Software Engineering

Software Characteristics Software ;k software engineering dks le>us ds fy;s lcls igys mlds charactristics dks le>uk vko';d gksrk gSA tks fd vyx&vyx rjhds ls human being activity dks produce djrs gS tc hardware dks rS;kj fd;k x;k rk mldh physical form rS;kj gqbZA ftldks human vklkuh ls analysis design, construct rFkk test dj ldrk gSA Hardware dk mi;ksx djds ;fn u;k computer rS;kj fd;k tkrk gS rks mlesa physical product tSls fd chips, circuit baord rFkk power supply gSA Computer System dh software ,d logical element gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk hardware dks operate fd;k tkrk gSA Software dks develop ;k engineering fd;k tkrk gSA bldh manufacturing ugh gksrh gSA tcfd software development rFkk hardware manufacturing esa Hkh dqN simultaneous gksrh gSA ;s nksuks activities different gksrh gSA vkSj bu nksuksa dh high quality produce dh tk ldrh gSa ysfdu hardware dks manufacture djrs le; quality problems dk lkeu djuk iM+rk gSA ftudks vklkuh ls correct ugh fd;k tk ldrkA ;s nksuks activities user ij depend jgrh gSA vkSj bu nksuksa ds fy;s construction of product dh vko';drk gksrh gSA ysfdu approach vyx&vyx mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA Computer based product dh designing dks control djus ds fy;s lkW¶Vos;j eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA blds fy;s digital circuit board rS;kj fd;s tkrs gSA vkSj mudh proper functioning dks check fd;k tkrk gSA izR;sd intrigrated circuit (ic and chpe) ds ikl ,d iksVZ uEcj gksrk gS tks fd standrad ingrigrated guid lines dks set djrk gSA izR;sd component dks selected djus ds ckn board ds circuit dks electrical signals ds }kjk check fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ,d D;k system design gksrk gSA ,d software component vko';drkuqlkj design rFkk environment fd;k tkrk gSA ftlls cgqr lkjs vyx&vyx programs dks include fd;k tkrk gS ;s programs permanent gksrs gSA engineering rFkk scientific application dks litraries dks ,d well defined algorithm dh lgk;rk ls effective manner ds }kjk reuse fd;k tkrk gSA Software engineering cgqr

lkjh ubZ&ubZ application create dj jgs gSA tks fd reusable form esa gksrh gSA tSls fd graphical user interface (GUI) ds lHkh components reusable gksrs gSA ftudksa vko';drkuqlkj ckj&ckj mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA blesa pull down menus, tools rFkk interactive windows include jgrh gSA

Software Application :Software vyx&vyx situation ds vk/kkj ij apply fd;k tkrk gSA blds fy;s igys ls gh procedure step specify djus dh vko';drk gksrh gS ftls ge algorithm Hkh dgrs gSA bldk mi;ksx export system software or network software fd;k tkrk gSA ;gk ij information ds contents software application ds nature ds fy;s dkQh important gksrs gSA D;ksfd controls incoming rFkk outgoing information dh definition crkrs gSA tSlk fd cgqr lkjh ,slh business application gS tks structured input data (database) dks mi;ksx djds formatted reports produce djrh gSA Software automated machine dks control djrk gSA Software engineering es program analysis ds fy;s predefined order set djus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA tks fcuk fdlh :dkoV ds algorithm dks execute djsA vkSj data ds result dks report ;k graphical formet esa produce djs multi-user operating system fofHkUu izdkj ds contants ;k commands dks execute djrk gS vkSj ;s commands external condition ds vk/kkj ij gh accept gksrh gSA Software application dks meaningful design djuk FkksM+k dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu blds fy;s cgqr lkjs component use fd;s tkrs gSA ftudk mi;ksx djds application dks design djuk vklku cuk;k tk ldrk gSA

1. System software :System software dqN ,sls programs dk collection gksrk gS ftudk mís'; nwljs program dks service provide djuk gksrk gSA dqN system software utilities bl izdkj gSA tSls fd companies editors, file manager, drivers, tele communication, processor etc bl izdkj dh system utilities large information dh processing dks handle dj ldrh gS nwljh rjQ system software computer hardware dks Hkh control djrs gSA tks fd multiple user ds }kjk mi;ksx fd;k tk jgk gksrk gSA

2. Real Time Software :,sls software tks fd real words events dks monitor/analysis ;k control djrs gSA Real-time Software dgykrs gSA Real-time software ds element esa data gathering components include jgrs gSA tks fd vko';drkuqlkj external environment ls information dks collect djrs gS vkSj mls analysis djds ,d lgh output produce djrs gSA rFkk lHkh components real-time response (typically ranging from 1 millisecond to 1 second ) maintain djrs gSA

3. Business Software :Business information processing esa ,d large single software use fd;k tkrk gSA tks business dh cgqr lkjh fields dks cover djrk gSA ;s software bl izdkj ls gks ldrs gS & 1. Payroll Management 2. Account Receivable/Payable 3. Inventory Control System bl izdkj ds lHkh software management information system (MIS) esa involve jgrs gSA vkSj business information ds fy;s ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd large databases dks inter relate djrs gSA bl izdkj dh application esa business operation ds fy;s cgqr lkjh lqfo/kk iznku dh tk ldrh gSA

4. Engineering and Scientific Software :;s software engineering and scientific calculation dks perform djus ds mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA bl izdkj dh application esa space technology ;k weather for costing etc. dh calculation vklkuh ls dh tk ldrh gSA modern application es engineering and scientific application areas dks cover fd;k x;k gSA tks fd numerical algorithm dks vklkuh ls handle dj ldrh gS blesa computer aided design (CAD) system simulation rFkk nwljh interactive application involve jgrh gSA ;s lHkh application real time application gksrh gSA

5. Embedded Software :-

izR;sd customer ;k industrial market eas vktdy intelligent porduct use fd;s tk jgs gSA ftudk mi;ksx djds business esa viuk dkQh le; cpk ysrs gSA vkSj fast calculation Hkh perform gks tkrh gS dqN ,sls software dks customer rFkk industrial market ds product control djus ds fy;s mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA Embedded software dgykrs gSA ;s software dkQh NksVs software gksrs gS vkSj read only memory esa jgrs gSA rFkk bldk dk;Z products dks control djuk vkSj le;≤ ij mudh information provide djuk gksrk gSA blesa fuEufyf[kr software involve jgrs gSA tSls fd & digital function in an automobiles such as fuel control, dash board displays and etc.

6. Personal Computer Software :Personal computer software dk market vkt dkQh powerful gks x;k gSA blesa manipulation, calculation rFkk business etc ds fy;s gtkjks software use fd;s tk jgs gSA tSls fd word processing, spread sheet, computer graphics, multi media, entertainment, database management, personal and business financial application external network and database access application.

7. Web Based Software :Web pages ,sls software ds }kjk retrieve fd;s tkrs gSA ftUgs browser dgk tkrk gSA tks fd instructions dks execute djus es l{ke gksrs gS web pasges dh instructions, CGI, HTML, Perl or java etc. languages esa fy[ks tkrs gSA vkSj MkVk dks fofHkUu izdkj ds hyper text rFkk visual formets esa represent fd;k tk ldrk gSA Internet dh fdlh Hkh information dks web dh lgk;rk ls access djuk vklku gks x;k gSA vkSj blds fy;s modem eq[; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA

8. Artificial Intelligence Software :Artificial Intelligence (AI) software ,sls software gksrs gS tks non numerical algorithm dks complex problem dks vklkuh ls solve dj ldrs gSA blesa expert system, pattern reorganization (Image & Voice), Artificial neural network and games planing etc.

ds vuqlkj .k tkrk gSA .d computer program create djus dh vko'. forms etc software engineering methods .rk djrk gSA "Computer Aided Software Engineering" dgykrk gSA CASE esa software hardware rFkk database dk combination gksrk gSA rFkk blesa Hkh software engineering environment esa analysis. construction testing support etc steps include jgrs gSA software engineering tools bu process rFkk methods esa automation provide djrs gSA tc tools intergraded gksrs gS rks mUgs dksbZ Hkh nwljk user use dj ldrk gSA .d business software rS. important of the software rFkk software dh basic outline provide dh tkrh gSA .kj djus ds fy.slh technique gksrh gS ftlesa software dSls rS. steps include jgrs gSA . design.drk gksrh gS vkSj bls cgqr lkjh vyx&vxy e'khu ij VsLV fd.s tkrs gSA bl technique dks le>k.k tkrk gSA blesa .s tkrs gS ogh actual esa software engineering dh defination gksrh gSA blesa software quality rFkk timally product delaviry.d . design. program construction and testing etc. documents.Software Engineering a Layered Approach :Software Engineering ds fyls lSdM+sk author us fofHkUu izdkj dh defination provide dh gSA ysfdu ftl subject ds ckjs esa discussion .k focus djrh gSA Software engineering dh process layer esa lHkh layers dks combine fd.g testing Hkh software engineering dk gh steps gksrh gSA Process. program.k tkrk gSA bleas vko'.d layered technology gksrh gS ftlesa quality dks improve fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj le.drkuqlkj analysis.d .s .k confrenence perform dh tkrh gS vkSj lgh principal rFkk rule regulation provide fd.d computer software rS.d key process area gksrk gSA tks software projects dks manage rFkk control djrk gSA bl izdkj ds technical methods work products esa apply fd. Methods and tools :Software engineering . reports.kj fd.s tkrs gS tSls fd models.k tkrk gSA vkSj tc quality improve gksrh gS rks development dh izfØ.kj fd.k vkSj next step ij perform dh tkrh gS tks fd software engineering dh further quality dks support . data.slk system tks software development esa lgk. software ds merits rFkk demerits.

Inter Group and Coordination C. Software Configuration Management B. Software Products Engineering LEVEL 3 A. Software Project Tracking and Over right E. Software Sub-Contract Management D. Organization Process Focus LEVEL 4 A. Quantitative Process Management LEVEL 5 A. Training Program C.Key pad analysis (KPA) esa process maturity ds fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gSA LEVEL 1 A. Requirement Management LEVEL 2 A. Software Project Planning F. Organization Process Definition D. Process Change Management B. Peer Revises B. Software Quality Management B. Software Quality Assurance C. Integrated Software Management B. Technology Change Management C. Defect Prevention Software Process Models :- .

k waterfull model Hkh dgrs gSA Linear sequential model software development esa .ksx fd. quo. technical development and solution intigration.s tkrs gSA vkSj vko'.k software engineering esa process model .drkuqlkj software dh controlling dh tkrh gSA lHkh izdkj ds software development esa problem solving loop dks characterized fd. problem.k dks process modes . System/Information engineering and modeling :- .d systematic rFkk sequential approach sugest provide djrk gSA tks fd system level ds 'kq: gksrk gSA vkSj analysis. coding.k software engineering paradigones dgk tkrk gSA software engineering esa process model project rFkk application dh nature ds vuqlkj gh choose fd. Problem solving bl loop dks software engineering fofHkUu izdkj dh problem dks solve djus ds fy.s mi. Status quo fdlh Hkh problem ds current status dks represent djrk gSA vkSj problem definition fdlh particular problem dks identify djrk gSA ftls solve fd.s vyx&vyx rjhds ls mi. design.d software engineering dh team xfBr dh tkrh gSA tks fd process method rFkk tools layers dk use djds iwjh problem dks specify djrh gSA blh izfØ.k tkrk gSA ftlesa pkj fofHkUu izdkj dh stages dh testing gksrh gS & status. definition.k tkuk gks] technical development esa application dh lgk.fdlh Hkh industry esa actual problem dks solve djus ds fy. data. new business function and new product etc.s tkrs gSA tSl fd document.k tkrk gSA vkSj solution integration es result produce fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj blds ckn gh method rFkk tools use fd.ksx djrs gSA rFkk bls large product esa . programs.k tk ldrk gSA The Linear Sequential Model :bl model dks dHkh&dHkh ge clasic life cycle .rk ls problems dks solve fd.d ls vf/kd ckj vyx&vyx izdkj dh problem ds fy. testing rFkk support dh izfØ.k dks complete djrk gSA ` Linear sequential model fuEufyf[kr activities perform djrk gSA 1.s .

s tkrs gSA .kj djus ls igys gh rS.fn output esa fdlh izdkj dh leL.d step process gksrh gSA tks program ds attribute dks focus djrh gSA Data structure.k tkrk gSA 3.k ughA System es rjg&rjg ds inputs provide fd.k business dk part gksrk gSA tks fd lHkh izdkj ds system element dh requirement dh vko'. 2. software architecture.drk gksrh gSA bl dk.k vkrh .drkuqlkj choose fd. behavior. people and database.kj djus ds fy. performance and interface etc.sA tSls fd hardware. Design :Actually Software design .kj dj fy.Z djrk gSA vkSj bldk interaction nqljs element ds lkFk vo'.drkuqlkj dk.` D.Z dks code generation step complete djrk gSA . system rFkk software dh requirement bu documentaion software dks rS.k tkrk gSA rks program testing dh process 'kq: gksrh gSA Testing process software dh logical values dks test djrh gSA vkSj ftlesa .ksfd software ges'kk gh .d ckj code generate dj fy.s complete information dks igys ls le> ysrk gSA tSls fd & requirement funtions. interface.drkuqlkj software dh lHkh requirements dks translate djrh gSA Coding start djus ls igys analysis software ds designing documents dks complete dj ysrk gSA 4. representation and procedural (Algorithmic) detail designing process vko'. Testing :. Code Generation :Designing dks ges'kk gh readable form esa translate djus dh vko'.s irk fd.fn designing vko'. gksuk pkfg.s mlds nature dks le>uk vko'.d cM+s system .drkuqlkj detailed manner esa gksxh rks code generation esa fdlh Hkh rjg dh problem ugh vkrh gSA 5.s analyst (software engineer) software ds fy.d gksrk gSA blfy.k tkrk gSA Program dks rS. Software requirement analysis :ftl rjg dh process gksrh gSA mlh rjg ls software dks vko'.k tkrk gS fd software dh lHkh statements lgh :i ls execute gks jgh gS .fn .

drkuqlkj result izkIr gks tk.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj software ds output formats design fd.rk djrs gSA blfy. esa software dk environment change gks tkrk gSA bl le. u.s bls .k tkrk gSA vkSj . software support .slh situation gksrh gS tgk¡ ij prototyping prodigious development dh lgk.s tk ldrs gSA .s general objective dks define djrk gS ysfdu og input processing . rFkk support dh process dks reapply djrk gSA The Prototyping Model :Customer software ds fy.slh technique gS tks software requirement dks indentify djrh gSA Working prototype esa developments igys ls gh cus program dk .s dqN steps provide fd.Z 'kq: dj nsrk gSA vkSj customer viuh vko'. ea customer dh vko'.k operating system . testing.drkuqlkj data input djrk gSA .s tkrs gS ftuesa prototyping approach include jgrh gSA cgqr lkjh .k peripheral devices Hkh change fd. design coding.s tk ldrs gSA .sA Prototyping process .s rjhds ls test djrk gS vkSj iqu% analysis.drkuqlkj information dks bdV~Bk fd.gh function prototyping dk part gksrs gSA Prototype customer rFkk user vkSj software developr ds }kjk evaluate dh tkrh gSA vkSj rc rd .fn lgh :i ls functioning ugh djrk gS rks bl le.s process pyrh jgrh gS tc rd fd customer satisfy u gks tk.d vPNh approach ekuk x.k tk ldrk gSA blesa customer rFkk development nksuks gh vkil esa communication dj ldrs gSA vkSj software ds fy.k output ds requirement dks identify ugh djrk gSA vkSj nwljs causes esa dHkh&dHkh development algorithm dh izfØ.fn vko'.s overall objective define dj ldrs gS blls software tYnh fMtkbu fd. Support :Software complete gksus ds ckn customer dks handover dj fn.gS rks mls debug dj fy.sls le.s rks software testing dh process complete gks tkrh gSA 5.k dks gy djus ds fy.drk gksrh gSA ftlesa software engineer iqjkus system dks u.sls le.k gSA Prototyping paradigms dh lgk.drkuqlkj software .k maintenance dh vko'.k tkrk gSA mlds ckn customer viuk dk.k dks complete ugh djrs gSA bl leL.rk ls vko'.

s development dks u.s linear sequential dks produce fd.ksx fd.s tkrs gS vkSj .ksx dh tkrh gSA vkSj .k] blds }kjk software development esa incremental version dks vklkuh ls tksM+k tk .d actual system dh rjg lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA Customer tc software use djrk gSA rks og prototyping dks working ds :i es eglwl djrh gSA development tc software dks implement djrs gS rks mudk dk.s mi.sd incremental .d command provide dh tkrh gSA Third incremental esa spelling rFkk grammar checking dh lqfo/kk iznku dh tkrh gSA vkSj advance page layout capabilities forth incremental esa iznku dh tkrh gSA blls ges .k rFkk ftlesa prototyping ds incrementative ds nature dks control fd.ksx fd.k gSA Incremental Model es software processing ds fy.sd word processing software incremental paradigm dk mi.drkuqlkj nwljs incremental model vyx&vyx lqfo/kk ds fy.kj fd.d complete product produce u dj nsA The Spiral Model :Spiral Model Program ds }kjk design fd.k tkrk gSA tSls fd izR.s vko'.s tkrs gSA ftlds vuqlkj basic file management.s customer rFkk development nksuks esa gh .k tkrk gsA lcls igys first increment use gksrk gSA ftls ges software dk core product Hkh dgrs gS tks fd software dh basic requirement dks provide djrk gSA vkSj fQj planning ds vuqlkj core dh lgk.k tkrk gSA tc incremental model use fd. esa complete gks tkrk gA bl fy. editing rFkk document production facilities first incremental esa editing rFkk document production ds fy.ksx djds gh rS.k x.s process rc rd repeat gksrh jgrh gSA tc rd fd izR.ksx djds de le.ksx dj ysrs gSA tSls fd & report generations rFkk windows managers etc. ysfdu fdlh particular purpose ds fy.k x.s prototyping software engineering dk effective prardigon gSA The Incremental Model :Environmental model es linear sequential model ds elements dks combine fd.mi.k x.drk gksrh gSA Prototype first system dh rjg mi.Z prototype dk mi.s programs generate djus dh vko'.g irk pyrk gS fd fdlh Hkh izdkj ds incremental eas prototyping paradigms dk mi.rk ls vko'.

s mudk dk.Task required to obtain customer required base on evaluation of the software representation create designing the engineering stages and implemental during the installation stages. New product development projects. Concept development projects.k x.ksx fd. 3.d combine version rS.gk ij yxHkx sin task resign spiral model esa mi.Takes required to access both technical and management race.ksx djds incremental software vklkuh ls develop fd. Engineering :.Takes required to build one or more representation on the application.Z Je Hkh lhfer gksrk gSA tcfd cM+s projects . Customer Evaluation :. 2.Task required to construct. 5.sd persion team work task ds fy.Task required to define resource costively ness and other project related information.Z vc spiral model ds }kjk dkQh spiral cgqr lkjh frame work activities esa devide fd.s dk. Constriction and Release :.k tkrk gSA . 3. Product enhancement projects.k tk ldrk gSA blls igys design dsoy isij ij fMtkbZu fd.drkuqlkj combine fd.Task required to established effective communication between developr and customer 2.documentation and training) 6. Risk Analysis :.s tkrs gSA ftls paper model dgk tkrk gSA vkSj ckn esa bu paper model dks system esa add djds . Spiral model dk izR. Planning :.k x. 4. Product maintenance projects.k gksrk gSA ftls ge task set Hkh dgrs gSA tks fd iwjs project ds charactristics provide djrk gSA vkSj project esa work task de gksrs gSA blfy. Customer Communication :.s tkrs gSA 1. (for example :.s tkrs gSA vkSj mUgs vko'. 4. 1.d . text install and user support.ldrk gSA Spiral model dk mi.kj fd.s set fd.k gSA ftUgsa tast version spiral dgk tkrk gSA .

