is (A).
2x + ay + 5z = 3
35. Rank of A < Rank [A : B]
3x + y + 2z = 4
Hence, the correct option is (B).
x - 7y + 8z = b
36. Given equations are:
In matrix form, it is
x + 2y + 3z = 2
2 a 5
6x + 7y + 8z = 1 A = 3 1 2
13x + 14y + 15z = 2 1 -7 8

1 2 3 It has infinite number of solution when = 0 and 1 = 2
In matrix form, 6 7 8 = 3 = 0
13 14 15 =0
1 2 3 2[8 + 14] - A [24 - 2] + 5 (-21 - 1) = 0
Determinant = 6 7 8 = 0 44 - 22a - 110 = 0 22a = -66 A = -3
13 14 15 for getting b equate 1 or 2 or 3 = 0

When Det = 0; check out for the 1 or 2 or 3 values 3 -3 5



1 = 0 4 1 2 = 0
2 2 3 b -7 8

1 = 1 7 8
3 [8 + 14] + 3 [32 - 2b] + 5 (-28 - b) = 0
2 14 15
66 + 96 - 6b - 140 - 5b = 0
As 1 0, There are no solutions for the system of equations 22 - 11b = 0 B = 2
and they are inconsistent equations
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (A).
40. For consistency of the equations
1 4 8 16 a a2 a3 + 1
R R2 3R1
37. 3 2 4 12 2 b b2 b3 + 1 = 0
R3 R3 4 R1
4 1 2 10 c c2 c3 + 1

Chapter 1 solution .indd 9 9/1/2015 3:37:18 PM


2.10|Engineering Mathematics

a a2 a3 a a2 1 For having non-zero solutions Det = 0


i.e. b b 2 b3 + b b 2 1 = 0 4[-6k - 16] + 2[k2 + 24] -2[4k - 36] = 0
c c2 c3 c c2 1 -24k - 64 + 2k2 + 48 - 8k + 72 = 0
2k2 - 32k + 56 = 0 k2 -16k + 28 = 0
1 a a2 1 a a2
(k - 2) (k - 14) = 0 k = 2, 14
abc 1 b b 2 + 1 b b 2 = 0
1 c c2 1 c c2 Hence, the correct option is (D).
47. The solution of AX = 0 is given by
1 a a2 x y z
(abc + 1) 1 b b 2 = 0 = =
-3 1 2 1 2 -3
1 c c2 -
-1 -2 3 -2 3 -1
(abc + 1) (a - b) (b - c) (c - a) = 0 x y z
= = x = y = z = l (a constant)
But no two of a, b, c are equal. 7 7 7
(a - b) (b - c) (c - a) 0 abc + 1 = 0 x2 + y2 + z2 = 3l2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
3 -2 1
48. The system AX = 0 has non trivial solution if |A| = 0
41. Determinant of the coefficients is 5 -8 9 = 3(-8k1 - 9)
3-l 1 4
2 1 k1
0 2-l 6 = 0 (3 - l) (2 - l) (5 - l) = 0
+ 2(5k1 - 18) + 1(5 + 16) = -14k1 - 42
0 0 5-l
System has unique solution if -14k1 - 42 0 k1 -3
l = 2, 3, 5 (Take them to be l1 , l2, l3 )
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, 4(l1 + l2 + l3) = 40
8 1 6 2 8 6 Hence, the correct option is (A).
42. D1 = 5 2 1 = 11; D 2 = 1 5 1 = 0
a 0 0 0
4 1 3 1 4 3
0 a 0 0
49. A =
2 1 8 0 0 a 0

D 3 = 1 2 5 = - 1 x : z = 11 : -1 0 0 0 a
1 1 4
Characteristic equation is |A - lI| = 0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
(a - l ) 0 0 0
2 p 6 0 (a - l ) 0 0
=0
43. D = 1 2 q = 2(6 3q) p(3 q) + 6 = 18 6q 3p +
0 0 ( l)
a - 0
1 3 +3 0 0 0 (a - l )
pq = (p 6) (q 3)
p 6, q 3 (a - l) [(a - l) [a - l)2]] = 0
Hence, the correct option is (C). (a - l)4 = 0
a4 - 4al3 + 6a2l2 - 4a3l + l4 = 0
44. Rank of A = n
4

( -1)
k 4
Hence, the correct option is (D). . Ck .a 4 - k .l k = 0
k =0
45. The coefficient matrix is
Hence, the correct option is (D).
2 -1 3 2 -1 3
50. Eigen values are 1, 1, 0
A = 1 1 1 det A = 1 1 1 = 2 (1 + 1) +1 (1 - 1) + 3
For a lower triangular matrix, leading diagonal elements are
1 -1 1 1 -1 1
the eigen values.
(-1 -1) = 4 - 6 0 Hence, the correct option is (C).
System has trivial solution only
5-l 4 -7
Hence, the correct option is (C). 51. |A - lI| = 0 0 -3 - l 1 =0
46. Given equations are: 0 0 6-l
4x - 2y - 2z = 0, kx - 6y + 4z = 0 and -6x + 4y + kz = 0
(5 - l) (-3 - l) (6 - l) = 0
4 -2 -2 (l - 5) (l + 3) (l - 6) = 0

In matrix form, it is k -6 4 Solving, we get l = 5, -3, 6 as the characteristic values.
-6 4 k
Hence, the correct option is (B).

Chapter 1 solution .indd 10 9/1/2015 3:37:21 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.11

3 - l -2 -8 Corresponding to l = 5, the eigen vectors are:


52. |A - lI| = 0 0 3-l 4 =0 x1 0 2 1 x1 0
|A - lI| = =
0 0 7-l x2 0 6 3 x2 0
(3 - l) (3 - l) (7 - l) = 0 -2x1 + x2 = 0
l = 3, 3, 7. All characteristic values are real and positive. 6x1 - 3x2 = 0 2x1 - x2 = 0 corresponding to 5 the eigen
Hence, the correct option is (D).
x x
6 2 2 vectors are 1 = 1
x2 2 x1
53. Given matrix is 2 3 1
2 1 3 1
= x1
2
6-l 2 2
Similarly, we can find eigen vectors corresponding to l = 0
Characteristic equation is 2 (3 - l ) 1 =0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
2 1 ( 3 - l )
-1
58. Here, l1 = 1 and l2 = -4 are the eigen values and x1 =
(6 - l)[(3 - l)2 - 1] - 2[2(3 - l) - 2] + 2[2 - 2(3 - l)] = 0 1
54 + 6 l2 - 36l - 9l - l3 + 6l2 - 6 + l - 8 + 4l - 8 + l = 0 3
and x2 = are their corresponding eigen vectors of the
l3 - 12l2 + 36l - 32 = 0 (l - 2) (l2 - 10l + 16) = 0 -8
matrix P
(l - 2) (l - 8) (2 - l) = 0 l = 2, 2, 8
We have sum of the eigen values = 1 + (-4) = -3
Eigen values of inverse of the given matrix are reciprocal of
As l1 + l2 = Trace of P,
the eigen values of the given matrix
1 1 1 The matrices in options (B), (C) and (D) only will satisfy this
i.e. l = , , property
2 2 8
Hence, the correct option is (D). Also, the product of the eigen values = l1l2 = 1 (-4) = -4
54. The eigen values of a triangular matrix are the diagonal ele- As l1l2 = |P|
ments and the eigen values of the inverse matrix are the recip- The matrices in options (B) and (C) only will satisfy this
rocals of the original matrix. property
1
The eigen values of the given matrix are 3, -2, Also, from the definition of eigen vector of A matrix, we have
2 AX = lX for A square matrix A with l as an eigen value of x
1 -1
The required eigen values are , ,2 as its corresponding eigen vector
3 2
Hence, the correct option is (D). The matrix in option (C) only will satisfy this property for
both the eigen values l1 and l2
55. We have l1 + l2 = trace of A = 9
4 3
l1 l2 = |A| = 18 + 5 = 23. So, P = .
-8 -7
1 1 9
+ = Hence, the correct option is (C).
l1 l2 23.
1 3 2
Again, m1 + m2 = 6, m1 m2= |B| = 7
59. A = 3 2 1

1 1 6 2 1 3
+ = .
m1 m 2 7
Characteristic equation, |A - lI| = 0
9 6 201
Sum of the roots = + =
23 7 7 23 (1 - l ) 3 2

Product of the roots =


54 3 (2 - l ) 1 =0
7 23 2 1 (3 - l )
201 54
Required equation is x2 - x+ =0 (1 - l) [(2 - l) (3 - l) - 1] - 3 [3(3 - l) - 2] + 2 [ 3 -
7 23 7 23 2(2 - l)] = 0
161x2 - 201x + 54 = 0.
(1- l) (5 - 5l + l2) - 3( 7 - 3l) + 2 (2l - 1) = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B).
l3 - 6l2 - 3l + 18 = 0 A3 - 6A2 - 3A + 18I = 0
56. Standard result, the correct option is (D). Hence, the correct option is (B).
3 l 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
57. |A - lI | =
6 2l 60. Given A = 0 1 0 , A2 = 0 1 0

1 0 0 0 0 1
|A - lI| = 0 (3 - l) (2 - l) - 6 = 0
l - 5l + 6 = 0 l = 0, 5 We notice A3 = A2A = A, A4 = (A2)2 = I.

Chapter 1 solution .indd 11 9/1/2015 3:37:26 PM


2.12|Engineering Mathematics

A4 A3 A2 = I A I = A 1 2
From (2), A-1 = [A + I]
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2
61. Given that matrix A satisfies A3 7A 6I = 0 and that |A| 0. 0 1 1 1 0 0
1
Premultiplying (1) by A1 (Inverse of A exists as |A| 0) = 1 0 -1 + 0 1 0
2
A2 7I 6A-1 = 0 -1 1 -2 0 0 1

1 2
6A-1 = A2 7I A-1 = ( A - 7I ) 1 1 1
6 1
B= 1 1 -1.
Hence, the correct option is (A). 2
-1 1 -1
62. The characteristic equation of the matrix
Hence, the correct option is (D).
5 8
A = is |A - lI| = 0
-2 -3 64. Multiplying (1) throughout by A-2, we have
A-2 [A3 + A - 2I] = A-2 = 0
5 - l 8
= 0 (5 - l) (-3 -l) + 16 = 0
-3 - l
1
-2 A + A-1 - 2A-2 = 0 A-2 = [A + A-1]
2
l2 - 2l - 15 + 16 = 0 l2 - 2l + 1 = 0 0 1 -1 1 1 1
By Cayley-Hamilton theorem, we have 1 1
1 0 1 +
2 2 1 1 -1
1 0 0 0 1 -1 0 -1 1 -1
A2 - 2A + I = 0, where I = and 0 = 0 0
0 1
1 3 -1
A2 = 2A - I  (1) 1
B2 = 3 1 1 .
Now, consider A17 = A16.A = (A2)8.A 4
1 -1 -1
= (2A - I)8.A (From (1))
Hence, the correct option is (C).
= [(2A - I)2]4.A = [4A2 - 4A + I]4.A 2 3
65. The characteristic equation of the matrix p = is
= [(4(2A - I) - 4A + I)2]2.A (From (1)) 1 5
= [(4A - 3I)2]2.A = (16A2 - 24A + 9I]2.A 2-l 3
|P - lI| = 0 =0
= [16(2A - I) - 24A + 9I]2.A (From (1)) 1 5-l
= (8A - 7I)2.A = [64A2 - 112A + 49I].A (2 - l) (5 - l) - 3 = 0 l2 - 7l + 7 = 0
= [64 (2A - I) - 112A + 49I]A (From (1)) By Cayley-Hamilton theorem, we have
= (16A - 15I).A = 16A2 - 15A P2 - 7P + 7I = 0  (1)
= 16(2A - I) - 15A (From (1)) Consider the matrix polynomial
= 17A - 16I. 2P9 - 14P8 + 14P7 - 3P6 + 21P5 - 22P4 - 7P3 + 11P2 + 3P
Hence, the correct option is (D). - 2I
= 2P7 (P2 - 7P + 7I) - 3P4(P2 - 7P + 7I) + 21P4 - 22P4 - 7P3
Solutions for questions 63 and 65:
+ 11P2 + 3P - 2I
As it is given that the characteristic equation of a matrix
= 2P7 0 - 3P4 0 - P4 - 7P3 + 7P2 + 4P2 + 3P - 2I
0 1 -1 (From (1))
A = 1 0 1 is l3 + l - 2 = 0 = -P2(P2 - 7P + 7I) + 4(P2 - 7P + 7I) + 28P - 28I + 3P - 2I
1 -1 0 = -P2 0 + 4 0 + 31P - 30I (From (1)) = 31P - 30I
Given B = A-1 2 3 1 0 32 93
= 31 - 30 0 1 = .
By Cayley-Hamilton, we have 1 5 31 125
A3 + A - 2I = 0  (1) Hence, the correct option is (B).
-1
63. Multiplying (1) throughout by A , we have
x 2
A-1 [A3 + A - 2I] = A-1 (0) 66. For the matrix A =
y 5
A2 + I - 2A-1 = O Sum of the eigen values = 9
1 2 i.e. Trace of A = 9 ( sum of the eigen values = Trace of A)
A-1 = [A + I]  (2)
2 x+5=9
x=4
0 1 -1 0 1 -1 0 1 1
Also, the product of the eigen values = 0
Now, A2 = A.A = 1 0 1 1 0 1 = 1 0 -1
1 -1 0 1 -1 0 -1 1 -2 i .e. Determinate of A = 0 ( product of eigen values is equal
to determinant of the matrix.)

Chapter 1 solution .indd 12 9/1/2015 3:37:31 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.13

5x - 2y = 0 5 4 - 2y = 0 y = 10. l = 0, l = 13.775 and l = -3.775


Hence, the correct option is (D). From the options one of the other eigen values of A is
67. We answer this question by considering the options. l = -3.775.

From the options, it can be easily observed that Hence, the correct option is (C).

(i) sum of the numbers in option (C) 69. Suppose k1 = -3, then the determinant of the coefficients is
zero.
1 11
=1+1+ =  (1) 1
5 5 k2 - -2 1
k2 -2 1 3 1
(ii) Product of the numbers D1= 3 -8 9 = 0 -8 9 , C1 - C3
3
1 1 -1 1 -3 0 1 -3
=11 =  (2)
5 5
Also, we know that 1
= k2 - (24-9)
(i) sum of the eigen values = Trace  (3) 3
and 1
If k2 , D1 0,
(ii) product of the eigen values 3
= Determinant  (4) 1
System has no solution if k1 = -3 and k2
3
From (1) and (3), Hence, the correct option is (C).
Sum of the numbers in option (C) = Trace and from (2)
1
and (4) 70. Let k2 = and k1 = -3
3
Product of the numbers in option (C) = Determinant In this case, D1 = 0,
1
Hence, the eigen values of the matrix are 1, 1 and . 1
5 3 1
3
Hence, the correct option is (C).
D 2 = 5 3 9 = 0, as third column is a multiple of the
68. The characteristic equation of the matrix 2 -1 -3
1 6 5 second column.

A = 1 -1 5 is |A - lI| = 0 1
2 7 10 3 -2
3
1
Again, D 3 = 5 -8 3 = 3(8 - 3) + 2(-5 - 6) + (5 + 16)
1- l 6 5 3
2 1 -1
1 -1 - l 5 =0
2 7 10 - l = 15 - 22 + 7 = 0
1
(1 - l) [(-1 -l) (10 - l) - 35] - 6[10 - l - 10] + 5[7 + 2 That is, when k1 = -3, k2 = , D = D1 = D2 = D3 = 0
3
+ 2l] = 0 System has infinite number of solutions.
-l3 + 10l2 + 52l = 0 l3 - 10l2 - 52l = 0 Hence, the correct option is (B).

Previous Years Questions -5 2


2. Given matrix is = A (say)
1 3 0 -9 6
1. Let A = 2 6 4 The characteristic equation of A is |A - lI| = 0

-1 0 2
-5 - l 2
=0
Given det of A = |A| = -12 -9 6 - l
2 6 0 1 3 0 (-5 - l) (6 - l) + 18 = 0
Consider = 4 12 8 = 2
2 6 4 = 2A
-30 + 5l - 6l + l2 + 18 = 0
-2 0 4 -1 0 2
l2 - l - 12 = 0
2 6 0 l2 - 4l + 3l -12 = 0

Det of 4 12 8 = |2A| = 23 |A| = 8 (-12) = -96. (l - 4) (l + 3) = 0
-2 0 4 l = -3, l = 4
Hence, the correct option is (A). The eigen values of A are -3 and 4

Chapter 1 solution .indd 13 9/1/2015 3:37:35 PM


2.14|Engineering Mathematics

x 3x1 + 3x2 = 0. x1 = -x2


A non-zero vector x = 1 is an eigen vector of A
x2 -k k
eigen vector = or
Corresponding an eigen value l, AX = lX k -k
From the options Normalised eigen vector is
1 k
Consider A vector given in option (D)
1 2
1 -k
Let x =
1
2
if k = 1
-5 2 1 -3 1
Now, AX = = = -3 1 = -3X 1
-9 6 1 -3
2
AX = -3X, where -3 is an eigen value of A. required vector is .
-1
Hence, the correct option is (D).
2
3. As the eigen values a and b of the 3 3 real symmetric matrix
x1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
7. The eigen values of a symmetric matrix are real numbers.
are distinct, their corresponding eigen vectors and x2 are
T
x1 y1 x
3 Hence, the correct option is (C).

orthogonal i.e. x2 y2 = 0 2 2
x y 8. Given A =
3 3 1 3
x1y1 + x2y2 + x3y3 = 0.
The characteristic equation of A is A - lI = 0
Hence, the correct option is (D).
2-l 2
4. Consider option (D) =0
1 3-l
LHS = (P + Q)2 = (P + Q) (P + Q)
= P2+ PQ + QP + Q2 2 - 5l + 4 = 0
= RHS (l - 1) (l - 4) = 0
Option (D) is correct. l = 1, 4
Hence, the correct option is (D). The eigen values of A are l = 1 and l = 4
5. real Now, if x is an eigen vector of A, then either AX = X or AX = 4X
Hence, the correct option is (C). From option (A):
5 3 2 2 2 2
6. A =
1 3
AX = = = X
1 3 -1 -1
A- lI = 0
2
5-l 3 x = is an eigen vector of A, corresponding to the
=0 -1
1 3-l
eigen value l = 1
(5 - l) ( 3 - l) - 3 = 0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
l2 - 8l + 15 - 3 = 0
l2 - 8l + 12 = 0 3 / 5 4 / 5
9. Given [M] =
l = 2, 6 x 3/ 5
5-l 3
A - lI = As [MT] = [M-1]
1 3-l 1 0
We have [M] [MT] = I =
3 3 0 1
at l = 2;
1 1
3 / 5 4 / 5 3 / 5 x 1 0
Let the eigenvector corresponding l = 2 be =
x 3 / 5 4 / 5 3 / 5 0 1
x1
x 3 x 12
2 1 +
5 25 1 0
=
3 3 x1 3 x + 12 0 1
=0 5 25 1
1 1 x2

Chapter 1 solution .indd 14 9/1/2015 3:37:41 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.15

3x 12 1 2
+ =0 12. Let A =
5 25
0 2
-4 The eigen values of A are l = 1 and l = 2
x=
5
1 1
Hence, the correct option is (A). Let X1 = and X2 =
a
b
1 2 4
1 2 1 1 + 2a
10. One eigen value of the matrix 3 0 6 is 3 Now, AX1 = = = 1. X1
0 2 a 2a
1 1 p
Let l1 and l2 be the other two eigen values of that matrix 1 + 2a 1
=
l1 + l2 + 3 = trace of the matrix 2a a
l1 + l2 + 3 = 1 + 0 + p a=0

l1 + l2 = p - 2 Similarly,
1 2 1 1
Hence, the correct option is (C). AX2 = 2X2 = 2
0 2 b
b
11. Given system of equations is
2x + 3y = 4 1 + 2b 2
= 1 + 2b = 2
x + y + z = 4 2b 2b
x + 2y - z = A  (1) 1 1 1
b= a+b= 0+ =
2 2 2
Which can be written in matrix form as
Hence, the correct option is (B).
2 3 0

Where A = 1 1 1 ; 13. If A is a real symmetric matrix, then the eigen values of A are
1 2 -1 always real.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
x 4
X = y and B = 4 s

2 1
14. Let A =
z a 0 2
l = 2 is the eigen vector of A
Consider the augmented matrix
x
2 3 0 4 Let X = 1 be an eigen vector of A corresponding to l = 2
x2
[A/B] = 1 1 1 4
AX = 2X (OR) (A - 2I) X = 0
1 2 1 a
0 1 x1 0
=
R1 R2
0 0 x2 0
1 1 1 4 x1 = 0 and x2 is arbitrary.
~ 2 3 0 4
Let x2 = K, where k is arbitrary
1 2 1 a
x 0 0
R2 R2 - 2R1 X = 1 = = K
x
2 K 1
R3 R3 - R1
0
Any eigen vector of A is a scalar multiple of
1 1 1 4 1
0 1 -2 -4

The number of linearly independent eigen vectors of A is 1
0 1 -2 a - 4 Hence, the correct option is (B).
R3 R3 - R2 3 2
15. Given that the eigen values of S = are 5 and 1
2 3
1 1 1 4
The eigen values of S2 = S. S are S2 = 25 and 12 = 1
[A/B] 0 1 -2 -4
Hence, the correct option is (A).
0 1 -2 a
16. * For a singular matrix, the determinant is zero.
The system of equations (1) has a solution, if the rank of So (P) should be matched with (3)
[A/B] = Rank of A. * For a non-square matrix, the determinant is not defined.
This happens if A = 0 Also, the eigen values are not defined.
Hence, the correct option is (B). So, (Q) can be matched with either (1) or (5)

Chapter 1 solution .indd 15 9/1/2015 3:37:45 PM


2.16|Engineering Mathematics

* For a real symmetric matrix, eigen values are always real 5 - l 0 0 0


0
So, (R) should be matched with (4) 5-l 0 0
i. e. =0
* For an arthogonal matrix, the determinant is 1 0 0 2-l 1

So, (S) may be matched with (2) 0 0 3 1- l
Hence, from the above conclusions and the options given, the 5 - l 0 0
(5 - l) 0 1 = 0
correct answer is
2-l
P - 3, Q - 1, R - 4 and S - 2 0 3 1 - l
Hence, the correct option is (A).
2 - l 1
(5 - l) (5 - l) =0
cos q - sin q 0 3 1 - l

17. Given E = sin q cos q 0 and (5 - l)2 [(2 - l) (1 - l) - 3] = 0
0 0 1
(5 - l)2 = 0; l2 - 3l - 1 = 0
1 0 0 3 13
l = 5, 5 and l =
G = 0 1 0 2

0 0 1 The eigen values of A are l = 5, l = 5,
3 3 3 3
and EF = G l= + and l = -
2 2 2 2
F = E-1
x1
cos q - sin q 0 x
E = sin q cos q 0 = 1 Now, if X = 2 is an eigen vector of A, then AX = 5 (OR)
x3
0 0 1
x4
The cofactor matrix of
3 13
cos q - sin q 0 AX = + (OR)
2 2

E = sin q cos q 0
0 0 1 3 13
AX = - X
2 2
Adjoint of E = Transpose of its cofactor matrix
From the options, the vector given in option (A)
cos q sin q 0
Adj E = - sin q 1

cos q 0 -2
0 0 1 i.e.
0
F = E-1
0
cos q sin q 0
5 1
1
= (Adj E ) = - sin q cos q 0 -10
E
0 AX = = 5 -2 = 5X
0 1 0 0

Hence, the correct option is (C). 0 0
18. Given AX = b is an inconsistent system of equations i.e. AX = 5X
Rank of [A/B] Rank of A 5
Rank of [A/B] > Rank of A -2
so is an eigen vector of the given matrix.
As A is a 3 4 matrix, the highest possible rank of the 0
augmented matrix [A/B] of order 3 5 is 3
0
Hence, the highest possible rank of A is 2.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
20. Given system of equations is
5 0 0 0 x + y = 2  (1)
0 5 0 0
19. Let A = 1.01x + 0.99y = b  (2)
0 0 2 1
(2) - 0.99 (1) 1.01x + 0.99y = b
0 0 3 1 0.99x + 0.99y = 1.98
The characteristic equation of A is |A - lI| = 0 0.02 x = b - 1.98

Chapter 1 solution .indd 16 9/1/2015 3:37:50 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.17

Taking the derivative on both sides, 8 x 0


0.02dx = db  (3) 22. Consider that the matrix 4 0 2 is singular
Where dx and db indicates the changes in x and b respectively 12 6 0
Given change in b = db = 1 unit
From (3), 0.02 dx = 1 Det of it is equal to zero
1 8 x 0
dx = = 50
0.02 4 0 2 = 0
Hence, the corresponding change in x = dx = 50 units.
12 6 0
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 1 3 8(0 - 12) - x (0 - 24) = 0
21. For the matrix 1 5 1 the sum of the eigen values = Trace 24x = 96

3 1 1 x = 4.
of the matrix = 1 + 5 + 1 = 7. Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (B).

Chapter 1 solution .indd 17 9/1/2015 3:37:51 PM


Chapter 2 Calculus
Hints/Solutions
Practice Problems 1 1 1
6. Lt = and Lt
=
Solutions for questions 1 to 105: x
x 0 189
x 189 x 0

Left limit Right limit limit does not exist.


1. Lt
( x 1)( x + 1) = 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
x 1 x+1
1x
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 x + 3x
7. Let y = xLt 2
0

3x + 9 x2 x Applying log on both sides, we get


2. Lt 3 x 9 x 2 x
x
3 x + 9 x 2 x 1
log y = Lt log (2x + 3x) - log2
x0 x
x 1 1
= Lt = = log ( 2 x + 3 x ) log 2

x
x 3+3 6 log y = Lt
x 3 + 3 1 2 x0 x
9x
Applying L hospital Rule, we get
1
as x , 0. 1
x [ 2 x log 2 + 3 x log 3] 0
Lt 2 + 3
x x
Hence, the correct option is (A). log y = x0
1
24 cos x 24 + 12 x 2 x 4 1
3. Lt
log y =
2
[log 2 + log 3] log y = log 6 l
x 0
24 x 6
We know that, y= 6
x 2 x 4 x6 Hence, the correct option is (C).
cos x = 1 - + + ____
2! 4! 6 !
8. [3 x + 4 x ]
1x
(x 1)
24 ! x x2
x 24 12 x
4
x 6 2 4 1
1 + + ____ + We know that 4 < (3 x + 4 x )
1x
< 2x . 4
24 2! 4! 6 ! 24 24 24
Lt
x 0 x6 1 Lt 1
as Lt 2 x = 1 x 2 x 4 = 4
x x
2
x6 4
x x 2 4 x

1 2 + 24 6 ! + ____ 1 + 2 24 Lt 1
Lt x (3 x + 4 x ) x = 4 (by known theorem)
x 0 x6
1 - x6 x8 -1 -1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
= Lt + + ____ = =
x 0 x 6 6 ! 8!
6 ! 720 9. Lt |x - 2| + [x - 2]
x 2
24 cos x - 24 + 12 x 2 - x 4 -1
Lt = = Lt - (x - 2) + (- 1) = - 1
x 0 24 x 6 720 x 2

Hence, the correct option is (D). Lt |x - 2| + [ x - 2] = Lt + (x - 2) + 0 = 0


+

1 x 2 x2

L.H.L R.H.L
x
n n n
1
x 1
4. ( y n + x n ) n = y 1 + as < 1 & lim 1 + = e limit does not exists.
y y n n

n
Hence, the correct option is (D).
x 1

y
n
y n 10. Statement II is false
n x

For example, consider the problem lim (sec x tan x )
= y 1 + x
p
y x
2
1 sin x cos x
= lim = lim =0
xn 1 1 x x
p cos x x sin x
p

y eo as n As < , as <1 2 2

y n n y However, lim secx and lim tanx do not exist.


p p
x x
x n 1 2 2
Hence, as n , lim = 0 = y. Consider Statement I,
y n
sin x - e x + 1 cos x - e x
Hence, the correct option is (C). Lt = Lt =0

x 0 x x 0 1
5. Lt (x [x]) = 2.7 [2.7] = 2.7 2 = 0.7. True
x2.7

Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hints and Sol.indd 18 9/1/2015 5:58:54 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.19

11. Statement II is true 17. Lt f(x) = 7; Lt f(x) = Lt ax + b = 5a + b = 7 (1)


x 5 x 5 + x 5 +
1 5 + 3 , 1< x < 2
3 , x=2 Lt f(x) = 7a + b and Lt+ f ( x ) = 11
1, 1< x < 2 x7 x 7
f ( x ) = 4 10 + 3 , 2< x<3 =
3 , 3 , 2 x4 7a + b = 11 (2)
x=3
Solving (1) and (2) we get a = 2 and b = 3
9 15 + 3 ,
3< x<4
Hence, the correct option is (D).
f(x) is continuous at x = 3 18. For continuity of f(x) at x = 0,
Statement I is false
lim f ( x ) = f (0 ) = l
x 0
Hence, the correct option is (C).
cos 3 x 1 0
12. Statement II is true lim form
x 0 5 x 2 + 11 1 0
Consider Statement I
-3 sin 3 x
As |cosx| 1 lim , by L Hospitals rule
x 0 1
cos x 1 10 x

2
5 x2 + 1
x x
3 sin 3 x
= lim - 5 x 2 + 1 lim
1 cos x x 0 5 x 0 x
As x , 0 lim =0
x x x
3 sin 3 x 3 9
= - lim 3 = - 1 3 = -
Statement I is true 5 x 0 3 x 5 5
Hence, the correct option is (B). 9
13. We know that f(x) = [x] is continuous at all real numbers and l=-
5
discontinuous on all integers.
Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
14. f(1) = 5 - 4 = 1 19. f(x) is continuous in [0, 6] In particular, it is continuous at
x = 3, 4 (points of subdivision)
lim f ( x ) = lim f (1 + h)
x 1+ h0 At x = 3 we have,
= lim 4 (1 + h) - (1 + h) = 1
2 ap

h0
L.H.L. = lim f ( x ) = lim a cot 1 ( x 3) =
x 3 x3 2
lim f ( x ) = lim f (1 h)
1 cp
R.H.L. = lim f ( x ) = lim c tan 1
x 1 h0
=
x 3
= lim 5 (1 h) 4 = 1 2
x 3 x 3


h0
f (3) = 3b
lim f (1) = f (1) ap cp
x 1 As f is continuous at x = 3 = = 3b
2 2
f(x) is continuous at x = 1 6b
Hence, the correct option is (C). a = c = (1)
p 
15. sin x is continuous. At x = 4
x, x2 + 2 being polynomial functions are also c ontinuous, also 1 cp
L.H.L. = lim f ( x ) = lim c tan 1 =
x2 + 2 0 x4
x4 x 3 4
Hence, the function is continuous for all x.
R.H.L. = lim f ( x ) = lim cos1 (4 3) = ap
Hence, the correct option is (A). x 4+ x4

16. f(0) = a2 p
= + ap = f (4 )
2
sin2 ax
lim f ( x ) = lim f is continuous at x = 4
x 0 x 0 x2
cp p p
sin2 ax 2 = + ap = + cp (2) using (1)
= lim .a 4 2 2
x 0 a 2 x 2
-2 -p
2 c= =a b= (using (1))
sin2 ax 2 3 9
= lim .a = 1 a 2 = a 2
x 0 ax -2 -p
a=c= & b=
f(x) is continuous at x = 0 3 9
Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hints and Sol.indd 19 9/1/2015 5:59:00 PM


2.20|Engineering Mathematics

20. \ sin x - x is differentiable at x = 0


y
f(x) cos x = cos x is differentiable at x = 0
(2, 3)
x is not differentiable at x = 0

\cos x x is not differentiable at x = 0

x sin |x| -|x| is differentiable at x = 0
y = x 21 o
1
OR
1
sin x x , x < 0
We can rewrite f(x) as (a) f(x) =
sin x + x , x0
x 2 1, x < 2
sin x + x , x < 0
3 , x = 2 (b) f(x) =
sin x x , x0
f ( x ) = 1 x , 2 < x < 1
0, x = 1 cos x x , x < 0
(c) f(x) =
x 2 1 , x > 1 cos x + x , x 0
cos x + x , x < 0
(d) f(x) =
From the graph, it is clear that f(x) is continuous everywhere cos x x , x 0
but not differentiable at
All the functions in (a), (b), (c), (d) are continuous at x= 0.
x = -2, 1 OR Continuity:
Let us check the differentiability of these functions at x= 0
f(x) is continuous in everywhere except perhaps at
In the case of (a), f (0 ) = f (0 + ) = 0 = 2
x = -2, 1
In the case of (b), f (0 ) = f (0 + ) = 0
At x = -2, lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 2 1) = 3 = f ( 2 )
x2 x 2 In the case of (c), f (0 ) = 1, f (0 + ) = 1
lim f ( x ) = lim (1 x ) = 3 In the case of (d), f (0 ) = 1, f (0 + ) = 1
x 2+ x 2
Only, the function in (B) is differentiable at x = 0
As lim f ( x ) = lim+ f ( x ) = 0 = f ( 2 ) , f(x) is continuous at
x 2 x 2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
x = -2.
22. (P) As f(1) and f(3) are not defined.
At x = +1, lim f ( x ) = 0 = f (1) = lim f ( x )
x +1 x +2 + f is not continuous on [1, 3]
f(x) is continuous x = 1 also. P is false
f(x) is continuous everywhere (Q) But f is differentiable on (1, 3)
Differentiability: -1 1
As f (x) = + exists in (1, 3)
2 x , x < 2

( x - 1) 2
(3 - x ) 2

Now, f I(x) = 1, 2 < x < +1 Q is true


2x, x > 1
(R) When c = 2, f 1(2) = 0 there exists c (1, 3),
At x = -2, f (-2 ) = - 4 f (-2 )(= -1)
I - I + (c = 2) such that f 1(c) = 0 R is true
Hence, the correct option is (B).
f I does not exist at x = -2 5

f(x) is not differentiable at x = -2 23. 5th root function of f(x) = x3 is u = x 3


At x = +1, f I (1-) = -1 f I(1+) (= 2) 3 53 1 3
u = x = 5
f(x) is not differentiable at x = 1 5 5 x2
f(x) is differentiable everywhere except at x = -2, 1. Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
24. f (x + y) = f(x) . f(y)
21. x = x , x > 0 and = -x, x < 0
Put y = 0, f(x) = f(x) f(0) f(0) = 1
sin x + x = sin x + x, x 0 and = - sin x - x, x < 0
f ( x + h) f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( h) f ( x )
R H Derivative = 2 at x = 0 f (x) = lim = lim
h0 h h0 h
L H Derivative = -2 at x = 0
f ( h) 1 f ( h) f (0 )

sin x + x is not differentiable at x = 0 = f ( x ) lim = f ( x ) lim
h0 h h0 h
sin x x = sin x x , x > 0 = -sin x + x, x < 0
f ( x ) f (0 ) = 2 f ( x )
R H Derivative = 0 at x = 0
L H Derivative = 0 at x = 0 Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hints and Sol.indd 20 9/1/2015 5:59:04 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.21

25. Given f(x) = x (1 - x cot x) - 1 in 0 , p , we have and 0 cos2x 1



x 2 max. 4, min. 3
1 Hence, the correct option is (D).
f (x) = 1 + x2 cosec2 x - 2x cot x + 2
x
28. f (x) = 6x2 - 18ax + 12a2
1
= (x cosec x - cos x) + sin x + 2 > 0 x 0, p
2 2
when f (x) = 0, x2 - 3ax + 2a2 = 0.
x
2
That is, (x - 2a) (x - a) = 0.
f(x) has no extrema in 0 , p
That is, x = 2a, a
2
Hence, the correct option is (C). f (x) = 12x - 18a
26. Given y = x 2 f (x) > 0 at x = 2a q = 2a
The graphs of each of the options are given below. f (a) < 0, at x = a p=a
As x is always positive for all non-zero real numbers and it is
2 Now, p = q 2
a = 2a a = 2.
2

0 when x = 0 Hence, the correct option is (A).


y = x has a minimum value which is equal to 0. 29.
Choice A: y = x2 C

y a-x

A x B

x
Let the side (AB) of the given triangle be x units.
O
Then, the hypotenuse (BC) is a x units.
has minimum at x = 0, Choice B: y = |x 3| y = |x 3| as |x 3| The third side of the triangle AC = ( a x )2 x 2
is always positive it is 0 when x = 3
The minimum of y is exist at x = 3 1 1
The area of the triangle = AB AC = . a 2 2 ax
2 2
y ds 1 1
= (2xa2 2a.3x2)
dx 2 2 a x 2 ax 3
2 2

ds
For the area to be maximum = 0 2xa2 2a.3x2 = 0
dx
a 3x = 0 a = 3x or x = a 3 AB = a 3 units
x
O (3, 0) a a 2a
When x = and hypotenuse (BC) = a x = a =
Choice C: 3 3 3
a 2a
1 The required ratio AB:BC = : = 1:2
y = , as 1 + x2 is greater than 1 for x R 3 3
1 + x2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 30. The angle between AB and BC i.e., B is obtained from
< 1 for all x R
1 + x2 AB 1
cos B = = B = 60
maximum value of y is 1. BC 2
When B = 60 then C = 30
y
Hence, the correct option is (B).
(0, 1) 31. Consider f(x) = |x2 3| in 0 , 6

3 x2 , 0 x 3
x =
O
x 2 3, 3<x 6
1 As f is modulus function, it is continuous at all points but f is
y = has maximum at x = 0
1 + x2 not differentiable at x = 3
Hence, the correct option is (D). So, Rolles theorem is not applicable to f(x) in [0, 6]

27. f(x) = 3 sin2 x + 4 cos2 x 3x , 0 x 1


Now, g ( x ) =
= 3 + cos2 x 4 - x, 1 < x 3

Hints and Sol.indd 21 9/1/2015 5:59:09 PM


2.22|Engineering Mathematics

log 3 3 x , 0 < x < 1 k 4 x 2 y 2 2 k 4 y 2 z 2 + 5 k 4 x 2 z 2 3k 4 xyz 2


g ( x ) = g(1-) = 3 log 3 g(1+) f(xk, yk, zk) =
1, 1< x < 3 k 4 x 4 + k 4 y 2 z 2 + k 4 xyz 2
g(x) is not differentiable at x = 1. k 4 f ( x , y ,z)
= = k2f(x, y, z)
Rolles theorem cannot be applied to g(x) k2
Hence, the correct option is (D). f(x, y, z) is a homogeneous function of order 2.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
f (1) f (0 )
32. f (C) = f (x) = 2px + 2qx + r 6
10 4 x + 4 y
\ 2pc + 2qc + r = p + q + r 38. Given, u =
6 x + 4 y
p+q 1
\c= = . Put x = xk and y = yk
2 ( p + q) 2
6
(For a quadratic, c is midpoint of the interval) k1 4 4 x + k1 4 4 y (1 4 - 1 6 )6 . u
u = =k
k1 6 x + k1 6 6 y
6
Hence, the correct option is (A).
33. By Mean Value theorem = k 1 126 .u
1
f(a + h) = f(a) + hf(a + hq), 0 < q < 1, b = a + h, u is homogeneous function of order
here a = 1, b = 2 h = 1 2
By Eulers theorem for homogeneous functions
f(x) = 2x3 5x + 3 f (x) = 6x2 5, f(1) = 0 and f(2) = 9
u u 1 u
By Mean Value theorem, there exists q (0 < q < 1) such that x. +y = u=
x y 2 2
f ( 2 ) f (1)
= f 1(1 + q), (h = 1) Hence, the correct option is (A).
21
9
or = 6(1 + q)2 5 or
14
= (1 + q)2 q =
7
1 (
39. Given, u = log x + x 2 + y 4 )
1 6 3
Hence, the correct option is (C). eu = x + x2 + y2  (1)

x2 u 1 y
34. Given, f(x) = eu = . 2y = and
x+1 y 2
x +y
2 2
x + y2
2

f I(x) =
( x + 1) 2 x - x 2 (1) = x ( x + 2) .
u
=
1
. 1 +

1
2 x
( x + 1)2 ( x + 1)2 x x+ x + y
2 2
2
x +y2
2

Clearly f I(x) > 0 If x(x + 2) > 0 1 u u y y


= eu -y = - =0
x [- 2, 0] x2 + y2 y x x2 + y2 x2 + y2
f(x) increases in (-, -2) U (0, ) Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (D). 5 5 5
x2 + y2 + z2
35. By Cauchys Mean Value theorem 40. Given u = 1 1 1
is a homogeneous function of
f (b) f ( a) x2 + y2 + z2
=
f 1
(c )
e e
aq ap
=
a.e ac

5 1
g (b) g ( a) g 1 (c ) e aq e ap a.e ac order(k) = - = 2
2 2
e aq e ap u u u
= e 2 ac ea(p + q) = e2ac 2ac = a(p + q) By Eulers theorem x +y +z = ku = 2 tanf
1 1 x y z

ed eq e ap Hence, the correct option is (A).
p+q u f
c = 41. In the above problem, given u = tanf = sec2f
2 x x
Hence, the correct option is (B).
u f u f
Similarly = sec2f and = sec2f
36. Given x = cos(z + y2) z = cos-1 x - y2 y y z z
Differentiating partially with respect to y Substituting these values in the result of the above we have
z f f f
= -2y ( x is constant) x sec2f + ysec2f + zsec2f = 2tanf
y x y z

Hence, the correct option is (D). f f f 2 tan f
x +y +z = = sin2f
x y 2 y z + x z 3 xyz
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
x y z sec 2 f
37. Given f(x, y, z) =
x 4 + y 2 z 2 + xy 2 z Hence, the correct option is (D).

Hints and Sol.indd 22 9/1/2015 5:59:17 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.23

42. Given f(x,y) = x3 + y4 - 27x + 32y + 100 At (0, 0), (3, 0), and (0, 3) it can be easily observed that rt - s2 < 0
fx(x, y) = 3x 27 and fy(x, y) = 4y + 32
2 3 and hence they are saddle poins
for stationary points fx = 0 and fy = 0 3x2 27 = 0 At (1, 1), rt - s2 = 4 - 1 = 3 > 0, and r = -2 1 = -2 < 0
x = 3 and 4y3 + 32 = 0 y = 2 f has a local maximum at (1, 1)
Stationary points are (3, 2), (3, 2) And from (3), z = 3 - x - y = 3 - 1 - 1 = 1
Hence, the correct option is (D). The point where f has a local maximum is (1, 1, 1).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
43. Given f(x, y) = 2x2 + 4y2 + 4xy + 2x + 10y + 7
45. Let x, y and z be the length, width and height of the rectangu-
f f
Fx = = 4x + 4y + 2 and fy = = 8y + 4x + 10 lar box, open at the top.
x y
The volume of the box = xyz = 64 (Given)
Fx = 0 4x + 4y + 2 = 0 2x + 2y = -1  (1) and
The material required for the construction of that box =
Fy = 8y + 4x + 10 = 0 2x + 4y = -5  (2) surface area of that box
3
Solving (1) and (2), we get y = - 2 and x = = xy + 2yz + 2zx
2
3 Let f(x, y, z) = xy + 2yz + 2zx  (1)
The stationary point of f(x, y) is 2
2 64
As xyz = 64 z =  (2)
2 f 2 f f 2 xy
Now, r = fxx = = 4, s = fxy = = 4 and t = =8 From (1) and (2)
x 2
x y y 2
rt - s2 = 32 - 16 = 16 = 0 and r = 4 > 0 128 128
f = xy + +  (3)
x y
3
f(x, y) has a local minimum at 2 . 128 128
2 fx = y - 2 and fy = x - 2
Hence, the correct option is (B). x y
128
44. Let f = x y z  (1) fx = 0 y - 2 = 0 x2y = 128  (4)
x
Where x + y + z = 3  (2)
128
z=3-x-y (3) and fy = x x - 2
y
(1) becomes 128
fx = 0 y = 2 = 0 xy2 = 128  (5)
f = xy (3 - x - y) = 3xy - x2y - xy2 y
fx = 3y - 2xy - y2 and fy = 3x - x2 - 2xy from (4) and (5), we have x2y = xy2
Now, fx = 0 3y - 2xy - y = 0 y(3 - 2x - y) = 0
2
xy (x - y) = 0 x - y = 0 (xy 0) x = y
y = 0, or 2x + y = 3  (4) 1 1
From (4), x3 - 128 x = 4 ( 2 ) , y = 4 ( 2 )
And fy = 0 3x - x2 - 2xy = 0 x(3 - x - 2y) = 0 3 3
x = 0, or x + 2y = 3  (5) (
The stationary point is 4 3 2 , 44 3 2 )
If y = 0, then from (5), x 2 0 = 3 x = 3 256 256
(3, 0) is a stationary point r = fxx = , s = fxy = 1 and t = fyy = 3
x3 y
If x = 0, then from (4) 256 256
And rt = (1)2
2 0 + y = 3 y = 3 x3 y3

(0, 3) is a stationary point
And from (4) and (5),
(
At 4 3 2 ,4 3 2 )
rt - s2 = 4 - 1 = 3 > 0 and r > 0
2x + y = 3, x + 2y = 3
f has a minimum value at x = 4 3 2 and y = 4 3 2
Solving these two equations, we have
From (2), z = 2 3 2
x = 1 and y = 1
The ratio of the dimensions of that box is
(1, 1) is a stationary point
= x : y : z = 4 3 2 : 4 3 2 : 2 3 2 = 2 : 2 : 1.
The stationary points of f are
Hence, the correct option is (A).
(0, 0), (3, 0), (0, 3) and (1, 1)
46. Among the options given, the step function is the only func-
2 f 2 f tion which is discontinuous but integrable 10
Now r = fxx = = -2y; s = fxy = = 3 - 2x - 2y
x 2
x y
[x] dx = 10 11/2 = 55
2 f
and t = fyy = = -2x Hence, the correct option is (A).
y 2
1 2n
rt - s2 = (-2y) (-2x) - (3 - 2x - 2y)2 47.
n
(e + e 4 n + + e 2 n n )
= 4xy - (3 - 2x - 2y)2

Hints and Sol.indd 23 9/1/2015 5:59:22 PM


2.24|Engineering Mathematics

1 n 2r n
1 The area bounded by the curve y2 = x and x = 3 is the plane
e = e 2 x dx
n r =1
region OAB as shown in the figure
0
(Using the theorem of integral as the limit of a sum) Area of OAB = Area of OBC (=R1) + Area of OAC (=R2)  (1)
1 2x In OBC, y2 = x (or) y = x
Let f (x) = e2x for all x [0,1] and g (x) = e x [0,1] 3 3
2 2 23
f (x) is continuous on [0,1], and hence integrable g(x) is deriv- Area of OBC = xdx =
3
x =2 3
0
able on [ 0,1] and g1(x) = f(x) x =0

1
1 2 1 1 2 Also the regions R1 and R2 have same area
e 2 x dx = g (1) g (0 ) = e = (e 1)
2 2 2 Area of OAC = 2 3
0

Hence, the correct option is (C). Hence, Area of OAB = 4 3 sq units.


n n
Hence, the correct option is (B).
n 1 1
48. Lt n 2 2
= Lt
+ r n r = 1 n 2
52. Y
n
r =1 r
1
n
x=2
1
1 p
= dx = [tan 1 x ]0 = .
1

0
1 + x 2
4
Hence, the correct option is (A).
C
X
O
49. We know that A
sec n 2 x tan x n 2 y = 3x 2
sec n xdx = + + sec n - 2 x dx
n1 n1
put n = 3 B
sec n 2 x tan x 1
sec n xdx = + sec x dx
n1 2
sec x tan x 1 The area bounded by the curve y = -3x2, the line x = 2 and x
= + log(sec x + tan x)
2 2 and y axes is the region OBC as shown in the figure
sec x tan x 1 p x As y = -3x2 0, for 0 x 2, we have
= + log tan +
2 2 4 2 2 2

Hence, the correct option is (C).


Area A = ( 3 x 2 ) dx = 3 x 2 dx
x =0 0

p 2 = [x ]
3 2
0
= 8 sq units.
50.
0
sinm x cos n xdx Hence, the correct option is (D).
m-1 m-3 1 n-1 n-3 1 p 53. We have to find the volume V of the solid obtained by revolv-
= ........ ..... ing the ABC as shown in the figure about x - axis
m+1 m+n-2 n+2 n n-2 2 2
7
here m = 4 and n = 6 then
p 2
Volume = V =
x=4
py dx 2

3 1 5 3 1 p 15p
sin 4
x cos6 xdx = = 7 7
0
10 8 6 4 2 2 2560 =
x=4
p ( x 4 ) dx = p ( x 4 ) dx
x=4
3p
= 7
512 x 92
= p 4 x = p cubic units.
2 4 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
51.
C
Y
y2 = x
(
B 3, 3 ) Y

R1
O A B X

O C X
R2 y 2= x - 4
x=4
x=7
( )
3,- 3 A x = 3
Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hints and Sol.indd 24 9/1/2015 5:59:29 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.25

54. Given curve is y = loge (cosx) = n (cos x) 1


1
dy 1
58. x 25
dx
= (- sin x) = - tan x -1
dx cos x
This is a second kind improper integral
p
The length of the curve y = n (cos x) from x = 0 to x = is 1 a 1
4 1 1 1

x dx = Lt x dx + Lt x dx
dy
p 4 2 25 a0 25 a0 25
-1 1 -1

x =0
1 + dx
dx a 1
5 3 5 5 5 5
Lt x + Lt x 3 5 +
p a0 3 1 a0 3 a 3 3
(1 + ( tan x) ) dx =
p x 4
=
2
(1 + tan x ) dx
2
10
0 0 = 2 (5 3) =
3
p
4 p Hence, the correct option is (B).
= sec xdx = loge [ sec x + tan x ]04
1

0
59. I. dx
= loge 1 + 2 . ( )
0 x4 + 1
1
Hence, the correct option is (A). As x
0
2
dx is convergent,

1 1
55. x
1
1.0001
dx
0 x +14
dx is also convergent by comparison test

It is convergent as p > 1 dx

1
b
1
0 4 x 5 + 1
II. x p
dx is convergent when p > 1
x
0
Lt 1.0001
dx
b
1 dx
x -0.0001
b
x 5
+1

is also convergent by comparison test.
4
= Lt = Lt - b-+ 0.0001 0
b -0.0001 10000 Both are convergent.
1 b

= 0 + 10000 = 10000 Hence, the correct option is (C).


Hence, the correct option is (C).
4x + 7
3
60. x
3
6
+ 10
dx
1
56. ( x 2) dx
1
x
45
0 we know that p
is convergent when p > 1
1
a 3
1 1 4x 4
= Lt
a2 ( x 2) 45
dx + Lt
a2 ( x 2) 45
dx Consider = is convergent
0 a x6 x5
(It is an improper Integral of second kind) 5 > 1( p > 1)
a 3 4x + 7 4
= Lt 5 ( x 2 ) + Lt 5 ( x 2 ) \ < 6
15 15

a2 0 a2 a x + 10 x
6

= 5(0) - 5(- 2 )1/5 + 5 = 5 + 5.21/5 4 4x + 7


As is convergent, by comparison test 6 is also
x6 x + 10

Hence, the correct option is (D). convergent.
0
1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
57. (1 4 x ) 2
dx
- Solutions for questions 61 and 62:
0 0
1 1
= (1 4 x )
-
2
dx = Lt
a (1 4 x )
a
2
dx 61. e
0
- qx
dx
b
e qx
b b
0 Lt e qx dx = Lt
1 1 1 1 1 b b q 0
= Lt + = Lt 0 0
a 4 (1 4 x ) a a 4 1 4 (0 ) 1 4 a
e qb 1
= Lt +
1 1 b q q
= [1 - 0] =
4 4 e qb
If q > 0, then Lt = 0 and the above integral is finite. if
Hence, the correct option is (C). b q
q < 0 then

Hints and Sol.indd 25 9/1/2015 5:59:41 PM


2.26|Engineering Mathematics

e qb dydx 2 e2
Lt = The above integral is infinite. We have to evaluate
b q my 2
0 ex

The given integral is converges only when q > 0. Here, first we have to integrate w.r.t from y = ex to y = e2 along
the vertical strip from P to Q, and then we have to integrate
Hence, the correct option is (B).
w.r.t x from x = 0 to x = 2
1
62. The integral value = . Evaluation of this double integral can be made simple by
q changing the order of integration.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Then, we integrate w.r.t x from x = 0 to x = my among the
p 4 p 4
horizontal strip P Q from P to Q and then we integrate w.r.t
63. (3 cosq + 4 sinq ) dq df Y from y = 1 to y = e2
0 0 2 e2
dydx
e2
iny 1
p 4
0 0 iny 2 = dx dy

(3 cosq + 4 sinq )
q =p 4
= df y =1 x = 0
iny 2

q =0
0 x = iny
e2
x e2
iny - 0
iny
p 4
3 4 1 p 4 4 2 1 p = 2
dy = dy
+ 4 df = 4
[f ] = . x =0 iny 2
2
y =1 y =1
0 2 2 2 4
e2 e2 e2
4 2 1 iny 1 1
= p
= y =1 2iny dy = 2 1 dy = 2 1
4 2
 1 2
Hence, the correct option is (B). =( e - 1) .
2
p
1 1
q
p
1 1
p Hence, the correct option is (B).
x y dy dx = x [log y ] dx = dx (log q log 2 )
y=q
64. y=2
2 x x-2
1 1 1
68. Given integral is f ( x, y ) dxdy
p q x=2 y=
= log [log x ]1 = log log p
p

2 2 From the limits of x and y the region of integration is as


shown in the figure
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Y

1 1- x 2 1 1- x 2

65.
dy dx = sin -1 y
dx
0

0 (1 - x 2 ) - y 0 1 - x 2 0 a

1
1 - x2 p1 p
= sin -1 dx = dx =
1 - x2 2 2
0 0
 (2,0)
Hence, the correct option is (C). (0,-2) P X

log t
x x+ y log t log t

e dy dx = e e y = 0 dx = e ( e - 1) dx
y=x
66. x y x x

0 0 0 0
x-y = 2
log t log t
e2 x 1 1
=
0
(e - e )dx =
2x x

2
- e x = e 2 log t - e log t - + 1
0 2 2
By changing the order of integration, we first integrate w.r.t
t2 1 x along the horizontal strip from x = y + 2 to x = , then we
= -t +
2 2 integrate w.r.t y from y = 0 to y =
Hence, the correct option is (A). x-2
f ( x, y ) dxdy = f ( x, y ) dxdy.
67. Y 2 0 y =0 x = y +2

Hence, the correct option is (B).