.ksx djds software dk complete version rS.s mlds }kjk high level dh formetings dks izkIr fd.d number of ideration set djuk gS tc .d vPNh understanding gksuk vko'.sd resion esa vko'.s . People 2.s planing ds vuqlkj vko'.k tkrk gSA vkSj customer mldh viuh vko'.d activiy gksrh gSA project management esa planings. control of the people.d gksrk gSA 1.drkuqlkj lHkh izdkj ds inputs provide djrk gS vkSj .k tkrk gSA vkSj project manager softwere dks complete djus ds fy.drkuqlkj ftl rjg ls planing dh tkrh gSA bldh cost feed back ds vk/kkj ij set fd. Process 4.s bu activities ds umbralla activities Hkh dgk tkrk gSA tSls gh bldh evaluationnory process 'kq: gksrh gSA rks software engineering dh team sprial model ds vuqlkj clock wise direction esa move djrh gSA vkSj spiral model ds contrest ls gh 'kq: gksrh gSA vkSj spiral model ds igys sereit esa fdlh Hkh product ds result dks development fd.d perticular project esa apply dh tkrh gSA (Ex.kj djus ds fy.s tkrs gS rks management . process rFkk software dks increment djus ds lHkh operation include jgrs gSA software dks rS.es izR. Project .kj fd.d result izkIr djrk gSA Project Management Concepts :tc Hkh dksbZ computer based system .k tkrk gSA Spiral model esa izR.kj fd.k tk ldrk gSA lHkh causes esa ftruh Hkh activities gksrh gSA os lHkh .d complete software rS.Software contrigration management and software quality assurance etc. Product 3.d cgqr gh vko'.k tkrk gSA ftles gj izdkj dh prototype dk mi.sd task resion vf/kd ls vf/kd work task contain djrk gSA blfy.kj gksrk gS vkSj mls customer dks provide fd.) blfy.k products rS.k tkrk gSA software engineers dealy to dealy activities dsk analysis djrs gSA mls design djrs gSA vkSj mlds Åij technical control provide djrs gSA bldks pkj stages esa le>uk vko'.d gksrh gSA ftlds vk/kkj ij iwjs projects dks manage fd.s process complete gksrh gSA rks .

Customers viuh vko'. Team leaders :- .rk djrs gS mUgs 5 Js.d technical skills provide djrs gSA iv.kh eas ck¡Vk x. Project (Technical) Managers :.k dk.rk djrk gSA blesa tks yksx invovle gksrs gS os bl izdkj gS & a. Customers :.Project Managers iwjs project dh planning djrs gSA vkSj tks users bl projects esa dk.s software engineering process esa peoples dk rool dkQh egRoiw. End user :.drkuqlkj iwjs software dh tkudkjh provide djrs gsA fd bl software es fdl izdkj ds dk.d ckj software ds lkFk intract djrk gSA tc software (project) release gksrk gSA mlds ckn ogh end user software ij dk.Z gSA ii. People :fdlh Hkh software project dks lgh :i ls complete djus ds fy.k gS & i.s gksrk gSA vkSj bl organisation ds employees Hkh organization dsx ckjs es iwjh tkudkjh ns ldrs gSA muds communication ds fcuk ge software environment vklkuh ls complete ugh dj ldrs gSA blfy.Z djrk gSA 2.Senior Managers iwjh rjg organization dh information provide djrs gSSA vkSj .Z gksrk gSA iii. Practitionens :.Z dj jgs gksrs gS mudks motivate and organize djuk rFkk daVªksy djuk Hkh project managers dk gh dk.s people communication cgqr gh important gksrk gSA D. The Players :Software process es tks yksx lgk.k application ds fy.1.s vko'.s crkrs gS fd bl organization esa fdl employee dk D.kZ gksrk gSA blesa senior engineer ls ysdj NksVs ls NksVk employee Hkh prjects ds complete gksus esa lgk.End user de ls de . Senior Mangers :.Practitiones fdlh Hkh product .sA v.ksfd tks Hkh software project create djrs gSA og fdlh perticular organizationd ds fy.Z perform gksus pkfg.

k vkrh gS rks mls contol .Project team dh productivity dks le. Motivation :.&le..Z djrs gSA .fn fdlh dkj.drk gksrh gSA tks fd technical rFkk organiszational problems dks systemetic <ax ls solve dj ldsA v.d gksrk gSA vkSj mlds ikl yskxks ds communication djus dk project. Problem Solving :.Software projects dks complete djus esa . ij analysis djus ds fy.s .k application ds fy.s yksxks dks mRlkfgr djuk] vkSj u.s&u.sd member ls report ysuk vko'.k dks gy djus ds fy.izR.&le.fn u.d effective software projects managers dh vko'. dks lgh :i ls complete djus dk rFkk iwjh project team dks control djus dk confidence gksuk vko'.d vPNs project managers dks project dk charge ysuk vko'.The availability to encoverage ¼lkgl c<+kuk½ technical pepls to produce to there best activity.s ideas provide djuk] ftuls software project dks complete djus esa lgk.ko'k dgh ij dksbZ leL.s events produce gks] rks mudks organize djus dh rFk final product dks translate djus dh ability Hkh project leader eas gksuk vko'.d gksrk gSA vi.fn fdlh izdkj dh problem dk lkeuk djuk iM+s rks mlds fy.fdlh Hkh proces esa . Managerial Identity :.s project managers eq[. Organisation :.d gksrh gSA iv.sd software projects esa tks yksx Hkh involve gksrs gS os lHkh viuh&viuh availability rFkk skills ds vuqlkj dk.s project manager dks le.d nwljs ls vPNh rjg communication ugh dj ik jgs gS rks project dks complete djus es ijs'kkuh dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gSA bl leL.d gksrk gSA vkSj .slh ability Hkh team leader esa gksuk vko'. ii. Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA tks fd iwjh project team dk yhMj gksrk gSA Leader ship ds dqN charactristics bl izdkj gS & i.rk feysA .fn os lHkh yksx . Achivement :. Ideas or Innovations :.fdlh Hkh perticular software product .d gksrh gSA iii. ij team ds izR.

gksuh pkfg.s tkrs gSA rFkk mlds ckn mls nwljs coordinates ls replace dj fn.drk gksrh gsA og nwljs yksxks dks read dj lds] vkSj mudh problems dks le> lds] .k .kj dh tk ldrh gSA 3.d .s dqN le.k tkrk gSA & a.bl software engineering team ds ikl .drkuqlkj le>rh gS vkSj mls gy djrh gS blds fy.ksx fd.gk¡ ij rhu izdkj dh software team rS.d ls vf/kd funtional task provide fd.sd dk.djus dh vko'.kj djus ds fy. rd coordinates appoint fd.ksX.ksZ dh .s .k tk ldrk gSA vii. es complete fd.kj dh xbZ gS ftudk vko'.d effective team manager yksxks dks understand djus esa .d leader gksrk gS tks fdlh perticular dk. gksuk pkfg.k tkrk gSA b.d fuf'pr le.d team design dh tkrh gSA tks fdlh Hkh orgnization structure dk vklkuh ls computerized dj ldrh gSA bldh iwjh responsibility software project manager dh gskrh gSA tks direct team ds members ds lkFk communicate djrk gSA izR.drkuqlkj organisation es mi.Z dks coordinate djrk gS vkSj nwljs NksV&NksVs dk.s software team technical rFkk physical nksuksa izdkj dh lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA .Z ds fy. Controled Decentralized (CD) :.ksX.k tkrk gSA fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problemds ds fy. Influence and team building :.sd member dks vko'.d vPNh team rS. Democratied Decentralized (DD) :.s decision rFkk approch iwjs group ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA vkSj team members ds communication horizontal provide fd.s rHkh .drk gksrh gSA bl izdkj ds NksVs&NksVs risk project leader dks ysus gh iM+rs gS blesa fdlh dks punish ugh fd. The Software Team :yxHkx lHkh organization esa tks software rS.sA vkSj mls ges'kk gh under control esa jgus dh vko'.slh .kj djrs gS mues software rS.k tkrk gSA software team fdlh organization dh problem dks vko'..rk projects managers esa vo'.s tkrs gSA tks fd software project ds gh part gksrs gS vkSj mUgs .drkuqlkj .bl engineering team dks dksbZ permanent leader ugh gksrk gSA blesa izR.

k djrs gS vkSj .k tkrk gSA .sd member dks . v.k tkrk gSA Decntralized team indivisuals ds fy.gk¡ ij team members esa communication horizental rFkk vertical nksuks gh :i es provide dh tk ldrh gSA c.ksx fd.s .reponsibility Hkh mlh ds Åij gksrh gS fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks iwjh team solve djrh gS ysfdu ml problem dks solve djus ds fy. The rigidity of the delivery date. vii.bl izdkj dh software engineering team esa top level problem solving rFkk internal team coordination team leader ds }kjk gh manage fd.d example cukrs gS rFkk mls vko'. 7 project factor directive fd.s .Z provide djrk gSA .drkuqlkj organise djrs gS ysfdu muds fy.Z dks tYnh iwjk djrk gSA vkSj simple problem dks gy djus ds fy. The difficulty of the problem to be solved.s lcls vf/kd mi.d specific dk. Controled Centralized (CC) :.s x.s information solid information ugh gksrh gSA Important information dk detailed anaylsis djds gh izkIr fd. The ruquired quality and reliability of the system to be built. ii. iii. The size of the resultand programs is line of code or function point.s team leader izR. The degree to which the problem can to modularized. vi.k tkrk gSA Leader rFkk team members ds chp communication vertical gksrk gSA Software engineering teams ds structure dks create djrs le.s vPNk solution provide djrh gSA vkSj difficult problems dks solve djus es l{ke gksrh gSA Product :Software porject management dks lcls igys fo'ys"k. The time that the team will stay to gather (team life time) iv. The degree of socialbility (communication required for the project) Centralized Structure dk.s gSA tks bl izdkj gS & i.

How does the software to be built fit in a large ssytem. b.vkSj .k tk. Hkh ys ldrh gSA tc project 'kq: gksrk gS rks vko'. product or business contects & what considrate are impored as a result of a control.drkuqlkj tks Hkh algorithm provide fd.d activities ds nkSjku problem dks fully .k tkrk gSA a. Function & Performance :.k eghus rd dk le.s] og ell understand esa miyC/k gksuk pkfg. Information Objectives :.s vko'.d le. c. dh information Hkh provide dh tkrh vko'.d complete product rS.sA ftuds data (nmber of similertation. Software project are store management and technical level ij vklku rFkk easy to understand gksuk gSA vko'.drkuqlkj software analysit ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA .drk gksrh gSA rkfd dksbZ .d gksrh gSA blds fy. Software Scope :Software Project management es lcls igy activity software scope dks determine djuk gksrk gSA fdlh Hkh software porject dk scope fuEufyf[kr questions answer djds define fd. ij cnyrh jgrh gSA blfy.d gksrh activity gS tks fd vko'.) include jgrk gSA blds lkFk&lkFk software dh limitation tSls fd product cost restrict memory size etc. size of mailing list.&le.What customer visible data objects are producted as output form the software whate data objects case required for input.g . esa . Contect :.sA Problem Decompogirion :PD dks lHkh portitioning a problem elatroration Hkh dgrs gS .d gksrk gSA software dh statement ftldh provide dh tkuh pkfg.drkuqlkj plans rFkk requirements Hkh le.What function does the software perform to has for input data into outputs are many special performnance charactristics to the addressed.s project dk 'kq: ls gh vPNh rjg ls analysis djus dh vko'.s analysis complete gksus es lIrkg .k tk ldsA bldh dqN activities fuEu izdkj gSA i. maximum allowable response time etc.kj fd.

k tkrk gSA ftldks vklkuh ls manage fd. ii. Hkkx gksrs gSA vkSj . nks area es apply fd. The formal methods model. The incrimental model. The win_win sprial model.k tkrk gSA i. v.s parts lHkh izdj das software esa apply fd.s process model software engineering paradigoms ds varxZr vkrs gSA tSls fd & i.k tkrk gSA vkSj . ii. The RAD (Rapid Application Development) model. x. iv.k tk ldsA . The component based developmetn.The concurrent development model.s method project manning ds 'kq: es gh apply dj fn. . xi. The sprial model. The Functionally that must be delivence. viii. vi. The process that will be uses delivere it. The prototyping model.rk ls complex problem dks NksVs&NksVs programs esa devide dj fn.decompase fd. iii.k tkrk gSA vkSj software functions esa software dks mldk use rFkk total arithmetic Hkh decompostition dks gh part gksrk gSA The Process :Software develpment esa lcls main step mldh processing dk gksrk gSA vkSj bldsa designing esa tks process use dh tkrh gSA mlesa defination development rFkk support eq[. tc Hkh dksbZ . The linear sequential model.wtj fdlh complex problem dks gy djrk gSA rks og blesa devide and conquer method use djrk gSA bldh lgk.s tk ldrs gSA fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks porcess module ds vk/kkj ij projcect team ds }kjk choose df. The technical generation model.ktkrk gSA vkSj bl decompositon dks eq[. vii.

s dkSu lk process model use fd. product detail.fn . c.d ckj process model select dj fy. .sd designing team ls activity report check djrk jgrk gSA cM+s project esa fuEufyf[kr communication activities include jgrh gS & a. engineering. construction and release rFkk customer evaluation etc.s best suited choose djrh gS .s rks izR.s deside djrk gS fd perticular problem ds fy. Melding the Porduct and the process :Project Planning product rFkk mldh process dks understand djus ds ckn gh 'kq: dh tkrh gSA vkSj izR.Z djsxhA . planning.ksx dh tkrh gSA Project start gksus ds ckn project manager le. dk.&le. ij izR. Review the customer request b. Plan and schedule a formel.k tk.k 'kq: gksrh gSA ftlesa complete plan required project activity rFkk brief discription include jgrh gSA Process esa fuEufyf[kr activities apply dh tkrh gS %& i. user work product charactristics rFkk project environment dks vklkuh ls handle fd.d gksrk gSA ftlesa customer communication. Conduct research to specify the prepaired solution and existing approach.s rks mlds ckn project dh designging start gks tkrh gSA NksVs project ds fy.fn . Process Decomposition :Software team project ds fy.k tk lds rFkk dkSu lh software team bl project ij dk.s Hkh project manager gh decide djrk gSA . Prepare a working document and an agenda for the formal meeting. facilities meeting with the customer.d ckj process model choose dj fy.Project manager . e.s linear sequential apporach lcls vf/kd mi.k tkuk vko'.d gSA ftlesa customer dh request.Z include jgrs gSA ii. risk analysis. d.k tkuk vko'. Conduct the meeting.sd team dks mlds ckn proecess decompostition dh izfØ.sd function software team ds } kjk design fd.k tk.

i.s ges lcls igys bldh problem dks vo'.s gS & .s understand djuk Hkh vko'.f. h. g.s discuss fd. fdlh Hkh deficult software project dks rS.d gS fd mls lgh dSls fd. and behaviral features fo the software. Hkwfedk gksrh gsA ftlds fy.s tkrs gSA software project dks complete djus ds fy. j.s x. The coosent technology changes. Charges are managed poorly. Managers and prectisnner avoid best practices and lessons learned. Design the reflect data. Review correcterness consistency and each steps of the problem. The project team lacks peopel with appropriate & skills .s tks steps define fd.k tk.kj djus ds fy. iv. c.sA Information system project ds fy. Sponsorship is lort. x. le>uk pkfg. MOdify the scopping documents as required. The project :fdlh Hkh software project dks sucessfully manage djus ds fy. v. functions. iii. ii. Software people don't understand their customer needs.s projectional yxHkx 90 & 100 rules discuss djrs gSA buesa ls 90% system ds affort rFkk le. xi. Review the scopping documents with all concered.s ikap part suggest fd. viii. Died lines are unreakustuc. Assemble scopping documents. User are resintande.sA rFkk . Business need change.s gS og bl izdkj gSA i.s rFkk 10% mldh working ds fy.s x.s manager dh eq[. vii. The product scope is poorly define. vi. ds fy.

drkuqlkj measure .drk gksrh gSA fd fdl part dk measure fd.s tkrs gSA mUgs metrices dgk tkrk gSA software metrics dks software manager ds }kjk analysis rFkk access fd. Track Progress.d common part gksrk gSA ftlesa ge power consumption wait.s fyLV yxHkx endless gS tc Hkh ge fdlh izkstsDV ij dk. Start on the foot. v.i.k tkrk gSA vkSj mls productivity esa add dj fn.s tks point dicuss fd.fn vki fdlh project dks vko'. Makes smart decision. work.kZ gks tkrs gSA rks mleas managers rFkk practioners vius&vius dke esa busy gks tkrs gSA ftlls software process es improvement gksrk gSA dqN cares ea same software metrics project rFkk process indicators dks determine djus . Software process and Project Materials :Software process and project materials esa iwjs izkstsDV dh quantatum measurment dh tkrh gSA ftlesa project dh basic quality productvitiy rFkk data dh information collect dh tkrh gSA blds ckn bl MkVk dks analysis fd. Conduct a mortem analysis.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ds process dks metrics ds }kjk vklkuh ls handle fd.k dks ge implimention Hkh dgrs gSA fdlh Hkh problem dks gy dus ds fy. .g le>us dh vko'. jgrs mlesa dksbZ improvement ugh dh tk ldrh gSA Metrics in the process & project domain :Engineering world esa measurement . tempracture voltage etc dks measure dgrs gSA . software engineering task.k tkrk gSA bl izfØ. physical structure.k tkrk gSA vkSj bldh measurment software engineers ds }kjk dh tkrh gSA . products rFkk milestones etc includes jgrs gS . iii. iv.k judge ugh djrs gS rks vkidk project fail gks ldrk gSA vkSj le.fn lHkh izdkj ds process time ds vuqlkj laiw. ii.Z djrs gSA rks ges ml le.k tk ldrk gSA ftls ge process indicators dgrs gSA bleas fdlh Hkh process dsa paradigoms. Maintain momentum.