C y = e2 Q B
69. Given x = eu+J and y = u J
(2, e 2)
By changing the variables from x, y to u, J, the given double
Q integral becomes
P1
y = ex dxdy 1 1

R
= dxdy = u +J
xy R xy R (
e ) uJ
J duu J (1)

P x x
A J ( x + y ) u J e u +J e u +J
Where J = = =
X J ( u, J ) y y J u
u J

Hints and Sol.indd 26 9/1/2015 5:59:47 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.27

J = (u - J) eu +J 72. The area bounded by the circle x2 + y2 = 6 and the parabola


(1) becomes y = x2 is the region as shown in the figure.
In this region, y varies from Y = x to y = 6 x 2 and
dxdy 1 u J x varies from x = - 2 to x = 2
= u +J ( u - J ) eu +J dud J = dudJ
R
xy R ( e ) uJ R
uJ Y

1 1
i.e. f ( u,J ) dudJ = J - u dudJ
R R Q Y = x2
1 1
f ( u, J ) = -
J u A 2,2
B 2,3
Hence, the correct option is (D).
P
70. Given x = u + 2J and y = 4u + 3J O X

x x
( x + y) u J 1 2
x 2 + y 2x = 6
J= = = = -5
( u,J ) y y 4 3
u J
By changing the variables from x and y to u and J, the
2 6 - x2
given integral becomes The required area =
dydx
f ( x, y ) dxdy = f ( u + 2J , 4u + 3J ) J dudJ x=- 2 x= x
R R
Hence, the correct option is (B).
= f ( u + 2J, 4u + 3J ) 5 dudJ 73. The volume of the region under the plane 12x + 4y - 32 = 0
R
and above the region bounded by x = 1, x = 3, y = x2 and
i.e. f ( u + 2J , 4u + 3J )Y ( u,J ) dudJ
R y = 4x2 is given by
= f ( u + 2J , 4u + 3J ) = dudJ
3 4 x2
1
R V= (12 x + 4 y ) dydx
x =1 y = x 2 3
y (u, J) = 5.
1 3 4x 2

Hence, the correct option is (A). = 12 x 2 + 2 y 2 y = x dx


3 x =1
2

71. Given integral is f ( x, y, z ) dxdydz 1 3


R = ( 36 x 2 + 30 x 4 ) dx
3 x =1
In cylindrical coordinates, we have 1 3 1
x = p cos f, y = P sin f and z = 2 = 9 x 4 + 6 x 5 1 = [9 80 + 6 242]
3 3
x x x = 724 cubic units.
p f z Hence, the correct option is (C).
cos f p sin f 0
( x , y , z ) y y y
J= = = sin f p cos f 0 Y
( p, f, z) p f z 74.
0 0 1
z z z C
(2, 2)
p p z P Q
y=1
= (cos f) (p cos f) + p sin f .sin f
A (1, 1) B (3, 1)

= p cos2f + p sin2f XX
The given integral in cylindrical coordinates becomes
f ( x, y, z ) dxdydz
R y=x
x+y=4
= f ( p cos f, p sin f , z ) J dpdfdz
R

( x ( p, f, z ) , y ( p, fz ) , z ( p, fz ) ,Y ( p, f, z ) dpdfdz We have to find the volume of the solid generated by the revo-
R lution of the triangle ABC about x - axis
= f ( p cos i , p sin fz ) pdpdfdz In triangle ABC, x varies from x = y to x = 4 - y and
R
y = varies from y = 1 to y = 2
y (p, f, z) = p.
Volume of the solid V = 2p ydxdy
Hence, the correct option is (A). ABC

Hints and Sol.indd 27 9/1/2015 5:59:52 PM


2.28|Engineering Mathematics

2 4- y 2
a = 482 ( sin 2 4t + cos 2 4t ) = 48
[ xy ]
4 y
= 2 (pydx ) dy = 2p x= y
dy 

y =1 x = y y =1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
2 2
= 2p [ 4 - y - y ] ydy = 2p ( 4 y - 2 y 2 ) dy df
y =1 y =1 78. f = 0 f is a vector function of constant direction.
2 dt
2 2
= 2p 2 y 2 - y 3 = 2p 2 ( 4 - 1) - (8 - 1) Hence, the correct option is (C).
3 y =1 3
79. rn
8
= p cubic units. = i /x (rn) = i nrn-1 r/x
3
Hence, the correct option is (D). = i n rn-1 x/r = nrn-2 x i = nrn-2 r
Hence, the correct option is (C).
75. For the solid V, formed by the planes
Solutions for questions 80 and 81:
X = 0, y = 0, z = 0 and x + y + z = 4
Given surfaces f = xy2z - 2y + z2 and g = x2 + yz - x - 2
Z varies from z = 0 to z = 4 - x - y,
Y varies from y = 0 to y = 4 - x and x varies from x = 0 to x = 4
grad f = i + j + k f
x y z
Volume of the solid bounded by the planes
X = 0, y = 0, z = 0 and x + y + z = 4 is = y2z i + (2xyz - 2) j + (xy2 + 2z) k
4 4- x 4- x- y
dxdydz = dzdydx grad g = i + j + k g = (2x -1) i + z j + y k
V x =0 y =0 z =0 x y z
4
4- x 4- x- y Let n be the normal vector to surface f at P (1, -1, 2),
= [ x ]z = 0 dy dx i.e. n1 = (grad f )P n1 = 2i - 6j + 5k

x =0 y =0

Let n2 be the normal vector to surface g at P (1, -1, 2),
4
4- x
= ( 4 - x - y ) dx dx i.e. n2 = (grad g)P

x =0 y =0

n2 = i + 2j - k
4- x
4
y2 80. The normal vector to the surface g is n2 = i + 2j - k
= 4 y - xy - dx
x =0 2 y =0 Hence, the correct option is (B).
81. The acute angle q between the two surfaces is the angle
4
( 4 - x ) dx
2

= 4 ( 4 - x ) - x ( 4 - x ) - between the normals n1 and n2


x =0 2
n1n2 2i - 6 j + 5k ). ( i + 2 j - k )
i.e. cos q = =
1 4 1 4 x2 n1 . n2 22 + 6 2 + 52 12 + 22 + 12
= 16 + 8x + x 2 dx = - 8 x + 16 dx
2 0 2 0 3
4 2 - 12 - 5 15
1 x2 1 64 = =
= - 4 x 2 + 16 x = - 64 + 64 390
2 3 0 2 3
65. 6
15
32 q = cos-1 .
=
cubic units. 390
3
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (A).
82. Given f = x3 y + y3 z + z3 x grad f = f = i (3x2 y+ z3) + j (x3 +
a.b
76. cos q = , Here, a = 3i + j + 2k and b = i - j + k 3y2 z) + k (y3 + 3z2 x) grad f at (0, 1, -1) is (-I -3j + k ) unit
a b
i + 2 j + 2k
vector ( u ) along i + 2 j + 2 k is
3 -1+ 2 4 8 3
cos q = = =
9 +1+ 4 1+1+1 14 3 21
directional derivative is f. u =
( i - 3 j + k ) ( i - 2 j + 2k )
Hence, the correct option is (D).
3
-5
77. r = 3 sin 4ti + 3 cos 4t j + 5t k = .
3
dr Hence, the correct option is (D).
velocity V = = 12 cos 4ti - 12 sin 4tj + 5 k
dt
83. The magnitude of directional derivative is maximum in the
V = 144 ( cos 2 4t + sin 2 4t ) + 25 = 13 direction of f

dv
Acceleration a = = - 48 sin 4ti - 48 cos 4tj = i + j + k (2xy2 - xyz + y2 z)
dt x y z
= -48 (sin 4ti+ cos 4tj) = i (2y - yz) + j (4xy - xz + 2yz ) + k (- xy + y2)
2

Hints and Sol.indd 28 9/1/2015 6:00:01 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.29

f (1, -1, 1) = 3i - 7j + 2k, = i (- a1 - a1) - j (a2 + a2) - k (a3 + a3)


f = 9 + 49 + 4 = 62 . = - 2 (a1 i + a2 j + a3 k) = - 2 a  (3)

Hence, the correct option is (C). from (1), (2), (3) all the options are true.
Hence, the correct option is (D).
84. The directional derivative (D.D) of f is grad f
i i j k

= + j + k (ax3 + by3 + cz3)
x y z 89. Curl F = = -i + j - k

x y z
= 3ax2 i + 3by2 j + 3cz2 k x +1+ y 1 x+ y
(grad f )(1, -1, 1) = 3ai + 3bj + 3ck, as D.D is maximum in the
direction parallel to y - axis F curl F = -(x + y + 1) + 1 + (x + y) = 0
coefficients of i and k are each zero a = 0, c = 0 Hence, the correct option is (A).
The maximum value of D.D. = grad f = 3 90. Divergence of curl = 0
3b = 3 b = 1 a = 0, b = 1, c = 0 Hence, the correct option is (D).
Hence, the correct option is (A).
91. If f is solenoidal, then div f = 0
85. The directional derivative of a scalar point function is a func-
tion of both position and direction. i.e. . f = 0
Hence, the correct option is (D). f1 f 2 f 3
+ +
f1 f 2 f 3 x y z
86. div r = .r = + + =2-1+3=4
x y z

= (2x + 3y) + (z + 2y) + (x - pz) = 0
i j k x y z
2+2-p=0p=4
Curl r = r =
x y z Hence, the correct option is (A).
2x - y 3z
92. If f is irrational then curl f = 0
= i (0) j (0) + k (0) = 0 .
Hence, the correct option is (D). i j k

87. The required condition is curl F = 0.
x y z
Hence, the correct option is (D).
x + ry z 3x y + qz px + y z
88. Let r = x i + y j1+ z k , and
(1 - q) i - j (p + 1) + k (3 - r) = 0
i j k 1 - q = 0, p + 1 = 0, 3 - r = 0
a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k r a = x y z
q = 1, p = -1, r = 3
a1 a2 a3
Hence, the correct option is (B).
= i (a3 y - a2 z) - j (a3 x - a1 z) + k (a2 x - a1 y) 93. From the choices,
Let f(x, y, z) = xyz + k

(
. ra =  ) x 3
(a y - a2 z) -
y 3
(a x - a1 z) = | f | = yz i + zx j + xy k
Hence, the correct option is (D).
+ (a x - a1 y) = 0.
z 2 94. y = x3
(
. r a = 0. ) 
(1) dy = 3x2dx
. dr = (5xy - 6x2) dx + (2y - 4x)dy
F
( )
grad r a = grad (a1 x + a2 y + a3 z) 2 2

= a1 i + a2 j + a3 k = a  (2)
F . dr = (5 x ( x ) - 6 x ) dx + ( 2 x
1
3 2

1
3
- 4 x )( 3 x 2 ) dx

j i k = ( 5 x 4 - 6 x 2 + 6 x 5 - 12 x 3 ) dx
1
ra =(x
) y z
2
= x 5 - 2 x 3 + x 6 - 3 x 4 1 = 35

a3 y a2 z a1 z a3 x a2 x a1 y Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hints and Sol.indd 29 9/1/2015 6:00:10 PM


2.30|Engineering Mathematics

95. x y ds By greens theorem


s y
x = cos t x = cos t, y = sin t y = sin t0
1
2p 1 2p 1
1
1 y= X (2, 1)
8 r = 0 0
sin 2 t cos 2 t dr dt = 2 sin 2 2t dt dr 2
r =0 t =0

1 1 2p
= 1 cos 4t dt dr
8 r =0 0
0 (2, 0) x
-2p
1 1 sin 4t 1 p
dr = 2p r ]0 =
1
= t -
80 4 0 8 4 21 2
x

Hence, the correct option is (A).  ( x 2 ydx + xy 2dy ) = ( y 2 - x 2 ) dxdy


e 2
= (y2 -x2) dy dx
0 0

96. 2
x
2
y3 2 x3 x3
C B (1, 2) = 0 3 - x 2 y 0 dx = 0 24 - 2 dx
2 2
11 -11 x 4 -11
= ( - x 3 ) dx = =
O A x 24 0 24 4 0 6
Hence, the correct option is (C).

 F .dr F.dr 100. By Greens theorem, the area A of the region bonded by a
1
2 C
closed curve C is given by A =  (x dy - y dx)
=  y dx - 2 xydy =  pdx + qdy
c
2

c
x 1
= ( q /x - p /y ) dx dy (Greens theorem) here C consists of the curves C1: y = , C : y = and
S 4 2 x
2 1
C3 : y = 4x
= ( -2 y - 2 y ) dydx = - 4
x =0 y =0 y
Hence, the correct option is (C). (1/2, 2)
y = 4x y = 1/x
97. Given F = 2x2 i + (y - 3xz) j + 2zk and let r = xi + yj
(2, )
+ zk. Given as x = 2t, y = t2, z = 3t2 - 2
y = x/4
r = 2t i+ t2 j + (3t2 - 2) k dr = (2i + 2tj + 6tk) dt
O x
F . dr = (2x2 i + (y - 3xz) + 2zk). (2i + 2tj + 6tk) dt

= (4x2 + 2t ( y - 3xz) + 12zt) dt 1 1


A =
 = + +
2 c 2 C C C
= 4(2 t)2 + 2t(t2 - (3t2 - 2)) +12(3t2 -2) dt
1 2 3

x 1
F .dr = 16t2 + 2t3 - 18t4 + 12t2 + 36t3 - 24t Along C1: y = dy = dx: x is from 0 to 2
4 4
= (-36t4 + 38t3 + 40t2 - 24t) dt.
1 x
I1 = dx - dx = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B). x
4 4
B
98. Work done from A to B = F .dr Along C2: y =
1 1
dy = 2 dx: x is from 2 to
1
1
A x x 2
= ( -36 t4 + 38 t3 + 40t2 - 24t ) dt 12
1 1 12
-2
dx = -2 [log x ]2
0 12
I2 = x - 2 dx - dx =
t5 t4 t3 t2
1 2 x x 2 x
= -36 + 38 + 40 - 24
5 4 3 2 0 = 4 log 2.
1
-36 38 40 24 109 Along C3:y = 4x dy = 4 dx, x is from to 0
= + + - = 2
0
5 4 3 2 30
Hence, the correct option is (D).
I3 4 xdx - 4 xdx = 0
12

1 1
99. 0 x 2, 0 y X Area =log 16 = log 4.
2 2
f1 = x y and f2 = xy
2 2
Hence, the correct option is (C).

Hints and Sol.indd 30 9/1/2015 6:00:17 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.31

101. By Gauss divergence theorem F .n ds = .Fdv curl F . ds


S V
S

2 2 2 2
2 y2
2
= x ( 2 xz ) - y ( yz ) + z ( xy ) dv = y dx dy = ( xy ) x = 0 dy = 2 y dy =
2
=4
V y =0 x =0 0 0 2 0
3 3 3

= ( 2 z z + 0 ) dv =
V
( z ) dzdydx
x =0 y =0 z =0 F . dr = curl F . ds = 4

C S
3
3 3
z2 9 3 3 Hence, the correct option is (A).
= dydx = 1dydx
x =0 y =0 2 2 x =0 y =0
0
104. div NdV = N N ds
9 3 27 3 27 3 81
[ y ]0 dx = 1dx = [ x ]0 =
3 v s
=
2 x = 0 2 x = 0 2 2 Take F = N in Gauss divergence theorem
Hence, the correct option is (D).
= 1ds = 4p 12 = 48p
s
102. Given F = x2 i + xyj
Note: Total surface area of a sphere is 4pr2
i j k Here, r = 12

curl F = F = = i (0) - j (0) + k (y) = y k Hence, the correct option is (C).
x y z
x2 xy 0 105. By Divergence theorem r . nds = r dv
S v

curl F = y k i
= + j + k . (xi + yj + zk) dv
Hence, the correct option is (C). v
x y z
103. By Stokes theorem 
C
F . dr =
S
curl F. ds = 3 dv = 3V
v

curl F = y k and ds = dx dy k Hence, the correct option is (B).


curl F . ds = yk. dx dy k = y dx dy

Practice Problems 2 2x + 5x
p= when x; p 2.
Solutions for questions 1 to 115: x2 + x - 1
p
x + x -1

2

cos x - sin x
1. Given Lt 1 + 2 x + 5 2 x + 5
P p Lt
x
- 2x x x 2 + x - 1
4
2
Lt p
1 1 1

Lt (1 + y ) y e2
x 0

2 sin x - cos x
Lt 2 2 y 0
x
P p
Hence, the correct option is (B).
4 2 x -
4
3. Let y = x2x
p
sin x - log y = 2x log x
4
Lt log x
x
p p Lt logy = Lt 2xlogx = 2 Lt xlogx = 2 Lt
4 2x - x 0 x 0 x 0 x 0 1x
4
- (by L.Hospitals Rule)
p
sin x - 1x Lt
1 p Lt
4 1 = 2 x0 =0
= x - 4 0 = 1 x 2
2 p 2
x- 4 log y = 0 y = e0 = 1

Hence, the correct option is (B). Lt x2x = 1
x 0

p Hence, the correct option is (B).


x + x -1

2

x 2 + 3 x + 4 x 2 x + 5 2 x +5
2. Lt 2 = Lt 1 + 2 1
x + x -1

x + x -1 4. L.H. limit = L im f ( x ) = Lim (= L say)

x x
x 0- x 0- 1
5 + 3x
x ( 2 x + 5) 2x + 5 1
where p = 2 Let y = 2 when x = ; y = 0 As x 0 , -.
x + x -1 x + x -1 x

Hints and Sol.indd 31 9/1/2015 6:00:25 PM


2.32|Engineering Mathematics

1 1 9. Given f(x) = 3 x 1 for x 0


so that 3 x 0 and 5 + 3 x 5
= 3 x + 1 for x > 0
1
LH limit = Lt f ( x ) = Lt ( 3 x - 1) = -1
5 x 0- x 0
1
RH limit = Lim f ( x ) = Lim (= R say) Lt f ( x ) = Lt ( 3 x - 1) = 1
x 0 x 0 5 + 31 x
+ +
x 0+ x 0

As x 0+,
1
Lt f ( x ) = Lt ( 3 x - 1) = 1
x 0+ x 0
x
1 1
1 Lt - f ( x ) Lt f ( x ) f(x) is not continuous at x = 0
so that 3 x and 5 + 3 x R = =0 x 0- x 0+

Hence, the correct option is (C).


As L R. we say that the Lim f ( x ) does not exist.
Hence, the correct option is (D).
x 0

10. Lt f (x) = Lt
x2 - 4
= Lt
( x + 2) ( x - 2) = 4
x 2 x 2 x - 2 x 2 x-2
1
1x + 2 x + ... + n x x But given f (2) = 6
5. y
n Lt f (x) f (2)
x 2
1 1 + 2 + ... + n
x x x
f is discontinuous at x = 2
log y = log
x n Hence, the correct option is (D).
1 1x + 2 x + ... + n x 0
lim log y = lim log form 4x2 - 9
= Lt
( 2 x - 3) ( 2 x + 3) = Lt (2x + 3) = 6
x 0 x 0 x
n 0 11. Lt
x
3 2x - 3 x
3 2x - 3 x
3
n 2 2 2
= lim x
x 0 1 + 2 x + ... + n x Given f (x) is continuous at x = 3/2

1 x 3
1 log1 + 2 x log 2 + ....n x log n Lt f (x) = f = 6
n x
3
2
2
1
( log ( n!) ) = log ( n!) n lim y = ( n!) n
1 1
Hence, the correct option is (C).



n
x 0
12. Given, f (x) = [x]; [x] represents greatest integer x,
Hence, the correct option is (C).
we know [x] is discontinuous at all integers or having jump
6. We know that when x < 3 |x 3| = (x 3) discontinuity at all integers and continuous at all irrational
points
x-3 - ( x - 3)
Lt = Lt = 1 The statements p, q are only correct
x 3 x-3 x 3 x-3
Hence, the correct option is (D).
When x > 3 |x 3| = (x 3) like
1 + px - 1 - px 1 + px + 1 - px
Lt
x-3
= Lt
( x - 3) =1
13. Lt f (x) = Lt
x 0- x 0- x
x
1 + px + 1 - px
x 3
+
x-3 x 3
+
x-3
1 + px - 1 + px 2p
Limit does not exist. = Lt = =p
Hence, the correct option is (D).
x 0-
x ( 1 + px + 1 - px ) 2

2 x + 1 -1
7. x 3
Lt [ x] + x = x
Lt
3
[ x] + 1 Lt f (x) = Lt =
x 0+ x 0+ x-2 2
x x
When x < 3 [x] = 2 Given, f (x) is continuous = L.H.L = R.H.L
-1
x 3
Lt [ x] + 1 = h
Lt
0
[3 - h] + 1 = h
Lt
0
2
+1 =
5 p =
2
x 3+ h 3- h 3
Hence, the correct option is (C).
When x >3 [x] = 3
14. As x is continuous every where, so is f(x)
x 3
[ x] + 1 = h
Lt + Lt
0
[3 + h] + 1 = h
Lt
0
3
+1 = 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
x 3- h 3+ h
Left limit Right limit 15. Lt f (x) = Lt (ax - b) = a - b (1)
x 1- x 1-

Limit does not exist Lt f (x) = Lt 3x = 3 (2)


x 1 x 1
+ +

Hence, the correct option is (D).


Given, f (x) is continuous at x = 1
8. By the standard definition of continuous functions all the
statements are true. a-b=3
Hence, the correct option is (D). a = 3 + b  (3)

Hints and Sol.indd 32 9/1/2015 6:00:34 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.33

and Lt f (x) = Lt 3x = 6 20. Consider (I) it X cos 1/x2 = 0, as x 0. Using the definition
x 2- x 2-
of limits.
Lt f (x) = Lt bx2 - a = 4b - a
x 2+ x 2+ Let > 0 be given,
If f (x) is continuous at x = 2, then 4b - a = 6  (4) choose d = |x cos 1/x2 - 0| |x|<
Solving (3) and (4), we get b = 3 (

|cos 1/x2| 1).
given f (x) is not continuous at x = 2 so b 3 However, f(0) is given as 1, if it can be replaced with 0, then
a = 3 + b, b 3 the discontinuity stands removed.
Hence, the correct option is (C). Option II and III have infinite discontinuities
16. As polynomial functions are continuous everywhere Hence, the correct option is (A).
3 x + 1, x 1 21. We can draw the graph of the function by noting the following:
f(x) = is continuous everywhere except
2 - ax , x > 1
2 Case (i) x 0
possibly at x = 1 f(x) = x - (x) = 0
For f(x) to be continuous at x = 1 also we must have Case (ii) x < 0
f(1) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) f(x) = x - (- x) = 2x
x 1+ x 1
y
lim 2 ax 2 = lim 3 x + 1 2 - a = 4 a = -2.
x 1 x 1

Hence, the correct option is (A).


0
x
sin ( 4 k - 1) x
, x0
3x
17. f(x) =
tan ( 4 k + 1) x , 0 < x < p
5x 2 As we see no break it is continuous everywhere.
p or
f(x) is continuous everywhere in -, except possibly at
2 0 x0
x=0 f(x) =
2 x x<0
For f(x) to be continuous at x = 0, we must have
For x > 0, f is a constant and for x < 0 , f is a line
f(0) = lim f ( x ) = lim f ( x )
x 0 -
x 0 +
Further, Lt f(x) = f(0)
sin ( 4 k 1) x x0
lim f ( x ) = lim Hence, f is continuous every where and hence discontinuous
x 0 x0 3x
nowhere
sin ( 4 k - 1) x ( 4k - 1) x = 4k - 1 sin q
= lim = 1 Hence, the correct option is (D).
lim
x 0 ( 4k - 1) x 3x 3 q 0 q
22. Lt 2x3 x2 x + 2 = 0 and given f(1) = 0
tan ( 4 k + 1) x ( 4k + 1) x = 4k + 1 x -1

Also, lim f ( x ) = lim The given function is continuous at x = 1


x 0 +
x 0 ( 4k + 1) x 5x 5
Hence, the correct option is (C).
4k - 1 4k + 1
Equating, = k =1 23. We know that the greatest integer function is always discon-
3 5
tinuous over integers.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
The number of discontinuous points are infinite.
18. As f(x) is continuous at x = 0 we must have Hence, the correct option is (A).
3 sin x - 2 x 24.
f(0) = lim f ( x ) = lim
x 0 x 0 tan x + 4 x

3 sin x
-2
1
lim x . (dividing numerator and denominator by x)
x 0 tan x
+4

x -
2 -1 2
3- 2 1
= =
1+ 4 5
f(x) = |x| sin x. We can rewrite f(x) as
Hence, the correct option is (B).
19. At all odd multiples of p/2, x sin x , x < 0

f(x) = 0 , x =0
tan x has discontinuity of second kind
x sin x , x >0
Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hints and Sol.indd 33 9/1/2015 6:00:38 PM


2.34|Engineering Mathematics

As polynomials and sine functions are differentiable f(x) is By intermediate value theorem f takes all values between - 4
differentiable at all points except perhaps at x = 0. At x = 0, and 2 which includes 0 as well. (at-least once)
we have Further, f (x) = 15x2 - 4x + 3
- ( sin x + x cos x ) , x < 0
f ( x) = f (0-) = 0 f 1(x) > 0 x (0, 1).
( sin x + x cos x ) , x > 0
so f is increasing on [0, 1]
f (0+) = 0
f has only one root on [0, 1]
As f(0-) = f(0+) we have x = 0 as a point of differentiability
Hence, the correct option is (A).
f(x) is differentiable everywhere.
28.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
25. For k = 0, F(x) = x 0 x < 1, For k = 1 r r
F (x) = x - 1 1 x < 2 and so on. We now draw the graph.
y

l
If is length of arc and r is radius of the sector, we have
+ 2r = 24
1 0 1 2 3 x = 24 - 2r
1 1
Clearly 0 f(x) < 1 Area of sector A = l r = (24 - 2r) r = 12r - r2
2 2
So f is bounded above by 1 and below by 0
dA
As we see breaks at all integer points it is not continuous at all = 12 - 2r
integer points and hence not differentiable at all integer points. dr

{
Hence, the correct option is (D). dA d2A
= 0 12 - 2r = 0 r = 6 =-2<0
dr dr 2
x x Area is maximum at r = 6
26. Given f (x) = = for x < 0
1+ x 1- x 1
Maximum area is A = (12) (6) = 36 sqcm
= 0 for x = 0 2
Hence, the correct option is (B)
x
for x > 0 29. Statement of the theorem
1+ x
Hence, the correct option is (D).
if the function is differentiable at x = 0, it is differentiable at
every value of x. 30. f satisfies all the necessary conditions of Rolles Theorem,
x So, f (c) = 0 for c (- p, p). sin c = 0
f ( x - h) - f ( h) -0
= Lt 1 - x
Lt c=0
h 0 -
h x 0 x-0 -

Hence, the correct option is (C).


1
= Lt =1
x 0 1 x 31. f(x) = 1 = f(1)
x
-0 So f is continuous at x = 1
f ( x + h) - f ( h) 1 + x
Lt = Lt f 1 (x) = - 1 for x < 1 and f 1(x) = - 2 for x > 1
h 0 +
h x 0 x +

So, f is not differentiable


1
=1
= Lt at x = 1. So f is not differentiable on (0, 2)
x 0 1 + x
f(0) = 2 and f(2) = -1
Left derivative at x = 0 is equal to right derivative at
So, f(0) f(2)
x = 0
f(x) is differentiable at x = 0 Hence, the correct option is (D).
f(x) is differentiable for every value of x 32. Given f(x) = 3x2 1 over [1, 3]
Hence, the correct option is (A). Clearly f(1) = 2 and f(3) = 26 f(1) f(3)
27. f(x) = 5x - 2x + 3x - 4
3 2 Rolles theorem is not applicable.
f(0) = - 4 < 0 Also, f is continuous and differentiable.
Further f being a polynomial is continuous and differentiable The conditions of Mean Value theorem are applicable.
on R, more so on [0,1]. Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hints and Sol.indd 34 9/1/2015 6:00:42 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.35

x 2 x3 Fx = 0 and fy = 0
33. f(x) = x - + ...........
2 3 4x3 - 4x = 0 and -4y3 + 4y = 0
1 x3 - x = 0 and y3 - y = 0
f(x) = log(1 + x) and f (x) = which is
1+ x x(x2 - 1) = 0 and y(y2 - 1) = 0
not defined at x = -1 x = 0, x = 1 and y = 0, y = 1
Hence, the correct option is (D). The stationary points of f(x, y) are (0, 0), (0, 1),
(1, 0), (1, 1)
u Lt f ( x + dx , y ) - f ( x , y )
34. = x 0 = fx Also, maximum or minimum, if they exists for f(x, y) only at
x dx
stationary points
2u Lt f ( x + dx , y ) - f x ( x , y ) Among the options, the point (1, 2) given in option (B) is
= x 0 x
x 2
x  not a stationary point
Hence, the correct option is (A). f(x, y) has neither maximum nor minimum at the point (1, 2).