Oritin of errors defects a. of errors and defects in each catagories and countered and ranked in descending order.k tkrk gSA rFkk lHkh errors rFkk deffect ds ckjs esa information collect dh tkrh gS A Failure analysis bl izdkj dk.s mi.s metrics process rFkk project domain nksuks ds fy.s tkrs gSA 1. iv. The cost coreect each other and defect is recordered. All errors on deffects area catagoried by origin.s gksrs gSA mudh confirmation ysuk etc. Code .&le.ksx fd.flow in specification.fn improvement djuk gks rks mlls related gj izdkj ds attributes dks measure djus dh vko'. Process metrick & software process improvement :fdlh Hkh project es . Plans are developd to modify the process because the class of errors and defects is most costly. Design c. how in logic and non confermence to standrads) ii.ksx dh tkrh gSA measurement project team ds }kjk perform dh tkrh gSA vkSj mls metrics ds :i esa convert dj fy.k tkrk gS A blh dkj. The over all cost of errors and defects and each catagories is computers.Z djrs gSA i.ess mi.k dks ge SSPI (Stafirtical Software Process Imporvement) dgrs gSA ftlesa software analysis dks Hkh handle fd.k ls . Resultant data are analysis to uncover the cataogries that result in highest cost to the organization. vi.ksx djds laLFkk vklkuh ls MkVk collect dj ldrh gSA bl izfØ. ij enduser ls report team ds }kjk design fd.drk gksrh gSA ysfdu mlls igys software dh quality rFkk organizational performence dh process dks indirectly measure dj ldrs gSA tSls fd & outcomes dks handle djrk vkSj le. The no. Process metrics dk mi. v. (for ex .s x. Specification / requirement b. iii.

s provide djrk gS rFkk iwjs project dh controlling djrk gSA blesa documentaion.ksxh gksrh gSA tSls gh project 'kq: gksrk gS rks mldk time .Measures the resources ( Ex.s tkrs gSA . Acutally .k tk ldrk gSA Design fd.s x. Project Metrics :Software project metrics strategic purpose ds fy.Means that indicate the effectiveness of the deliverables.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA tSls gh quality improve gksrh gSA mlesa ftrus Hkh defect gksrs gSA .s mi.d schedule ds vuqlkj mldk estimate ls compose fd. Environment) Required to the work) b.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh lHkh metrics dks project manager miners ds fy.s gh mi.s estimate iwjkus project ea ls Hkh collect dh tk ldrh gS tks fd current project es dkQh mi.k tkrk gS & a.d vkSj model yxHkx izR.k tkrk gSA ftlls project dh performence vkSj c<+ tkrh gSA Project metrics dks project ds fy.drkuqlkj implimentation gskrk gSA softare project metrics dk .2.sd activity esa apply fd. mi.s project metrics project managers rFkk software team ds }kjk mi.s lHkh improve gksrs tkrs gS rFkk user dh vko'. Output :.ksx dh tkrh gS ftl le. function point rFkk deleverd scarce line measure dh tkrh gSA blesa .s model izR.ksx fd.ksx dh tkrh gSA ysfdu software project esa tactical analysis fd.People.s model process rFkk project nksuks ds fy.rk ls product dh quality dks improve fd. .k tk ldrk gSA Software measurment : - . Results :. Input :. c. time review.s Hkh mi.s rsk mls delete dj fy.Measures of the deliverables or work products during th software engineering process. project astimate yxkbZ tkrh gSA .sd project esa mi.s project esa .k tkrk gSA fd blesa development schedule vklkuh ls design fd.fn fdlh izdkj dh error vk.ksx dh tkrh gSA bles project work flow rFkk technical acitivities include jgrh gSA Project metrics dh igyh application bl le.k tkrk gSA vkSj bldh lgk.ksx fd.

s tkrs gSA bl stage dks ge function point Hkh dg ldrs gSA Function point dk mi. iv. maintainility.k tkrk gSA Sofware engineering process esa direct measurment esa cost rFkk affoord (apply) include jgrk gSA rFkk blesa line of code (LOC) produced. efficiencey.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk table dh list ds izR. Number of users Input.k tk ldrk gSA Information to main values bl izdkj define dh tk ldrh gSA i. ii.fDr N% eghus ds vanj design dj ldrs gSA rFkk bldh cost 1.Measurment dks nks Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x. excution speed.ksx djds software dh information dks vklkuh ls interrelate djds measure fd. complexlity.k tk ldrk gSA . ii.sd item dks vklkuh ls compile fd. Hkh include jgrs gSA Indirect measurement es functionalty. quality.k gSA & 1. memory size rFkk deffects etc. rFkk cgqr lkjh acitivities include jgrh gSA 1. reliability. Indirect Measurement blh ds vk/kkj ij software metrics dks apply fd. . Number of users Output. Size Oriented Metrics :Size Oriented Software metrics quality rFkk productivity ls yh xbZ gSA bles software organization similler domain dks maintain djrh gSA rks Vscy dk size ls measure fd.50000 $ rd gks ldrh gSA software engineering activities analysis designcode rFkk test activity include gjrh gSA 2.k tk ldrk gS vkSj bldh list dks .d NksVs ls program ds }kjk handle fd. Number of Files. Number of users Inqueries. Function Oriented Metrics :Function Oriented metric s apllication dh normalisation value dks measure djrh gS blesa application ds lHkh izdkj ds function measure fd. Direct Measurement 2.fn bl project esa word 12000 lines ds vklikl gS rks bls pkj O.

k average gS .k business information ds fy.k bu functions points dks engineering rFkk nwljs system ess Hkh mi. xi.k tkrk gS vkSj organization function point methods dk mi. x.d ckj function point calculate dj fy.s tkrs gSA mUgs system application .ksx djds . defects per FP (Function Point).k tkrk gSA . iii.k tkrk gS & i.k tk ldrk gSA blh dkj. v.s tkrs gS tSls fd & errors per FP (Function Point).s apply fd.k tkrk gS rks mldh values dks count fd.fn . Number of external interfaces.g irk yxkrh gSA fd perticular entry simple gS .fn .ksx fd.k complex gSA ftlesa fuEufyf[kr questions dk answer find fd. $ per FP (Function Point). Pages of Documentation per FP (Function Point).drk gksrh gSA bl process . quality rFkk nwljk attribute measures fd. iv.k tkrk gSA ftlls iwjh application ds behaviour rFkk functions dks control fd.slh satisfaction esa cgqr lkjs basic funcion points dks measure djus dh vko'. the user ? Does the system require reliable backup and recovery? Are data communication require ? Are there distributed processing function ? Is performance ctritical? Does the system require online data entry? Are the masterfile updated online ? Is the internal processing complex ? Are conversion and installation included in the design ? Is the application designed to facilities change and eare of use by viii. vii. vi.s tkrs gS rks mlds ckn software dh productvity.v. External Function Point metrics :tks Hkh Function point measure fd. ii. . Is the code designed reusable ? .d ckj data collect dj fy. FP (Function Point) per person month.

k tkrk gSA 1.&le.k tk ldrk gSA i.drk vyx&vyx izdkj dh metrics dk mi. Product Translation (Modify it) to work a different envrionment. Product Revision (Change it) iii.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA bleas coding.k tk ldsA Engineers ds }kjk blds fy.s software process esa software engineers dks effectives methods apply djus dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA .s technical measurment dh vko'.k dHkh&dHkh ge feature point Hkh dg nsrs gSA ftUgs fdlh perticular system .ksx fd. source code rFkk cost condition dh quality dks improve djus dh vko'.rk ls iwjs program ds functions dks specify fd.s analysis.k engineering software application esa mi.fn projects esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gS rks mls lekIr djus fy.k product dk maintainance djuk gksrk gsA bl mís'.drk gksrh gSA blesa project managers le. An overview of factor that effect quality :Software quality esa quality dk lcls igyk factor gksrk gSA software esa . decoding rFkk handling and inturrepts .k tk ldrk gSA Algorithm dh lgk.dks function point extenstion dgk tkrk gSA .k gSA blds } kjk 3D function points dks Hkh handle fd.s vko'.k problems dks gy dj ldsA rFkk gj izdkj dh problem dks vklkuh ls handle fd.k tkrk gSA Feature points esa realtime process control. .ksx fd.s DRE (Defect Removable Efficiency) work activity dk mi. dks iwjk djus ds fy.s lHkh algorithm ds gh mnkgj.sd activity ds fy. Product Operation (Using it) ii.g factor rhu izdkj ls access fd.drk requirements .drk gksrh gSA . design models.d vPNh quality ds fy. ij projects process dh reports ysrk jgrk gSA vkSj project metrics dh help ls information select djrk jgrk gSA ftlds }kjk software dh quality rFkk effectiveness dks improve fd.k tk ldrk gSA izR. software application trends rFkk algorithm dks handle fd.k tk ldrk gSA Metrics for Software Quality :Software engineering dk main aim high quality system application .

s bl izdkj ds measurement dh vko'.drk gksrh gSA ftldh enn ls project team project dh .k gS .gk ij E numbers of errors ds fy.s defective end user ds fy.k x.k gSA . Arguments for software metrics.k tkrk gSA software dks rS.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy. Useability (User Friendly) Defect Removable Efficiency (DRE) :fdlh Hkh project dh lcls cM+h quality process level ij DRE gksrh gSA bls ge filtering ability . numbers of defect ds fy. Maintainablity (PIC maintain) d. Measuring Quality :Project measurment esa software quality dks improve djus ds fy. Intrigrity b.s dkQh hard work djuk iM+rk gSA D.drk gksrh gSA ftldh lgk.rk ls project dks complete djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA blds fy. .g gS fd software esa dskbZ defect ugh gSA .k tkrk gSA rFkk D.fn 1 dh value increase gskrh gSA rks ml le. ij collect fd.s define fd.ksfd software ls related fdlh Hkh izdkj dh information dks project managers ds }kjk le.s deliver gks pqdk gksrk gSA DRE dhs value tc 1 gksrh gSA rks bldk eryc .s define fd.kj djus ds fy.s gj izdkj ds measurement dh vko'.k control activity Hkh dg ldrs gSA tc iwjs project dks analysis fd.s error project team ds }kjk gy dj yh tkrh gSA Intrigrity Metrics with in the software process :tSlk fd ge tkurs gSA fd software dks dHkh&dHkh vklkuh ls measure ugh fd. Currentness c.rk ls Project team project dh quality dks improve djus ds fy. errors filter gskrh gS blfy.2.s project dh delivery ds igys ls gh .&le.s eq[.k tkrk gS rks DRE bl izdkj define fd tk ldrh gS & DRE = E/(E+D) .d gksrk gSA ftudh lgk.s cgqr lkjs programs dk collection vko'. count dh tkrh gSA tc software end user dks diliver fd.d quality dks improve djrh gSA a.k x. requirement bl izdkj gksrh gS & i.s errors ml le.

time limit dks /.s create fd.kj dh tkrh gSA rFkk resources ds lkFk customer dks lkSai fn.s estimate project dh 'kq:vkr ds le.ksx djds dk.s tkrs gS ftudks le.k tkrk gSA ftlesa project ls related gj izdkj dh information store jgrh gSA User bl mannual dk mi.d complete project cukuk gksrk gSA ftlesa managers project dh vko.d responsible project rS.kj gks tkrk gS rkS software project planing esa fuEufyf[kr activities discuss dh tkrh gS & i. Metrics collection.drkuqlkj resources rFkk cost dk estimate yx.k tkrk gSA ftls project ds lkFk customer dks provide fd.sls functions provide fd.ii.s tkrs gSA blds vfrfjDr estimate esa software metrics rFkk project outcomes Hkh include jgrh gSA tc . Rsources . computation & evaluation.k tk ldrk gSA tc rd project complete ugh gks tkrk rc rd project manager bldh surity ugh nsrk gS bl project ds lkFk&lkFk .&le.Z 'kq: dj nsrs gSA .kj gks tkrk gS rks mldh iwjh cost rS. Stablishing a base line. .ku esa j[krs gq. software egineers rFkk software metrics ls izkIr gksrh gSA vkSj tc project rS. Software Scope ii.k tkrk gS vkSj budh lgh :i ls scheduling djrk gS vkSj . Unit II Software Project Planing :Software Project Planing esa iwjs project dh activities involve jgrh gSA tSl fd How much money? How much effort? How many resources and how much time it will lake to build a software product? Software managers selected information dks mi.kj fd. ij vklkuh ls impliment fd. iii.k tkrk gS rFkk blesa .s information buds ikl customers.d complete mannual rS.ksx djds vklkuh ls project dks handle dj ldrs gSA Project Planing Objectives :Software Project planing dk mís'.

d ckj estimate .d NksVs project dks complete dj ysrk gS vkSj og Lo. Software Project Estimate iv.d information izkIr djrk gS fdlh cM+s project esa tc rd development dk estimate ugh yxk.k tkrk gSA Software scope esa data dks describe fd.fn . Humen Resources :Complete development ds fy.kZ step gSA bleas development environment dks study fd. Resources :Software planing dk .k tk.a gh project dh vko'.kj djus ls igys lHkh izdkj dh detail gkfly djuk vko'. databases. Obtaining information necessory for scope.drk gksrh gSA blesa organizational possition (Manager.s tkrs gSA NksVs projects esa .drk gksrh gSA Constaints esa hardware dh limit dks identify fd.g dgk ugh tk ldrk] .drk gS .s rc rd fdrus yksxksa dh vko'.s managers dks skill dh vko'.k tkrk gSA blesa fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gS & a.k tkrk gsA ftlesa hardware rFkk software tools include jgrs gSA a. dks control fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj vko'. Software engineer) rFkk specility (telecommunication.drkuqlkj project dh scheduling dh tkrh gSA Performance esa processing rFkk responce time dh vko'. client server) nksuks gh specify fd. Software Scope :Software project planing esa lcls igyh activity software scope gksrh gSA ftlesa software ds functions rFkk mldh performance dks measure fd.k tkrk gSA blfy.k tkrk gSA rFkk function.d vkneh N% eghus ds vanj fdlh . constraints. Feasiblity. interfaces rFkk reliability etc. Decompostion Technique.s nwljk step gksrk gS tks fd software development esa dkQh egRoiw.iii.d gksrh gSA D. performance.s estimate rS. Senior. ii. b.ksfd mUgh ds vk/kkj ij iwjh cost dk estimate yxk. i.

rk djrh gSA Current software team ds members ds ikl full experince gksrk gS fd os mu components dks current project easa represent dj ldsa . New Component :- .drk gksrh gSA d.k bUgs current project ds fy.s dkQh lgk. Off the self component :u.rk ls gh complete dh tkrh gSA blesa dqN fuEufyf[kr points gS & a.d programming block cuk.k vko'.s bu application esa .rk gSA ftrus Hkh standard application gksrh gS os ges'kk gh blocks dh lgk.drkuqlkj mlesa modification dj ldsA c.k tkrk gS rks person rFkk required months nksuks dk gh irk djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA b.s software T.s limited experiance gksrk gSA blfy.s ge igys ls mifLFkr application design.k tkrk gSA bUgh blocks dks ge component project dks handle djus ds fy.k tkrk gS b. Partial Experience Components :Current project ds fy.s dHkh&dHkh igys ls gh cus project ds component dks mi.sd component ds fy.k tkrk gSA tks fd development es dkQh lgk.ksx dj fy.s igys ls gh cuh application design rFkk mldh coding dks access dj fy.yxk fy.k tkrk gSA .s third party ls [kjhn fy.knk reliable and reusble gksrs gSA blesa izR. code rFkk tested data dks izkIr rks dj ysrs gSA ysfdu mlesa dqN modification dh vko'.k component esa partial experance dh vko'. Full Experience Component :Current Project ds fy.s .drk gksrh gsA current software team ds members ds ikl mUgsa represent djus ds fy.s software degign djus ds fy. Reusable Software Resources :tks software component based software gksrs gS .