35. Given, u = exy Hence, the correct option is (B).
u 39. Let z, x and y be the first, second and third parts of 30, such
= exy . x
y that x + y + z = 30 (1) and

2u u zx2y3 is maximum
= = ( e xy x ) = exy . y . x + exy = (1 + xy) exy Let f = zx2y3  (2)
x y x y x
From (1), z = 30 - x - y  (3)
= u(xy + 1)
(2) becomes
Hence, the correct option is (C).
F = (30 - x - y) x2y3 f = 30x2y3 - x3y3 - x2y4  (4)
36. Given, u = log (x3 + y3 + z3)
Now fx = 60xy - 3x y - 2xy
3 2 3 4

eu = x3 + y3 + z3 which is clearly a homogeneous function of


and fy = 90x2y2 - 3x3y2 - 4x2y3
order 3.
By Eulers theorem, fx = 0 60 xy3 - 3x2y3 - 2xy4 = 0
xy3 (60 - 3x - 2y) = 0 60 - 3x - 2y = 0 ( xy3 0)

(e u ) (e u ) (e u )
x + y. + z. = 3.e u
x xy x 3x + 2y = 60  (5)
u u u u u u And fy = 0 90x y - 3x y - 4x y = 0
2 2 3 2 2 3

x +y + z e u = 3e u x +y +z = 3.
x y z x y z x2y2 (90 - 3x - 4y) = 0
90 - 3x - 4y = 0 ( x2y2 0)

Hence, the correct option is (B).
3x + 4y = 90  (6)
y
37. Given, u = tan-1 Solving (5) and (6), we have x = 10 and y = 15
x
The stationary point is (10, 15)
u 1 -y -y
ux = = . = Now r = fxx = 60y3 - 6xy3 - 2y4
x 1 + y 2 x 2 x 2 + y 2
2
x s = fxy = 180xy2 - 9x2y2 - 8xy3
u
2
-1 2 xy at (10, 15), r = -1,01,250, s = -67, 500 and t = -38,70,000
uxx = =-y. . 2x =
x 2 (x + y ) ( x + y2 ) rt - s2 > 0 and r < 0
2 2
2 2 2

u1 1 x f has a maximum at (10, 15) And for x = 10 and


uy = = . = y = 15,
y y2 x x2 + y2
1+ 2 z = 30 - 10 - 15 (from (3))
x
2u -1 -2 xy z = 5.
uyy = =x. . 2y =
y 2 (x + y ) ( x + y2 ) The product of the three parts = xyz = 750.
2 2
2 2 2

2 xy 2 xy Hence, the correct option is (D).


uxx + uyy = - =0
( x2 + y2 ) ( x2 + y2 )
2 2
1 1 1 n
1
40. t + + ........ + = t
n n + 2 + 4 3 + 2r
n n n
r =1 n
Hence, the correct option is (D).
1
1 n 1 1
38. Given f(x, y) = x4 - y4 + 2y2 - 2x2 = t
n n
r
= 1 + 2 x dx
f u r =1
n + 2 0
Fx = = 4x3 - 4x and fy = = -4y3 + 4y n
x y
The necessary condition for a function f(x, y) to have either 1
Let f (x) = x [0, 1],
maximum or minimum is 1 + 2x

Hints and Sol.indd 35 9/1/2015 6:00:46 PM


2.36|Engineering Mathematics

a a
1
g(x) =
2
log(1+2x) x [0, 1] 46. f ( x ) dx = 2 f ( x ) dx is true only when f(x) is an
-a 0
f is continuous on [ 0,1] and integrable in [0, 1] and g1(x) =
even function.
f(x) x [ 0, 1 ]
Hence, the correct option is (C).
By fundamental theorem,
1
1 log 3 47. Y A
1 + 2 x dx = g(1) - g(0) = 2  y = x2
0

Hence, the correct option is (B). A


n2
n
1 n 1 O
41. Lt = Lt
X
r =1 ( r + n ) r =1 (1 + r )3
n 3 n n

n
y = 6x x=2 y=6
1
1
= (1 + x )
0
3
dx
The area to be found is as shown in the figure
1 Here, y = 6x y = x2 for 2 x 6
Let f (x) = defined on [0,1] is continuous
(1 + x )
3 6

1 Area A = 6 x - x 2 dx
and integrable on [0,1] and consider g(x) = - x x=2
2 (1 + x )
2
[0,1] and g1(x) = f(x) x [0,1] x3 80
6

= 3 x 2 - = sq units.
By fundamental theorm. 3 -2 3
1
1 -1 1 3
(1 + x )
0
3
dx = g(1) - g(0) = + +=
8 2 8
Hence, the correct option is (C).

Hence, the correct option is (A). 48.


1 1
n 1
dx R S
42. t = = log ( a + x ) )
n
r =1 n a + 0 + x
r a A
n
= log ( a + 1) - log a P O Q X

Hence, the correct option is (B). y = 6x 2
n n 1
1 1 1 dx
43. Lt
n
n -r
2 2
= Lt
n
n r 2
=
1 - x2
x=2
r =1 r =1
1- 2 0 x=1
n
p The required area A is the plane region PQRS as shown in the
= ( sin -1 x )0 =
1
 figure
2
Hence, the correct option is (C). Also, y = 6 - x2 0, -2 x 1
1 1
x3
tan x n 1 Area A = (6 - x 2 ) dx = 6 x -
44. tan n xdx = n 2 In = tan n
xdx x = -2
3 -2
n 1
here n = 5; = 15 sq units.
tan x 4
tan x 4 Hence, the correct option is (C).
tan 5 xdx = 3 = tan 3 xdx
4 4 49. Y
tan 4 x tan 2 x tan 4 x tan 2 x
= - + 1 = - + tan xdx
4 2 4 2 x + 2y = 6
tan 4 x tan 2 x
= - - log cosx
4 2 D C y=2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
45. If m is even, y=1 A B
p 2 X
m -1 m - 3 m - 5 1 p O
0
sin m xdx = .
m m-2 m-4
. ....... .
2 2
Standard result , the correct option is (B).

Hints and Sol.indd 36 9/1/2015 6:00:52 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.37

We have to find the value V of the solid generated by revolv- 1


dx 1
ing the area ABCD about y - axis 54. x-x
0
2
does not exists at x = 1 as
x - x2
as x 1
Volume = V
A is false.
2 2
1
(6 - 2 y ) (36 - 24 y + 4 y ) dy
2
=p =p 2 In (0,1) the given function i.e. is continuous.
x x2
y =1 1
B is false
2
4 Hence, the correct option is (D).
= p 36 y - 12 y 2 + y 3
3 1 55. As f(x) is continuous at x = 0 we must have
28 3 sin x - 2 x
= p cubic units. f(0) = lim f ( x ) = lim
3 x 0 x 0 tan x + 4 x

Hence, the correct option is (D). 3 sin x


-2
3 = lim x (dividing numerator and denominator
x 0 tan x
50. Given curve is 27 y = ( 3 x 2 + 2 ) 2 +4
 x
dy 1 3 1
3- 2 1
= (3x 2 + 2) 2 6x by x) = =
dx 3 3 2 1+ 4 5
1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
= 3 x (3x 2 + 2) 2
56. f (x + y) = f (x) . f (y)
The length of the curve from x = 0 to x = 4 is
Put y = 0, f(x) = f(x) f(0) f(0) = 1
dy f ( x + h) - f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( h) - f ( x )
4 2 4
1 +
( )
3 ( 3 x 2 + 2 ) dx
2

1 +
dx
dx =

f (x) = lim
h0 h
= lim
h0 h
x =0 0

f ( h) - 1 f ( h) - f (0 )
= f ( x ) lim
4 4
f(x) lim
(3x 2 + 1)
2
= 1 + 9 x 4 + 46 x 2 dx = dx h0 h h0 h
0 0
4 = f ( x ) f (0) = 2 f ( x )

(3x + 1) dx = x 3 + x 0 = 68.
4
= 2
Hence, the correct option is (A).
0

Hence, the correct option is (A). 57.


0
0 0
32 x
51. 32 x dx = nLt 32 x dx = Lt
n 2 log 3
1
-

-n -n

1 3 1 -2 n -
- 2 -1 2
Lt =
n
2 log e
3 2 log 3
e 2 log e
3

f(x) = |x| sin x. We can rewrite f(x) as
Hence, the correct option is (B).
- x sin x, x < 0
1
1
f(x) = 0, x=0
52. x 0.999
dx
x sin x , x > 0
0

This is a second kind of improper integral. As polynomials and sine functions are differentiable f(x) is
1
1
1
1 differentiable at all points except perhaps at x = 0. At x = 0,
dx = Lt x dx we have
x 0.999 a0 0.999

- ( sin x + x cos x ) , x < 0


0 a

1 f ( x) = f (0-) = 0
= Lt
x -0.999 +1 1
= 0.001 1 - a
0.001 ( sin x + cos x ), x>0
-0 . 999 + 1
a0
a f (0+) = 0,
= 1000 (1 - 0) = 1000. As f(0-) = f(0+) we have x = 0 as a point of differentiability
Hence, the correct option is (D). f(x) is differentiable everywhere.
b b Hence, the correct option is (A).
e -2 x
53. e -2 x
dx = Lt e -2 x dx = Lt
b b
-2 0
3 9-3 y2
0 0
58. We have to evaluate ydxdy
y = 0 x = - 9-3 y2
1 1 1
= Lt e -2 b + =0+ = From the limits, the region of integration is the upper half of
b 2 2 2
x2 y2
the ellipse + = 1 as shown in the figure
Hence, the correct option is (B). 9 3

Hints and Sol.indd 37 9/1/2015 6:01:00 PM


2.38|Engineering Mathematics
y
Y 4 2 2 8x
f ( x, y ) dxdy = f ( x, y ) dydx
0 y2 x =0 y =2x
S C 0, 3 8

Hence, the correct option is (A).


P1
P Q 60. The area bounded by the parabola y2 = x and the line
X x - y = 2 is the region shown in the figure
(-3, 0) A R O B (3, 0)
Y
x 2 y2
+ = B (4, 2)
9 3
P
Q
X
O
This integral can be evaluated easily by changing the order of (1,1)
integration. A

By changing the order of integration, we first integrate w.r.t x


x-y=2 y2 = x
9 - x2
alone is vertical strip RS from y = 0 to y = and the
3 In this region, x varies from x = y2 to x = y + 2 and y varies
we integrate w.r.t x from x = - 3 to x = 3. from y = -1 to y = 2
9- x2 The required area is equal to

3 9-3 y2 3 3 2 y+2
ydxdy = ydy dx dxdy
0 - 9-3 y2 x = -3
y =0
y = -1 x = y

2


Hence, the correct option is (A).
9- x2
3
61. The bottom part of the required solid is the triangle OAB as
y2 3
= dx shown in the figure in xy plane
x = -3
2 y =0
Y
3
1 9 - x2
=
2 3 dx
x = -3 B (0, 2)
x+y=2
3
1
= 2 ( 9 - x 2 ) dx [(9 - x2 is an even function] X
6 0
O A (2, 0)
3
1 x3 1 27
= 9x - = 27 - = 6.
3 3 0 3 3
Hence, the correct option is (C). Here, x varies from x = 0 to x = 2 - y and y varies from
y y = 0 to y = 2.
4 2
59. Given integral is f ( x, y ) dxdy Also, the surface is x + y2 + z = 4 z = 4 - x2 - y2 - (1)
2

y =0 y2
x=
8 The volume of the solid below the surface x2 + y2 + 2 = 4
From the limits of x and y, the region of integration is as and above the triangular region OAB is
shown in the figure V = Zdxdy
OAB

Y 2 2- y

P A (2, 4) = ( 4 - x 2 - y 2 ) dxdy
y =0 x =0
S Q 
Hence, the correct option is (C).

R 62.
Y

X y=6 (9, 6) C
O
P
A Q
R y=1
B
y = 2x y2 = 8x O X

By changing the order of integration, we have to integrate


w. r. t y first along the vertical strip RS from y = 2x to y = 8x Y 2 = 4x
and then we have to integrate w.r.t y from y= 0 to y = 2 x-y=3

Hints and Sol.indd 38 9/1/2015 6:01:05 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.39

y2 64. Given x = u cot J and y = tan J


In the region R, x varies from x = to x = y + 3 and y varies
from y = 1 to y = 6 4 x x
( x, y )
u J cot J u cos ec 2 J
The volume of the solid generated by the region R about J= = =
y - axis is ( u,J ) y y tan J u sec 2 J
u J
V = 2p xdxdy
R 2u 4u
= =
6 y +3 sin J cos J sin 2J
= 2pdxdy J = 4 u cosec 2J
y =1 y2
x=
4
 Now, by changing the variables, the given integral becomes
Hence, the correct option is (B). f ( x, y ) dxdy = f ( u cot J , u tan J ) J dudJ
R R

63. Given integral is r 2 ( sin q + cos q ) - sin 2q dxdq = f ( u cot J , u tan J ) 4u cosec 2J dudJ
2

R R

In polar coordinates, we have i.e. f ( u cot J , u tan J ) Y ( u,J ) dudJ


R

x = r cos q and y = r sin q = f ( u cot J , u tan J ) 4u cosec 2JdudJ


R
1
y
r = (x + y 2 2 2
) and q = tan -1
x y (u, J) = 4 u cosec 2J.

Hence, the correct option is (B).
And r 2 ( sin q + cos q ) - sin 2q drdq
2
65. For the solid V for which we have to find the volume
R
X varies from x = 0 to x = 0 - y2
= (r 2 (sin 2 q + cos 2 q + 2 sin q cos q - 2 sin q cos q )) drdq Z varies from z = 0 to z = y and y varies from y = 0 to y = 3
R
The volume of the solid V is given by
= r 2 drdq = ( x 2 + y 2 ) J dxdy
R R 3 y 9 y2

r r dxdydz = dxdzdy
V y =0 z =0 x =0
( r ,q ) x y 3 y 3 y
Where J = = = [ x ]x = 0 dzdy = ( 9 - y 2 ) dzdy
4 y2
( x, y ) q q y =0 z =0 y =0 z =0
x y 3 3
= ( 9 - y 2 ) z dy = ( 9 - y 2 ) ydy
y

x y y =0 z =0 y =0
1 1
(x ) (x )
3
2
+y 2 2 2
+y 2 2
x 2 3
9 y2 y4
= = 1
+ = ( 9 y - y 3 ) dy = -
-y x ( x2 + y2 ) + ( x2 + y )
2 2 y =0 2 4 0
( x2 + y2 ) ( x2 + y2 ) =
81 81 81
- = cubic units.
2 4 4
y2
1
Hence, the correct option is (C).


( x2 + y2 ) + ( x2 + y2 )2 66. Given the integral is f ( x, y, z ) dxdydz
R

x2 + y2 In spherical polar coordinates,


= 1
X = r sin q cos f, y = r sin q sin f and z = r cos q
( x2 + y2 ) + ( x2 + y2 )2
x x x
1
J= 1
r q f
( x2 + y2 )2 ( x, y, z ) y y y
J= =
( r ,q , f ) r q f
r 2 ( sin q + cos q ) - sin 2q drdq
2
z z z
R
r q f
1
= ( x2 + y2 ) dxdy
1
sin q cos f r cos q cos f - r sin q sin f
( x2 + y2 )2
R

= sin q sin f r cos q sin f + r sin q cos f


1
f ( x, y ) dxdy = ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 dxdy cos q - r sinq 0
R R
= cosq [r2 cosq sinq cos2f + r2 sinq cosq sin2f] +
=
R
(x 2
+ y )dxdy
2 r sin q[r sin2q cos2f + r sin2q sin2f]
= cosq [r2 sin q cos q (cos2f + sin2f)] + r sinq [r sin2q (cos2f
Hence, the correct option is (B). + sin2f)]

Hints and Sol.indd 39 9/1/2015 6:01:13 PM


2.40|Engineering Mathematics

= r2 sin q cos2q + r2 sin3q = i (u2 - 2u - 1) - j (- u3 - 4u2 + 4u + 3) + k (u2 + 2u2 - 3u)


= r sin q (cos q + sin q)
2 2 2

( F a)
1
= i (2u - 2) - j (- 3u2 - 8u + 4) + k (6u - 3)
J = r sin q
2

The given integral in spherical polar coordinates becomes put u = 1, we get


f ( x, y, z ) dxdydz = 7 j + 3 k
R
Hence, the correct option is (B).
= f ( r sin q cos f , r sin q sin f , r cos q ) J drdqdf
R
75. r = a ewt + b ewt
i.e. f ( x ( r ,q , f ) , y ( r ,q , f ) , z ( r ,q , f )Y ( r ,q , f ) drdqdf
R dr
= w ( a ewt - b ewt)
= f ( r sin q cos f , r sin q sin f , r cos q ) r sin qdrdqdf
2 dt
R
d2r
y (r, q, f) = r2 sin q. = w ( a ewt + b ewt)
dt 2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
= w r
67. If q is the acute angle between the vectors a, b , then
Hence, the correct option is (D).
a.b
cos q = . 76. f F = xyz i - xy4z j + xy3z3 k
a b
( )=
3 f F
Hence, the correct option is (A).
x 2 z

x x x
( )
f F

68. If two vectors (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) are orthogonal then x1
x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 = 0 (dot product is zero) = /x [/x (2xyz i - xy4 j + 3xy3z k )]
Option C alone satisfy this = [4yz i - 2y4 j ]
Hence, the correct option is (C). Put (3, 1, 1) for x, y and z, we get (4 i - 2 j )
69. Given a . b = 0 a or b or both are null vectors or a is Hence, the correct option is (A).
perpendicular to b . a is not parallel to b . d
77. a . b = 2 t3 cos 2 t + t2 sin t - (t - 1) ( a.b )
Hence, the correct option is (C). dt
= 6 t cos 2 t + 2 t (- 2 sin 2 t) + 2 t sin t + t2 (cos t) -1
2 3
70. If a , b are two non zero vectors and a b = 0
a , b are parallel d
dt
a.b
t =0
( )
= - 1
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
71. A vector perpendicular to the plane containing a, b is given
by a b . A unit vector perpendicular to a, b is given by i j k
ab 78. a b = 5t 2 -3t 1 - 2t 2
ab 3t 2 -5t 4t 3

Hence, the correct option is (A). = i (- 12 t4 + 5 t - 10 t3) - j ( 20 t5 + 6 t4 - 3 t2)


+ k (- 25 t3 + 9 t3)
72. F = a cos u i + a sin u j + auk
d
dF/du = a sin u i + a cos u j + a k ( a b ) = (- 48 t3 - 30 t2 + 5) i - j (100 t4 + 24 t3 - 6t)
dt
d2F/du2 = -a cos u i - a sin u j + 0 k d
-k 48t2 dt ( a b )t = 1
d3F/du3 = a sin u j - a cos u j
At u = 0, dF3/du3 = -a j = -73 i - 118 j - 48 k .
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (A).

dF 79. Standard result, the correct option is (B).
73. has n as a factor
dt 80. Let c = c i + c j + c k
1 2 3

dF c r = c1 x + c2 y + c3 z
So F should have n as a factor.
dt
/x ( c r ) i = c1 i
Hence, the correct option is (C).
/y ( c r ) j = c2 j
i j k /z = ( c r ) k = c3 k
74. F a = u2 - u 2u + 1 Thus c1 i + c2 j + i3 r k = c
2u - 3 1 -u Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hints and Sol.indd 40 9/1/2015 6:01:28 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.41

81. dr/dt = (3 - 3t) i + 6t j + (3 + 3t) k The directional derivative is


2i - j - 2k
( )
n1 . n2
dr/dt = -6t i + 6 j + 6t k = 8i - j - 10 k = 37 3
n2 3

On substituting these values in the formula given,
1 Hence, the correct option is (D).
we get k =
3 (1 + t 2 )
2 Div f = . f (definition).
87.

Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
88. Curl f = f (definition).
dr
82. = d/dt (x i + y j + z k ) Hence, the correct option is (B).
dt
= - a sint i + a cost j + b k 89. r = x i + y j + z k
dr/dt = -a cos t i - a sin t j div r = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
d r/dt = a sin t i - a cos t j
3 3
i j k
On substituting in the formula we get

= b curl r = =0
x y z
a + b2
2

x + y +1 1 - ( x + y)
Hence, the correct option is (A).
83. Let f = xy - z Hence, the correct option is (D).
f = y i - x j - 2 z k 90. div(curl F) = 0
f 4i - j - 4 k Hence, the correct option is (C).
n1 = =
f 33 91. If r is solenoidal, div r = 0 and is irrotational curl r = 0
(1, 4 , 2)
Hence, the correct option is (A).
f -3i - 3 j - 6 k
n2 = = 92. div F = 0 for F to be solenoidal
f 54
( -3, -3, 3)
1+p-5=0p=4
9
cos a = n1.n2 = Hence, the correct option is (D).
33 54
a = cos-1 1 ( 22 ) 93. By definition div ( F ) = 0 F is solenoidal.
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
94. By definition curl ( F ) = 0 F is irrotational.
84. Angle between surfaces is same as the angle between their
Hence, the correct option is (A).
normals at the common point
95. All are standard results, the correct option is (D).
f1 = 2x i + 2y j + 2z k
96. ( f ) = ( . f ) - 2 f .
f1 at (2, -1, 2) = 4 i - 2 j + 4 k
f = 2x i + 2y j - k Hence, the correct option is (C).
2

f2 at (2, -1, 2) = 4 i - 2 j - k 97. div ( f g ) = f . (curl g ) - g . (curl f ) (standard


f1 f2 result).
cos a = . Hence, the correct option is (B).
f1 f2
98. If 2 f = 0, then f is called harmonic function.
16 + 4 - 4 Hence, the correct option is (B).
cos a =
36 2 99. The Laplace operator is 2 f (Standard definition).
a = cos (8/3 21 ) -1
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
100. Given f = axy + byz + cxz
85. By definition the directional derivative of any scalar point
If f satisfies laplace equation then 2 f = 0
function is obtained by multiplying a unit vector in that direc-
tion by grad f. f f f
i.e + + =0
Hence, the correct option is (A). x y z
f [ay + cz + bz + ax + by + cx] = 0
86. n1 = = (2xyz + 4z) i + xz j + (xy + 8xz) k
f [(a + c) x + (a + b) y + (b + c) z] = 0
At (1, - 2, - 1) a+c+a+b+b+c=0
n1 = 8 i - j - 10 k a+b+c=0
n2 = 2 i - j - 2 k Hence, the correct option is (D).

Hints and Sol.indd 41 9/1/2015 6:01:41 PM


2.42|Engineering Mathematics

101. From choice A: 3xy - 4yz + xz 107. ( 3 x 2 - 8 y 2 ) dx + (4y - 6xy)dy


a+b+c=3-4+1=0 C
1 x

which satisfies laplace equation = ( 6 y ) ( 16 y ) dxdy = 10 ydydx


S 0 x2
Hence, the correct option is (A). x
1
y2 1
x x4
102. x (u v) is as vector, as vector triple product of three vec- = 10 dx = 10. dx
0 2 0 2 2
tors is a vector. x2

1
Hence, the correct option is (C). x x 2 5
= 10.- = 3/2
4 4 0
103. f(r) = f(r)
Hence, the correct option is (D).
= i /x f(r)
= i df/dr . r/x 1/2 xdy - ydx = 1/2 (Q /x - P /y ) dxdy
108.
C S
= . i df/dr x/r = 1/2 2dxdy = S
S
= /x [df/dr x/r) + df/dr (r - x x/r) / r]
Thus the integral is basically area enclosed by the ellipse.
d 2 f x 2 df r 2 - x 2
= dr 2 2
+
r dr r 3

X = 3cos q and y = 4sin q
p 3 4 = 12p
d f x + y + z df 3r - r
2 2 2 2 2 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
= + dr r 3
dr 2 r2 109. curl grad f = 0
= df/dr + (2/r) df/dr So F . ds = 0
s
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 1 1
104. i t 2 dt + j 3t 2 dt + k 2tk 110. F . dv
0 0 0
v

= i (1/3) + j (1) + k (1) = 1/3 i + j + k 111 111 111


4xyz dxdydz i y2 dxdydz j + yz dx dy dz k
Hence, the correct option is (D). 000 000 000

105. Let r = x i + y j as on x y - plane z = 0 = 1/2(4 1/2 1/2) i - (1/3) j + (1/2 1/2) k


= 1/2 i - 1/3 j + 1/4 k
F. d r = [3x2 y i + 2x y2 j] . [dxi + dyj]
C C
Hence, the correct option is (D).
= (3x2 y d x + 2x y2 dy)
C 111. By the statement of Greens theorem choice (D) follows
as y = 2x2 dy = 4x dx Hence, the correct option is (D).
3 3
= (3x2.2x2dx+2x(4x4).4x dx) = (6x4+32 x6 ) dx 112. Guauss divergence theorem.
x =0 x =0
Hence, the correct option is (C).
3
x5 x7 243 2187 113. To apply Gauss theorem the given vector point function must
= 6. + 32 = 6. + 32.
5 7 0 5 7 be continuously differentiable.
360126 Hence, the correct option is (D).
= = 10289.3
35 114. Statement of Greens theorem.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
106. When C is a closed curve F . dr represents circulation of 115. Stokes theorem corresponds to the reduction of line integral
C
F about C. to surface integral
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (A).

Previous Years Questions 2. Let a = i + j + k , b = 2 i +3 j + k and


x - sin x 1 - cos x c = 5 i + 6 j + 4 k one can easily observe that
1. Lt = Lt
x 0 1 - cos x x 0 sin x
(By L Hospitals Rule) 3 a + b = c
sin x i.e. c can be expressed as a linear combination of a and b
= Lt = 0. hence the three vectors are linearly dependent.
x 0 cos x

Hence, the correct option is (A). Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hints and Sol.indd 42 9/1/2015 6:01:52 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.43

3. We have to evaluate  ( ydx - xdy )  (1) At x =


3p
, f(x) = e-x sin 100x = -0.954
c 200
1 Which is the approximate minimum value of e-x sin 100x
Where C is the boundary of circle x2 + y2 =
4 Hence, the correct answer is -1 to -0.94
By Greens theorem, we know that
7. From the definition of continuity
Y f
c (f dx - ydy ) = x - y dxdy  (2) A function f(x) is said to be continuous at a point x = a,
if Lt f ( x ) = f ( a ) .
xa
Here f = y and y = -x Hence, the correct option is (D).
f Y
= 1 and = -1 8. Given vector field is x2z i + xy j - yz2 k
y x
Let F = x2z i + xy j - yz2 k
 [ ydx - xdy ] =  [fdx - Ydy ]
c c
Divergence of F = . F

Y f 2
= - dxdy (from (2)) = (x z) + (xy) + (-yz2)
x y z
R
x y
1 Div F = 2xz + x - 2yz
Where R is the inside region of the circle x2 + y2 =
4 Div F = 2(1) (1) + (1) - 2(-1) (1) = 5.
= ( -1 - 1) dxdy = ( -2 ) dxdy Hence, the correct option is (C).
R R

= -2 dxdy ( x - 1) sin ( x - 1)
2 2

= -2R
R 9. Let I = 0 ( x - 1)2 + cos ( x - 1) dx
1
= -2 Area of the circle x2 + y2 =
[2 - x - 1] sin ( 2 - x ) - 1
2
4 2

1 = 2 - x - 1 dx
) + cos 2 - x - 1)
2
= -2 pr , where r = Radius =
2
2
0

1
= - 2p a a

4 f ( x ) dx = f ( a - x ) dx
p 0 0
=- .
(1 - x ) sin (1 - x )
2
2 2

Hence, the correct option is (C).


= 0 (1 - x )2 + cos (1 - x ) dx
e2 x - 1 2e 2 x ( x - 1) sin ( - ( x - 1))
2
2
4. Lt = Lt
x 0 sin 4 x
x 0 4 cos 4 x = 0 ( x - 1)2 + cos ( - ( x - 1)) dx
(By L laspitals rule)
( x - 1) ( - sin ( x - 1))
2
2

=
1
Lt
e2 x
=
1
= 0.5.
= 0 ( x - 1)2 + cos ( x - 1) dx
2 x 0 cos 4 x 2
( x - 1) sin ( x - 1)
2 2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
=- 0 ( x - 1)2 + cos ( x - 1) dx
5. Given F = x2 z2 i - 2x y2z j + 2y2z3 k
I = -I 2I = 0 I = 0
i j k ( x - 1) sin ( x - 1)
2 2


0 ( x - 1)2 + cos ( x - 1) dx = 0.
Curl F = F =
x y z Hence, the correct option is (B).
x2 z2 -2 xy 2 z 2 y 2 z 3 2x 2
x

10. e x + y dydx =
00
y =0
e x . e y dy dx

= (4yz3 + 2xy2) i + 2x2z j - 2y2z k . x =0
2


x
Hence, the correct option is (A). = e x e y y = 0 dx
x =0
6. Let f(x) = e-x sin 100x
2
We know that -1 sin 100 x 1, x =
x =0
e x e x - e x . e 0 dx
-x
Also, for x > 0, 0 < e < 1
3p 2
e2 x
2
And sin 100x will have the minimum value -1 at x =
which e-x = 0.954 200
, at = ( e 2 x - e x ) dx =
x =0
2
- ex
x =0

Hints and Sol.indd 43 9/1/2015 6:02:02 PM


2.44|Engineering Mathematics

e4 e0 f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0.


= - e2 - - e0
2 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
e4 1 e 4 - 2e 2 + 1 Lt 1 - cos x
=
- e2 + = 15. x 0
2 2 2 x2
1 x2
= ( e 2 - 1)
2
Lt 2 sin
2 = x0 2
Hence, the correct option is (B). x2
2
11. cos2x = cos2x - sin2x x
sin 2
Lt
= 1(cos2x) + (-1) sin2x = x0 2
Linear dependent. x

Hence, the correct option is (C). 2
1
Lt sin ax 1
=2.
\ x 0 = a =
1 34
12. ( F . n) dA = p r 3 2
x 2
4 43
S Hence, the correct option is (B).
= p (1)3 = p 16. f(x) = x3 + 1
r=1
f(x) = 3x2 ; f (x) = 6x.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
f(x) = 0; f (x) = 0 at x = 0
13. Given the line y = x(1); and the parabola f(x) = x + 1 has a point of inflection at x = 0
3

y = x2 (2) Hence, the correct option is (D).


solving (1) & (2) 17. f (x, y, z) = x2 + y2 + z2 - 1 = 0
x2 = x
f t f
x ( x - 1) = 0 f = i+ j+ k
x y y
x = 0, 1
Normal vector ( f ) = 2x i + 2y j + 2z k
(1, 1)
1 1
Normal vector at the point , ,0
2 2
= 2i + 2 j
(1, 0)
(0, 0) 2i + 2 j 2i + 2 j
Unit normal vector = =
2+2 2
The area of the region between the parabola and theline
1 1
1 = i+ j
2 2
x - x dx2

0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
1
x x 2
1 1 1 3
q3 q5 q7
= - = - =
2 3 0 2 3 6 q=q-
18. sin + - + ..
3! 3! 3!
Hence, the correct option is (A). Standard definition.
Hence, the correct option is (B).
14. f(x) = - x when - 1 x < 0 = x when 0 x 1
Lt Lt sin 3q
x 0 - f (x) = x 0 - x = 0 19. Lt =1
q 0 q
Lt Lt
x 0 + f(x) = x 0 + x = 0 Hence, the correct option is (D).
Lt
x 0 f (x) = 0 and f(0) = 0 20. Given f(x) is an even function
f(x) is continuous at x = 0 f(-x) = f(x)
Lt f ( x + h) - f ( x ) a 0 a
f (x) = h 0
h f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx
-a -a 0
Lt f ( 0 - h) - f ( 0 ) -h 0
= h 0 = = -1
h h Consider f ( x ) dx
-a
Lt f ( 0 + h) - f ( 0 ) h Let x = - t
= h 0 = =+1
h h dx = -dt

Hints and Sol.indd 44 9/1/2015 6:02:09 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.45

L.L a = t 25. Y
U.L 0 = t
a 0 a B
f ( x ) dx = f ( -t ) ( - dt ) + f ( xt ) dt
-a a 0
X
a a 0 a A
 f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx Equation of the unit circle is x2 + y2 = 1
-a 0 0 0
a Along the path AB,
= 2 f ( x ) dx In polar coordinates,
0
X = cosq and y = sinq
Hence, the correct option is (D). p
And q Varies from q = 0 to q =
21. The volume of the solid of revolution of 2
p 2

( x + y) ( cosq + sin q )
2 2
y = f(x) about x - axis; a x b is = dq
b AB q =0

V = py 2 dx p 2

a = (1 + sin 2q ) dq
Here a = 1, b = 2 f(x) = x =y 0
p 2
1
2 = q - cos 2q
( x ) dx
2
Volume V = p 2 0
1
p 1 1
2
= - cos p - 0 - cos 0
2
x 2 3 2 2 2
= p xdx = p = p p
1 2 1
2 = +1
2
Hence, the correct option is (D). Hence, the correct option is (B).

26. Let P(x, y, z) be a point on the surface
dx 1
22. - 1 + x 2 = 0 1 + x 2 dx z2 = 1 + xy  (1)
Distance of P(x, y, z) from the origin
\
1
is an even function and =d= x2 + y2 + z2
1 + x2
Now we have to find the minimum value of d.
a a

f ( x ) dx = 2 f ( x ) dx for an even function f (x ) D is minimum, if d2 is minimum.
-a 0 So, let f(x, y, z) = d2 = x2 + y2 + z2

= 2tan x 0
-1
f = x2 + y2 + 1 + xy, (from (1))
= 2[tan-1 -tan-10] f f
= 2x + y and = 2y + x
x f
p
= 2 - 0 = p f f
2 Now f is minimum = 0 and =0
x y
Hence, the correct option is (D).
2x + y = 0 and x + 2y = 0
23. We know that x is continuous x R and differentiable x=y=0
everywhere except at x = 0 (0, 0) is a stationary point of f
f(x) = 2 - 3 x 2 is continuous x R and d ifferentiable
x -3 2 f 2 f
Now, r = = 2; s = = 1 and
R except at 2 - 3x = 0 x y x y
(i.e., x = 2/3) 2 f
t= =2
Hence, the correct option is (C). y 2
rt - s2 = 4 - 1 = 3 > 0, and r = 2 > 0
24. let F = 3xz i + 2xy j - yz2 k
f has a minimum value at x = y = 0
Also, at x = 0, y = 0, from (1); z2 = 1 + 0 0
DivF = . F = (3xz ) + ( 2 xy ) ( - yz 2 )
x y z Z = 1
Div F = 3 z + 2 x - 2 yz The points (0, 0, +1) and (0, 0, -1) are nearest to the origin
on the surface z2 = 1 + x y
DivF at (1,1,1) = 3 + 2 - 2 = 3 And the distance is d = 0 + 0 + 1 = 1
Hence, the correct option is (C). Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hints and Sol.indd 45 9/1/2015 6:02:15 PM


2.46|Engineering Mathematics

27. Y So, in the region P


B (4, 4)
x2 = 4y X varies from x = 0 to x = 2 - 2y
And y varies from y = 0 to y = 1
X 1 2- 2 y
0
xy dx dy =
P y =0 x =0
xy dxdy

y 2 = 4x 2- 2 y
1
x2
The area enclosed between the curves y2 = 4x and x2 = 4y and
4
= y = 0 2 y
0
dy
x2
A = 2 x - dx 1
x =0
4 1
( 2 - 2 y ) - 0] y dy
2 y= 0
2
=
4
4 x3 16
= x3 2 - = 1
3 12 0 3 1
( 4 y 3 - 8 y 2 + 4 y ) dy
2 y= 0
=
Hence, the correct option is (A).
28. The coefficient of (x - a)n in the Taylors series expansion of 1 4 8 3
1

f ( n) ( a ) = y - y + 2 y2
f(x) about x = a is 2 3 y =0
n!
1 8
Here f(x) = ex; a = 2 and n = 4 =
1 - + 2
2 3
f iv(x) = ex f iv(a) = f iv(2) = e2.
1
The coefficient of (x - 2)4 in the Taylors series expansion =
6
f iv ( 2 ) e 2
of ex about x = 2 is = Hence, the correct option is (A).
4! 4!
Hence, the correct option is (C). 32. Given f(x, y, z) = x2 + 2y2 + z

x1 3 - 2 x1 3 - 81 3 f f f
29. Lim = Lim f = i + j+ k
x 8 x -8 x 8 x -8 x y z

1 13 -1 x n - an = 2 xi + 4 y j + k
= 8 Lim = na n -1
3 xa x-a fat (1, 1, 2) = 2 i + 4 j + k
1
= a = 3i - 4 j a = 32 + ( -4 ) = 5
2
12
Hence, the correct option is (B).  a 3 4
n= = i j
30. Let F = ( x - y ) i + ( y - x ) j + ( x + y + z ) k a 5 5
The directional derivative of f(x, y, z) in the direction of a
is f . n
Div F = ( x - y ) + ( y - x ) + ( x + y + z )
x y z
3 4
=1+1+1=3 ( 5
)
= 2 i + 4 j + k . i - j = -2
5
Hence, the correct option is (D). 
Hence, the correct option is (B).
31. Y 33. option (A):
p 4
p 4
1 tan x dx = log (sec )
0
0

p
P = log sec - log ( sec 0 )
S 4
R

X
= log 2 - log1
0 2
= log 2 , not unbounded.
Here x - intercept = a = 2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Y - intercept = b = 1

Equation of the line joining (2, 0) and 1
0 x 2 + 1 dx = tan -1x
(0, 1) is 0

x y
+ =1 p
= tan-1 - tan-1 0 = , not unbounded.
2 1 2
x + 2y = 2  (1) Hence, the correct option is (C).

Hints and Sol.indd 46 9/1/2015 6:02:21 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.47


Also, it was given that the second derivatives of f(x, y) and
xe
0
-x
dx = e - x x 2 -1dx = (2) = 1!, not unbounded.
0
y(x, y) are continuous.
Hence, the correct option is (D). f f y y
So, , , and are continuous.
1
1
A
1 x y x y
1 - x dx = Lt - x dx
A1 So, W = f(z) = f + iY can be represented as an analytic
0 0
function, if f and Y satisfy cauchy - Riemann equations.
Lt ( - log (1 - x ) )

f y f -y
A1 0 i.e, = and =
x y y x
= Lt - log1 + log (1 - A)
A1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
= Lt ( log (1 - A) )
A1
38. Given y = x + x + x + x + ............ (1)
= log 0, unbounded. 
Hence, the correct option is (D). y - x = x + x + x + ............
34. The length of the curve y = f(x) between x = a and x = b Squaring on both sides,
b dy 2 (y - x)2 = x + x + x + ............
is 1 + dx
dx (y - x)2 = y (from (1))
a
y2 - 2xy + x2 = y  (2)
2
Here y = f(x) = x 3 2 ; a = 0 and b = 1 When x = 2; (2) becomes
3
y2 - 4y + 4 = y
dy 2 3 1 2
= x = x1/2 y2 - 5y + 4 = 0
dx 3 2
(y - 1) (y - 4) = 0
The length of the curve
y =1 or y = 4
(1 + ( x ) ) dx
1
From (1), when x = 2

2
= 12

0
y = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + ................ > 2
1
2 1

(1 + x ) dx = (1 + x ) y = 4 only
12 32
=
3 0
0 Hence, the correct option is (B).
2 2 39. Area of the triangle formed by the tips of vectors a , b and c
= 23 2 - = 1.22
3 3 is equal to
Hence, the correct option is (D). 1
35. f = yx A = a b + b c + c a
2
f 2 f 1

y
= xyx - 1 and = ( xy x -1 )
x y x
= (
2
)
a - b (a - c )

Hence, the correct option is (B).


= y x -1 + x ( y x -1 log y )

2 f x2 x 2 x3 x2
=1 e x - 1 + x + 1+ x + + + ...... - 1 + x +
2 2! 3! 2
xyat x = 2, y =1 40. Lim = Lim
x 0 x3 x 0 x3
Hence, the correct option is (C).
x2 x 2 x3 x2
36. Given y = x2 e x - 1 + x + 1+ x + + + ...... - 1 + x +
2 2! 3! 2
Lim = Lim
We know that y = x2 is an increasing function in x 0[1, 5] x3 x 0 x 3

So it will have minimum value at x = 1, which is given by f(1) x3 x 4 x5
= 12 = 1 3! + 4! + 5! + .....
= Lim
Hence, the correct option is (B). x 0 x3
37. If W = f (z) = u(x, y) + i (x, y) is a complex function, then it 1 x x2
is analytic, if x3 + + + .....
3! 4! 5!
= Lim
u u v v x 0 x 3
(i) , , and are continuous.
x y x y 1 x x2
= Lim + + + ......
and (ii) u and satisfy Cauchy - Riemann equations. x 0 3!
4! 5!
u v v u 1 1
i.e., = and = = =
x x x y 3! 6
let W = f(z) = f (x, y) + iy (x, y) Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hints and Sol.indd 47 9/1/2015 6:02:26 PM


2.48|Engineering Mathematics

41. The statements given in options (A), (B) and (D) are all correct. and here sin6x is even and sin7x is odd)
Consider the statements (C) a

S = {x : x e A and x e B} represents the intersection of sets A = 2 sin 6 xdx


0
and B, but NOT the union.
So, (C) is INCORRECT. Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (C). 46.
42. Given f(x) = (x - 8) + 1 2/3 Y
2
( x - 8)
-1 3
f 1(x) = y=2
3
B (0, 2)
-1
F (x) at (0, 5) =
1 A (8, 2)
3
Q
P
Equation of normal to the curve f(x) at (x0, y0)
-1
is y - y0 =
f ( x)
( x - x0 ) O

X

-1
y-5= ( x - 0) y=
x
( -1 3) 4
y - 5 = 3x
y = 3x + 5
Hence, the correct option is (B). 8 2

(2x 2 7x + 3)
Given I = f ( x, y ) dy dx
43. Lim f ( x ) = Lim 0 x 4
x 3 x 3 (5x 2 12x 9) 8 2
= f ( x, y ) dy dx
= Lim
(x 3) (2x 1) x 4 y=x 4
x 3 ( x 3) (5x + 3)
Here the region of integration is the triangle OAB as shown in

= Lim
(2x 1) = 5 the figure
x 3 (5x + 3) 18 By changing the order of integration, we first integrate w. r. t
x, from x = 0 to x = 4y along the strip PQ, followed by integra-
Hence, the correct option is (B). tion w.r.t y from y = 0 to y = 2
44. Stokes theorem says that 8 2 2 4y

If a vector point function F (x, y, z) is continuous and have I= f ( x, y ) dy dx = f ( x, y ) dy dx.


0 x 4 y =0 x =0
continuous first partial derivatives in an open surfaces,
bounded by a closed curve C traversed in counter clockwise q = 4y.
direction, then Hence, the correct option is (A).

 F . dr = cur F . ds
c s
47. Given x(u, v) = uv
y(u, v) = v/u
So, Stokes theorem relates a line integral and a surface
In change of variables, the integrand in f(x, y) changes to
integral.
v
Hence, the correct option is (A). f uv, f ( u, v ) , where
a
u
45. (sin 6
x + sin 7 x ) dx x x
-a
( x, y )
u v
f(u, v) = J = =
a
( u, v ) y y
= sin
-a
6
xdx + sin 7 xdx
u v
a v u
= 2 sin 6 xdx + 0 v v
= v 1 = +
0 u u
u2 u
a
a
2 f ( x ) dx; If f ( x ) is even f (u, v) =
2v
.
f ( x ) dx = 0 u
-a 0 ; If f ( x ) is odd
Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hints and Sol.indd 48 9/1/2015 6:02:31 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.49

48. p (1,1,1)
B
The value of the line integral
o(0 , 0 , 0)
V . d r is Independent of

1m the path along which the integration is done and will be equal to
D
p p
H
1m H-1 V .dr = . f dr  (1)
0 0

A O
R Where f = V

f f f
i.e. i + j+ k = 2xyz i + x2z j + x2y k
x y z
Let R be the radius and H be the height of the right circular
cone that is to be inscribed in the sphere of radius 1 m f f f
= 2xyz; = x2z and = x2y
Now OAD is a right angled triangle x y z
By Pythagoras theorem, we have f (x, y, z) = x2yz
AD2 = OA2 + OD2 From (1)
p p
1 = R2 + (H - 1)2
R2 = 1 - (H - 1)2 = 2H - H2
V .dr = .dr = fatP -fatO
0 0

1 = x2yzat(1,1,1) - x2yzat(0,0,0) = 1.
Volume of the cone = V = pR2H
3
Hence, the correct option is (A).
p
= (2H - H2)H
3 50. Given x = a(q + sin q) and y = a(1 - cos q)
p
V= (2H2 -H3) dx dy
3 = a (1 + cos q) and = a sin q
dq dq
dV p
= ( 4 H - 3H 2 ) dy
dH 3 dy dq a sin q
Now = =
dV dx dx a (1 + cos q )
For V to be maximum, =0 dq
dH
p
(4H - 3H2) = 0 sin q
3 =
1 + cos q
4
H = 0; H = q q
3 2 sin cos
= 2 2
d 2V p 4 d 2V p 4 2q
And = ( 4 - 6 H ) At H = ; = 4 -6 2 cos
dH 2 3 3 dH 2 3 3 2
2 dy q
=- p <0 = tan .
3 dx 2
4
V is maximum, when H = m. Hence, the correct option is (C).
3
Hence, the correct option is (D). 51. Given P = (0.86, 0.500, 0) and

49. Given V = 2xyz i + x2z j + x2y k Q = (0.259, 0.956, 0)

i j k Let q be the angle between P and Q



Curl V = V = P .Q
x y z cos q =
P Q
2 xyz x2z x2 y
P .Q
= (x2 - x2) i - (2xy - 2xy) j + (2xz - 2xz) k = (Given that the two vectors are of unit magnitude)
x
curl v = 0 = 0.86 0.259 + 0.500 0.956 + 0 0 cosq = 0.70074

Hints and Sol.indd 49 9/1/2015 6:02:38 PM


2.50|Engineering Mathematics

q = cos-1(0.70074) p 1
2p 3
q = 45. = dq sin f df r 2 dr
Hence, the correct option is (C). q =0 q =0 r =0

p
p 3 1

52. Volume = V =
2p 3 1

r 2
sinf drdf dq (
= q ]0
2p
)


- cos f ] r
3
0 .
3 0
0 0 0
p
2p
p
1
=
3
3
= r
q =0 f =0 r =0
2
sinf drdf dq
Hence, the correct option is (A).

Hints and Sol.indd 50 9/1/2015 6:02:39 PM


Chapter 3 Differential Equations
Hints/Solutions
Practice Problems 1 8. The given equation can be written as
Solutions for questions 1 to 80: ex y
dx = dy (variable separable method)
1. Clearly the order and degree of the given D.E is 2 and 1 respectively. e +1
x
y +1

Hence, the correct option is (D). ex y 1


dx = dy = 1 - dy
2. The given D.E. can be written as e +1x
y +1 y +1
3 log(ex + 1) = y log(y + 1) + c
dy 2 d 2 y 2
1 + = 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
dx dx 9. Using variable separable method, we get
Order is 2 and degree is also 2
xx
Hence, the correct option is (C). dy = |x| dx y = +c
2
4
3. Given equation is y = mx +  (1) Hence, the correct option is (D).
m
dy dy du
=m 10. Put x + y = u 1 + =
dx dx dx
dy 4 Substituting in the given equation we get
substituting m in (1) we have y = x +
dx dy
dx du du k 2 k 2 + u2
2 u2 - 1 = k2 = 2 +1 =
dy dy dx dx u u2
(or) x - y + 4 = 0 is the required D.E.
dx dx u2 k2
du = dx or 1 - 2 du = dx
Hence, the correct option is (A). k +u
2 2
k + u2
4. Given: xy = aex + bex  (1) Integrating on both sides we get
Differentiating w.r. t x, we get k2
dy
x + y = aex bex
1 - k 2 du = dx
+ u2
dx
1 u
Again differentiating w.r.t x, we get u k2 k tan1 k = x + c
d 2 y dy dy
x. 2 + + = aex + bex
dx dx dx x +y
= x + y k tan1 =x+c
d2y dy k
x . 2 + 2 = xy (from (1))
dx dx x +y
the general solution is y k tan1 = c.
which is the required D.E. k
Hence, the correct option is (C).
Hence, the correct option is (B).
11. Put 3x + y + 1 = u
Note: The arbitrary constants have to be eliminated while
forming the D.E. dy du dy du
3+ = = 3
5. We note that c2 log c3 and c5 e can be replaced by single
c4 dx dx dx dx
constant. Thus the solution can be written as Substituting in the given equation
y = c1log x + c2ex + c3. Thus the order is 3. du du
Hence, the correct option is (B). 3 = u2 2 = dx
dx u +3
6. The equation of all rectangular hyperbolas with axes as
du
or
u2 + 3
asymptotes is = dx
xy = c2 (c is a constant)
xy1 + y = 0 (by differenting both sides) 1 u
tan -1 = x+c
Hence, the correct option is (C). 3 3

7. Given: D.E. can be written as


sec 2 x
dx +
sec 2 y
dy = 0 1 ( 3 x + y + 1)
tan x tan y or tan -1 = x + c
(separating the variables) 3 3
sec 2 x sec 2 y
Integrating both sides we have dx + dy = 0 Hence, the correct option is (B).
tan x tan y
log tan x + log tan y = log c dy dv
12. Put y = vx =v+x
tan x tan y = c. At x = y = p/4, c = 1 dx dx
The particular solution of the given D.E. is tan x tan y = 1 dy x y
Substituting in = we have
Hence, the correct option is (A). dx x + y

Chapter 3 solution .indd 51 9/1/2015 4:02:01 PM


2.52|Engineering Mathematics

dv x - vx 1 - v a1 b1 dy dt
v+x = = We have = Put x 2y = t 1 2 =
dx x + vx 1 + v a2 b2 dx dx
dv 1 - v - v - v 2 1 - 2v - v 2 dy 1 1 dt
x = = = -
dx 1+ v 1+ v dx 2 2 dx
1+ v dx 1+ v dx
.dv = dv = 1 1 dt t +1 1 dt t +1 1
1 - 2v - v 2 x 1 - 2v - v 2 x = =
2 2 dx 2t + 3 2 dx 2t + 3 2
let 1 2v v2 = t
1 dt 2t + 2 - 2t - 3 -1
dt = =
( 2 2v) dv = dt (1 + v) dv = - 2 dx 2 ( 2t + 3) 2 ( 2t + 3)
2
dt dx (2t + 3) dt = dx (2t + 3) dt = dx

2t x
=
t2
+ 3t = x + c = ( x - 2 y ) + 3 ( x - 2 y ) = x + c
2
2
- log (1 - 2v - v 2
) = log x + log c 2
1 log t = log x + c
2 2 x2 4xy + 4y2 + 2x 6y = c
1 1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
log = log xc 1 2v v2 = 2 2
1 - 2v - v
2 xc
dy
15. Given cos y + 3 x 2 sin y = x 2
2 y y2 1 dx
but v = y/x 1 - = x2 2xy y2 = k
x x 2 x 2c 2 dy dz
Put sin y = z cos y =
x2 2xy y2 = k (constant) dx dx
dz
Hence, the correct option is (C). Then, the above equation becomes + 3x 2 z = x 2
dx
13. The given equation can be written as The above equation is linear
y y Hence, the correct option is (C).
y x cos + y sin
dy x x
= 16. Comparing the given D.E. with M dx + N dy = 0
dx y y
x y sin x cos We have M = yexy
x x
which is a homogeneous equation. M
= e xy + ye xy x
dv dy y
So, we put y = vx v + x =
dx dx N
N = xexy + 2y = exy + x exy.y
dv v [cos v + v sin v ] x
x = v
dx v sin v - cos v M N
= given D.E. is exact
v cos v + v sin v - v sin v + v cos v
2 2 y x
=
v sin v - cos v Solution is Mdx + (the term not containing x in N) dy = c
dv 2v cos v yexydx + 2ydy exy + y2 = c
x =
dx v sin v - cos v Hence, the correct option is (B).
dx v sin v - cos vdv 17. Given (x2 + xy y2)dx + (xy x2 )dy = 0
2 =
x v cos v there M = x2 + x y y2 and N = x y x2
dx 1 M N
2 = tan v - dv = x - 2 y and = y - 2x
x v y x
dx 1 M V
2
x
= tan v - dv The equation is not exact as
v y x
2 log x + log c = log sec v log v M x + N y = x3 + x2y xy2 + xy2 x2y = x3
sec v y y Integrating factor of the given equation is 1/x3
cx2 = or cx2 = sec
v x x Hence, the correct option is (B).
18. I.F of the equation is e = e
pdx 3 x dx 2

= ex
3

y
The general solution is sec = c xy
x Solution is z IF = QIF dx
Hence, the correct option is (D). z e x = x 2e x dx + C
3 3

dy x - 2y +1 1
3
14. Given: =  (1) ze x =
3
3 x 2e x dx + C
3

dx 2 x - 4 y + 3

Chapter 3 solution .indd 52 9/1/2015 4:02:10 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.53

1 dy du
sin y e x = e x + C
3 3
Let y1 = u y -2 = . Using this result (1) can be written
3 dx dx
- du
Hence, the correct option is (D). as + cot xu = sin x
dx
dy x 1- x
19. The given equation can be written as - y = du
dx 1 + x 1+ x - cot xu = - sin x
dy dx
which is a linear D.E of the form + Py = Q
dx I.F = epdx = ecotx dx = e log(sinx) = cosecx
x 1 x I F = cosec x
Here, P = ,Q=
1+ x 1+ x Hence, the correct option is (A).
Integrating factor (I.F.) = epdx
22. Solution of the equation is u. I. F = QIF dx + c
x 1 u cosec x = sinx cosecx dx + c
pdx = dx = - 1 dx = log (1 + x ) - x
1+ x 1 + x u cosec x = Idx + c
log (1+ x )
e 1+ x 1
I.F epdx = elog (1 + x) x = = cosec x = - x + c
ex ex y
solution is y I.F = Q.I.F dx p
When x = and y = 1
1+ x 1- x 1+ x 2
The y x = dx cos ec p 2 -p
e 1 + x ex = +c
1 2
1+ x
y x = (1- x ) e - x dx = (1- x ) ( -e - x ) - - ( -e - x ) dx p +2
C = 1 + p/2 c =
e 2
= (1 x) ex ex = ex (1 1 + x) = xex + c cosec x p +2
The solution is +x=
y (1 + x) = x + cex at x = 0 and y = 1, c = 1, y 2
The solution = y (1 + x) = x + ex Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hence, the correct option is (B). dy
23. Given + 3 xy = y n x
dy dx
20. The given equation is x + y = y2 log x which is a Bernoullis
equation dx Dividing the equation throughout with y n we get
dy
1 dy 1 log x 1 1 dy du + 3 xy - n +1 = x
y-n
+ = Put y = u 2 = dx
y dx xy
2
x y dx dx
dy du
y - n +1 = u (1 - n ) y - n +1-1 =
Substituting in the given equation we have dx dx
- du u log x du u - log x 1 du du
+ = or - = + 3 xu = x, + 3 (1 - n ) xu = (1 - n ) x
dx x x dx x x 1 - n dx dx
3(1- n ) xdx
-1 log x I F = e = e 3(1- n) x
pdx
=e 2
2

which is a linear D.E. Here, P = ,Q=


x x
1 1 The G . S. is u. I F = Q I.F dx
1
I.F. = e x = e x =
- dx log
3 (1- n )
x y - n +1 e 3(1- n) x
2
2
= (1 - n ) e 2 xdx
1 log x 1
The solution is u = . dx 1 dx 3 (1 - x ) x 2
x x x =
3 e 2 xdx where t =
e 2
u 1 1
= - ( - log x ) + - 2 dx 3 (1 - n ) x 2 1
x x x y - ne = e 3 (1 - n ) x 2 + c
2 3
u log x 1
= + +c ( n -1) 3 x 2

x x x 1
y1- n = + ce 2
1 1 3
= 1 + cx + log x u = Hence, the correct option is (A).
y y
Hence, the correct option is (D). 24. Given 2x y d y + (x2 + y2 + 1)dx = 0 (1)
here, M = x2 + y2 + 1 and N = 2xy
dy
21. Given + ( cot x ) y = y 2 sin x M N
dx = 2 y and = 2y
Dividing the equation throughout by y2 we get y x
dy M N
y 2 dx + ( cot x ) y = sin x
-1
(1) The equation (1) is exact as =
y x

Chapter 3 solution .indd 53 9/1/2015 4:02:19 PM


2.54|Engineering Mathematics

Solution is u + f(y)dy = c D4 8D3 + 24D2 32D + 16 = 0


x
(D 2) = 0 4
Where u = md x andf ( y ) = The terms of N not c ontaining x
0
D = 2, 2, 2, 2,
(x2 + y2 + 1) dx + 0 = c As D = 2 is a real root that is repeated four times,
x3 The general solution of (1) is
+ xy 2 + x = c
3  y = (C1 + C2x + C3x2 + C4x3) e2x  (2)
Hence, the correct option is (C). Hence, from the options and equation (2), a solution of the
differential equation (1) is
25. Given equation is (3xy + 2y2)dx + (x2 + 2xy)dy = 0
here, M = 3xy + 2y2 and N = x2 + 2xy y = (1 8x + 24x2 32x3) e2x.
Hence, the correct option is (A).
M N
= 3 x + 4 y and = 2x + 2 y 31. Auxiliary Equation of the differential equation
y x
d4x d2x
1 M N 1 1 + 13 + 36x = 0  (1)
- = [ x + 2 y] = = f ( x ) dt
4
dt 2
N y x x 2 + 2 xy x
is D4 + 13D2 + 36 = 0
1
f ( x ) dx (D2 + 4) (D2 + 9) = 0
I.F = e
x dx

=e = e log x = x
Multiplying with x D2 + 4 = 0; D2 + 9 = 0
D = 2i; D = 3i
(3x2y + 2xy2)dx + (x3 + 2x2y)dy = 0
The general solution of (1) is
Now, the above equation is exact
x = c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t + c3 cos 3t + c4 sin 3t.
Solution u + f(y) dy = c
x Hence, the correct option is (D).
u = M1dx andf ( y ) = The terms of N1 not containing x. 32. Particular integral of the D.E. (D2 4D + 3) y = e3x is
x
1 1 1 3x 1 1 3x
= ( 3 x 2 y + 2 xy 2 ) dx + 0 = c e3 x = e = e
( D - 3) ( D - 1) D - 3 D - 1 2 D - 3
= x3y + x2y2 = C 1 3 x 3 x -3 x
Hence, the correct option is (B). e e e dx
2
26. The auxiliary equation (A.E) is m2 6m + 8 = 0 1
P.I = e3x.x
(m 2) (m 4) = 0 m = 2, m = 4 2
Hence, the correct option is (A).
The solution is y = c1e2x + c2e4x

Hence, the correct option is (C). 1
33. P.I is 6 e0.x
27. The auxiliary equation is am2 + bm + c = 0 D2 ( D - 4)

As discriminant equals to zero implies it has equal roots as it
6 1 -3 1 -3 1
has equal roots, each root is equal to 5. = 2 = e = e x
D 0 - 4 2 D 2 2 D
The solution is y = (c1 + c2x)e5x

Hence, the correct option is (C). -3 x 2 -3 x
= =
2 2 4
28. The auxiliary equation is m3 + 3m2 4 = 0 (m 1)
(m + 2)2 = 0 Hence, the correct option is (C).

m = 1, 2, 2 (repeated roots)
2e x
The general solution is y = (c1 + c2x)e -2 x + c3ex 34. P.I. is cosh2x
( D - 1) ( D - 3)
2

Hence, the correct option is (B).