Case relalivialy simple decomposition techniques to generate project cost and estimate.ksx dh tk jgs gSA Software dh cost developr ds }kjk rS.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.Z fd.s gks ldrh gSA .k tkuk vko'.d gksrk gSA tc . environmental rFkk political etc.drkuqlkj dk.kj dh tkrh gSA blesa profit rFkk loss nksuks dh gh laHkkouk. Decomposition technique :- . Case one or more models for software cost and estimation.drkuqlkj software team dks u. technial.slk environment tks software project dks support djrk gks] mls ge Software Engineering Environment (SEE) dgrs gsA blesa hardware rFkk software nksuks component include jgrs gSA Hardware.s Hkh hardware rFkk software dh vko'. 4.drk dks spcify fd.s . (We can active 100% accurate estimate ofter the project is complete.s dHkh exact ugh gksrk gS D. 3. bu lHkh dh cost software esa effect djrh gSA software dh cost dks rFkk estimate dks vklkuh ls izkIr djus ds fy.drk Hkh gksrh gSA izR.s fuEufyf[kr option arise gksrs gS & 1. Delay estimation until late in the project.d gksrk gSA Software Project Estimation :Software dh cost igys dh vis{kk dkQh expensive gks xbZ gS vkt dy lHkh computer base system izR.) 2.k tkrk gSA rks software team dks hardware element dks access djus dh vko'.drk gksrh gSA rkfd vius project dks interactive user friendly rFkk reusable cuk.sd hardware software project ds vuqlkj izkIr djuk vko'.k variable include jgrs gSA tSls fd humen. Environmental Resources :.d plateform provide djrk gSA ftlesa vko'.sd organization esa mi. Software ds fy.ksfd blesa cgqr lkjs yksx .s software component design djus dh vko'. Base estimates on similer project that have allready been completed.d computer based system rS.Current project dh vko'.k tk ldsA 3.kj fd.

k gSA vkSj bl project dk dk. tks project rS.Fkk estimate xyr Hkh gks ldrk gSA a. Project paln software team dh . Fuzzy Logic Sizing :bl technique dh lgk.k ugh A tc bl izdkj dh lkjh tkudkjh project programmer dks gks tkrh gSA rks og software dh sizing problem dks vklkuh ls vkSj vPNs rjhds ls decopose dj ldrk gSA vkSj .drkuqlkj gS .gh .d .d problem solving techniqes gS vkSj cgqr lkjs cases esa problem dks solve djuk] dkQh dfBu gks tkrk gS blh dkj.k tkrk gSA vkSj izR.kj djrk gSA . Porject fdl izdkj dk gS rFkk mldk lkbt D.k tk jgk gSA og user dh vko'.rk ls programm application dh type dks mldh quality dks identify djds original range rS.rk ds vuqlkj gS .gk ij planner viuk personal experiance use djrk gSA ii.d le.ksX.sd set dh cost rFkk estimate create djus ls igys project planner dks software dk scope rFkk blds size ds ckjs es iwjk knowledge gkfly dj ysuk pkfg.k gksxkA ii.k gS & i. esa fdrus vkneh dk.slh process gksrh gSA ftldh lgk.d project estimation dk eq[. software Sizing :.k ugh A iv.k gksxk vkSj bldh dher fdruh gksxhA iii.Z gksrk gSA sizing problem esa fofHkUu izdkj dh pkj approach dks suggest fd. Function Point Sizing :- .kj fd. blesa .Software project estimation .k x.Z djsxsA Calander time D. dk.rk ls iwjs project dks NksVs&NksVs meaningfull sets esa devide dj fn.Software project dk lgh estimate cgqr lkjh phtksa ij fuHkZj djuk gSA i.k ugh A rFkk mldk environment software dks support dj jgk gSA .sA vU.k ls ge problem dks decompose dj ldrs gSA decomposition .Z D.

bl technique dks mi. ij viuh vko'.ksx djrk gSA bleas . intractive programsm. b.s yxHkx 18 estimate reports generate djrk gSA vkSj izR. changing corse.gk¡ ij planner fofHkUu izdkj ds estimate create djrk gSA tSls fd reuse.k tkrk gS rks mls le.k tkrk gSA . Software ds izR.d direct estimation technique gS bu nksuksa ds ikl cgqr lkjs common features gksrs gSA ftuds project manager le.d gksrk gSA Software data dks nks rjg ls mi.k tk ldrk gSA iv.&le. files.drkuqlkj mi. adding corse.d perticular application dks execute djrs gSA mnkgj. reports.ksx fd. rFkk object lable instructions etc gSA bl izdkj project planner estimate ds fy. igys ls gh cus gq. screens. LOC(Lines Of Code).sd reports esa cobol language ds vuqlkj yxHkx 967 lines gks ldrh gSA vkSj bu lHkh reports dks feykdj project dh size value dk irk fd.ksx fd.ftl izdkj dh information planner ds ikl miyC/k gksrh gS bl techinque d use djds og mlh information ds vuqlkj estimate rS.sd estimate dks variable ds size ds :i esa A ii.ksx djdsA LOC And FP estimation . Standrad Component Sizing :Software cgqr lkjs vyx&vyx standrad component ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA tks fd . betch programs.s information system ds standrad components sub system. Cnage Sizing :tc fdlh project dks modify fd.kj dj ysrk gSA iii. Problem based estimated :fdlh Hkh project dks execute djus ls igys Lines Of Codes (LOC) and function point (FP) dks describe fd.s project dks base line ds :i esa mi.k tkuk vko'.fn .k ds fy. models. and deleteing corse etc.k tk ldrk gSA i.

k tk. Three Dimensional Geometric Analysis (3DGA) 4.fdlh izdkj dh changing dh tkrh gSA rks bldk effect iwj project ij iM+rk gSA c.100 .800 3.sd statement ds fy.d CAD Database esa maintain fd.k tk ldrk gSA ftlds fy.300 6. Database Management (DBM) 5.ksx dh tk ldrh gSA CAD software two and Three dimensional esa data accept djrk gSA vkSj engineers ml MkVk dks user information dh vko'.350 4. Computer Graphics Display Facility (CGDF) 6.drkuqlkj output produce fd.drkuqlkj vPNs designing djrs gSA lHkh izdkj dk MkVk rFkk information . Design Analysis Module (DAM) CAD software esa .s LOC dks estimate yxk.d example ds :i easa choose fd. An Example of LOC based estimation :LOC and FP problem based estimation technique ds fy. Two Dimensional Geometric Analysis (2DGA) 3.drk gksrh gSA blds fy.s dqN system specification guide ds :i esa mi. software functions bl izdkj define fd.s fdlh software package dks . Pripheral Control Function (PCF) 7.300 5.s tkrs gSA tks Hkh desingning gksrh gS mldk vko'.s rks og bl range esa gks ldrk gSA Function UICF 2DGA 3DGA DBM CGDA PCF Estimated LOC 2.s dqN eq[. User interface and control facility (UICF) 2.950 2.s detailed information dh vko'.k tkrk gSA .s tk ldrs gS & 1.gk¡ ij izR.fn bu lHkh function ds fy.

slk model gS ftldksa LOC and FP functions dh rjg computer software ds fy.k tkrk gSA blesa izR. of External 15 Count Total 20 12 16 4 2 Likely Fees 24 15 22 4 2 30 22 28 5 3 Esti. of Inqueries 88 No.ksx fd. files and external interfaces CAD software ds fy. of Outputs 78 No.d .s tkrs gSA 1. The Sturcture of Estimation Models :- .DAM Estimated Line Of Code 8.s function dh vis{kk information value ij /.ku fn. An Example of FP based estimation :FP based Estimation ds fy.s include jgrs gS ftudk estimate bl izdkj describe fd. of inputs 97 No.sd problem dks gy djus ds fy.400 33.s model lHkh development environment esa mi.k tkrk gSA Empirical data cgqr lkjs estimated models dks support djrk gSA blfy.200 d.s cgqr lkjs approach use fd.s values dk estimate yxk.s . Coutn Weight 24 16 22 4 2 4 5 5 10 7 320 Empirical Estimation Models :.k tkrk gSA ftlesa estimated input.ksx fd.Domation Value OPT FP Count No. inqueries.k tkrk gSA Infor.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.s .s mi. output. of Files 42 No.

k tk ldrk gSA fd izR.k x.39 + 0.s lcls vf/kd mi.Used ones requirments have ban stablized and basic software architecture has been established. .k tk ldrk gS & 1.drk gksrh gSA The Common Model :.5 + 0.2 & (KLOC)0.73 * (KLOC)1.91 Walston Felix Model E = 5.s variable LOC or FP gks ldrk gSA fdlh project ds izR. estimation variable gS .0545 FP Albrechet And Gaffney Model E = 60.dksbZ Hkh estimation model fdlh iqjkus software project ds data dks collect djds .gk¡ ij A.d quick estimate cuk. 2.k mlds Åij analysis djds rS.s fofHkUu izdkj ds result provide djrk gSA ftlls requirment clear gks tkrh gSA vkSj estimation model ges'kk gh local need ds vuqlkj create djus dh vko'. B and C emprical constant gS E person month ds fy.720 * 10-8 FP3 Kemere model bl model dh lgk. Early Desing Stage Model :.kj fd.Use Guring the stages of software engineering. Application Compostition Model :.16 Bailey Basily Model FP Oriented model dqN bl izdkj gS & E = -13.k tk ldrk gSA blesa problem complexity.rk ls .s mi.k tkrk gSA bles iwjs project dh cost dj Hkh estimate yxk.sd model same LOC or FP dh value ds fy.ksx fd.sd components dks blh structure ij define fd.bl model dk iwjk uke Constructive cost model gS bls software estimation ds fy.ksx fd.62 * 7.k gS rFkk ev.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ds models dks fuEufyf[kr fØ.kvksa eas mi. stafe experiance rFkk development environment include jgrs gSA LOC oriented estimation model dqN bl izdkj gSA & E = 5.k tkrk gSA bldk overall structure bl izdkj gks ldrk gSA example E = A + B * (ev)c .

drk gksrh gSA .kj djrs le.sd software engineer tc software project rS.fn engineers mldh quality ugh nss ikrs gS rks cgqr lkjs project bl stage esa vkdj fail Hkh gks ldrs gSA Software quality esa software protection Hkh include jgrk gSA Customer problem ds vuqlkj fuEufyf[kr points software project esa specify djuk vko'. lHkh estimation models dh rjg capemo model Hkh mi. mís'. .Z djrk gS lHkh engineers and manufactures user dh vko'. Quality Assurance 4.kj djus es l{ke gksrh gSA Quality Concept :izR.d complete software project rS.fn software team software dh lHkh activities dh qualities dks successful izkIr dj ysrh gSA rks ml le.d lgh functional project rS. Quality 2.sd software dk viuk . Cost of Quality . Port Architecture Stages Model :.sd activites dks identify djuk gksxkA mlds ckn gh software team .kj djds user dks provide djrs gSA ml software dh quality eq[.g irk py tk. Quality Control 3.d gksrs gSA 1.drkuqlkj project dks analysis djrs gSA rFkk mlh ds vuqlkj software rS.ksx fd. .k tkrk gSA ftlesa rhu vyx&vyx izdkj ds model use fd.d unique structure gksrk gS vkSj og requirment ds vuqlkj vyx&vyx izdkj ls dk.3. function point and lines of source code include jgrs gSA Software Quality Assurance :izR.Use during the construction of the software.fn vkidksa .s tkrs gSA rFkk blesa object point.kj gksrk gSA Project dks rS.kj djrk gSA rks og mldh quality ds fy.s fd fdl izdkj dh quality gesa user dks nsuh gS rks software dh izR. ls gksrh gSA .s reponsible gksrk gSA bleas software dks ckj&ckj psd djus dh vko'.

k tkrk gSA nqljs step dks Apasimace Linstitru dgk tkrk gSA .kj djrk gSA ftlesa software engineers dks profit gksrk gSA SQA (Software Quality Assurance) Activities :cgqr lkjs software developrs high quality software ds fy.kfn process include jgrh gSA blesa need changing Hkh dh tk ldrh gSA rhljk step Kansei dgykrk gSA tc igys nks step complete gks tkrs gSA rks .s eq[.k organization ds senior manager product quality dks improve djrs gSA vkSj vf/kd ls vf/kd le. Adverd ds }kjk tkiku esa test dh xbZ] mlds idea dks use djds fdlh Hkh product ds effect dks lgh fd. object ekurs gSA vyx&vyx izdkj dh ifjfLFkfr.kj gksrk gS rFkk bls eq[. rFkk cost nksuksa gh cpkrs gSA Quality movement ds vklikl 'kq: gksrh FkhA W.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj .ksa esa software quality assurance dks Hkh vyx&vyx izdkj ls compose fd.k tk ldrk gSA 1980 esa quality movement iwjs world esa QSy pqdh Fkh A Project dks mi.ksx fd.s stpe Kezon ds ckn 'kq: gksrk gS rFkk .Z djrs gSA os bldk fo'ks"k /.kj djrk gSA vkSj last stpe Business oreinted step gksrk gSA ftls Miryokateki Hinstuitsy dgykrk gSA bl step dh lgk. analysis and reporting ds .1.ku j[krs gSA vkSj SQA dk iwjk group quality assurance planning oversite record keeping.s vyx&vyx izdkj ls maintain dh xbZ gSA .ksx djus okys lcls igys quality dh gh ckr djrs gSA ml le.k A .s rS.d vPNs rFkk TQM program ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA Software engineers tks fd technical dk. Quality Movements :vktdy fdlh company .s stpe user ds product dks improve djrk gSA rFkk mlesa user friendly interface rS.s processing ds Åij control djrk gSA ftlesa structure quality rFkk managment bR.s quality vyx&vyx companies and organization ds fy. quality movment dks TQM (Total Quality Movement) uke fn. four step provide tk ldrs gSA igys step kds Kezon dgk¡ tkrk gSA blesa iwjs system dh processing dks implementaion fd.k x.rk ls product market place esa mi.gh step customer based system ls portable products rFkk application rS.

Statical Software Quality Assurance :Statical quality assurance iwjs software dh growing dks reflect djrh gSA blesa quality vkSj improve gks tkrh gSA bleas fuEufyf[kr step include jgrs gS & i. 5.fn . 3. 4. 2.d gksrk gSSA iv.k gSA . tks software rS.s deffect dgk¡ ls vk.kj fd.d maintain plan gksuk pkfg. Records and reprots and report to senior management. Participate in the development of the project software process decription. ftrus Hkh deffect gksrs gS mUgsa yxHkx 80% solve fd.sA SQA group ds }kjk tks activities perform dh tkrh gSA muesa fuEufyf[kr step Hkh include jgrs gSA 1.sd deffect ds ckjs es irk yxkuk ds .s responssible gksrk gSA Software dh testing ds fy. Reviews software engineering activities to varify with the defined software porcess. Prepairs and SQA plan for a project. Qualities design software work prducts to varified with part of the software products.s gSSA iii.d ckj deffect dks gy dj fy.k x. Ensures that software work and software products are documented.fy.s igys ls gh . .k tkuk vko'.fn mlesa fdlh izdkj ds effect vkrs gS rks mUgs collect djuk vkSj vyx&vyx catageries esa ckaVuk rFkk muds ckjs esa information collect djuk Hkh statical software quality assurance ds varxZr gh vkrk gSA ii.k tkrk gSA rks software dh quality vklkuh ls improve dh tk ldrh gSA Software Reliability :- . tks Hkh deffect create gksrs gS mUgs izR. 6.

kfn dks define fd.kj fd.k tk.k gSA ftlesa Quality assurance dk mís'.fn fdlh perticular process esa ckj&ckj execution ij result vyx&vyx vkrk gSA rks iwjk project fail gks ldrk gSA Software dks mi.k tkrk gS vkSj .sA Softwaer fail u gks blfy.s vkSj result ogh gks rks blls ges .gk¡ ij dksbZ 'kd ugh gS fd overall quality esa compter program dh reliability .s rks iwjk software fail gks ldrk gSA SQA Plan :SQA plan software quality assurance es .s tk ldrs gSA bles organization rules rFkk responsibilities bR.d .drk gksrh gSA Software Safety Hkh .d cgqr lh vko'. User Documents (Help Files) ..d element gksrh gSA .s gj input step esa checks yxkus dh vko'.k tk.s standrad IEEE ds }kjk provide fd.k x.k tk ldrk gSA . ds fy.k tkrk gSA SQA plan ds lHkh document yxHkx lHkh application ds fy.d software quality assurace activity gS .d gS ftls mechnical and electric devices ds }kjk control fd.d .s reliable gS vkSj .s apply fd.s .Z djrk gSA tks fd SQA group ds }kjk rS.d read map dh rjg dk.k tkrk gSA blesa fuEufyf[kr software process include jgrh gS & 1.ksx djus ls igys mldh specify vko'.s lgh result nsrk gS rks pkgs mls 100 ckj process fd.s irk pyrk gS fd software Hkfo". Technical Documents (Test Plan) 4.fn vius project dks safe u fd. Models 3.slh term gS tks fd software dh processing ds le. Project Documents (Project Plan) 2.d ckj esa fdlh perticular data ds fy.fn dksbZ program lgh performance ugh nsrk gS rks software dh quality decrease gks tkrh gSA nwljh quality dh rjg gh software reliabiltiy dks direct measure fd. check dh tkrh gSA .k tk ldrk gSA rkfd user fdlh Hkh izdkj dk data enter djs rks mlesa dsoy result gh vkuk pkfg.slk plan gksrk gS tks software project esa SQA activity dks control dj ldrk gSA SQA plan ds fy. documentation and process activities dks handle fd.s .fn software .

Maxico. SQA group and customer ds }kjk conduct dh tkrh gSA ISO 9000 Quality Organization) :- standard (International Standard .k tkrk gSA ftlls software processing ds nkSjku documentation standards. design control.d . process and qualtity assurance system fdlh organization ds product rFkk services ds standard dks maintain djrk gSA ftlls customer satisfy gksrs gSA bl izdkj ds system esa cgqr lkjh activities include jgrh gSA ftlesa fdlh product ds iwjs life cycle dh planing. control product densification.k tkrk gSA The ISO-9001 Standards :ISO-9001 . procedures. ISO 9000 fdlh Hkh business ds fy. and imporve quality etc. Newzelend etc countries IS) standard izkIr dj ysrh gSA vkSj mldk registration ISO es gks tkrk gS rks og country government agency rFkk public ds fy. US.d quality assurance system ds tks fd organization structure responsibilities.s apply fd.ksfd lHkh project process and product metrics software engineering dk gh Hkkx gskrh gSA iwjs project dh outgoing software engineering team.d fd. Australiya.ksfd ISO-9001 standard engineering discription ds fy.s tks fd products .d quality assurance standard provide djrh gSA ISO 9000 standard dks cgqr lkjh countries esa viuk.ksx high quality provide djus ds fy.sls devices gS tks fd ISO registration company ds }kjk gh vko'. coding standard and guide lines vklkuh ls izkIr gks tkrh gSA D. Canada.k tkrk gsA bl standrad esa . testing.s product and service provide dj ldrh gSA .k gSA ftlesa Europ. and tracatrility process control inspection and testing corrective and preventive action. quality system..g . measuring. contract review.k service provide djrk gSA .gka ij tele communication equipment and medical device gS .slh quality assurance standards gS tks fd software engineer ds fy.bu lHkh plans dk mi. reporting. controlling. document adoq.d effective quality assurace system dbZ requirments dks fulfill djus dh vko'.k tkrk gS blesa manager responsibility. .drk gksrh gSA D.s apply fd.s fd.

s main object gksrk gSA bleas engineers rFkk customer nksuks dk gh eq[.d complete analysis rS. effective. services and staticals techniques etc.d .k tkrk gSA Software requirment analysis 5 Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x.slh process gS tks discovery.rk ls data function and software fdl izdkj dk behaviour pkfg.control of quality record.kj dj ysrk gS vkSj og le.kj gksrk gSA customer dh lgk.&le. modeling and specification dks process djrh gSA System engineers details es le>rs gS vkSj vko'. data and behaviour ds vko'. ij vko'.s iwjh information izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA vkSj developr customer dh problem ds vuqlkj software rS.d software engineering dk dk.k tkrk gSA tks fd fdlh Hkh business ds fy.drkuqlkj change fd.kj fd.Z gS tks fd system level requirment rFkk software design ds chp esa dk. languages. tranning.kj dj fn. control.drkuqlkj data information control flow and operational behaviour ds models rS. refinment. requirment include jgrh gSA UNIT III Analysis Concept & Principal :Software requirment engineering . Hkkx jgrk gS A rFkk mudh activities dh lgk.rk ls var esa customer ds fy.k gSA 1.d quality software rS. Problem Recoganition.drkuqlkj design fd.kj djrs gSA vkSj blds ckn gh complete analysis model rS. techniques. architectures.k tkrk gSA bleas principals.rk ls .drkuqlkj customer ls information izkIr dj ldrk gSA Requirment Analysis :Requirment analysis .rk ls gh software ds function. interface and component level model esa trnaslate djrs gS vkSj blh dh lgk.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk blds vuqlkj software designeers vklkuh ls software design dj ldrs gSA requirment analysis dks software designeers data. analysis documentation rFkk system dk external behaviour user dh gh vko'. internal quality audits. .Z djrk gSA Requirment activities dh lgk.s .

software functions define djus dh vko'. information.d proper estimate rS.d model rS.s tks functions rS.s gSA Investigation analysing problems dks identify djrs gSA vkSj muds dkjdksa dk irk yxkrs gSA vkSj blh ds vuqlkj . .d gksrk gSA iv.d gS fd tks plan rS. principal use fd. Information . Modeling. Review.wtj dks mls le>us esa dksbZ problem u vk.d gSA iii. 4.s A v. 3. lcls igys analyst system specification ds study djrk gSA vkSj software project plan create djrk gS .s vko'.s program recorgnition ds fy.s tk ldrs gS & i.kj djrs gSA izR.Z gksrk gSA ftlesa fuEufyf[kr operational.sd analysing model dk md viuk dk.s tkrs gSA mudksa vyx&vyx izdkj ls define fd. Evaluation & Synthesis.s tks fdlh problem dks vklkuh ls discribe dj ldsA rkfd .sA blh ds ckn dk step analyst ds fy. Software ds fy.k tkrk gSA Analyst Principal :fiNys dqN lkyksa esa fofHkUu izdkj ds analyst modeling methods rS.k tkuk vko'.k tk ldsA .kj fd.drkuqlkj modify fd. Analyst process ds vko'.sls model tks information fucntion rFkk behavour fdks discribe djrs gS mudh vyx&vyx catagaries detailed information ds lkFk gksuh pkfg.2.sA ii. data flow.s] rFkk .kj fd.k tk.s x. 5.kj fd.k user dh basic problem dks le>k tkrk gSA blds ckn analyst dks data objects.kj fd.k tkrk gS mls software ds vuqlkj le>k tk.slh gksuh pkfg.s gksrk gSA ftlds customer . Specification.drk gksrh gsA rFkk blds lkFk&lkFk software dk behaviour vkSj interface Hkh design fd. Software ds behaviour dks represent djuk vko'.

d .s vko'.k tk ldrk gSA .d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd transmitt djus ds fy. .k automobile system etc. Rank requirments.rk ls software requirments dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA software data dks process djus ds fy.s vko'.s fofHkUu izdkj ds domain use fd. vi.s tkrs gS ftUgsa computer program ds }kjk process fd.fn fdlh software esa apply fd.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj user viuh vko'.k vko'. Information Context & Relationships.ksx fd.k tk. esa vklkuh ls mi.d gS fd software gj izdkj ds events dks process dj ldsA vkSj system dks control dj ldsA Information domain esa MkVk rFkk processing control ds fy. Record the origion of and the resion for every requirment. Develop prototypes theat enable users to understand hwo humen machine instruction ocuure.k tkrk gSA tks fd input izkIr djrk gSA mlds vk/kkj ij manipluation djrk gSA vkSj vko'.s fd.k .s . ii.drkuqlkj result (output) rS.s . (The Datamodel) ii. Understand the problem before you begin to create the analysis model. iii.k tkrk gsA ftuesa ls dqN bl izdkj gS & i. Information flow.gh . 1.drkuqlkj MkVk rFkk information dk collection gksrk gsA ftls ge data processing ds uke ls Hkh tkurs gS vkSj .drkuqlkj dqN guide lines bl izdkj gS & i. iii.kj djrk gSA bl izdkj ds software batch software dgykrs gA ftudks payroll system . Use multiple viewes of requirment. Work to requirment. The informtaion Domain :lHkh software applications esa vko'.bu principal dks .drkuqlkj model rFkk information dks le> ldrk gSA blds fy. iv.drkuqlkj result izkIr djus ds fy. Information Structure.s rks fdlh Hkh problem dks vklkuh ls solve fd. v.slh term gS A ftldh lgk.

s tkrs gSA tc entry physical gksrh gSA rks mlds fy.k tkrk gSA Information flow esa data and controlling ds fy.d lkFk le>uk dfBu gksrk gSA blh dkj. Analysis Modeling :- .d NksVk ekWMy rS. 3.k tkrk gSA rFkk mUgsa vko'.slh problem dks NksV&NksVs Hkkx esa foHkkftr dj fn.s tkrs gS muesa dqN function rFkk behaviour fuEu izdkj gks ldrs gS & i. Modeling :tc Hkh bu fdlh software dks design djrs gSA rk vPNh understanding ds fy.d gksrk gSA ftlls software dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gS mls create fd.kj fd.k .k tk ldrk gSa ftlls dHkh Hkh fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem ugh vkrh A 4.kj fd.drkuqlkj vyx&vyx izdkj dh information dks collect fd.kj fd.ksX.k tkrk gSA D.d software ds behaviour dks vko'.s tkrs gSA ftlesa input.sA Operational analysis ds vuqlkj tks ekWMy rS.k complete gksrh gSA Information structure esa software dh items dks control fd.s . plan and machine etc.k tk ldrk gSA 2.s function rS. Functional Model ii. gksuk pkfg.Information context esa software ds vuqlkj vkSj user dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk lHkh parts dks overall acitivity esa include fd. process rFkk output dh izfØ. Partioning :Problems ges'kk gh cgqr cM+h gksrh gS vkSj iwjh problem dsk .drkuqlkj partions esa ckaVuk vko'. Behaviour Model.s functional model create fd.k tkrk gSA rks mls dqN vyx rjg ls create fd.kj djrs gSA ftlesa building.s model rS. include jgrh gSA vkSj tc software ds fy.drkuqlkj store Hkh fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk mls control fd.ksfd og gj rjg ls information dks handle djus .k tkrk gSA rkfd ml problem dks vkSj mlds information dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldsA Analysis principal ds vuqlkj information function .

k tk ldrk gSA rFkk mldk use CASE tools esa Hkh fd.s mi.rk ls engineering dh problems ds Åij deep analysis fd.d model structure choose djrs gSA .s DFD ds }kjk analysis ds nkSjku editional information Hkh provide dh tkrh gSA ftls modeling functions ds fy.k tkrk gSA State Transaction Diagram (STD) system.k tkrk gSA Dataflow diagrams create fd.Analysis model dh lgk.k x.k tkrk gSA Data Flow Diagram (DFD) nks purpose ds fy.k tkrk gSA .s .k tkrk gSA 1980 ds ckn analsis esa realtime analysis use fd. ii.drk gksrh gSA Model ds vuqlkj model ds CASE esa data dictinay fLFkr gS ftlesa lHkh data objects dh information store jgrh gSA blds ckgj rhu vyx&vyx izdkj dh diagram gSA Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) data objects ds chp esa relationship create djrh gSA rFkk bldk use data dsk conduct djus ds fy. ds behaviour dsk control fd. To establish a bases for the creation of the software design. To discribe what the customer require.s vkSj dataflow ds fy.k tkrk gSA vf/kdre control specification (CSPEC) dh information dks handle fd.Software Engineers fdlh Hkh problems dks vyx&vyx rjhds ls analysis djrs gSA rFkk problem ds vuqlkj .drkuqlkj graphics.k tkrk gSA Data ds movement ds fy.s mi.wtj dh vko'.drkuqlkj process documentation rS.s & i. bu objectives dks izkIr djus ds fy.s tk ldrs gSA Diagram ds vuqlkj lHkh objects ds chp esa relationship set fd.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA The Element of the analysis model :.k tk ldrk gSA rFkk vko'. symbols use fd. izkIr gksus pkfg.kj fd.rk ls 3 primary objectives vo'.d graphical representation gksrh gSA ftlesa iwjs software dks analysis djds represent fd.s Hkh fd.kA ftldh lgk. To define a set of requirments that can be validated once the software is build.k tkrk gsA DFD process specification (PSPEC) dh information ds handle fd.s analysis modeling 1960 ls 'kq: gqbZ FkhA tks fd vkt structured design ds uke ls tkuh tkrh gSA .s tkrs gS vkSj .ksx fd. iii.s structured analysis dh vko'.

d external entity Hkh gks ldrh gSA ftlls customer information.rk ls entity relationship diagram rS. accounting.ksx fd.kj gksrk gSA Data objects ds chp esa attributes dks set djds relationship create fd.k tkrk gSA ERD dh lgk. warehouse and life etc. What are the primery data objects to be process by the system.k tk ldrk gSA data modeling fuEufyf[kr question include jgrs gSA 1. What are the realitionship between the object and the process theat transform then. What is the compasition of each data objects and what attributes discribe the objects.d set of questions dk answer gksrk gsA tks fd fdlh Hkh data processing application ds fy. objects include jgrs gSA .rk ls fdlh Hkh system ds data dks operational analysis djds represent fd.s mi.d nwljs ls contect gks tkrs gsA Information ds . Data objects :Data Objects esa .Z dks complete djrh gSA rFkk software bls vklkuh ls le> ldrk gS bldh viuh properties rFkk attributes gksrh gS .ksx fd. seles person.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj data modeling dh lgk. 2.Data Modeling :Data Mideling .rk ls blds lkFk&lkFk processing dks Hkh control fd. 3. department. What are the relationship between each objects and other object. Where do the objects currently reside.k tk ldrk gSA Data Objects Attributes & Relationship :Data model three enter related piece of information ls feydj rS. telephone call. bu questions dk answer nsus ds fy.s .k tkrk gSA ftlls lHkh objects .s data modeling method dk mi.k tkrk gSA ftldh lgk. 5. report. 4.kj dh tk ldrh gSA ftls software engineers esa mi.ksx fd.s rhukasa Hkkx bl izdkj gS & i.d lh information gksrh gS tks fdlh perticular dk.

d.s tk ldrs gSA tc vko'. objects search fd.ii. Describe the instance.drkuqlkj data.sls relationship gS tks Book and book store ds chp esa connection create dj jgs gS . le>uk pkfg. Attributes :Attributes. A book store orders book's. stocks sales and returns . A book store return books.k x. c.gk¡ ij . e.s cgqr lkjs objects and relationship create fd.d gksrk gSA bu attributes dh lgk.k tkuk vko'. Displays.s rks blesa dsoy nks gh objects dk .s tk ldrs gSA .sA mlds ckn gh software design fd.d gS fd objects and relationship pair esa gh gksuk pkfg.sA . buds attributes indentifies dh rjg Hkh mi. A books store sales books. c.s ges books rFkk books store role dks vo'.ksx fd.d nwljs ls fofHkUu izdkj ls connect fd.k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.k gSA ysfdu bu nksuksa esa fdl izdkj dk relation gSA bldk answer tkuus ds fy.s tkrs gSA dqN ifjfLFkr. Book store displays books. Make refrence to another instance in another table.s identifiers "key" ds :i esa mi.k tkrk gSA rks . A book store sotcks books. Relationship :Data objects .ksa esa indentfiers dh value unique gksrh gS A gkykfd dHkh&dHkh budh vko'. data objects dh property gksrs gSA ftlesa fuEufyf[kr characteristics gks ldrs gS & a.k tk ldrk gSA iii.s tk ldrs gSA tSls fd & a.s vko'. b.d nwljs ls connect fd.fn book rFkk book store nks objects dks relationship ns[kk tk.rk ls fdlh Hkh problem dks vklkuh ls understand fd. Name on instance of the data objects be. b.drk gh ugh gksrh gSA ysfdu fQj Hkh bl izdkj ds attributes dk models esa mi. Orders.ksx fd.ksx fd.

s tk ldrs gsA blfy.skfd software es Hkh dqN .d object nwljs object ls interrelate djrk gsA Cordinality esa .k tk ldrk gS vkSj ugh HkhA D.d object dks ckj&ckj mi.fn problem complex gks rks .drk dHkh&dHkh gh iM+rh gSA tSls fd .gh data modeling concept coordinality dgykrk gSA 1.s ge ges'kk dgh objects and relationship dks pairs esa represent djrs gSA tSls fd object X. Cordinality :Data model .ksx Hkh fd.k tkrk gS vkSj .d ls vf/kd objects Hkh mi.drkuqlkj mi. ojbect Y ls interrelate djrk gsA blds fy.s .drk ugh gksrh gS ysfdu nksuks objects dh property dks le>uk important gksrk gS .s fd mlesa vf/kd ls vf/kd objects and relationship dks represent fd.gk¡ ij .knk information provide djus ds vko'. customer dksbZ viuh problem crkrk gSA vkSj problem simple gks rks mls single repair action esa solve dj fy.k tkrk gSA .s T. Modelity :Modelity .d local telephone company viuh service customer dks provide djrh gsA .d gksrk gSA blfy.ksx fd.k tk ldsA Data model ges'kk gh object rFkk relationship ds pair esa represent fd.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj fdlh problem dsk solve djus ds fy.k tk ldrk gS & A. One to Many (1:N) C.fn fdlh le.ksx fd. One to One (1:1) B.sls modules gksrs gS ftudh vko'.gk¡ ij one rFkk many relationship create gksrk gSA bu nksuksa relationships dks bl izdkj define fd. Many to Many (M:N) 2.slk relationship gS tks fd optional gksrk gS bls vko'.s .Coordinality and modelity :Data modeling esa elements data objects attributes rFkk relationship gksrs gS ftudh enn lsa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh problem dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA bu elements ds vk/kkj ij related information dks le>uk cgqr gh vko'.d .slk gksuk pkfg.

drk gksrh gSA bldk mi.s flow model rS.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA ge fdlh Hkh computer based system ds fy.drk gksrh gSA ysfdu .drkvksa dks iwjk djus ds fy.drkuqlkj vyx&vyx izdkj dk gks ldrk gSA Input ges'kk gh signals ds :i esa gksrk gSA ftUgsa computer ds }kjk decode fd.d rectangle esa represent fd. software rFkk humen elements and produce output.s multiple repair action dh vko'.gk¡ ij repair aciton model dHkh&dHkh gh mi.k tk ldrk gSA ERD dk purpose data objects rFkk muesa relationship dks represent djuk gksrk gSA ERD esa data object .k tkrk gSA rFkk output monitor screen ij .ksx djds Hkh creaet fd.k tk ldrk gSA tSls fd & hardware.d gh module esa complete gks tkrh gSA ysfdu mls mi.k tkrk gSA blesa data objects attributes relationship rFkk fofHkUu izdkj ds indicates dk mi.k tkrk gSA Functional Modeling and Information Flow :Information ges'kk gh computer based system ds }kjk flow gksrh gS blesa input cgqr lkjh term esa accept fd.s database design djus dh vko'.s tkrs gSA Data Objects and relationship ds chp esa connection special symbol dk mi.s pair entity relationship diagram dk mi.mlds fy.k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh data modeling dh .ksx analysis method ds vuqlkj nwljh vko'.ksx djds graphicaly represent fd.k tk ldrk gSA Data modeling and entity relationship diagram analysis ds }kjk design dh tkrh gSA vkSj mls software applicatin ds vuqlkj n'kkZ.s output Hkh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA Data object car rFkk information ds chp esa relationship bl izdkj represent fd.ksx djus ds fy.s process .k reports ds :i esa pages ij produce dj fn. .k tkrk gSA vkSj data files ds :i esa store dj fy.s tkrs gSA vkSj buds cph esa relationship connecting line ds }kjk show fd.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA Entity Relationship Diagram :Data model esa object relationship pair cgqr gh important section gksrk gS .kj dj ldrs gSA .s Hkh fd.s tk ldrs gS A ERD dk mi.ksx database system ds relation dks n'kkZus es fd.

k tk ldrk gSA rFkk dkSu lk model fdl izdkj dh information izkIr dj jgk gS vkSj fdl izdkj dk output nwljs module es transfer dj jgk gSA blds flow dks Hkh vklkuh ls represent fd.d gskrk gS fd user DFD rFkk flowchart ds chp varj Li"V djsA Data Flow Diagram :Software ds }kjk information dks computer ds fdlh Hkh part esa transmitt fd.k tkk ldrk gSA rFkk mls vko'.gk¡ ij processing or logic dk . output data dks represent djrk gSA blfy.ksfd izR.ks contect model dgk tkrk gSA tks fd .ksx fd.rk ls information detail lfgr describe fd.rk ls mi. output ds function dks algorithm ds :i esa represent djrh gSA .k software ds fdlh Hkh level dks represent fd.d complete module dks show djrk gSA DFD esa data ds collection dks .d sequence esa process fd.drkuqlkj modify fd.Information two modeling technique dk mi.g vko'. procedure vkSj sequence dh detail provide djuk Hkh vko'.k tkrk gS A rFkk mls vko'.d single bubble esa input.k 6 bubble gks ldrs gSA tks fd arrowes dh lgk.ksx fd.k tkuk vko'.drkuqlkj arrowes dh lgk.k tkrk gSA bl LVksj dk structured analysis data dictionary dgykrk gSA fdlh Hkh bubble dh processing ds fy.rk ls fdlh system .d gksrk gSA Software designing ds le.d organized form esa store fd.k tkrk gSA tks fd input.s process specification dk mi.rk ls interconnect jgrs gS vkSj .ksx djds structured analysis 'kq: fd.sd process iwjs model ds functions ij depend gksrh gSA D.k tk ldrk gSA DFD ds Hkh vyx&vyx level gksrs gSA Zero DFD Level dks functional system model .s arrows dataflow dks represent djrh gSA Level 1 dh izR.k tk ldrk gSA blesa hardware person rFkk nwljs programm include jgrs gSA .d gksrk gS .drk gksrh gSA tc fd 1 level DFD esa de ls de 5 .sd bubble .s zero level DFD esa detailed information dh vko'. output dk graphical representation gksrh gSA ftls ge data flow graph or bubble chart ds uke ls Hkh tkurs gSA bldh lgk.k tk ldrk gsA rFkk Software ds partitions or modules dks DFD dh lgk.k tk ldrk gSA Data flow diagram information flow and input.gk¡ ij .

k tkrk gSA vkSj . 4.kj .kj fd.sd LVsi .drkuqlkj Ward and Mellor extenstion dk mi.sd step esa object rFkk mlds relation dks show fd.Ward and Mellor Extenssions :.s time continous data flow represent djuk vko'. include jgrs gSA Structured analysis ds izR.kfn Hkh vko'.s tk ldrs gSA Time continous data flow dk mi.k tkrk gSA tSls fd& 1.s blds fy. es fd.d gksrk gSA Diagram esa double headed arrowes time continous flow dks represent dj jgh gSA rFkk single haeded arrow data flow dks represent dj jgh gSA System engineering rFkk software engineering esa system model rS.ksx dh tk jgh gsA ftldk izR.k tkrk gSA bu lHkh eaas vko'.k tkrk gSA The Mechanics Of structured Analysis :Structured analysis software dh vko'. Control information is passed throw of the and associated control processing.drkuqlkj create fd. Systems have states and a mechanizem causes transition between states.Ward and Mellor dk exetensions basic structured analysis provide djrk gSA ftlesa real time system ds }kjk fuEufyf[kr demands dks iwjk fd.k tk ldrk gSA Structured analysis cgqr igys ls mi. processing dh performence c<+kbZ tk ldrh gSA rFkk blh ds }kjk high performence software rS.rk ls ERD bR. Information flow is gather or produce on a time continous bases. 2.drkuqlkj perform dh tkrh gSA. Multiple instances of the same transformations are sometimes encountered in multitasking sichuations.kj djrs le.s tk ldrs gSA ftlesa customers analysis program etc. automatic vehical rFkk robot control system etc.fn information continous ugh gksxhA rks system fail gks ldrk gsA blfy.ksx multiple extenstion dks control djus ds fy. 3.ksx lcls vf/kd automobiles.d gksrh gSA . time continous data flow dk cgqr egRo gksrk gSA ftlls system model rS.fn analysis vPNh gksxh rks mldk software or project Hkh lgh :i ls create fd.d complete model represent djrk gSA bldh lgk.s fd. Realtime applications esa information continous gksuh vko'.kj djrs le.s model ges'kk gh pairs esa jgrs gsA tks object rS.