29. The auxiliary equation is m4 4m2 4m 1 = 0
=
1
2ex
( e 2 x + e -2 x ) =
(m + 1)2 (m2 2m 1) = 0 (D 1) (D 3)
2
2
m = 1, 1, 1 2 (repeated and irrational roots) 1 e- x
e3 x +
( D - 1) ( D - 3) ( D - 1) ( D - 3)
2 2
The general solution is
y = (c1 + c2 x) e - x+ ex {c3cosh 2x + c4sinh 2x} xe 3 x e - x
+
Hence, the correct option is (C). 4 -16
30. The auxiliary equation of the given differential equation 1 3x e- x 1
= xe - or {4 xe - e }
-x
3x

d4 y d3 y d2y dy 4 4 16
- 8 3 + 24 2 - 32 + 16 y = 0 (1) is
dx 4
dx dx dx Hence, the correct option is (D).

Chapter 3 solution .indd 54 9/1/2015 4:02:25 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.55

35. P.I. of the D.E. is d2y dy


Comparing this with +P +Ay=x
1 1 1 dx 2 dx
cos 2x = cos 2x = cos 2x
( D 2
+ 3D + 2 ) 4 + 3D + 2 3D 2 We have p = 5; Q = 6 and X = 5e3x
By the method of variation of parameters, the particular inte-
3D + 2
= cos2x gral of (1) is
9D 2 - 4
Yp = A(x) e2x + B(x) e3x
3 ( - sin 2 x 2 ) + 2 cos 2 x -6 sin 2 x + 2 cos 2 x
= =
9 ( -4 ) - 4 -40 Where A(x) =
y2 X
dx =
e -3 x 5e -3 x
dx
w -e -5 x
3 sin 2 x - cos 2 x
= = 5 e 5 x dx A(x) = e5x.
20
Hence, the correct option is (B). Hence, the correct option is (B).
40. Given (D2 + 5D + 6)y = e5x
1
36. P.I. is (x2 2x + 4) A E = m2 + 5m + 6 = 0
D ( D - 1)
(m + 3)(m + 2) = 0, m = 3, 2
1 1
= - (x2 2x + 4) C.F = C1e 3x
+ C2 e 2x

D - 1 D
here, u(x) = e3x and v(x) = e2x
1 2
= (1 D)1 (x2 2x + 4) (x 2x + 4) VR
D A = - dx
x 3 2x 2 dv du
= (1 + D + D2 +..) (x2 2x + 4) + 4x u -v
3 2 dx dx
- x3 2x 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
= ( x2 + 2x 4 2x + 2 2) + + - 4x
3 2
UR
x 3 41. B = dx
= 4x 4 udv vdu
3 -
dx dx
Hence, the correct option is (D).
udv vdu
- = e -3 x ( -2e -2 x ) - e -2 x ( -3) e -3 x = e 5x
37. Auxillary equation m2 m 2 = 0 m = 1, 2 dx dx
C.F. is c1 ex + c2 e2x e -3 x e 5 x e7 x
B= -5 x
dx = e 7 xdx =
1 e 7
P.I is 2 e2x sinx
( D D 2) Hence, the correct option is (C).

e 2x e 2x 42. The auxiliary equation is m2 + 1 = 0


sin x = sin x
( D + 2 )2 ( D + 2 ) 2 D + 3D
2
m=i

e 2x The solution is y = c1 cos x + c2 sin x


sin x When x = 0 and y = 2 we have c1 = 2
( ) + 3D
1
and when x = p/2 and y = 2 we have c2 = 2
e 2 x ( 3D + 1) sin x e2 x
= = [3 cos x + sin x ] The required solution is y = 2 (cos x sin x)
9D 2 - 1 -10
Hence, the correct option is (B).
The solution is y = C.F + P.I
d2y dy
e2 x 43. Given 3 x 2 + x - y = x2  (1)
i.e. y = c1 e + c2 e (3 cos x + sin x)
x 2x
dx 2 dx
10 This is a cauchys linear equation.
Hence, the correct option is (D). dy
Put x = ez z = logx and q =
38. The wronskian of the two solutions y1 = e2x and y2 = xe2x is dz
dy d 2y
given by x = qy x 2
= q (q 1) y
y1 y 2 e 2x xe 2 x dx dx 2
= 2x The given equation is changed as follows
y1 y 2
1 1
2e 2xe 2 x + e 2 x
[3q(q 1) + q 1]y = e2z
= 2xe4x + e4x 2xe4x
= e4x. [3q2 2q 1]y = e2z
Hence, the correct option is (A). AE is 3m2 2m 1 = 0
39. Given differential equation is (3m + 1)(m 1) = 0
d 2y dy m = 1/3 or m = 1
+ 5 + 6y = 5e3x  (1)
dx
2
dx CF = C1 e1/3z + c2 ez

Chapter 3 solution .indd 55 9/1/2015 4:02:31 PM


2.56|Engineering Mathematics

1 1 e 2z py f (x2 y2) y = xq f (x2 y2) x.


PI= e2 z = e 2z =
3q - 2q - 1 3 ( 2) 2 ( 2) 1
2
2
7 py + xq = (x y) (f(x2 y2))
1
py + xq = z
- z e2 z
G S is y = C1 e 3 + c2e z + Hence, the correct option is (B).
7
x 2 2 z
y = C1 x -1 3 + c2 x + 48. Given = cos (x y)
7 x 2
Hence, the correct option is (D). Integrating w.r.t. x, keeping others as constant
z 1
= sin (x y) + f (y)
d2y dy x y
44. x 2 2 + 7 x + 9 y = x 4 log x
dx dx Again integrating w.r.t x keeping others as constant
The above equation is cauchys equation -1
z= cos (x y) + x f (y) + g (y)
Put x = e ; z = log x
z y2
dy d2y y2 z + cos (x y) = xy2 f (y) + y2 g (y)
x =q x2 = q (q - 1)
dx dx 2 Hence, the correct option is (D).
The given equation becomes
49. Given x2p + y2q = (x + y)z
(q (q 1) + 7q + 9)y = e4zz
The above equation is in the from Pp + Qq = R
(q2 + 60 + 9)y = e4zz
dx dy dz
A E = m2 + 6m + 9 = 0 = (m + 3)2 = 0 m = 3 The auxiliary equations are = =
x 2 y2 ( x + y ) z
4z
( )
C F1= c1 + c 2 z e 3z, P I = 2
1
q + 6q + 9
e z Taking
dx dy 1 1
= 2 = + c1
x 2
y x y
1 1 1 1 1
e4 z z = e4 z z = e4 z z - = c1
(q + 3) (q + 4 + 3) (q + 7 )
2 2 2
x y
-2 x y = c1 xy (1)
e4 z q e 4 z 2q e 4 z -2
= 1+ z = 1- z= z

49 7 49 7 49 7 Taking
dx dy
=
dz

dx dy dz
=
x 2 y 2 ( x + y) z x y z
e 4z 2 4z
P I is z e log (x y) = log z
49 343
(x y) c2 = z
x 4 log x 2 4 x-y
= - x c2 =
49 343 z
Hence, the correct option is (C). c xy xy
from (1) c2 = 1 c3 =
45. The given equation is z z
2 z z z
2
xy x - y
+ 3xy + 5 = 8 which has order 2 and degree 1. Solution is f , = 0.
x 2

x y z z

Hence, the correct option is (C). Hence, the correct option is (B).
46. Given z = (x a) (y b)
50. Given x (x2 + 3y2) p y (3x2 + y2) q = 2z (y2 x2)
z z
p = = y b, q = =xa The auxiliary equations are
x y
p q = (x a) (y b) = z. dx dy dz
= =
x ( x 2 + 3 y 2 ) y (3x 2 + y 2 ) 2 z ( y 2 - x 2 )
Hence, the correct option is (B).

47. z = (x y) f (x2 y2)  (1) 1 1 -1


Take P1 = , Q1 = , R1 =
x y z
z
= 1 f (x2 y2) + (x y) f1 (x2 y2) 2x (1) PP1 + QQ1 + RR1 = x2 + 3y2 3x2 y2 2y2 + 2x2 = 0

x
z 1 1 1
= ( 1) f (x2 y2) + (x y) f1 (x2 y2) ( 2y) dx + dy dz = 0
y x y z
xy
p f (x2 y2) = (x y) f1 (x2 y2) 2x log x + log y log z = log C1 = c1
z
q + f (x2 y2) = (x y) f1 (x2 y2) ( 2y)
x2 + y2
Again take P = x, Q = y and R =
p - f ( x2 - y2 ) -x 2z
= =
q + f ( x2 - y2 ) y P P + Q Q + R R

Chapter 3 solution .indd 56 9/1/2015 4:02:39 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.57

= x2 (x2 + 3y2) y(3x2 + y2) (+y) + (y2 x2)


( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 z = 0. 54. Given PDE is
2u 2u
+5 2 =0 (1)
2z x 2
y
x2 + y2 xdx + xdy 1 Let u (x, y) = X(x). Y(y) be the solution of (1) obtained by the
xdx + ydy + dz = 0, 2 + dz = 0 method of separation of variables
2z x +y2 2z
u u 2u 2u
2 x dx + 2 y dy 1 1 1 = X1 y, = XY1 2 = X11Y and 2 = XY11
+ dz = 0, 2 d (x2 + y2) + dz = 0 x y x y
x2 + y2 z x + y2 z
Substituting these in (1), we get
log (x2 + y2) + log z = log c2
X11y + 5 XY11 = 0
(x2 + y2) z = c2
x11 y11
xy +5 =0
Solution is f , ( x 2 + y 2 ) z = 0 x y
z
Hence, the correct option is (A). x11 y11
=5 = k (k is a constant)
51. (2p + 1) q = pz (1) x y
let u = x + ay. x11 y 11
dz dz = k and 5 =k
,q=a .p= x y
du du
x11 = kx 5y11 = ky
Substitute these values in (1)
x11 kx = 0 5y11 + ky = 0
dz dz dz dz z
2 du + 1 a du = du z, 2 du + 1 = a Hence, the linear differential equation involving in dependent
variable x is x11 kx = 0
dz z a d2x
2 = 1, 2 dz = du i.e. 2 kX (x) = 0.
du a z-a dx
Integrating both sides we get, 2a log (z a) = u + b. Hence, the correct option is (B).
2a log (z a) = x + ay + b
55. Comparing the given PDE
Hence, the correct option is (C).
3x2uxx 6xyuxy + 3y2uyy 5ux + 7uy = 6x2y  (1)
52. Given q2 x (1 + y2) = py2
With Auxx + Buxy + Cuyy + F(x, y, u, ux, uy) = 0
q 2 (1 + y 2 ) p
= We have A = 3x2, B = 6xy and C = 3y2
y2 x
B2 4AC = (6xy)2 4x 3x2 3y2 = 0
let
p
= a, q 2
(1 + y 2 ) =a B2 4AC = 0
x y2 Hence, (1) is parabolic.
ay 2 ay 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
p = ax and q = ,q=
2
1+ y 2
1+ y 2 56. L (2sin2 2t) = L {1 cos 4t} = L {1} L {cos 4t}
ay 2 1 s
dz = pdx + qdy dz = axdx + dy = - 2 .
1 + y2 s s + 16
ax 2 1 Hence, the correct option is (C).
z = + a 2 1 + y2 + b
2 2 57. L {(t + 1)3} = L {t3} + 3L {t2} + 3 L{t} + L {1}
ax 2
z = + a 1 + y 2 + b. 3! 2! 3 1
2 = + 3 3 + 2 + , (s > 0)
Hence, the correct option is (C). s4 s s s
6 + 6s + 3s 2 + s 3
53. Given pqz = q2 (yp + q2) + p2 (xq + p2) =
s4
q p
z = ( yp + q 2 ) + ( xq + p 2 ) Hence, the correct option is (D).
p q
58. We have L {tcos22t}
q3 p3
z = qy + + px + 1 + cos 4t 1 1
p q = L = L {1} + L {cos 4t}
2 2 2
p3 q3
z = px + qy + + 1 1 s 1 s 2 + 16 + s 2
q p = + 2 ,=
This is clairaut equation 2 s 2 s + 16 2 s ( s 2 + 16 )
a3 b3 s2 + 8
z = ax + by + + = = f(s)
b a s ( s 2 + 16 )
Hence, the correct option is (A). By using shifting property i.e., L(eatf(t)) = f(s a)

Chapter 3 solution .indd 57 9/1/2015 4:02:47 PM


2.58|Engineering Mathematics

L[e2t cos22t] = f(s + 2) where L[f(t)] = f(s) t e - st 3 1 3


1
= + e dt
- st
s 2 + 4 s + 12 1 - e -3 s - s 0 s 0
=
( s + 2 ) ( s 2 + 4 s + 20 ) 3 3
1 e st
e 3s +
Hence, the correct option is (A).
s s s 0
59. We know that L {sinh 3t} =
3
= F (s) (1 e 3s )
s -9 2

-3 -3 s 1 -3 s 1
L {ei3t sinh 3t} = F (s 3i) =
3
= 2
3 s e - s2 e + s2
( s - 3i ) - 9
2
( s - 18 ) - 6i =
(1 - e -3s )
( s 2 - 18 ) + 6 si
= 3 or L {sinh 3t (cos 3t + isin 3t)} 1
2 = 1 - e -3 s - 3se -3 s
( s - 18 ) - ( 6 si ) s (1 - e -3 s )
2 2
2

3 ( s 2 - 18 ) + 18si Hence, the correct option is (C).


= or L {sinh 3t cos 3t} +iL {sinh 3t sin 3t}
s 4 + 324
e at e bt b
63. We know that dt = log
3 ( s - 18 )
2
18si t a
= 4 + 4 (1) 0
s + 324 s + 324  Taking a = 4 and b = 8,
Comparing real parts
e -4 t - e -8t 8
L {sinh 3t cos 3t} =
3 ( s 2 - 18 )
0 t
dt = log = log 2
4
s 4 + 324
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (C).
-d
64. We know that L {t sin 3t} =
ds
{L (sin 3t )}
s
60. We know L {cos 3t} =
s +92
d 3 6s
or e 2t t sin 3t dt = =
d2 s 0
ds s 2 + 9 (s 2 + 9)2
L {t2 cos 3t} = (1)2 2 2
ds s + 9
12 12
Putting S = 2 we have e -2t t sin 3tdt = = .
(13)
2
169
d ( s 2 + 9 ) - s ( 2s ) d d s 0
= = 2 Hence, the correct option is (D).
ds ( s 2 + 9 )2 ds ds s + 9

65. Here, f (t) is not defined at t = 0 and t = 1
d 9 - s 2 ( s 2 + 9 ) ( -2 s ) - ( 9 - s 2 ) 2 ( s 2 + 9 ) ( 2 s )
2
1
= = L {f (t)} = e - st 2dt + e - st 1dt
ds ( s 2 + 9 )2
( )
2
( s2 + 9)
2
0 1
1

= 2
e e - st
- st

=
( s 2 + 9 ) ( -2s3 - 18s - 36 s + 4 s3 ) +
-s 0 -s 1
( s2 + 9)
4

-2e - s 2 e - s 1
2s 2 54s 2 s ( s 2 - 27 )
s
+ +
s
=
s
= 2 - e - s , s > 0
s
= =
(s 2 + 9)3 ( s2 + 9 )3 Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (B). 9 7
1 t2
-1
t2
s 66. L1 9 = =
61. We know L {cos 4t} = = F (s) 9 75 31 p
s 2 + 16 s 2 G
2 2 2 2 2

cos h4t

x 1
L = 2 dx = log ( x 2 + 16 ) 16 t 7
t s x + 16 2 =
s 105 p
1 1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
= Lt log ( x 2 + 16 ) - log s 2 + 16
2 x 2

As Lt log ( x 2 + 16 ) is infinite the above value does not exist. 8 4 2s
x 67. L-1 - -
Hence, the correct option is (D).
3 s - 2 16 s 2
- 25 16 s 2
- 25

3
62. Clearly f(t) is a periodiC Function of period p = 3
We know that f(t) is a periodiC Function with period p, then
8 1 1 4 1 1 2 1 s
p
e - st f ( t ) dt 3
te - st dt = L L L
L { f ( t )} = = 3 s 2 16 s 2 25 16 s 2 25
0 1- e - sp
0 1- e
-3 s
3 16 16

Chapter 3 solution .indd 58 9/1/2015 4:02:55 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.59

1
= et + 2et e3t + 3.e3t L1 2

8 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 s s
= L-1 - L - L = et + 2et e3t + 3.e3tt.
3 s - 2 4 2 5 2 8 2 5 2
3 s - 4 s - 4 Hence, the correct option is (C).
s-4
8 11 5t 1 5t = log ( s - 4 ) - log ( s + 3)
72. Let F(s) = log
= e 2 3t - sin h - cos h . s+3
3 45 4 8 4
1 1
4 (s) =
F -
8 1 5t 1 s-4 s+3
= e 2 3t - sin h - cos h 5t 4
3 5 4 8 L-1 {F ( s )} = e 4 t - e -3t ( -1) tL-1 {F ( s )} = e 4 t - e -3t
Hence, the correct option is (C). 1 -3t
\ L-1 {F ( s )} =
( e - e 4t )
t

-1
1 1 Hence, the correct option is (C).
68. L-1 2 =L
s - 8s + 20 ( s - 4 ) + 4
2
73. From the above solution we have
s - 4 1 -3t
1 e 4t L-1 log = (e - e )
4t
sin 2t =
= e4t sin 2t . s + 3 t
2 2
t
Hence, the correct option is (B). 1 s - 4
= f ( x ) dx where
s + 3 0
L-1 log
1 s
1
69. We have L-1 5
= e 4 t L-1 5 e -3t - e 4 t
t
e -3 x - e -4 x
( s - 4 ) s f ( t ) = L-1 {F ( s )} = = dx
t 0 x
t4 1
= e4t = t 4 e 4 t Hence, the correct option is (D).
4! 24
t

e 3s 1 (t 3)4 e 4 (t 3) t > 3 74. Let f (t) = sin x cos ( t - x ) dx


L1 5
= 24 0

(s 4 ) 0 t < 3 By convolution theorem we have


1 s s
1 L{f(t)}= L{sin t} L {cos t} = 2 =
( t - 3) e 4(t -3) H ( t - 3).
=
4
s + 1 s 2 + 1 ( s 2 + 1)2
24
s 1 d 1
Hence, the correct option is (C). f (t) = L1 = L1
2 2
(s + 1) 2 ds s + 1
2

1 1
70. As L-1 2 = sin 2t -1 -1 d 1 -1 1 -1 1
s + 4 2 = L 2 = t ( -1) L 2

By division theorem 2 ds s + 1 2 s + 1
1 t cos 2t t
L-1 2 = sin 2xdx = +1 = sin t
s ( s + 4 ) 0 2 2
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 t 1 cos 2 x t sin 2t
= -
t
dx = -
-1
L 2 2
s ( s + 4 ) 0 2 2 2 4 75. We know that f * g = f ( x ) g ( t - x ) dx
0


t
1 x 1 t 2
cos 2t 1 t
L1 3 2 = sin 2x dx = + 2 * 2 2.2dx = 4t = 22.t
(s s + 4 ) 0 2 4 4 8 8 0
t

1 1 1 t 2 cos 2t 1 2 * 2 * 2 = 4t * 2 = 8 x dx = 4t 2
L1 2 2 L = + -
s (s + 4 )
0
24 8 8 t2
t
= 8 (2 * 2 * 2) * 2 = ( 4t 2 ) * 2 = 4 x 2 2dx
t 2 cos 2t 1 2! 0
= + -
8 16 16 t3 t3
8 or 16
Hence, the correct option is (A). 3 3!

2 s3 - 13s 2 + 34 s - 15 Proceeding like this 2 * 2 * 2 * ..* 2 for n times
71. L-1 2 n t n 1
( s - 1) ( s - 3)
2
2
= ,for n = 1, 2, 3,.....
(n 1)!
1 2 1 3
= L1 + + Hence, the correct option is (C).
2
s 1 s + 1 s 3 (s 3) 76. Given (D4 16)y = 1
1
-1
1 1 -1 1 -1 Taking Laplace transform on both sides we have
= L-1
+ 2L - L + 3L 2
s - 1 s + 1 s - 3 ( s - 3) L {yIV} 16L {y} = L {1}

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2.60|Engineering Mathematics

or s4 L {y} s3y (0) s2y1 (0) sy11 (0) y111 (0) 16L{y} The general solution of the above equation is
1 1
= or (s4 16)L {y} = u = Ae sx
+ Be - sx
s s
But u (x, t) must be bounded as x
1 1
L{y} = = u (x, s) = L {u (x, t)} must also be bounded as x
s ( s - 16 ) s (s 2) (s + 2) (s 2 + 4 )
4

A = 0 u = Be (1), But u (0, t) = 1.


sx
-1 1 s s 1
= + + L {u (0, t)} = L {1} = u (0, s) =  (2)
16 s 32 ( s 2 - 4 ) 32 ( s 2 + 4 ) s
1
-1 -1 1 1 -1 s 1 -1 s From (1) and (2), B =
y = L + L + L s
16 s 32 s 2 - 4 32 s 2 + 4 1 - sx 1 x
u = e or u = L-1 e - sx = erf
-1 1 1 s s 2 t
= + cos h 2t + cos 2t
16 32 32 Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (D). 2 y 2 y
77. Given (D2 5D + 6)y = 1 e2t 79. Given = a2 2
t 2
y
Taking Laplace transform on both sides we have Applying Laplace transform on both sides of the above equa-
L {y11} 5L {y1} + 6L {y} = L {1} L {e2t} tion we have
or s2L {y} sy (0) y1 (0) 5 [sL {y} y (0)] + 6L {y} 2 y 2 y
L 2 = a2 L 2
1 1 t x
= d2y
s s+2 or s2 y (x, s) sy (x, 0) y (x, 0) = a2
2 dx 2
or (s2 5s + 6)L {y} s + 5 = d 2 y s2
s (s + 2 ) or y = 0 (1)
dx 2 a 2
2 1
or (s 3) (s 2) L {y} = + s-5 Also y (0, s) = L {t} = 2 and y (x, s) = 0 as x
s ( s + 2) s
2 + s 3 3s 2 10s The solution of (1) is given by
L {y} =
s (s + 2) (s 3) (s 2)
s -s
y (x, s) = c1e a x + c e a x
2
1 1 11 28
y (x, s) = 0 as x it follows that c1 = 0 and y (0, s)
= - + -
6 s 20 ( s + 2 ) 4 ( s - 2 ) 15 ( s - 3) 1
= 2 =B
1 -1 1 1 -1 1 11 -1 1 28 -1 1 s
y = L - L + L - L 1 -s x
6 s 20 s + 2 4 s - 2 15 s - 3 Hence, y (x, s) = 2 e a
s
1 1 -1 1 11 -1 1 28 -1 1
- L + L - L 1 -s
x 1
s 20 s + 2 4 s - 2 15 s - 3 y (x, t) = L1 2 e a as L-1 2 = t
s s
1 1 -2t 11 2t 28 3t x x x
= - e + e - e . = t , t > = 0, t <
6 20 4 15 a a a
Hence, the correct option is (B).
x x
= t - H t - when expressed in terms of Heavisides
u 2u a a
78. Given =
t x 2 step function.
Taking Laplace transform on both sides of the equation we have Hence, the correct option is (B).
u 2u 2u 2u
L = L 2 80. The one dimensional wave equation is = c2 2 .
t x t 2
x
d 2u d 2u Hence, the correct option is (B).
or su (x, s) u (x, 0) = or 2 su = 0
dx 2
dx

Practice Problems 2 Degree of the given D.E. is 1


Solutions for questions 1 to 85: Hence, the correct option is (A).
1. The highest order derivative in the equation is 3 3. The given D.E. by taking the cube on both sides can be written
2
Order of the given D.E. is 3 dy 2 d 2 y 3
as 1 + = 2 .
Hence, the correct option is (B). dx dx
2. The exponent of the highest order derivative in the equation is 1. The order of D.E. is 2, as the highest order derivative is 2.

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Hints/Solutions | 2.61

Degree of D.E is 3, as the power of highest order derivative is 3. 6. The equation of the parabola whose vertex is at the origin and
Hence, the correct option is (A). focus on y-axis is x2 = 4ay (1)

4. Given equation; y = Ae2x + Bex  (1) dy x dx


2x = 4a or a =
dx 2 dy
dy
= 2Ae2x Bex  (2) Substituting this in (1) we have
dx
d2y x dx dy
= 4Ae2x + Bex  (3) x2 = 4y x = 2y
dx 2 2 dy dx
Solving (2) and (3) we get Hence, the correct option is (C).
1 d 2 y dy 1 d 2 y 2dy 7. The equation of the conic whose axes coincide with the
Ae2x = + , Bex = 2 - . coordinate axes is of the from ax2 + by2 = 1 (1)
6 dx 2
dx 3 dx dx
where a, b are two orbitrary constants
Substituting these values in (1)
Differentiating w.r t x, we get
1 d 2 y dy 1 d 2 y 2dy
We get y = + + dy a x
6 dx 2 dx 3 dx 2 dx 2ax + 2by y1 = 0 =
dx b y
d 2 y dy 2d 2 y dy dy
6y = + + -4 y-x
dx 2 dx dx 2 dx d 2 y -a dx
Differentiating w.r. t x again, we get 2 =
3d 2 y 3dy dx b y2
- - 6y = 0
dx 2 dx
d 2 y dy dy
y-x
2 2y = 0 d 2 y y dy dx - a = y dy
dx dx i.e. 2 =
dx x dx y 2 b x dx
Hence, the correct option is (B).
5. The equation of the circle that touch as X-axis at the origin is 2 2
d2y dy dy d2y dy dy
of the form x2 + (y a)2 = a2 a is a parameter xy = y x or xy 2 + x = y which is the
dx 2
dx dx dx dx dx
x2 + y2 2ay = 0 (1) required D.E.
Differentiating (1) w.r.t to x we get. Hence, the correct option is (B).
dy dy
2x + 2y 2a = 0 8. The given general solution is y = ae2x + be3x (1)
dx dx
dy
dy = 2ae2x + 3be3x (2)
x + y dx
a= dx
d2y
dy = 4ae2x + 9be3x (3)
dx dx 2
Substituting this value in the equation (1) From (1) ae2x = y be3x (Substituting in (2))
dy dy dy
x+y = 2 (y be3x) + 3be3x be3x = 2y
We have x2 + y2 2y dx = 0 dx dx

(dy )
dx Substituting in (3) we have
dy dy d2y
(x2 + y2) 2xy 2y2 =0 = 4 (y be3x) + 9be3x
dx dx dx 2
dy
dy = 4y + 5be3x = 4y + 5 - 2 y
(x2 y2) = 2xy dx
dx
d2y dy
Alternate method The required D.E. is 2 5 + 6y = 0
dx dx
(y a)2 + x2 = a2
Alternate method
x2 + y2 2ay = 0
y = ae2x + be3x  (1)
x2 + y2 = 2ay (1)
y1 = 2ae + 3be 
2x 3x
(2)
2 x + 2 y y1 = 2ay1 (2)
y2 = 4ae2x + 9be3x  (3)
Dividing (1) by (2)
The elimination of a and b is given by the determinant
y1 (x2 + y2) = 2y (x + yy1)
x2y1 + y1y2 = 2yx + 2y1y2 1 1 y
(x y )y1 = 2xy
2 2 2 3 y1 = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B). 4 9 y2

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2.62|Engineering Mathematics

1 {3y2 9y1} 1 {2y2 4y1} + y {18 12} = 0 1 3 1 1


- log ( v 2 - v + 1) + 2
dv = dX
y2 5y1 + 6y = 0 2 2 1 3 X
v - 2 + 4
Hence, the correct option is (C).
9. The given equation can be written as 1
1 3 2 v
3e x sec 2 y + 1 2 = log X + c
e x 1 dx = tan y dy log
v2 v + 1 2 3
tan
3

3 log (ex 1) = log tan y + log c 2
2v 1
(ex 1)3 = c tan y 2 3tan1 = 2 log X + log (v v + 1) + c
2

Hence, the correct option is (A). 3


2Y - X 2
Y2 Y
10.
dy
= e x + y (e x + e y ),
dy
= e2 x e y + e x
2 3tan1 log x 2 - + 1 + c
3 X X X
dx dx
2Y - X
2 3tan1 = log (Y XY + X ) + c
2 2
dy
e y e x e y = e 2 x  (1) X
dx Substituting X = x 1 and Y = y 1 we have
du dy 2Y X + 1
Let e y = u = e y
dx dx 2 3tan1 = log (x2 xy + y2 x y + 1) + c
3 ( X 1)
using this equation (1) becomes
du Hence, the correct option is (D).
+ e x u = e 2 x which is a linear D.E
dx 13. Put x + 2y = u

I.F = e
pdx
= e
e x dx
= ee
x dy du dy 1 du
1+2 = = 1
dx dx dx 2 dx
Solution is u I F = QIF dx
1 du u + 1
u ee = ( e 2 x ) ee dx = ex (e e dx) The given D.E. is changed to -1 =
2 dx 2u + 3
x x x

= te t dt where ( t = e x ) du (u + 1) 4u + 5
=2 +1 =
U e e = te t - e t + c dx 2u + 3 2u + 3
x

-e - y e e = e e ( e x - 1) + c
x x 2u + 3
 du = dx
4u + 5
Hence, the correct option is (C). 1 4u + 5 + 1
du = dx
11. Given xdy + ydx = x dx 2 4u + 5
d(xy) = x dx 1
Integrating on both sides 1 + du = 2dx
4 u + 5

d(xy) = xdx
On integrating both sides,
x2
x y = +c 1
2
1 + 4u + 5 du = 2 dx
Hence, the correct option is (C).
1
u + log(4u + 5) = 2x + c
dy x + y - 2 4
12. Given: =
dx 2 x - y - 1 1
x + 2y + log (4x + 8y + 5) = 2x + c
Solving x + y 2 = 0, 2x y 1 = 0 we get x = 1, y = 1, 4
( u = x + 2y)
Substituting x = X + 1, y = Y + 1 we have
(8y 4x) + log (4x + 8y + 5) = c is the general solution of the D.E.
dy X +Y
= which is homogeneous Hence, the correct option is (B).
dx 2 X - Y
dY dv 14. Given: (a2 2xy y2) dx (x + y)2 dy = 0
put Y = vX = =v+X
dX dx Comparing with M dx + N dy = 0 we have
dv 1 + v M
v + X = M = a2 2xy y2 , = 2x 2y
dX 2 v y
dv 1 + v 1 + v - 2v + v 2 N
X = v= and N = (x + y)2, = 2 (x + y)
dX 2 - v 2-v x
dv 1 v + v 2 2 - v dX M N
X = dv = ; = = 2 (x + y)
dx 2 v v - v +1
2
X y x

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Hints/Solutions | 2.63

The given D.E. is exact x y2 x


=2 + c = y2 + c
The solution is Mdx + The terms not containing x in N) = c y 2 y
(a2 2xy y2)dx + (y2)dy Hence, the correct option is (A).
y3 20. Given: The equation can be written as
a2x x2y y2x =c
3 dx dx
Hence, the correct option is (A). = x tan y + sec y or + x tan y = sec y
dy dy
15. The I F of the given equation is 1/Mx Ny. dx
Hence, the correct option is (D). which is of the form + Px = Q, which in turn is a linear
dy
16. The given D.E. is of the form M dx + N dy = 0 differential equation in x.
Where M = ex (x2 + y2 + 2x) and N = 2yex Here, P = tan y and Q = sec y
M N The integrating factor is ePdy = sec y.
= ex (2y) and = 2yex
y x So, the solution is x sec y = sec y sec y dy
M N = sec2y dy = tan y + c
= = 2yex.
y x The general solution of the D.E is x sec y = tan y + c
The given D.E is an exact D.E. Hence, the correct option is (D).
1
1 - log x
The solution is Mdx + (the terms not containing x in N) dy = c dy log x ex x 2
21. The given D.E can be rewritten as + y=
ex(x2 + y2 + 2x)dx + 0dy = 0 dx x x
ex (x2 2x + 2) + exy2 + 2xex 2ex + c = 0 dy log x 1
- log x
+ y = ex x 2 which is a linear D.E. in x.
ex (x2 + y2) = c is the solution of the given D.E. dx x
Hence, the correct option is (A). log x 1
- log x
Here, P = , Q = ex x 2
17. Given x y d x + (y2 + x2 + y) dy = 0 x
( log x )
2
log x
there M = x y and N = y2 + x2 + y
log x
dx log x
I.F. is e = e 2 = (elogx)
x
=x 2
M N 2
= x and = 2x
y x log x x 1
log x
1
log x
The solution is y x 2 = e x 2 . x2 dx
1 M N 1 1
+ = [2 x x] = = g ( y ) = e dx = e + c
x x

M y x xy y 1
log x
The solution is y x 2 = ex + c
1

I.F = e
g ( y ) dx dy
Hence, the correct option is (C).
=e y
= elog y = y
Hence, the correct option is (D). dy
22. = y tanx 2sinx
dx
18. Given (x3 + y3 2x)dx + 3y2 d y = 0
dy
there M = x3 + y3 2x and N = 3y2 tanx y = 2sinx which is a linear D.E. in x
dx
M N Here, P = tanx, Q = 2 sinx
= 3 y 2 and =0
y x I.F. is etanx dx = elog cosx = cosx
1 M N 1 The solution is y cos x = 2 cosx (sinx)dx
- = ( 3 y 2 - 0 ) = 1 = f(x) = sin2x dx
N y x 3 y 2
I. F = e = e 1dx x cos 2 x
The solution is ycosx = +c
Hence, the correct option is (A). 2
Hence, the correct option is (D).
dx
19. Given equation can be written as y = x + 2y3 (or)
dy dx
23. Given equation is = xy + x3y3
dx x dy
= 2y2 which is a linear D.E. in y.
dy y Dividing both sides by x3 we have
1 1 dx y
Here, P = , Q = 2y2 - = y3 (1)
y x 3 dy x 2

pdy -
1
y dy 1 1 2 dx du
I.F. = e =e = elogy = Put 2 = u = 3 =
y x x dy dy
G.S is x I.F = Q.I.F dy Substituting in the equation (1) we have
1 1 1 du du
y y
The solution is x = 2 y 2 dy + c + uy = y3 or + 2y u = 2y3
2 dy dy

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2.64|Engineering Mathematics

which is a linear D.E, Clearly (3) and (4) are identical


where P = 2y and Q = 2y3 The given system of curves are self orthogonal
I.F. = e = e = e y Hence, the correct option is (C).
pdy 2 ydy

2

The solution is u e = e 2 y dy
y2 y2 3 dy y 2 x 2
26. Given: =  (1)
dx 2 xy
ue y = e y (y2 1) + c
2 2

For finding the D.E. of orthogonal trajectories, in equation (1)


-1
The solution is = (y2 1) + ce - y dx
2
dy
x2 we replace by .
Hence, the correct option is (C). dx dy

24. Dividing by sec y we get -dx y 2 - x 2


= 2xy dx = y2dy x2dy
dy sin y dy 2 xy
cos y = (1 + x)ex (1)
dx 1 + x x2dy + 2xydx = y2dy
dy du 2 xydx x 2 dy x2
Put sin y = u cos y = . or = dy d = dy
dx dx y 2
y
du u Integrating on both sides we have
Substituting in (1), we have = ex (1+x)  (2)
dx 1 + x x2
= y + c1 or x2 + y2 = c1 y which is the equation of the
du y
which is of the form + Pu = Q,
dx orthogonal trajectories.
1 Hence, the correct option is (D).
where P = , Q = ex (1 + x).
1+ x
27. Given: rn sin nq = an; a is the parameter
-1
Pdx = 1 + x dx = - log (1 + x ) n log r + log sin n q = n log a

1 Differentiating w.r.t q we have


Integrating factor ePdx = elog (1 + x) =
(1 + x ) n.
1 dr
=
1
n cos nq
1 1 r dq sin nq
1+ x 1+ x
The solution is given by u = = ex(1 + x) dx 1 dr
= cot nq
1 r dq
sin y = ex + c, sin y = (1 + x) (ex + c) is the general dr dq
1
x+ Replacing by r2 dr we have
solution of the D.E. dq
Hence, the correct option is (A). 1 dq dr
( r2 ) = cot nq tan nq dq = 0
25. Given: y2 = 4a (x + a) (1) r dr r
Differentiating w.r.t x integrating we have
1
dy log r + log cos nq = log c
2y = 4a (2) n
dx
log rn + log cos nq = log c or rn cos nq = c
(1) can be written as
1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
y2 = 4ax + 4a2 y2 = 4ax + (4a)2
4 28. Given y = 2xp p2
2
dy 1 dy As we cannot resolve the above in to factors we solve the
i.e. y2 = 2xy + 4y .
dx 4 dx equation for y. Differentiate the equation wrt x
2
dy dy dy dp dp
y + 2x y = 0 (3) = 2x + 2p - 2p
dx dx dx dx dx
dy -dx dp dp
Replacing by we have p = 2x + 2p - 2p
dx dy dx dx
2 dp dx 2 p 2 x
dx
y 2x
dx
y=0 (2 p 2x) = p = - = 2
dx dp p p
dy dy
dy
2
dx 2
Multiplying the equation by we get + x=2
dx dp p
2
dy dy This is a linear equation in x
y 2x y =0
dx dx x I F = QIF dp + c
2
dy dy I F = e2/pdp = e2logp = p2
y + 2x y = 0 (4)
dx dx xp2 = 2p2dp + c

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Hints/Solutions | 2.65

2 3 The general solution is


xp 2 =
p + c where P Is parameter
3 y = e2x [c1cos 3x + c2sin 3x]
Hence, the correct option is (A). or y = c1e2x cos( 3 x + c2)
dy Hence, the correct option is (C).
29. Let =p
dx 34. The auxiliary equation m4 2m3 2m 1 = 0
p2 + 7xp + 10x2 = 0
We can easily find the factors of the equations m = 2i and m = 1 2
The solution is y = (c1 cos2 x + c2 sin2 x) +
p2 + 5xp + 2xp + 10x2 = 0
p(p + 5x) + 2x(p + 5x) = 0 ex {c3 cosh 2 x + c4 sinh 2 x}
(p + 5x)(p + 2x) = 0 Hence, the correct option is (A).
p = 5x, p = 2x
35. Auxiliary equation of the differential equation
dy dy
= 5 x or = 2 x d4 y d3y d 2 y dy
dx dx + 3 + 3 + = 0 (1) is
dx 4 dx 3 dx 2 dx
dy = 5xdx,ordy = 2xdx
-5 x 2 D4 + 3D3 + 3D2 + D = 0
y = + c y = x2 + c
2 D(D3 + 3D2 + 3D + 1) = 0
General solution D(D + 1)3 = 0
5x2 D = 0; D = 1, 1, 1
y + 2 c ( y + x c) = 0
2

The general solution of (1) is



Hence, the correct option is (A). y = (C1 + C2x + C3x2) ex + C4 e0x
y = (C1 + C2x + C3x2)ex + C4.
30. Given p2 + 5px + 4x = 0
2

Hence, the correct option is (C).


p2 + 4px + px + 4x2 = 0
p(p + 4x) + x(p + 4x) = 0 36. The auxiliary equation of the differential equation
(p + x)(p + 4x) = 0 d4 y d2y
+ 8 2 + 16y = 0 (1) is
p = x or p = 4x dt 4
dt

dy dy D4 + 8D2 + 16 = 0
= - x or = -4 x (D2 + 4)2 = 0
dx dx
dy = xdxordy = 4 xdx D2 + 4 = 0; D2 + 4 = 0
D = 2i; D = 2i
x2
Y = + y = 2 x 2 + c As the roots of the auxiliary equation are complex c onjugates
2
that are repeated, the general solution of (1) is y = [(C1 + C2t)
x 2
y + + c ( y + 2 x 2 + c ) = 0 cos 2t + (C3 + C4t) sin 2t.
2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (B). 37. Auxillary equation is m2 4m + 4 = 0

31. Given x = p2 + 3p (m 2)2 = 0 m = 2, 2(equal roots)

Differentiating the given equation w. r. t y we get CF is (c1 + c2 x) e2x


1 x 2 2x
dx dp dp 1 dp PI is e2x = e ( f (D) = 0 when D = 2)
= 2 p + 3 = ( 2 p + 3) ( D 2)
2
2!
dy dy dy p dy
dy = (2p2 +3p)dp Solution is y = C.F + P.I
x2
integrating on both sides i.e. y = (c1 + c2x) e2x + e2x
2
p3 3 p3 Hence, the correct option is (B).
y =2 + +c
3 2
Hence, the correct option is (D). 38. Auxillary equation is m3 4m2 3m + 18 = 0
(m + 2) (m 3)2 = 0 m = 2, 3, 3
32. The auxiliary equation is m2 + 2m 15 = 0 (m + 5) (m 3) = 0
C.F. is (c1 + c2x) e3x + c3e 2 x
m = 3 or 5 (Roots are real and distinct)
1
The general solution is y = c1e -5 x + c2e3x P.I. is excosh2x
( D - 3) ( D + 2 )
2

Hence, the correct option is (B).


33. The auxiliary equation is (m2 4m + 7) = 0 1 e 2 x + e -2 x
= ex
( D 3) ( D + 2) 2
2
m = 2 3i(roots are imaginary)

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2.66|Engineering Mathematics

1 1 3x This is a linear equation in p



) ( D + 2 ) 2 (
e + e - x )
(
2
D - 3 I F = e31dm = e3x
P I F = eQIF dx + c
1 1 1 e- x
= e3 x + p e3x = e3x e2x dx + c
2 ( D - 3) ( D + 2 )
2
( D - 3) ( D + 2 )
2
dy 3 x e 5 x
e = +c
1 1 e3 x 1 e x dx 5
+
2 ( D 3) ( 3 + 2 ) 2 ( 1 3) ( 1 + 2 )
2 2
e2 x
d y = + e -3 x c dx
5
1 x 2 . 3x e- x
e + Integrating on both sides
10 2! 32
e 2 x e -3 x
The solution is y = C.F. + P.I. y = - c + c1
10 3
1 2 3x 1 x
i.e. y = (c1 +c2x)e3x + c3e 2 x + xe + e Aliter: = The given equation can be written as follows
20 32
Hence, the correct option is (A). (D2 + 3D)y = e2x
39. Auxillary equation is m4 + 3m2 4 = 0 A E = m2 + 3m = 0 = 0; 3
(m2 1) (m2 + 4) = 0 C F = C1 e0.x + c2 e3x = c1 + c2 e3x
m = 1, 1, 2i 1 e2 x
PI = e2 x =
C.F. = c1ex + c2ex + c3cos2x + c4sin2x D + 3D
2
10
e2 x
1 G S = C F + P I = C1 + C2 e3x +
P.I. is sin2x 10
( D 2 - 1) ( D 2 + 4 ) Hence, the correct option is (B).
-1 1 x ( - cos 2 x ) 42. Given (x2D2 + x D +1)y = x3ex
= sin2x =
5( D2 + 4) 5 2 2 The above equation is Cauchy; s equation.
The solution is y = C.F + P.I. Put x = ez z = log x
1
y = c1ex + c2e - x+ c3cos2x + c4sin2x + xcos2x dy d2y
20 Let = qy, x 2 2 = q (q - 1)
dx dz
Hence, the correct option is (B).
The given equation becomes
40. Auxillary equation m2 3m + 2 = 0
[q(q 1) + q + 1]y = e3zz
(m 1) (m 2) = 0 m = 1, 2
(q2 + 1)y = e3zz
C.F. is c1ex + c2e2x
A E = m2 + 1 = 0 m = i
1 1 1 2
P.I. is (x + x) =
2
- (x + x) C F = c1 cosz + c2 sinz
( D 1) ( D 2) D - 2 D - 1
1 1
[(D 2)1 (D 1)1] (x2 + x) PI= e3 z z = e 3 z z
q2 +1 ( ) +1
2
q + 3
1 D
-1

(1 - D ) - 1 - (x2 + x)
-1
1 1
2 2 = e3z z = e3z 2 z=
q 2 + 6q + 9 + 1 q + 6q + 10
1 D D2
(1 + D + D2 + ..)(x2 + x) 1 + + + ...... (x2 + x) e 3 z q 2 + 60
-1
e 3 z q 2 + 60
2 2 4 = + 1 + z= 1 -
1
x2 + x + 2x + 1 + 2 x 2 + x + 2 x + 1 + 2 10 10 q 10
2 2 4
x2 5 e3 z e3 z e3 z
+ 2x + = z- 6= (10z 6)
2 2 10 100 100
The solution is y = C.F + P.I e3 z
G S = C F + P I = C1 cos z + c2 sin z + (10 z - 6 )
x2 5 100
y = c1ex + c2e2x + + 2x + x3
2 2 = c1 cos (log x) + c2 sin (log x) + (10 log x 6)
Hence, the correct option is (B). 100
Hence, the correct option is (D).
d2y dy 43. Given (D2 + 4)y = sec2x
41. Given + 3 = e2 x
dx 2 dx AE = m2 + 4 = 0 m2 = 2i
dy d y dp
2
Let = p, 2 = CF = yc = C1cos 2x + C2 sin 2x
dx dx dx
dp U(x) = cos 2x ; V(x) = sin 2x
The given equation becomes + 3 p = e2 x
dx Yp = AU(x) + B V(x)

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Hints/Solutions | 2.67

dV dU d d 46. Then, Cauchys differential equation can be a transformed in to


U V = cos 2x ( sin 2 x ) - sin 2 x ( cos 2 x ) a linear differential equation by using the substitution x = eZ
dx dx dx dx
= 2cos22x + 2 sin2 2x = 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
47. Let x = ez or z = logx
VR sin 2 x sec 2 x
A = = dx dy d2y
udv vdu 2 Then, x = q ; x 2 2 = q (q - 1)
dx dx dx
dx dx
The above equation becomes
tan 2 x 1
= dx = log ( cos 2 x ) [q(q 1) + 3q 3]y = 0
2 4
[q2 + 2q 3]y = 0
UR cos 2 x sec 2 x 1
B = dx = dx = x A . E = m2 + 2m 3 = 0 = (m + 3)(m 1) = 0
udv vdu 2 2
- m = 3, 1
dx dx
y = c1e3z + c2ez
1 1
yp = log ( cos 2 x ) cos 2 x + x sin 2 x y = c1x3 + c2x
4 2
y = yc + yp= Hence, the correct option is (C).
d2y dy
+ 3 ( x - 1) + y = 2 sin ( log ( x - 1) )  (1)
1 1
C1cos 2 x + C2 sin 2 x + log ( cos 2 x ) cos 2 x + x sin 2 x 48. Given (x 1)2
4 2 dx 2 dx
Hence, the correct option is (D). du
let x 1= u = 1
44. The wronskian of the two solutions y1 = Cos 3x and y2 = sin dx
3x is given by dy dy du dy d2y d2y
= = and 2 = 2
dx du dx du dx du
y1 y2
cos 3 x sin 3 x The equation (1) becomes
W = 1 1 =
3 sin 3 x 3 cos 3 x d2y dy
y1 y2 u 2 2 + 3u + y = 2 sin ( log u ) (2)
du du
= 3 cos23x + 3sin23x = 3. This is cauchys of is equation
Hence, the correct option is (C). Put u = ez z = log u
45. The complementary function of the differential equation d udy
q= = = qy
d2y dy dz du
X2 2 4x + 4y = 6x3  (1)
dx dx d2y
u 2 2 = q (q - 1) (2) becomes
d 2 y 4 dy 4 du
Rewriting (1) as is + y = 6x  (2) [q(q 1) + 3q + 1]y = 2sinz
dx 2 x dx x 2
d2y dy (q2 + 2q + 1)y = 2sinz
Comparing (2) with 2 + P + Q y = X A E = m2 + 2m + 1 = 0 (m + 1)2 = 0 m = 1
dx dx
-4 4 C F = (c1 +c2 z)ez
We have P = , Q = 2 and X = 6x 1 1
x x PI= 2 sin z= 2 sin z
As yc = C1x + C2x , we have
4 q 2 + 2q + 1 -1 + 2q + 1
Y1 = x and y2 = x4 1
= sin z = cos z
q
The wronskian of y1 and y2 is
GS=CF+PI
y1 y2
x x4 y = (C1 + C2 z)ez cosz
W = 1 1 = = 4x4 x4 1
1 4 x3 y = (C1 + C2 log u) cos(log u)
y1 y2 u
1
W = 3x4 y = C1 + C2 log ( x - 1) - cos ( log ( x - 1) )
x -1
Now, the particular integral of (1) is given as Sp = A(x) x + Hence, the correct option is (A).
B(x).x4 49. Given z = f (x2 + y2)
When calculated by the method of variation of parameters
Differentiate w.r.to x,
y1 X x 6x z 1 2 2
B(x) = dx = dx = f (x + y ) 2x (1)
w 3x 4 x

2 Differentiate w.r.to y
B(x) = .
x z
= f1(x2 + y2) 2y (2)
Hence, the correct option is (D). y

Chapter 3 solution .indd 67 9/1/2015 4:04:06 PM


2.68|Engineering Mathematics

(1) p f 1 ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 x 54. Given px (x + y) = qy (x + y) + (y x) (2x + 2y + z)


= =
(2) q f 1 ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 y px (x + y) qy (x + y) = (y x) (2x + 2y + z)
py qx = 0 It is in the form Pp + Qq = R
Hence, the correct option is (C). The auxiliary equation is
50. z = f (x + at) g (x at) dx dy dz
= =
x ( x + y ) - y ( x + y ) ( y - x )(2x + 2 y + z )
z
= f 1 ( x + at ) g 1 ( x at ) dx dy
x Take =
x( x + y) - y( x + y)
2 z
= f 11 ( x + at ) - g11 ( x - at )
x 2 dx dy
=
z x y
= af1(x + at) + ag1(x at)
t log x = log y + log c1
2 z = log x + log y = log c1 xy = c1
= a2f11(x + at) + a2g11(x at)
t 2 dx + dy
Take
2 z
= a2 2
2 z ( y )( x + y )
x -
t 2
x 
dz + dx + dy
Hence, the correct option is (A). =
( y - x )(2x + 2 y + z ) + ( x - y )( x + y )
51. z = f (x y)
dx + dy dx + dy + dz
=
z z x+ y ( x + y + z)
= f1 (x y), = f1 (x y)
x y log (x + y) = log (x + y + z) + log c2
z z (x + y) (x + y + z) = c2
+ = 0, p + q = 0.
x y The solution is f (xy, (x + y)(x + y + z)) = 0
Hence, the correct option is (B).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
52. z = xy f(x + y )
2 2 55. Given pq = 3
z This is in the form of f(p, q) = 0. Therefore, the solution is in
p = = y f1(x2 + y2) 2x  (1) the form of z = ax + by + c
x
z put p = a; q = b
q = = x f1(x2 + y2) 2y  (2)
y ab = 3 b = 3
a
from (1) y p = f1(x2 + y2) 2x 3
solution is z = ax +
y + c.
from (2) x q = f1 (x2 + y2) 2y a
(1) y - p x Hence, the correct option is (D).
= =
( 2) x - q y 56. Given q z2 + p = 1
y py = x xq
2 2
The above equation do not contain x and y terms
qx py = x2 y2 Put u = x + ay.
Hence, the correct option is (D). dz adz
p = ,q=
53. Given z(xp + yq) = x + y2 2 du du
zxp + zyq = x2 + y2 dz 2 dz
a z + =1
It is in the form Pp + Qq = R du du
(az2 + 1) dz = du
dx dy dz
Auxiliary equations are = = z3 z3
zx zy x 2 + y 2 a + z = u + C a + z = x + ay + C.
3 3
dx dy dx dy x Hence, the correct option is (A).
Taking = ; = = c1
zx zy x y y
57. zpq = p + q (1)
Take P1 = x, Q1 = y and R1 = z
This equation does not contain x and y.
= P1 P + Q1 Q + R1 R = 0 = xzx + yzy + (x2 + y2) (z) = 0
Put u = x + ay
xdx + ydy zdz = 0 dz adz
x2 + y2 z2 = c2 p = , q =
du du
x substitute these values in (1)
The general solution is f , x 2 + y 2 z 2 = 0
y dz adz dz dz
z = +a
Hence, the correct option is (C). du du du du

Chapter 3 solution .indd 68 9/1/2015 4:04:14 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.69

dz Hence, the PDE given in option (B) is elliptic


za =a+1
du Also, it can be easily observed that the PDE given in options
az dz = (a + 1) du (A), (C) and (D) do not satisfy the property, B2 4AC < 0.
z2 z2
a = (a + 1) u + b; a Hence, the correct option is (B).
2 2
= (a + 1) (x + ay) + b 61. Let f (t) = sin 3t 3tcos 3t
z2 a + 1 f
1
(t) = 3cos 3t 9t (sin 3t) 3cos 3t = 9tsin 3t and
= x + (a + 1) y + b f (0) = 0
2 a
Hence, the correct option is (B). From L {f1 (t)} = s. L {f (t)} f (0) we have
L {9t sin 3t} = s. L {sin 3t 3tcos 3t}
58. Given (p q) (z x p yq) = 1
1
1
z = x p + yq + L {sin 3t 3tcos 3t} = L {9t sin 3t}
p-q S
9 d 9 d 3
This is a clairaut equation and its solution is = L {sin 3t} =
1 s ds S ds S 2 + 9
z = ax + by +
a-b 9 6 s 54
Hence, the correct option is (D). = =
s ( s 2 + 9 )2 ( s 2 + 9 )2

59. Given u = x(x), y(y) (1) is the solution of the PDE Hence, the correct option is (A).
u u
4 + 5 = 0  (2)
x y 1 + cosh 6t 1 1
62. L {cosh 2 3t} = L = L{1} + L{cosh 6t}
Obtained by solving (2) by the method of separation of 2 2 2
variables 11 1 s s 2 - 18
u u = + =
= x1y and = xy1 where x1 =
dX
and y1 =
dY 2 s 2 s - 36 s ( s 2 - 36 )
2

x y dx dy
(2) becomes Hence, the correct option is (B).
4x1y + 5xy1 = 0 63. Standard result, the correct option is (C).
4x 5 y
1 1 1
+ =0 64. L {e -3t } =
x y s+3
d n 1 ( 1) .( 1) n!
n n
4 x1 5 y1 n!
L {t n e 3t } = ( 1)
n
= = k (say) where k is a constant = =
( s + 3) ( s + 3)
n +1 n +1
x y ds n s + 3
4 x1 5 y1
= k and =k Alternate method
x y n!
kx -ky We know that L{eat tn} =
( s - a)
n +1
x1 = y1 =
4 5 n!
kx ky L{e3t tn} =
( s - 3)
n +1
x1 = 0 y1 + =0
4 5
dX kx dx k Hence, the correct option is (B).
= = dx
dx 4 x 4
t n -1 ( n - 1)! 1
dx k k 65. L = n = n
= dx
x 4
logx = x + c1
4 ( n - 1) ( )
! s n - 1 s
kx kx
e 5t .t n -1 1
X = e 4 + c1 = e 4 c1 L =
( n - 1)! ( s - 5 )
n
kx kx

x =ce 4 ; where c = e c X (x) = ce 4
1

Hence, the correct option is (C).


Hence, the correct option is (C).
1
60. A PDE is of the form 66. We know that L {e3t} = ,s>3
s3
Auxx + Buxy + Cuyy + F(x, y, u, ux, uy) = 0 (1)
is elliptic, if B 4AC < 0 2 d3 1 d 2 -1
L {t3e3t} = (1)3ds3 s - 3 = - ds 2 2
From the PDE in the options, consider the PDE in option (B) ( s - 3)
Comparing it with (1), we have
d -2 2.3 6
A = 3, B = 4 and C = 5 = = =-
ds ( s - 3)2 ( s - 3)4 ( s - 3)
4

B2 4AC = (4)2 4 3 5 = 44 < 0


B2 4AC < 0 Hence, the correct option is (C).

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2.70|Engineering Mathematics

2 (By resolving into partial fractions)


67. We have L { f ( t )} = e - st f ( t ) dt = 0e - st dt + ( t - 2 ) e - st dt
2

1
1 1 1
0 0 2 1
= 5 L1 2L + 3L 2
( s 2 )

(t - 2)
2 s 2 s 2
2
- e - st + ( t - 2 ) e - st dt
s s2 1
2 = 5e 2t 2e 2t + 3e 2t L1 2
s

2 ( t - 2 ) - st e - st 2e -2 s = 5e 2t 2e 2t + 3e 2t .t 
- e - 2
= 3
s s s 2 s Hence, the correct option is (B).

Hence, the correct option is (A).
5s + 3 5 ( s - 3) + 18
-1
73. L-1 2 =L
( s - 3) - 6
a
s - 6 s - 27
2
68. L { g ( t )} = e - st g ( t ) dt = e - st 0 dt + e - st f ( t - a ) dt
2

0 0 a
( s 3) 1
5L1 + 18 L1
( s 3) 6 ( s 3) 6
2 2
= e - st f ( t - a ) dt ,Let t - a = x dt = dx,
2 2

a
1
s 3t 1
1
L.L. = 0, U.L. = = 5.e3tL s 2 62 + 18e L s 2 62

= e - s ( a + x ) f ( x ) dx = e - sa e - sx f ( x ) dx 18
0 0
= 5.e3tcosh 6t + 3t sinh 6t
6

= e3t (5cosh 6t + 3sinh 6t)
= e sa e st f ( t ) dt = e sa L { f ( t )} = e sa F ( s )
0 Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (D).

69. We know that Heavisides unit step function - -
-1
4 s 3 4 s 3
H (t a) = 0, t < a = 1, t > a
74. L-1 2 =L
9 s - 30 s - 25 9 s 2 + 10 s + 25

3 9
L {H (t a)} = e - st H ( t - a )dt
0 5 29
a 4 s +
3 3
e - st
H ( t - a ) dt + e - st H ( t - a ) dt = L1 2
0 a 9 s + 5

a
e

e - as - st
3
0dt + e
-s a
=
st
s
dt =








0 a
 4 -1 1 29 -1 1
Hence, the correct option is (B). = 4 L-1 1 29 L 1
9 L s + 55 27 L-1 2
5 2
9 s + s +
3 27 5
1 s 3 3 s + 3
70. L1 5 + 2 3
s 2 s 9 s + 4 4 53 t 29 53 t 1 1
= e e L 2
1 9 27 s
s 1
1
= L1 5 + L1 2 3L 4 - 5 t 29 - 5 t t
s 2 s 9 4
s + = e 3 - e 3
9 27 1!
5 3
-1
t2 t2 1 -5t 29
+ cosh 3t - 3e -4 t = + cosh 3t - 3e -4 t = e 3 4 - t
5 3 1 9 3
G . . p
2 2 2 Hence, the correct option is (C).
3
4t 2
5 ( s - 2 ) + 13
+ cosh 3t 3e 4t 5s + 3 -1
3 p 75. L-1 2 =L
s - 4 s + 13 ( s - 2 ) + 9
2

Hence, the correct option is (C).


s - 2
-1
1
1 4t 1 1 e 4t . t 4 1 e 4t t 3 = 5 L-1 + 13L
( s - 2 ) + 9 ( s - 2 ) + 3
2 2
71. L1 4
=e L 4= = 2

( s 4 ) s ( 4 1)! 3!
s 2 t -1
1
Hence, the correct option is (B). = 5.e 2t L-1 2 + 13e L 2
s + 32 s + 32
3s 2 + 11s 22 5 1 e 2t
2 3 = 5e 2t cos 3t + 13e 2t sin 3t = (15 cos 3t + 13 sin 3t )
72. L1 2
= L1 + 2 3 3
( s + 2 ) ( s 2 ) s 2 s + 2 ( s 2 ) Hence, the correct option is (D).

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Hints/Solutions | 2.71

s 2 + 2s + 3
1 t
76. The partial fraction of = e - st e - bt a f dt
( s + 2 s + 5) ( s 2 + 2 s + 2 )
2
0
a a
1 t
2 1 1 1 = L e - bt a f dt
= 2 +
3 s + 2 s + 5 3 s 2 + 2 s + 2 a a
1 - tba t
s 2 + 2s + 3 L-1 {F ( as + b )} = e f
= L1 2 a a
( s + 2 s + 5 ) ( s 2
+ 2 s + 2 ) Hence, the correct option is (C).
2 -1 1 1 1
L = + L
-1
79. Given ( D 2 2 D 8) y = 0
3 ( s + 1) + 2 3 ( s + 1) + 1
2 2 2 2

Applying Laplace transform on both sides we have


2 1 t 1 t L ( y) 2 L ( y) 8 L ( y ) = 0
= . e .sin 2t + e sin t
3 2 3 s 2 L { y} - sy ( 0 ) - y ( 0 ) - 2 sL ( y ) + 2 y ( 0 ) - 8 L { y} = 0
-t
e
= {sin 2t + sin t} s2 2s 8 L(y) = L(y) 3s 6 + 6 = 0
3
3s
Hence, the correct option is (B). L( y) =
( ) ( s + 2)
s - 4
s s s
77. = = 1 2
s 4 + 7 s 2 + 16 ( s 2 + 4 )2 s 2 ( s 2 + s + 4 ) ( s 2 s + 4 ) L( y) = +
s+2 s4
1 1 1 1 2 2t
+ y = L1 + = e + 2e
2 s 2 + s + 4 s 2 s + 4
4t

s + 2 s 4
s Hence, the correct option is (D).
L-1 4
s + 7 s 2 + 16 80. Given ty + y + 9ty = 0 taking Laplace transform on both sides
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 we have
= L 2 + L 2
2 s + s + 4 2 s - s + 4 L {ty} + L { y} + 9 L {ty} = 0

- 1 -1
= -11 --11 11
+ 1 -1 11 d
- L { y11} + L { y1} + 9 ( -1) L { y} = 0
d
= 2 L + 2L
(( )) (( ))
L 2 15 L 2 15 ds ds
2 s + 11 2
+ 15 2 ss - 11 2
+ 15
s + 22 + 44 - 22 + 44 d d
- s 2 L { y} - sy ( 0 ) - y ( 0 ) + sL { y} - y ( 0 ) - 9 L { y} = 0
ds ds
1 1 t 1 +d1 e 2 t L1
1
1
= e 12 L1 - 1 s12tL { y} - sy (10 ) - y2 ( 0 ) + sL { y} - y ( 0 ) - 9 d L { y} = 0
21 2 t 1 1 2
e L 2 15 2 +ds2e 2 L1 2 15 2 ds
s + s +
2 2 15 2 2 15
s + 2 s + 2 d 2 d
- s L { y} - 3s + sL ( y ) - 3 - 9 L { y} = 0
2 2
ds ds
1 -1t 1 15 1 1t 1 15
=- e 2 .sin t + e2 . sin t Let L { y} = u
2 15 2 2 2 15 2
d 2 du
2 ( s u - 3s ) - su + 3 + 9 = 0
ds ds
1 15 12 t -1
t
= sin t e - e 2 du du
15 2 =s 2
+ 2 su - 3 - su + 3 + 9 =0
ds ds
2 15 ht du
= sin t sin ( s 2 + 9) + su = 0
15 2 2 ds
du s
Hence, the correct option is (A). or + ds = 0
u s2 + 9
78. We know that L-1 {F ( s )} = f ( t ) Integrating on both sides we get
1
log u + log ( s 2 + 9 ) = log A

F ( s ) = L { f ( t )} = e - st . f ( t ) dt 2
0
A A

or u = L { y} =
F ( as + b ) = e ( as + b)t f ( t ) dt = e ast. e bt f ( t ) dt s +9
2
s +9
2
0 0

1
or y = AJ 0 ( 3t )
1 y = AL1
Put at = x dt = dx
a s2 + 9
1
as L {J 0 ( 3t )} =
bx
1 x
F ( as + b ) = e - sx e
-
a . f dx
0 a a s +9
2

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2.72|Engineering Mathematics

As given y(0) = 3 ( 4(x, 0) = 10sin4px)


3 = AJ0(0) A = 3 ( J0(0) = 1) d 2u s
- u = -5 sin 4px
Hence y = 3J0(3t) dx 2 2
Hence, the correct option is (C). s s s
Auxillary equation m 2 - = 0 m + m - =0
81. Given (D3 D)y = t 2
2 2
Applying Laplace transform on both sides we have s
x -
s
x
C.F. y = Ae 2 + Be 2
L{ y 111
} - L { y } = L {t}
1

5 5 sin 4px 10 sin 4px


1 p.l is .sin 4px = =
s3 L { y} - s 2 y ( 0 ) - sy1 ( 0 ) - y11 ( 0 ) - sL { y} + y ( 0 ) = s s 32p 2 + s
s D2 16p 2
2 2
1
L { y} ( s3 - s ) = as y ( 0 ) = y1 ( 0 ) = y11 ( 0 ) = 0 s

s
10 sin 4px
u ( x, s ) = Ae
x x
s 2 + Be 2 +
1 32p 2 + s
L { y} = 2 2
s ( s - 1) Given u(0, t) = 0 A + B = 0  (1)
1 1 s
-
s
L(y) = 2 - And u(1, t) = 0 Ae 2 + Be 2 =0  (2)
s - 1 s2
Solving (1) and (2) we get A = 0 = B
1 1
y = L1 2 L1 2 10 sin 4px
s 1 s Solution u ( x, s ) =
32p 2 + s
t et - e -t
= sinht = -t Applying Inverse Laplace transform we have
1! 2
u = 10 sin 4px e -32p t
2

Hence, the correct option is (D). 


Hence, the correct option is (B).
82. Given ( D 2 - D ) y = t 3 - 2t 2
Taking Laplace transform on both sides we get 2u 2u
84. Given Differential equation is = 4 2 3
t 2
x
L { y} L { y} = L {t 3} 2 L {t 2 }
Applying Laplace transform on both the sides we get
3! 2.2!
s L { y} - sy ( 0 ) - y ( 0 ) - sL { y} + y ( 0 ) = 4 - 3
2 1
2u 2u
s s L 2 = 4 L 2 3L {1}
6 4 t x
( s - s ) L { y} - 2s + 4 + 2 = 4 - 3
2
s s d 2u 3
6 4 2s 5 6s 4 4s + 6 Or s 2u ( x, s ) - su ( x, 0 ) = 4
-
( s 2 s ) L{ y} = 2s 6 + 4 3 = dx 2 s
s s s4
Applying the given boundary conditions we have
2s - 6 s - 4 s + 6
5 4
L { y} =
s5 ( s - 1) 2 s2 3
D - u =
4 4s
4 2 2 2 6 2
= 2 3 4 5 s2 s
s s s s s s 1 Auxillary equation is D 2 - =0D
4 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
y = 4 L1 2 L1 2 2 L1 3 2 L1 4 6 L1 5 2 L1 s s
\u ( x, s ) = c1e 2 + c2e
- x
s 1
x
s s s s s 2

1 1 1 1
2 L1 3 2 L1 4 6 L1 5 2 L1 3 3 3

s s
s s 1 C .F = .1 = =
2 s2 s 2 s3
t3 t4 4s D 4s
y = 4 + 2t - t 2 - - - 2e t 4 4
3 4
s s
1 x - x 3
\G.S .u = c1e 2 + c2e -
{48 + 24t 12t 2 4t 3 3t 4 24et }
2
= s3
12
Hence, the correct option is (B). du
As Lt = 0 c1 = 0
x dx
u 2u
83. Given=2 2 s
x 3
t x u = c2e 2
Applying Laplace transform on both sides we have s3
d 2u 3 3
su ( x, s ) - u ( x, 0 ) = 2 2 u ( 0, s ) = 0 c2 - = 0 c2 = 3
dx s3 s
d 2u 3 - 2s x 3
2 - s.u = -10 sin 4px \u = .e - 3
dx 2 s3 s

Chapter 3 solution .indd 72 9/1/2015 4:04:47 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.73

Applying inverse transform on both sides we have using the boundary conditions we get
2s x d 2u
1
1 1
e - su = -sinpx
u ( x, t ) = 3L 3 + 3L 3 dx 2
s s
Auxiliary equation D 2 - s = 0 D = s
3t2 1 x
2
x x C.F is u = c1e sx
+ c2e sx
=- + 3 t - , if t = 0, if t
2 2
2 2 2
- sin p x - sin p x sin p x
P .I . is = =
-3 D 2 - s -p 2 - s p 2 + s
8 ( 4tx - x ) if x 2t
2

= 2 Given u ( 0, t ) = 0 c1 + c2 = 0 c1 = c2
-3t f x 2t
8 u (1, t ) = 0 c1e s
+ c2e - s
= 0 c1 e ( s
- e- s
)=0
Hence, the correct option is (B).
c1 = c2 = 0
sinpx
u 2 u \u =
85. Given = s +p2
t x 2
Applying inverse Laplace transform we have
Applying Laplace transform to the above equation we get
sin px
u 2u u = L-1 = sin px.e
-p t 2

L = L 2 s + p2
t t x
u = e p t sin px
2

d 2u
su ( x, s ) - u ( x, 0 ) = 2 Hence, the correct option is (D).
dx

Previous Years Questions 1


du = dx
d2y u
1. Given differential equation is =0  (1) 2 cos 2
dx 2 2
dy
= c1  (2) 1 u
dx sec2 du = dx
y = c1x + c2  (3) 2 2
Given y = 5 at x = 0 Integrating on both sides
From (3); 5 = c1 0 + c2 c2 = 5 u
tan
dy 1 2= x + c
Also, given = 2 at x = 10
dx 2 1
From (2), 2 = c1 2

Substituting the values of c1 and c2 is (3), we get the solution
x+ y
of (1) as tan =x+c
2
f(x) = y = 2x + 5 x+ y
Now, f(15) = yat x = 15 = 2 15 + 5 = 35.
The general solution of (1) is tan = x + c.
2
Hence, the correct answer is 34 to 36. Hence, the correct option is (D).
dy
2. Given differential equation is
dx d 2 x (t )
= cos (x + y)  (1) 3. Given + x (t) = 0  (1)
dt 2
Put x + y = u Its characteristic equation is
dy du D2 + 1 = 0 D = i
1+ =
dx dx The general solution of (1) is
dy du x(t) = c1 cos t + c2 sin t
= -1
dx dx x(t) is a the general solution of (1)
(1) becomes
cost and sin t are also solution of (1)
du du
-1 = cosu = 1 + cosu Also, cost satisfies the initial conditions given for x1(t) and
dx dx sint satisfies the initial conditions given for x2(t)
1 Take x1(t) = cost and x2(t) = sin t
du = dx
(1 + cos u ) Now Wronskian of x1(t) and x2(t) is

Chapter 3 solution .indd 73 9/1/2015 4:04:53 PM


2.74|Engineering Mathematics

x1 ( t ) x2 ( t ) B=
U
;A=
U
cot t sin t
W(t) = dx ( t ) dx2 ( t ) = e KL - 1 1 - e KL
1 - sin t cos t
dt dt U U
u= + KL e kx
= cos2t + sin2t = 1 1- e KL
e -1

p 1 e kx
W(t) at x = = 1. =U +
2 1 - e KL e KL - 1
Hence, the correct option is (A). 1 - e kx
=U
1 - e KL
dy
4. Given differential equation is Hence, the correct option is (B).
dx
= -2xy  (1) d2 f
8. 2 + f = 0
Where y (0) = 2  (2) dt
From (1) D2 + 1 = 0
1 D2 = -1
dy = -2xdx
y D = i
Integrating on both sides, we have f(t) = C1 cos x + C1 sin x
ln y = -x + c 2
f(t) = 0, Solving C1 = 0
y = e- x + c C2 = 4
2

y = c1e - x2
where c1 = e c f(t) = 4 sin x
The general solution of (1) is 4
L [f(t)] = 2
y = c1e - x 
2
(3) s +1
Hence, the correct option is (C).
From (2), y (0) = 2 y = 2 at x = 0

From (3) 1
9. F(s) =
2 = c1 e -0 c1 = 2 s ( s + 1)
2

The required solution of (1) is


1 1 1
y = 2e - x .
2
L-1 [(s)] = L-1 = L-1 -
s ( s + 1) s s + 1
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 1
s = L-1 - L-1 = 1 - e
-t
5. Given L [cos wt] = s 1+ s
s + w2
2

Hence, the correct option is (D).


s s
L[cos4t] = = 2 10. Let x = ez or log x = z
s +4 2
s + 16
2

By first shifting theorem, we know that, if L[f(t)] = f (s) then dy d2y


and x = q, x2 2 = q (q -1)
L [eatf(t)] = f (s - a) dx dx
using the above substitutions the given equation can be writ-
s - ( -2 ) ten as (q (q - 1) - q - 4)y = 0
L[e-2tcos4t] =
( s - ( -2 ))
2
+ 16 Auxillary equation is q2 - 4 = 0 q = 2
s+2 solution y = c1 x2 + c2 x-2
= .
( s + 2)
2
+ 16 Given y(0) = 0 c2 = 0
and y(1) = 1 1 = c1
Hence, the correct option is (D).
solution is y = x2.
6. non-linear equation of order 2
Hence, the correct option is (A).
Hence, the correct option is (D).
dy
d 2u du 11. Given = (1 + y2) x
7. -K = 0 D2u KDU = 0 dx
dx 2 dx
dy
D (D K) = 0, D= 0, D= K = xdx
1 + y2
Solution is u = Ae0 + Bekx
x2
u = A + Bekx (i) But u(0) = 0 tan-1y = +c
2
A+ B = 0, u(L) = u x2
y = tan + c
U = A + BeKL 2
U = B + BeXL = Be KL - 1 Hence, the correct option is (D).

Chapter 3 solution .indd 74 9/1/2015 4:05:00 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.75

12. Given differential equation is The general solution of (1) is


d 2f f d2f y I. F = Q ( x ) I .F dx + c
+ =0 (1)
dh 2
2 dh 2
y x = x 3 xdx + c
Highest ordered derivative is third order derivative.
x5
So, order of (1) = 3 xy = x 4 dx + c ; xy = +c (2)
d2 f 5 
The dependent variable f and its second derivative are 6 6
multiplied together. dh 2 Given y(1) = ; y = at x = 1
5 5
So, (1) is non - linear.
6 1
Hence, the given differential equation is a third order non- From (2) ; 1 = +C C = 1
5 5
linear ordinary differential equation.
Hence, the correct option is (B). x5
The solution of (1) is xy = +1
1 5
13. L [f(t)] = 2 x4 1
s ( s + 1) 1 y= +
5 x

s ( s1+ 1)
-1
1 Hence, the correct option is (A).
-1
L 2 = L

s ( s1+ 1)
-1 s ( ss+ 1)
f(t) = L 2
=L -1
s ( s + 1)

s

16. Given x + 3x = 0

d2x
t
1 f ( s ) t + 3x = 0  (1)
= L dt L = L f ( s ) dt
-1 -1 -1
dt 2
0 (
s s + 1) s 0
The Auxiliary Equation of (1) is
t
1 1 D2 + 3 = 0 D = 3i
= L-1 - dt
0 s s + 1 The general solution of (1) is
t
= (1 - e - t ) dt = ( t + e - t ) 0
t x = C1 cos 3t + C2 sin 3t  (2)
0
Given x(0) = 1 x = 1 at t = 0
= (t + e-t) - (0 + e-0)
From (2); C1 cos0 + C2 sin0 = 1
= t - 1 + e-t
C1 = 1
Hence, the correct option is (A).
dx
1 From (2) x(t) =
14. Let f ( s ) = 2 dt
s +s
= - 3C1 sin 3t + 3C1 cos 3t
1 1
L-1 f ( s ) = L-1 2 = L-1 Given x (0) = 0
s + s s ( s + 1)
- 3C1 sin 0 + 3C2 cos 0 = 0
1 1
= L-1 - C2 = 0
s s + 1
= 1 - e-t Substituting C1 and C2 in (2), we get
Hence, the correct option is (C). X = cos 3t
15. Given differential equation is Now x(1) = x at t = 1 = cos 3= -0.16
dy 4 Hence, the correct option is (B).
x + y = x 4 (1) , where y(1) = .
dx 5 17. Given differential equation is
dy 1 Y11 + 2y1 + y = 0  (1)
+ y = x3
dx x
The Auxiliary equation is
Which is the form of a linear equation
D2 + 2D + 1 = 0
dy (D + 1) = 0
+ P ( x) y = Q( x)
2

dx D = -1, -1
1 the general solution of (1) is
Where P(x) = ; Q(x) = x3
x
P ( x ) dx y = (C1 + C2x)e-x  (2)
Integrating factor = I.F. = e
Given y(0) = 0 y = 0 at x = 0
1
= e x = e loge x
dx
From (2); (C1 + C2 0) e-0 = 0
I. F = x C1 = 0

Chapter 3 solution .indd 75 9/1/2015 4:05:07 PM


2.76|Engineering Mathematics

(2) becomes, Integrating factor = I. F = e


P ( x )dx

y = C2x e -x
(3)
= e
2 xdx
= ex
2

Also given , y(1) = 0 y = 0 at x = 1


From (3), C2e-1 = 0 The general solution of (1) is
C2 = 0 y i . f = Q ( x ) i. f dx + c
Substituting C2 in (3), we get the solution
ye x = e - x .e x .dx + c =
2 2 2

As y = 0xe-x
y=0 ye x = dx + c
2

y(0, 5) = y at x = 0.5 is equal to 0


ye x = x + c (2)
2

y(0. 5) = 0
Given y(0) = 1, y = 1 at x = 0
Hence, the correct option is (A).
From (2), 1 e = 0 + c c = 1
18. Given partial differential equation is
Substituting the value of C in (2), we get
2f 2f f f ye x = x + 1
2

+ + + = 0
x 2 y 2 x y y = (1 + x ) e - x2

Order = order of the highest ordered derivative = 2 Hence, the correct option is (B).
Degree = Degree of the highest ordered derivative = 1 22. Given differential equation is
Hence, the correct option is (A). d2y dy
+ 4 + 3 y = 3e 2 x
dy 2 dx 2 dx
19. Given =y  (1) 1
dx Particular Integral = X
1 f (D)
dy = dx
y2 1
= 3e 2 x
Integrating on both sides, ( D 2
+ 4 D + 3)
dy 1
y 2 = dx = 3e 2 x
( 2 2
+ 4 2 + 3)
-1
= x+c (2) 1
y
 = e 2x
5
Given y(0) = 1 y = 1 at x = 0
-1 Hence, the correct option is (B).
From (2) ; = 0 + c = c = -1
1 dy
23. Given differential equation is x2 + 2xy
Substituting the value of c in (2), we get the solution of (1) as dx
1 2ln x
=x-1 = (1)
y x 
1 dy 2 2 ln x
y =  (3) + y= 3
1 x dx x x
From (3), y is bounded if 1 - x 0 Which is in the form of a linear equation
x1 dy
+ p(x)y = Q(x)
x < 1, x > 1 dx
Hence, the correct option is (C). 2 2 ln x
Where p(x) = and Q(x) = 3
20. Given L [f(t)] = F(s) x x
t F ( s) Integrating Factor = I.F = e
p ( x ) dx

L f (T ) dT =
0 s The general solution of (1) is
Hence, the correct option is (A). Y I.F = Q ( x ) I. F dx + c
dy 2 ln x
21. Given + 2xy = e x (1)
2

dx yx2 = x 2 dx + c
 x3
Clearly (1) is in the form of a linear equation 1
x2y = 2 (ln x ) . dx + c
dy x
+ P ( x) y = Q( x)
dx x2y = (lnx)2 + c  (2)
Where P(x) = 2x; Q(x) = e x Given y(1) = 0 y = 0 at x = 1
2

Chapter 3 solution .indd 76 9/1/2015 4:05:15 PM


Hints/Solutions | 2.77

From (2) (D + 2)2 = 0


0 1 = (ln 1) + c c = 0
2 D = - 2, -2
The solution of (1) is x2y = (ln x)2 The complete solution of (4) is
1 1 y = (c1 + c2x) e-2x  (5)
y(e) = y at x = e is 2 (ln e)2 = 2 .
e e
By taking c1 = 0 and c2 = 1 in (5), we get a solution of (4) is
Hence, the correct option is (D).
y = xe-2x
d2y dy
24. (i) Given differential equation is +p + q = 0  (1) Hence, the correct option is (C).
dx 2 dx
Its auxiliary equation is
0 for t < a
D2 + pD + q = 0  (2) 25. u (t - a) =
1, for t > a
Given that y = c1e-x + c2e-3x is the complete solution of (1)
The Laplace transform of the unit step function is L[u(t - a)]
-1 and -3 will be the roots of its auxiliary equation

-p
Sum of the roots = (-1) + (-3) = = e - st u ( t - a ) dt
1 0
p=4
a
q = e st 0dt + e st .1dt
Product of the roots = (-1) (-3) =
1 0 a
p = 4 and q = 3  (3).
e - st
Hence, the correct option is (C). =
-s a
d2y dy
(ii) Here 2 + p. + ( q + 1) y = 0  (4) e - e - sa
dx dx = +
d2y dy -s s
+ 4. + ( 3 + 1) y = 0 (From equation (3) of 81a)
dx 2
dx e - as
L[u(t - a)] =
d2y dy s
2 + 4. + ( 4 ) y = 0
dx dx Hence, the correct option is (B).
Its auxiliary equation is
D2 + 4D + 4 = 0

Chapter 3 solution .indd 77 9/1/2015 4:05:17 PM


Chapter 4 Complex Variables
Hints/Solutions

Practice Problems I
( )
12
1- i 3
- 12
Solutions for questions 1 to 40: = 2 = w 2 = 1.

3 + 5i ( 3 + 5i ) ( 2 + i ) 1+ i 3
-


w ( )
1. = 2
2-i (2 - i)(2 + i)
Hence, the correct option is (B).
1 + 13i