s data model rFkk data flow diagram cgqr gh vko'.s fuEu step vko'.s .k developrs dks .rk ls vko'.k tk. esa information domain and functional domain develop fd. Designing ds le.s tk ldrs gsA Creating a Data flow model (Diagram) :Data flow diagram engine .d complete module dh processing djrk gSA 5.d meaningfull name dh vko'.s rks software esa .d gksrh gSA tks fd developr .k engine dk dk.wtj vklkuh ls le> ldrk gSA .fn buds lkFk documentation dks represent fd.s arrow data flow dks show djrs gSA .slk model provide djrh gsA ftldh lgk.k project esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem ugh vkrh gSA blh dh lgk. lHkh bubble ds fy.d single bubble esa represent fd.k tkuk vko'.drk gksrh gSA tks fd .s rks og bl izdkj gksxh A Control Flow Model (Diagram) :Data processing ds fy. lHkh izdkj dh data processing.fd.k gSA mlds attributes ds lkFk .d complete software create djus ds fy.sA 2.drk gksrh gSA 3. .d Complete software . data object vkSj output dks vko'. Primary input and output dks lko/kkuh ls le>us dh vko'.k system dks .Z .d gksrs gSA 1.d gksrk gSA vkSj .k tk.fn safe home product dh DFD create dh tk.s rks ml bubble dks .d gh le.drkuqlkj define djuk Hkh egRoiw.sd module dh complete analysis gksrh gS rFkk lHkh operations esa MkVk dgk¡ flow dj jgk gSA bldh outline Hkh DFD esa provide dh tkrh gSA DFD create djus ds fy.s fofHkUu izdkj dh application use dh tkrh gSA .rk ls . lHkh bubble dks arrowes ds lkFk fyad fd.s tk ldrs gSA DFD esa izR.k tkuk pkfg.fn relation Hkh lgh :I ls represent fd.drkuqlkj documentation rFkk security system Hkh define fd.kZ gksrk gSA 4.k x.

k tk ldrk gSA blds fy.drkuqlkj rS. 6. 2.sd level esa skill dh vko'. Focus on possible omssion a very common error in specifing control.drk gksrh gSA .kj fd.d meaningfull engine representation gS ftlds }kjk dqN rS. 3.g vko'.d gksrk gsA D.d gksrk gS fd designing esa fdl izdkj dh application use dh tk jgh gSA lcls igys analysis djus dh vko'.kj fd. Descriibe two behaviour a system by identifing its status.ksx djds effective data rFkk processor rS.Z ds fy.rk ls information dks control djds vklkuh ls process fd.vklku dj nsrh gSA bldh lgk. UNIT IV Design concept and principal :Design .ssls application gS ftuesa control flow rFkk data flow dk mi.k tk ldrk gSA ftlls software dh performence increase gks tkrh gSA cgqr lkjs .k tkrk gSA blesa data architecture interfaces rFkk cgqr lkjs component dk lekos'k gskrk gSA Software engines company based system design djrs gsA ysfdu vyx&vyx rjg ds dk.s fuEufyf[kr guide lines use dh tkrh gS & 1. List or intrrupt condition.k tkrk gS vkSj .kj fd.k tk lds besically bls customer dh vko'. 5. 7.skfd DFD data flow dks represent djrh gSA vkSj DFD dh lgk.s designing ds izR.rk ls data flow dks control fd. How each state is reached and defined two transaction between states.kj . List all switcheis that are operated by on operated.ksx djuk dkQh vko'. List all control items as possible CSPEL input and output. List on sensor that are read by user software.gk ij . List all data connection.d gksrk gSA fd tks Hkh computer software rS.d quality product developr fd. 4. identify.drk gksrh gSA vkSj mlds ckn program approach dk mi.g vko'.s tkrs gSA rFkk blds lkFk&lkFk .

kj gksuk pkfg.s data structure system architecture represent rFkk component dh detail vfr vko'.k tk lds] designing es gh iwjs software dh complete picture fn[kkbZ nsuh pkfg.k tk ldsA The Design Process :Software Design .s tkrs gsA rks software dh quality vius vki imporve gksrh pyh tk.gks og error free gksA Designing ds fy.sd design activity ds le.d software ij view gksrh gSA ftldh enn ls data functional rFkk project ds behaviour dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA Design process esa cgqr lkjs requirments dh vko'. Design and Software Quality :iwjh design process esa quality ij iwjk /.drk gksrh gSA ftuesa ls dqN bl izdkj gS & i.fn bl izdkj dh lHkh charactristics design structure esa complete fd.k tk ldrk gSA Modules ds functions rFkk interfaces dks vklkuh ls represent fd.drk dks iwjk dj jgk gSA design easy to read rfkkk easy to understand gksuk pkfg.kj fd.s modules dh vko'.ku fn.s tk ldrs gSA ftudh enn ls data .k tk ldrk gSA ii.sxh rFkk software dk le.Z djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA rFkk fdlh Hkh izdkj ds modules dks vklkuh ls add.s .s tks fd customer dh lHkh vko'.&le.d gskrh gS ij izR. ij implement fd.drkuqlkj software code rS.s .s rkfd vko'.drk gksrh gSA design process ges'kk gh gj level ij perform gksrh gSA .k tk ldrk gSA rFkk blesa os lHkh concept use fd.ksx dj jgs gSA ftlesa dk.s process software design dh continous process gksrh gS tks fd modular programs esa apply dh tkrh gSA softwaer structure esa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh program of approch use dh tk ldrh gSA vktdy programmer designing esa object oriented approch dk mi. gesa basic concept apply djus pkfg.s rkfd high quality product rS.kj fd. modify and delete fd.d interactive process gksrh gSA tSls&tSls software design djus ds fy. Evaluation of Design :.k tkrk gSA Design ges'kk gh vko'.drkuqlkj analysis model ds vuqlkj rS.

ksx djds vko'.k tk ldsA iii.d gksrs gSA ysfdu . 6. The design should minimize the distance to be the software and the problem asis exist in the realtime.s dqN principal bl izdkj gSA 1. Desing Principal :Software design process and module nksuksa dk gh combination gksrk gSA Design process esa lHkh steps . 8.drkuqlkj design models rS.d sequence esa mi.ku jgs fd design process bruh vklku ugh gksrh gsA blds fy. The design should be use the complete model.s tk ldrs gSA blds fy. The design should be structure to accom module change. sense rFkk commiment quality dh vko'. The design should be reduce to minimize conceptual error.kj djus ds fy.s plan ds lkFk chart cukrk gSA mlh rjg ls software dks rS. 5. 7. The design should be accessed for quality as it si been created not offer the fact.s design medel rS.kj djus ds fy.s creations skill. The design process should not suffer form turnel vision.architecture interfaces rFkk component level designing dk vlkuh ls handle fd. The design should be transable to the analysis model.g /. 3. 9.ksx fd. 4.kj fd. The design should be according to the rquirment.s tkrs gsA tks software dks design djus esa lgk. coding is not disign. . 10.k tkrk gSA lcls igys lHkh models miyC/ku gksuk pkfg.drk gksrh gSA Design Model :Design model architecture ds plan ds leku gksrk gSA ftl rjg ls architect ?kj dks rS. The disign should be structure to data events or operating conditons. post expriance. 2. Design is not coding .sA ftudk use software es gksrk gS mlds ckn computer software dk mi.kj fd.

Design Concept :Software design dk concept dkQh igys design gks pqdk FkkA ftls vktdy cM+h vklkuh ls mi.sd function dh instructions dks .ksx fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk .drkuqlkj test fd. software dks cgqr lkjs modules esa convert dj fn.k dks gy djus ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA .s lHkh concept fuEufyf[kr questions dks solve esa lgk.k tkrk gSA vkSj finaly problem dks solutions dks direct implement fd. Abstraction :tc ge fdlh leL.sd step abstraction dh lgk. software design concept dh enn ls lgh software design djus ds fy.ksx fd.s .s dqN eq[.k tkrk gSA System engineering ds le.d module choose djrs gSA rks bl le.k tkrk gS rFkk data abstraction esa data objects dk collection gksrk gSA .k ds gy dks n'kkZ.rk djrk gS & 1.sd concept dks le.s abstractions rc rd pyrh jgrh gS tc rd dh software dk source code rS.drkuqlkj fdlh Hkh software esa apply fd. abstraction dh cgqr lkjs levels introduce gksrs gSA . software dks computer based system dk element ekuk tkrk gSA vkSj software requirment analysis ds le. ds vuqlkj le>k tkrk gSA vkSj vko'. How is function or data structure detail seprated from a conceptual representation of the software. What critarea can be used to partition software into indivisual components.rk ls gy fd.kj ugh gks tkrk gSA Abstraction ds izR. What uniform critarea define the behaviour quality of the software design.s language evnvironment dk mi. 2.k tk ldrk gSA Software process dk izR.s concept engineers dks foundation step provide djrs gSA ftls vko'.sd ysoy es ge procedural and data abstraction create djrs gSA Procedural abstraction esa izR. 3.k tkrk gSA Obejct oriented technology dh enn ls leL.k tk jgk gSA izR.k tkrk gsA vkSj .gk¡ ij leL. step bl izdkj gS & 1.k ds fy.d sequence esa represent fd.

kj fd.s .Z djsA izR. Modularity :Computer software esa modularity dk concept dkQh igys vk pqdk Fkk A ftldk mi.ksx fd.sd refinement step esa design decision fy.d complete project rS.drkuqlkj software architect djrs gSA bldh lgk.rk ls software dks vyx&vyx Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tkrk gSA vkSj izR.k tkrk gSA izR.gk¡ ij importent step .slk step gS ftldh lgk.drk gksrh gSA rkfd programming language statements ds lkFk vuqlkj .g gksrk gS fd programmer problem ds critarea dks rFkk mlds solution dks lgh :i ls le>sA Abstraction and refinement nksuksa gh complementry concept gSA Abstraction dh lgk.sd LVsi gtkjksa instructions dks decompose fd.rk ls designner particular procedures rFkk data module design djrs gSA vkSj refinement designner ds fy.kj fd.s procedure lgh dk.k tkrk gSA Prodularity esa .kj djrs gSA blesa devide & conquer method dk mi.Procedural abstraction esa tc perticuarl module dks open fd. Refinement :Refinement top down design approch gks tc fdlh program dks rS.s nksuks gh step dkQh egRoiw.rk ls fdlh Hkh cM+s project dks vklkuh ls complete fd.k tkrk gSA Moduarity .kj djus ds fy.s tkrs gS .k nks ls vf/kd module vkil esa feydj .fn dksbZ problem vkrh gSA rks perticular module dks find djds ml problem dks solve dj fy.k tkrk gSA rks mlds lHkh procedures dks details lfgr refine djus dh vko'.k tkrk gSA rFkk development cost Hkh de vkrh gSA vkSj project esa .sd Hkkx vius vki ls complete rFkk addressable component gksrk gSA ftls ge module dgrs gSA .k tkrk gSA rks mls ge "door" ds uke ls tkurs gSA D.ksx viuh vko'.s tk ldrs gS & .d success full model rS.s details lfgr design process ds levels provide djrh gSA complete the desing model rS.kZ gksrs gSA 3.k tkrk gSA vkSj .d .s process dkQh fast dh tk ldrh gSA .ksfd ckdh lHkh module blh ls tqM+s jgrs gSA 2.s Module fdlh perticualr problem dks solve djrk gS blh rjg ls nks .d effective modular system define fd.

sA Software architecture dh fuEufyf[kr properties gksrh gS& a. gksrk gSA tc Hkh module design fd. objects. capacity.slh fLFkfr gksrh gS tgk ij iwjs project dk overall structure design fd. Modular understandability.) dks define fd. Modular Composibility.k tkrk gSA bldk dsoy . Modular Protection. d. b.a. etc.slh representation gS ftlesa system ds lHkh component (Modules.d gh mís'.k tkrk gSA tSls fd requirment for performance. Modular Decomposibility. c. adeplarility and other system characterstics.s fd mls mlls related dksbZ Hkh system use dj ldsA . Families of Related System :Architecural design . Control Hierarchy :- .d . Modular continouity.fn blesa reuse dh ability gksuh pkfg.s A 5. c.s mldk resue fd.d .k tkrk gSA vkSj mu components dks bdV~Bk djds lHkh ds chp esa interface create fd. Software Architecture :Software architecture .k tk.s . 4.k tkrk gSA vkSj system analysis ds chp esa interface create fd. Structural Properties :.k tkrk gSA b. relaibility. e.k tk. filters.d complete software dk :i fn. security.k tkrk gSa bls hirerchical structure Hkh dgk tkrk gSA blds lHkh izdkj ds component rFkk data structure dks .slk gksuk pkfg. Extra Functional Properties :Software architecture dh bl property esa lHkh izdkj dh software qualities dks represent fd.

k vertical structure esa devide fd.k extenstion dh lqfo/kk vklkuh ls fcuk dh sideffect ds perform dh tk ldrh gSA ysfdu horizental partition esa models ds chp esa interface djus ds fy.s tkrs gSA tSls fd sequence of processes.knk data process djus dh vko'. Strucural Partioning :. Software that is easier to understands.k tkrk gSA ftlesa eq[.ksx architecural style esa fd.s T.fn system dks architectural style hierarchical gS rks program structure horzental .s tkrs gSA Input data transformation (processing) and output horizental partition ds cgqr lkjs benefit gks ldrs gSA tSls fd & a. Software that is fewer significients.d nwljs ls tqM+s jgrs gSA vkSj blesa changing . Major function .k tkrk gS A bl representation es lHkh izdkj ds modules dks control fd.drk gksrh gS fd dkSu lk module fdl&fdl module dks control dj jgk gSA rHkh ge software esa lHkh modules ds chp esa relationship create dj ldrs gSA 6.k tkrk gSA tks fd software dh effectiveness dks show djrs gSA blesa control ds vko'. oder of decision or reapetation of operations vkSj u gh bldk mi. Software that is easier to test b.drkuqlkj levels gks ldrs gSA vkSj dksbZ Hkh module nwljs module dks control dj ldrk gSA ysfdu bles . d.k tk ldrk gsA vkSj lHkh modules esa hierarchical control provide fd.Control Hierarchy dks program structure ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA tks fd system ds lHkh modules dks organize djrh gSA rFkk muds chp esa control dh facility provide djrh gSA blds }kjk procedural software represent ugh fd.drk gksrh gSA Vertical partitioning esa factoring Hkh dgk tkrk gSA blessas program structure ds fy. Software that is easier to maintain c.s crkus dh vko'.k tkrk gSA .s top down approch dk mi.k tk ldrk gSA Horizental partioning esa program functions dks vyx&vyx modular hirericy esa define fd. :i ls 3 partition fd.ksx fd.

g /.d nwljs ls connect jgrs gSA vkSj top level dk ekWMy iwjs project ds modules dks control djrk gSA Actually bl ekWMy esa lHkh modules dh processing dks control fd.Z perform djrk gSA ftls program ds nwljs module esa Hkh tksM+k tk ldrk gSA tc modules dks design fd.d module dh information (procedural and data) dks nwljk module access u dj ldsA .k tk ldrk gSA blds lkFk&lkFk system dh fofHkUu parts dh development Hkh lkFk&lkFk perform dh tk ldrh gSA 2.d gksrk gSA fd cohesion dh izfØ. .d gk. Cohesion :Cohesion information hiding concept dk nature extension gSA software procedure esa cohesive module single dk.k tkrk gSA rks ml le.g gS fd lHkh modules vius vki esa complete gks] vkSj . Information Hiding :Information hiding dk rkRi.k tk ldrk gSA vkSj software module dks vklkuh ls vko'.ksx dh tkrh gsA bldh lgk.Z .g gS fd tc Hkh maintainance dk dk.d information dks izkIr djuk gks rks og information dsoy software functions ds }kjk gh izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA blds }kjk dksbZ Hkh module .drkuqlkj modify fd. implement fd.jdh ds :i esa .k procedure detailed information lfgr define fd.k tk ldrk gSA Effective modular design :Modular designing .k tkrk gSA rks mlesa tks Hkh errors detect gksrh gS mUgs vklkuh ls gy fd.fn fdlh function dh vko'.fn dksbZ module add or remove djuk gks rks mldk effect blesa related lHkh modules esa reflect djrk gSA 7.slh approch gS tks yxHkx lHkh organizing project esa mi.rk ls project create djuk Fkk mls maintain djuk dkQh vklku gks tkrk gSA rFkk Hkfo".k tkrk gSA bl structure esa .blesa lHkh modules .k tk ldrk gSA ysfdu dsoy ogh information nwljs module ds }kjk access dh tk ldrh gSA tks vko'.Z fd. eas esa ml project dks dHkh&dHkh fdlh Hkh le.k dks le>dj modules design djuk .d gSA Information hiding dk benefit .ku j[kuk vko'.d .

sA rHkh ge .slh process gS ftldh lgk.d nwljs ls close jgrk gSA rFkk .d modules ds function dks nwljs module esa vklkuh ls enterrelate dj ldrs gSA Software es tc lHkh function dks .g lowest coupling gksrh gSA vkSj iwjs software dks vklkuh ls le>k tk ldrk gSA .rk ls software .fn fdlh function esa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gSA rks mls debug djuk dkQh dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu cohesion dh lgk.rk ls dh tkrh gSA bl izdkj dh coupling dks external coupling dgk tkrk gSA UNIT V Software Testing :Software system dh development es cgqr lkjh activity involve jgrh gSA blesa software testing . fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ error vkrh gSA rks mlds location dk vklkuh ls irk yxk.s coupling devices ds chp esa particular format vkSj communication protocol dh lgk. communication cohesion represent gksrh gSA 3.sa vf/kd jgrh gSA rFkk .k tkrk gSA rks ml process dks .rk ls izR. Coupling :Software structure esa modules ds chp enter connection dks coupling ds }kjk measure fd.d sequence esa execute fd.s rks .ksx djrs gSA rks ml le.d nwljs ls interface create djrk gSA ysfdu lHkh modules dk viuk vyx&vyx dk.g process coupling dgykrh gsA Software design esa lkjs modules ds chp esa simple connectivity dh tk.fn data transfer ds le.sd module .ksfd coupling modules ds chp esa interface ij gh depend djrh gSA tc fdlh module esa data entry dh tkrh gS rks data interface esa fdl izdkj ikl gks jgk gSA .d single module esa combine dj fn.pkfg.k tkrk gSA D.d area dk mi.d procedural cohesion dgk tkrk gSA tc lHkh processing element data structure ds fdlh .k tkrk gSA rks mlesa errors dh laHkkouk.s error iwjs system esa effect djrh gS tc modules ds chp esa control pass gksrk gSA rks mls control coupling dgk tkrk gSA .k tkrk gSA ysfdu .d .Z gksrk gSA vkSj lHkh instructions dks .

behaviour and performance dks increase fd.k tk ldrk gSA A.k tkrk gSA Software engineers designing ds le.k tk.fn bl izdkj ds lHkh objects dks .k tk ldrk gSA 2. Testing . dksbZ error vkrh gS rks mls debug dj fy.s vkSj mlesa dksbZ error u vk.k tkrk gSA tc testing gks tkrh gS vkSj designner ds vuqlkj blesa dksbZ error ugh jgrh gSA mlds ckn bl testing software dks . .d software dk internal logic gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk programs dh dfe. represent fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj testing ds le.drk gksrh gS bl izdkj gS & 1. tc desingners testing process esa Lo.drkuqlkj test fd. cgqr lkjs rules apply djus dh vko'.d gksrk gSA test ds nkSjku internal logic and external requirment nksuksa dh vko'.s rks . Testing Principle :- . cgqr lkjs tests djrs gSA ftlesa SQA activity Hkh vkrh gS ysfdu blds }kjk lHkh errors dks nwj ugh fd. Testing Objectives :Software testing ds le. .fn testing vPNh gksxh rks software dh quality Hkh high quality show djrh gSA vkSj .wtj dks deliver fd.ksa dks iwjk djds mlds functions.sA 3.k tkrk gSA .drkuqlkj fdlh Hkh le.slh process gS ftlds }kjk programs dks execute djds errors dks find fd.d success full test rHkh ekuk tkrk gSA tc blesa lHkh izdkj ls input djds internal or external test fd.k tk ldrk gSA tc Hkh customer software dks execute djrk gSA rks mlls igys gh errors dks find djds mUgs remove djuk vko'.dks customer rd igqpkus ls igys mldh lHkh errors dks test dj fy.d successful test complete gksxkA vkSj mlesa dksbZ error 'ks"k ugh cpsxh A blds ckn nwljk Qk.s .g gS fd bl software dks market esa vko'.d .gh technique software dh quality dsk rFkk performance dks increase dj nsrh gSA B.nk .ku esa j[kk tk.fn /.fn software esa dksbZ error 'ks"k u gks rks .a satisfy gks tkrs gSA mlds ckn os software dks customer rd deliver dj ldrs gSA Testing ds le.k tk ldrk gSA .

Test should be planed long before testing begin.s A blds ckn dqN charactristics bl izdkj gS & 1. programmer dHkh&dHkh dificulty eglwl djrs gSA D. le>us pkfg.sA testing principle dqN bl izdkj gS & 1. 5. 5.The more information we have the smarter we will test.What you see is what you test.Software dksa test djus ls igys engineers dks software testing ds principles vo'.The less there is to test the more quickly we can tested. Simplicity : .By controlling the scope of testing. We can more quickly isalate problem and perform shamarker retesting.slh gksrh gS ftudks modify ugh fd. 3. 7. Decomposability :.k tk ldrk gSA blfy. 3. 6.s designer dks ges'kk gh .ksfd dqN errors . Observavility :.The better it works the more efficiency it can be tested. Understandablity :. Controlability :.s fd softwaer testability process lower level ls gh 'kq: dj nsuh pkfg. testing should be conducted an independant third party.k product dks software engineers ideas dk mi. C.wtj dh requirment ds vuqlkj test djrk gSA ysfdu .ku j[kuk pkfg. Operatability :. 2. all tests should be practable to customer requirments. To be most effective.s testing Hkh dqN predefine principal ds vuqlkj gh gksarh gSA testing ds le. Predefine principle should be apply to software testing. 4. 4. 6. . Exhaustibe testing is not possible. Stability :.The fewer the changes the lower interruption to test.ksx djds design djrs gSA vkSj mlds ckn mls .s /. Testing should begin in the small and progress sto words testing in the longer. Testability :Computer programmer . 2.The better can control the software the more testing can be automatted and optimized.

ksx fd.k tkrk gSA blds } kjk software engineer project ds lHkh modules esa ckjh&ckjh ls de ls de .k tkrk gsA rks mudh conditions rFkk controls dks gj step ij VsLV fd.k tk ldrk gSA .k tk ldrk gSA blds application dks tc fdlh software dks perform languages source code esa translate fd.ksx fd.d ckj software dk path test dj fy.s white box testing dk mi.k tkrk gSA Control Structure Testing :- .s testing lHkh logic of technique ds vuqlkj perform dh tkrh gSA blds lgk.ksx djds software ds module dk mi.slh errors gksrh gS tks fd software dh testing 'kq: gksus rd Hkh detect ugh gksrh gSA vkSj bls errors logical errors gks ldrh gS bl izdkj dh errors dks nwj djus ds fy.k tkrk gSA Designing ds le.s dqN transaction rules dk mi.slk test care design method gS tks fd procedural design ds control structure dks test djus ds fy.rk ls lHkh loops execute fd.White Box Testing :White Box testing dks dHkh&dHkh ge glass box testing Hkh dgrs gSA .s] rks mldh logical errors dks vklkuh ls handle fd.s mi.k tkrk gSA vkSj .s tkrs gsA vkSj internal data structure fd validity perform dh tkrh gSA nwljs test analysis dh rjg gh white box testing esa software ds defects dks slove fd. dqN typing errors Hkh vk ldrh gSA ftuesa ls cgqr lkjh errors dks mlds syntex rFkk type checking method ds }kjk recover dj fy.d . djrs gSA vkSj . logical errors dk lkeuk Hkh fd.s .k tkrk gSA rFkk dkSu lk modules fdl izdkj dh behavioural activities black box testing ds varxZr vkrh gSA bl izdkj dh activities dks lcls vf/kd object oriented system es mi.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA rks ml le.ksx fd.k tkrk gSA Black Box Testing :Black Box Testing ds }kjk fdlh system or system ds fdlh Hkkx ds behaviour dks VsLV fd.d ckj test vo'.fn .k tkrk gSA ysfdu dqN .k tkrk gSA blds fy.k tk.s testing software ds nature ds vuqlkj gksrh gSA bl izdkj dh testing ls tc function dsk design or implement fd.

s guidence provide djrh gSA Condition testing dk mís'.rk ls program ds Åij lHkh modules vkSj mu modules esa mi. and Loop Testing etc.rk ls program modules dh logical conditon dks VsLV fd.k tk ldrk gSA 2.k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh testing ds nks ykHk gksrs gSA igyk .s fd condition testing simple gskrh gS vkSj blls . Relational Operator errors e.sd . Condition Testing :Condition testing test case design method gksrh gSA ftldh lgk.fn fdlh program esa izR.s rks mls debug dj fy.s fd condition testing additional programs ds test ds fy.d simple condition esa fdlh Hkh programming language dks mi.k gksrh gS ysfdu software esa high effectiveness provide djkrh gS blds }kjk white box testing dh qualities dks Hkh improve fd.k tkrk gS .ksx gksus okys variables dh defination dks VsLV fd. Arithmetic Expression errors Conditions testing methods dh lgk.slh testing gksrh gS ftlds }kjk software ds iwjs structure dks path lfgr test fd. 1. Dataflow Testing. dsoy conditional errors dsk gh detect djuk ugh gS cfYd bldh lgk.k tkrk gSA rFkk fdlh Hkh izdkj dh dksbZ error vk. Data Flow Testing :Data Flow Testing methdo dh lgk.k tkrk gS .Control Structure testing .rk ls program dh nwljh errors dks Hkh psd fd.rk ls program dh izR.sd condition dks ckjh&ckjh ls psd fd.ksx fd. Boolean Operator errors b. Boolean Parantaces errors d.k tk ldrk gS vkSj testing ds nkSjku fuEufyf[kr errors dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gS & a. Boolean Variables errors c.k tkrk gSA tSls fd & Conditional Testing.gka ij fofHkUu izdkj dh data flow testing perform dh tk ldrh gSA tSlk fd .s testing dkQh lk/kkj.d .k tkrk gS .ksx fd.k tkrk gSA bl testing esa cgqr lkjh technique dk mi.

fn ge simple loop dh approch dks extend djuk pkgrs gS rks nested loop dk mi. Only one pass to the loop.k tkrk gSA rFkk need number fo test perform fd. In passes to the loop where M>N.s statements software ds iwjs path ds fy.s mi. e.gk¡ ij /. d. M-1.d white box testing technique gksrh gS tks fd 4 Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr jgrh gSA tSls fd & Simple Loop.ksx fd.k tkrk gS ftlesa fuEufyf[kr set gks ldrk gSA a. Skip the loop entity. Nested loop :.s if or loops statement dk mi. Loop Testing :Software es fdlh Hkh izdkj ds algorithm dks implement djus ds fy.ksx fd. ii. c. ckr . N+1 passes to the loop.s loops cgqr gh important gksrs gSA ftldh lgk.rk ls software testing vklkuh ls perform dh tk ldrh gSA Loop testing .gka ij izR.statements .ku j[kus . Nested Loop. i. Concatenated Loop and Unstructured Loop etc.ksX. N.g gS fd lcls igys inner most loop execute gksrh gS vkSj outer most loop lcls vkf[kjh eas test fd.sd function vius parameters vkSj global variables dks modify ugh dj jgk gks rks mlds fy.s tk ldrs gSA . b. Two passes to the loop.sd satatement ds fy.s vko'.d unique statement gks vkSj izR.k tkrk gSA iii. Simple Loop :Simple loop esa simple conditions dks check fd. Concatinated loop :- .drkuqlkj conditional checking dh tk ldrh gSA .k tkrk gSA bu loops esa nesting level dsk increase fd.ksx dh tk ldrh gSA 3.k tk ldrk gsA .

s testing FkksM+h vyx gksrh gS .ksx dh tkrh gSA muds fy.drkuqlkj VsLV fd.d lh rFkk complete softwaer rS.s mi. Testing GUI's.ksx djds lHkh loops dsk tksM+ fn. Testing documentation and help facilities.k tk. Unstructured Loop :Unstructured loop dk mi.s testing fuEuizdkj dh gks ldrh gS & a.k tkrk gSA .drk gksrh gSA white box and black box testing methdo yxHkx lHkh environments architecture rFkk application ds fy.gka ij ywi dks VsLV djus dk dksbZ sequence ugh gksrh gS .Concatinated loop simple loop dks define djds mi.fn lHkh loops .sls software esa design fd.s specilized testing dh vko'. enter task testing.s tkrs gS ftl loop dh vko'. test case design rFkk test execution vkSj data collection rFkk evaluation etc. concatinated loops dk mi.k tkrk gS vkSj tc loop fHkUu ugh gks rks le. nested approch dk mi. software testing) Software Testing Strategies :Software designing method dk mi.s tk ldrs gSA .fnmls step by step plan djds design fd. b.ksx fd.ksx fd.drk gksrh gS dsoy ogh loop memory esa execute gksrk gSA Testing for specilized Envrionments :Computer software vktdy cgqr gh complex gks x.k common application tks fd software engineering esa mi. d. Testing for real time system (task testing.k tk.s loop user dh need test fd.d nwljs ls inddependent gks rks ml le.s] vkSj mlds ckn mls vko'.k tkrk gSA 4.kj gksrk gSA bl izdkj dh iwjh planning esa stratagies esa test plaining.s gS ftuds fy.s rks .ksx dh tkrh gSA ysfdu guide lines ds .ksx djds . c. steps include jgrs . Testing of Client/Server architecture.ksx structured programming esa fd.s x.

k module dgrs gSA unit testing esa cgqr lkjs components dks .drkuqlkj output izkIr u gksA Testing . rd pyrh gSA tc rd dh project complete u gks tk. documantation. performance. and testing specialist ds }kjk rS.ksx mUgs execute djus ds fy.k tkrk gS fd rS.ksx djrs gS tks bl izdkj gS & a.k vkrh gSA ftlesa software design dh lcls NksVh . algorithm analysis.s software developr cgqr lkjs technique dk mi. Qualification testing. and installation testing etc.d lkFk Hkh test fd. managers.d lkFk .k parts esa execute fd.s testing ml le.s fd.k ugh A .k x.d systematic <ax ls mls test fd.k tkrk gSA vkSj .rk ls errors dks recover fd. Testing Stratagis :Unit Testing :Unit testing esa varification dh og izfØ.k software customer dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA .rk ls . development testing.s irk fd. form of techniques include jgrh gSA 2.k tkrk gS fd software ds functions dk lgh :i ls implement fd.wfuV dks test fd.kj dh tkrh gSA blds }kjk iwjs project dh activity dks control fd.k gS .k tk ldrk gSA blesa customer Hkh involve jgrk gSA Software testing ds fy.k x.k ugh A vkSj validation es nwljs izdkj dh activities vkrh gS ftuls . database of reffu. projects.k tkrk gSA ftls ge software component . software engineers.gSA Designing effects dkQh important gksrs gSA vkSj stratagies dk mi.k tkrk gSA .s stratagies.gka ij iwjs project dks .kZ dj jgk gS .k tkrk gSA Testing NksVs ls module ls 'kq: gksdj cM+s project rd perform dh tkrh gSA Program logic and fucntion dh lgk.s irk fd.kj fd.k tkrk gSA testing strategies ds fy.k tkrk gSA Module interface testing . configration atudits.s vkSj customer dh vko'.ksx djds .s nksuska activiteis SQA activity dk part gh gksrh gSA ftlesa Quality.drkuqlkj dk.d activities dk set gksrk gSA ftls advance esa plan dj fy.drkuqlkj white & black box test dh lgk.k vko'. feasibility study. Varification and Validation :Software testing esa varification and validation dk important role gksrk gSA Varification esa cgqr lkjh activities dk mi.

fn .k tkrk gSA dksbZ Hkh nwljk test djus ls igys modules ds chp esa interface create djuk vko'.s rks unit test procedure ds }kjk nwljs modules ls tksM+k tk ldrk gSA lHkh units dsk blh rjg ls interconnect djds . Regssion Integration d.s rks .d project esa tksM+k tkrk gSA vkSj muds chp esa interface create fd. Integration test documenatation. tks problem vkrh gS mUgs blh testing dh enn ls nwj fd.k dks solve djus ds fy.k tk ldrk gSSA vkSj .s integration testing technique dk mi.d ckj vko'. Top Down Integration b.k tkrk gSA vkSj iwjs program dsk .ksx fd.rk ls proper control flow rFkk effective loop testing technique dk mi.k tk.fn fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ errors vkrh gS rks mls Hkh debug dj fy.Z djus yxrs gS rks mUgsa collect djds . Comments on Integration testing.s cgqr lkjs steps mi.k tkrk gSA rFkk module dh statements de ls de .d ckj .d ywi ds vuqlkj fujarj pyrh jgrh gSA bl approch dks inorement djus ds fy.ksx fd.kj fd.s errors lgh dj yh tk. f.s tkrs gSA .k tkrk gSA vkSj bu modules esa automatic error handlin path set fd.s process .k tkrk gSA buds errors dks correct djuk FkksM+k dfBu gksrk gSA ysfdu .k tkrk gSA Testing ds le.s approach tc ls power full component dks advance esa gh combine dj fy.drkuqlkj test dj fy.d gksrk gSA vkSj unit test dh lgk.d lkFk test fd. .d modular ls nwljs modular esa interface lgh create ugh gks ikrk gSA vkSj ftlds dkj. Smoke Integration e.k vko'drkuqlkj output produce ugh gks ikrk gSA bl izdkj dh leL.esa information ds proper flow dks test fd.s tkrs gS & a. Bottom Up Integration c.k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh bl interfacing process esa dkQh problem vkrh gS .ksx fd.d ckj execute gskuk vko'.d gskrh gSA .d standalone software rS.k tk ldrk gSA Intrigration Testing :tc lHkh models ckjh&ckjh ls VsLV gks tkrs gSA vkSj indivisual dk.fn module dsk .

kj dh xbZ program dks customer fdl izdkj mi.ku esa j[kk tkrk gSaA bl testing esa doucmantation errors .s process software life cycle dk part gksrh gSA bls dHkh&dHkh audits ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA c.k tkrk gSA blesa test plan create fd.kj fd.k tkrk gSA rFkk blesa project dh performance dks Hkh /.Fkk ugh A blls tks process pSd gksrh gS mls validation testing dgk tkrk gSA rFkk validation testing esa fuEufyf[kr steps include jgrs gS & a.s rS.kj fd.drkuqlkj accept test perform dh tkrh gSA ftlls customer dh lHkh .s tkrs gSA tc software . Configration Review :Configration review validation.ksx djsxkA blds fy.s lHkh izdkj dh test rFkk documantation provide fd.d .k tkrk gSA vkSj ml element ds fy. Validiation. Validation Testing :Integration testing esa complete software dks test djds rFkk assemble djds . Alpha & Beta Testing :Software development dks .kj djrs le.k tkrk gSA bl iSdst dks rS.k tkrk gSA .s irk djuk impossible gksrk gS fd rS. Validation Test tritarea :Software Validation .slh technique gS ftlds }kjk user dh vko'.kj dh tkrh gSA .s tkrs gSA vkSj bUgsa le.g. testing dk important element gksrk gS blesa software ds lHkh function ds elements dks configration fd.d customer ds fy. ij project ds behaviour ds vuqlkj test fd.drkuqlkj lHkh requirments dsk pSd fd.s Software lgh :i ls dk.k fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ problem vkrh gS rks mUgsa lgh dj fy.Z dj jgk gS vU.drkuqlkj lHkh requirments dks check fd. le.d documantation rFkk details rS.d package rS.k tkrk gSA b. tks Hkh errors gksrh gS mls lgh djus dh process gksrh gSA bl ds ckn validation dh testing 'kq: gksrh gSA bl process es customer dh vko'.s vko'.k tkrk gS rks mldh vko'.

izdkj dh requirments dks project ds }kjk sub fd;k tkrk gSA ;s acceptance test ,d particular period ds ckn perform fd;s tkrs gSA ;s le; ,d lIrkg dk ;k ,d eghus dk gsk ldrk gSA Testing ds nkSjku lHkh izdkj dh errors dks nwj dj fy;k tkrk gSA ;fn ;s software cgqr lkjs customer ds fy;s ,d program ds :i esa rS;kj fd;k tkrk gSA rks izR;sd ds fy;s acceptance test perform ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;gk¡ ij end user dh problems dsk solve djus fy;s programmer tks techniques viukrs gS mls Alpha & Beta testing dgk tkrk gSA Alpha test esa Customer ds }kjk programmer site dks test fd;k tk ldrk gS fd tks software mlds fy;s rS;kj fd;k tk jgk gS mlesa look dSlk gS vkSj og particular problem dks solve dj jgk gS ;k ughA Alpha Beta ges'kk gh control environment esa perform fd;s tkrs gSA Beta test software ds enduser ds }kjk ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd customer sites esa conduct fd;s tkrs gSA Alpha testing dh rjg developr present ugh jgrs gS tc fd beta test like application software gksrk gS ftls ;gk¡ ij developr control ugh dj ldrk gSA Beta testing esa developr le; ds vuqlkj lHkh izdkj dh problems dh ,d report rS;kj djrk gSA vkSj software engineers bl problem ds vuqlkj software system dh security vfuok;Z jgrh gSA Security testing esa protection dks varify fd;k tkrk gS fd bl system esa tks security provide dh xbZ gS os lgh :i ls rS;kj gS ;k ughA ,slk djus ls user ds attack ls cuk;k tk ldrk gSA Security testing ds nkSjku user name and password provide fd;s tkrs gSA blds ckn dksbZ Hkh ;wtj fcuk user name or password ds bl system esa enter ugh dj ldrk gSA ;fn security testing lgh :i ls successful jgrh gSA rks system dh lqj{kk c<+ tkrh gS A Product dks modify djrs gS vkSj ,d u;k software product release ds fy;s rS;kj gks tkrk gSA

System Testing :Software fdlh Hkh large computer based system dk dsoy ,d element gksrk gS vkSj ;gh software nwljs system element (hardware, people, information) etc. ls communicate djrk gSA vkSj blds ckn system intrigration and validation test perform fd;s tkrs gSA ;s test software process ls ckgj gksrs gSA D;skfd software designing dh process vyx gksrh gS vkSj testing Hkh vyxA ysfdu bu nksuks dk gh mi;ksx ,d

successful software rS;kj djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ftls ge large system esa mi;skx dj ldrs gSA Testing ds le; rjg&rjg ds test fd;s tkrs gSA rkfd software esa lHkh errors dks debug dj fy;k tk;sA izR;sd test dk viuk mís'; gksrk gS ftlls lHkh modules ds functions dks test djds lHkh ,d lgh output produce fd;k tkrk gSA software based system esa fuEufyf[kr system test perform fd;s tk ldrs gS &

a. Recovey testing :cgqr lkjs computer based system esa faults dks detect djus dh rFkk processing ds le; mUgsa recover djus dh lqfo/kk iznku jgrh gSA ysfdu blesa le; ij vf/kd /;ku fn;k tkrk gSA ysfdu dHkh&dHkh ;s leL;k system ds lgh functions dks sease ¼dk;Z can djuk½ dj ldrh gSA blfy;s ;fn dksbZ system problem dj jgk gS rks mls particular time ds vuqlkj lgh djuk vko';d gksrk gSA recovery testing es blh izdkj dh leL;k dk gy fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk bles automatic reinitialization, check point machanisam, data recovery etc. processes include jgrh gSA recovery user invoke jgrk gSA tks fd le;&le; ij system dks repair djrk jgrk gSA bl process dks ge Main Time To Repair (MTTR) Hkh dgrs gSA

b. Security Testing :dksbZ Hkh computer based system tsk fd sensitive information dks manage djrk gSA rks og system user dks dkQh ykHk igqpkrk gSA blfy;s bl system dh security vfuok;Z gksrh gSA Securtiy testing esa protection dks varify fd;k tkrk gS fd bl system esa tks security provide dh xbZ gS os lgh :i ls dk;Z dj jgh gS ;k ugh A ,slk djus ls system dks vU; unauthorized user ds attack ls cpk;k tk ldrk gSA Security testing ds nkSjku user name ;k password ds bl systeme es enter ugh dj ldrk gSA ;fn security testing lgh :i ls successful jgrh gS rks system dh lqj{kk c<+ tkrh gSA

c. Stress Testing :-

Software testing steps ds le; white box and black box technique dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk mlds }kjk program functions and performance ds normal test fd;s tkrs gS ysfdu abnormal sotiation ds fy;s stress test dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bl test esa system ds fail gksus ls igys dh lHkh izdkj dh process dk fjdkMZ LVksj fd;k tkrk gSA Stress testing resources dh vko';drkuqlkj abnormal quantity, frequancy and volume ds vk/kkj ij perform dh tkrh gSA bl testing esa virtual operating system Hkh involve jgrk gSA ;fn dkbZ program dk;Z djuk can dj ns ;k MkVk currept gks tk;s rks mls stress testing ds vuqlkj recover fd;k tk ldrk gSA bl testing dks sensitive testing ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA

d. Performance Testing :Performance Testing esa system dh run time performance dk test fd;k tkrk gSA vkSj blesa ;s VsLV fd;k tkrk gS fd lHkh modules lgh :i ls dk;Z dj jgs ;k ughA ;s testing software life cycle ds lkFk include jgrh gSA

Debugging Process :Software testing ,d ,slh process gksrh gS ftldh lgk;rk ls software preplan ds vuqlkj systematic <ax ls test fd;k tkrk gSA blesa test case design fd;s tkrs gS] stratagy define dh tkrh gSA vkSj vko';drkuqlkj result dks evaluate fd;k tkrk gSA successful testing ds fy;s debugging vko';d gksrh gSA ;fn fdlh test case esa dskbZ error vkrh gS rks debugging process dh lgk;rk ls mls remove dj fn;k tkrk gSA ;s ,d art gS ftls software engineers, software problem dsk solve djus ds fy;s mi;ksx djrs gSA ;s testing process ugh gS ysfdu ges'kk ls gh testing process esa mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA vkSj tSls gh ge fdlh izdkj dk test 'kq: djrs gS rks mlh le; debugging process 'kq: gks tkrh gSA ftlls project dh performance c<+ tkrh gSA debugging process ges'kk gh errors dks find djus ds fy;s vkSj mUgs remove djus ds fy;s mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA Debugging process dificult process gSA D;skfd ;g ,d project esa cgqr lkjs modules dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA vkSj tc system esa errors vkrh gS rks ;g irk djuk eqf'dy gksrk gS fd ;s

error fdl module esa vk;h gS blds fy;s programming knowledge rFkk work experiance dh vko';drk gksrh gSa debugging ds le; ;fn dksbZ error feyrh gS rks mls vo'; Bhd djuk pkfg;sA

Software Maintanance :Software maintanance dh process cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ gS blds } kjk software esa tks dfe;k¡ gksrh gS mUgsa nwj fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk ;fn software esa dqN implementation djuk gks rks mlds fy;s Hkh ;s process eq[; Hkwfedk vnk djrh gSA blds fy;s cgqr lkjs programs design fd;s tkrs gSA vkSj muds fy;s proper cooling techniques dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls operating system technology esa vko';drkuqlkj ,d u;k plateform rS;kj fd;k tk ldrk gSA ftlls user computer based system esa vko';drkuqlkj dk;Z dj ldrk gSA rFkk developrs vko';drkuqlkj ml ij control dj ldrs gSA vkSj mls modify esa cny ldrs gS A Software maintanance essa pkj izdkj dh vyx&vyx maintanance activities define dh xbZ gS & a. Charactive Maintanance b. Adoptive Maintanance c. Perfactive Maintanance d. Preventive Maintanance or reengineering bu Maintanance activity dk mi;ksx djds dsoy ge lHkh izdkj ds Maintanance work d dsoy 20% dk;Z dj ldrs gSA ckdh 80% dk;Z igys ls gh mi;ksx dh tk jgs system means external environment dks enhancement djds iwjk fd;k tk ldrk gSA Enhancement dh request user ds }kjk provide dh tkrh gSA rFkk ,d u;h application future use ds fy;s rS;kj dh tkrh gSA tc ;s Maintanance dh lHkh activities iwjh dj yh tkrh gSA rks attractive and effective software re-engineer gksrk gSA

Computer Aidded Software Engineering (CASE) :Software process eas CASE tools dk cgqr egRo gS A D;skfd bldh lgk;rk ls software engineers rFkk practictioners vkSj ;wtj dks lHkh izdkj dh activities provide gksrh gSA rFkk engineers ds fy;s ;s

) dks bdV~Bh djrk gSA vkSj CASE ds fy.s tk ldrs gSA CASE dks process module ds lkFk mi.rk djrk gSA ftlls database. framework vo'.Z dks /.d indivisual CASE tool gksrk gSA vkSj lHkh tools ds lkFk communicate djrk gSA Partability services dh lgk.s building blocks bl izdkj rS.d dfBu dk.s rjhssds ls produce fd.d Lis'ky izksxzEl dk collection gS tks fd .ksx fd.ku esa j[kdj viuk dk.sd building blocks nwljs block dh foundation gSA iwjs environment dk important software engineering tool gskrh gSA blds ckn gh software engineering ds fy. people.s project dks fdlh Hkh hardware plateform and operating system esa fcuk fdlh maintanance activity ds execute fd. hardware.s beneficial gksrs gSA bu tools dh lgk.k tk ldrk gSA .rk ls rS.s ground work rS.sA blds ckn gh CASE benefit provide djrk gSA bldh lgk.d successful environment create fd.tools analysis.ksx djrs gSA Software engineering .k rFkk single tools gS tks fd fdlh particular software engineering activity . operating systems standard rFkk nwljs componants include jgrs gSA CASE ds fy.drk gskrh gSA Portability services CASE tools ds chp esa bridge provide djrh gSA tks fd intrigration frame work and envrionmental architecture dks Hkh support djrh gSA Intrigration frame work .s .k tk ldrk gSA ftlls good decisions fy. rS.s toosl blds fy.k tk ldrk gSA Building Blocks :CASE . design.s x.d cgqr gh lk/kkj.kj djrk gSA ysfdu CASE environment esa nwljs blocks dh vko'.k tk ldrk gSA CASE tools dk use djus ls igys software process.kj dj ysuk pkfg.k tk ldrk gSA Software engineering process ds le. natwork. architecture lHkh yksxksa ds dk.rk ls software engineering information dks u.rk ls mannual acitvities dks automatic represent fd.kj fd.k tk ldrk gS A bl block ds vuqlkj izR.Z gS vkSj . coding and test work dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA Project managers rFkk software engineers nksuks gh CASE dk mi.k mlds iwjs environment dsk complete djus esa lgk.kj fd.Z 'kq: djrk gSA Environment architecture hardware plateform and system support (Networking software DBMS and object management system etc.

q. Dlom tools. n.rk ls . o. p.ksx fd. e.gka ij . Analysis & Design tools. f.s tk ldrs gSA CASE tools dks functions dh lgk. Documentation tools. Web development tools. Static analysis tools. c.k tk ldrk gSA . . h. s. d. r.k tk ldrk gSA bleas technical persons and software engineers Hkh include jgrs gSA rFkk environment architecture esa hardware rFkk software dks include djds iwjs system dh cost create dh tk ldrh gSA blds fy. Software configration management tools. System software tools. l.kZ tools fuEuizdkj gS& a.s dqN egRoiw.d vPNh performanance ds fy. Process modeling & management tools. Business process engineering tools. j. Project planning tools. m. g.rk ls classify fd. i. k. Porgramming tools.d effective CASE environment rS. Quality assurance tools. Requirment trasing tools.kj fd.slh cgqr lkjh planning and tools gS ftudh lgk.s bl izdkj ds tools software engineering process esa mi. Intrigration & testing tools. b. Risk analysis tools.A Texonomey of CASE tools :tc Hkh ge CASE tools dks fofHkUu izdkj ls catagarise djrs gSA rks gesa cgqr lkjs risks dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gSA . Prototyping tools. Project management tools. Interface & design & development tools. Metrics & management tools.

4. Test management tools. w. An increase in project control that is achived better planning. u.s software engineering team CASE tools dk mi. Dynamic analysis tools. quality assurance and document production. Improve Cordination among staff members who are working on a large software project. Intrigrated CASE environment :CASE tools software engineering dh izR. Intrigration Architecture :Software engineering information dks process djus ds fy.ksx djrh gSA intrigration dh lgk. Client/Server testing tools.k tk ldrk gSA Intrigration CASE ds benefite fuEufyf[kr include jgrs gSA tSls fd 1.d lgh software rS.k tk ldsA 2.s vko'. 1. monitering. Programs. 2.rkuqlkj miyC/k gks tkrh gSA blesa .s] rkfd .sd tools ds fy. A Reduction in the afferts required to perform various activity such as configration management. Documents.s vko'd. and communication.rk .Z combination and closure nksuks ls gh gSA ftlesa fofHkUu izdkj ds tools dks combine fd. Reengineering tools.s software engineering information izR. data) from one to another and one software engineering step to the next.sd activity dsk handle djrs gSA rFkk . Intrigration dk rkRi.d vPNk benefite provide dj ldrs gSA ysfdu CASE dh real power dks intrigration ds }kjk gh izkIr fd. Smoth transfer of information (Models.t.k tkrk gSA tools intrigrated gksrs gS blfy. 3. v.kj fd.k tkrk gS A vkSj tools ds chp esa] yksxks ds chp eas rFkk iwjh software process ds chp esa md closure communication provide fd.k tk.d gksrk gS fd software engineering dh process ds vuqlkj gh lgh toos choose fd.

d part gksrk gS mldh lgk. version.s security provide djuk tools management services (TMS) ds varxZr gh vkrk gSA Object management layer (OML) congrigration management functions provide djrh gSA blesa framework architecture dks tools intrigration ds fy. object names.drkuqlkj functions ds fy.s tkrs gS A tks fd environment ds behaviour dks control djrs gSA bl multitasking dh facility Hkh iznku dh tk ldrh gSA vkSj vko'.rk ls moments names and organization . rS.Z djrk gSA OML intrigration services provide djrk gS tSls fd performing.k tkrk gS lHkh CASE tools ds fy.s preventation protocol guide lines dk dk. controls.rk ls common presentation protocols ds lkFk interface create djrh gSA Interface tools esa humen or computer interface management and object dh library ls related software gksrs gSA ftudk use CASE tools esa communication provide djus ds fy. providing support for chage control.kj gksukA CASE tools dks control djus ds fy.k tkrk gSA tks fd CASE repository ds lkFk feydj dk.sd CASE tools object management layer ls attach fd.kj gksuk vkSj environment esa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh action ds fy.ls project ds chp esa information dks transfer djus dh lqfo/kk izznku dh tkrh gSA ysfdu blds fy.rk ls . icons.k tkrk gSA vkSj izR. audits and statas accounting etc.sA tSls fd & information dks store djus ds fy.Z djrs gSA ftudh lgk.s user interface create gksuk vko'. the use of the keyboard and mouse rFkk lHkh izdkj ds tools dks access djuk presentation protocol dk gh .d gksrk gSA cgqr lkjs models bl izdkj dh intrigration dks component layers ds :i esa represent djrs gS A bl frame work dk simple model bl izdkj gSA User interface layer standard interface tools dh lgk.kj fd.kj gksuk pkfg.s fd.s gekjs ikl igys ls gh component dk architecture vo'.d screen layout rS.k tkr gSA tools layer eas lHkh izdkj dh tools management services provide dh tkrh gS rFkk bles lHkh izdkj ds modules ds fy.s gS fd OML lHkh izdkj ds confrigration object dks identify djrk gSA .s machanism rS.s vyx&vyx izdkj ds CASE tools set fd.s bdV~Bk fd.s database create gksuk] object management system rS. bldk eryc .

k tkrk gSA blh fd lgk.d information dks Hkwy tkrk FkkA ftls ckn esa recall ugh fd.slk database gS tks software engineering esa data dks store djus dk rFkk vko'.rk ls database management system esa functions provide fd.s repository.ksfd blds ikl fdlh Hkh izdkj dh information fyf[kr :i esa ugh gksrh FkhA dHkh&dHkh og vko'.s . .d center point gksrk gS . The role of the repository I-CASE :I CASE environment ds fy.k person ds Åij depend gksrk gSA . ysfdu storage rFkk accumitation fds fy.gka ij vko'.s tkrs gS tks fd object management layer dks databases ds lkFk link djrs gSA Data intrigration object management rFkk shared repository layer ds }kjk gh izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA CASE Repository :Software development process esa repository .s tkrs gS tks bl izdkj gS & a.Z lgh djrk FkkA D. Requirment dictonary (a limited database) and Repository.s .d person dks choose fd.d .drkuqlkj data dks store fd. Project database. machanism rFkk data structures dk set gksrh gSA ftlds }kjk data tools rFkk data intrigration provide fd. Intrigrate Project Support Environment Database (IPSE).slk word gS tks fd fdlh particular pht .Charged repository layer CASE databases gskrh gS rFkk blh ds } kjk access control function provide fd.s person bruk vPNk dk.Z djrk gSA Software engineer CASE tools dk mi.s bu terms ds chp es dqN difference gksrs gSA tks bl izdkj gS & 1.d .k tkrk FkkA tks .s fofHkUu izdkj ds storage places use fd. Data Intrigraty.s tkrs gSA tSlk fd CASE database.ksx djds repository ls interect djrs gSA vkSj mls complete djrs gSA Software engineering information ds fy.k tkrk gSA Software development process esa lcls igys repository ds fy.drkuqlkj communicate djus dk dk.k tk ldrk A ysfdu vktdy repository .d programmer gskrk FkkA ftlds ikl software project dh lHkh information store jgrh Fkh A ysfdu .

f. . The problem to be solved. Information about the organization contexts. e. Features & Contents :Repository ds features rFkk controls dks vklkuh ls le>us ds fy. c. f. b.k tk jgk gSA vkSj repository ds fy. Document Standardrization. c.s dkSu&dkSu lh services provide dh tk jgh gSA Repository esa fofHkUu izdkj dh information sotre dh tk ldrh gSA ftuds fuEufyf[kr points Hkh include jgrs gS & a. e. Object Relationship. The system solution asit emerges. resources and history. Information Sharing. 2. Information about the problem domain. d.b. The project plan. Rules and instructions prataining to the software process (methodology) being followed. d. Data/data intrigration.k store fd.s nks objectives dks le>us dh vko'drk gskrh gS fd repository esa D. Data/tool intrigration.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful