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A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa

A special tabulation for AfricaSan based on preliminary data from the WHO/UNICEF
Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation

AfricaSan: Second African Conference


on Sanitation and Hygiene
Durban, South Africa
18-20 February 2008

© WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, 2008
© World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2008

All rights reserved.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
the part of the World Health Organization or UNICEF concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or
concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet
be full agreement.1

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World
Health Organization or UNICEF in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names
of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

The World Health Organization and UNICEF do not warrant that the information contained in this document is complete and correct and shall
not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use.

This is a working document. It has been prepared to facilitate the exchange of knowledge and to stimulate discussion.

The text has not been edited to official publication standards and WHO and UNICEF accept no responsibility for errors.

Data used in this document are subject to revision

Printed in the United States of America

1
Due to differences in resolution, dotted lines in this document may appear solid.
A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa 1
A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Introduction
This tabulation has been prepared by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and
2
Sanitation (JMP ) as its contribution to the Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene, held in
Durban, South Africa in February 2008. It contains a new set of sanitation coverage estimates for Africa for the
year 2006 based on preliminary JMP estimates.

The estimates presented in this document originate from data collected by national statistics offices along with
other relevant institutions through national censuses and nationally representative household surveys, including
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and World Health Surveys
among others.

The JMP analyses presented here provide a snapshot of the proportion of population in Africa that, in 2006, used
an improved sanitation facility. It also shows the proportion of the population, in Africa as a whole and in various
regions, using shared or unimproved sanitation facilities in addition to those practising open defecation.

In 16 of the 54 countries in Africa sanitation coverage is less than 25 per cent

Percentage of population using an


improved sanitation facility, 2006

0 - 25%
26 - 50%
51 - 75%
76 - 100%
No data

Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Figure 1: Coverage with improved sanitation facilities, Africa, 2006

2
The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme is the official UN mechanism charged with monitoring progress towards the MDG drinking
water and sanitation targets.
A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa 2
A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene
Definitions of access to sanitation
The Millennium Development Goal 7, Target 7C calls on countries to “Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people
without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation”.

The indicator used in this document to assess the proportion of people with access to basic sanitation is the
official MDG indicator: The proportion of the population that uses an improved sanitation facility, urban and
rural.

An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact.
To allow for international comparability of estimates, JMP uses the following classification to differentiate between
improved and unimproved types of sanitation facilities. Note that JMP considers only users of 'improved’
sanitation facilities as having 'access to sanitation’.
3
Improved sanitation facilities Unimproved sanitation facilities
4
Flush or pour-flush to: Flush or pour-flush to elsewhere
- piped sewer system Pit latrine without slab or open pit
- septic tank Bucket
- pit latrine Hanging toilet or hanging latrine
Ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP) No facilities or bush or field (open defecation)
Pit latrine with slab
Composting toilet

The population estimates presented here and the urban/rural distribution by country are those estimated by the
United Nations Population Division (2006 revision). The regional analyses presented here follow five geographical
sub-regions according to the UN Population Division’s classification.

Due to differences in definitions of access, and population estimates, used by countries and JMP respectively, the
sanitation coverage estimates presented here may differ from those used nationally, even though drawn from the
same original data sources.

Basic Facts and Figures: All Africa

Population using Population using Population using Population practising


5
improved sanitation shared sanitation unimproved sanitation open defecation
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
1990 52% 23% 33% 24% 8% 13% 16% 25% 22% 8% 44% 32%
2000 52% 26% 36% 27% 9% 16% 13% 25% 21% 8% 40% 28%
2006 52% 28% 38% 28% 10% 17% 12% 26% 21% 7% 36% 25%
2015 - - 66%* - - - - - - - - -
* MDG target

Main findings
In 2006, 38 per cent of the population in Africa used an improved sanitation facility - an increase from 33 per cent
in 1990. Less than a third of the African rural population, and just over half of the urban population used improved
5
sanitation.
In 16 of the 54 African countries less than 25 per cent of the population uses an improved sanitation facility. Africa
as a continent is not on track for meeting the MDG sanitation target.

Only five of the 54 countries are on track.

It is encouraging to note that the proportion of the population practising open defection has dropped from 32 per
cent in 1990 to 25 per cent in 2006.

3
Only facilities which are not shared or public are considered improved.
4
Excreta are flushed to the street, yard or plot, open sewer, a ditch, a drainage way or other location.
5
Excluding shared sanitation and open defecation
A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa 3
A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Over half the population in Africa use an improved or shared sanitation


facility; but one in four practises open defecation

Figure 2: Trends in the proportion of population using either an improved, or shared, or unimproved
sanitation facility, or practising open defecation, by sub-regions, 1990 – 2006

Open Defecation
11 13
16
20 20
25
28
31 32
8 33
15 35

12 44

Unimproved
18 7

facilities
21
21
Coverage (percentage)

20 36
5
23
23 22

27

facilities
Shared
45
18
17

13
12
16
22
68
13
57 57 17
52
5
Improved
facilities

38
33 33
29
25 24
22 21

Northern Southern Central Eastern Western All


Africa Africa Africa Africa Africa Africa

19 9 0 2 0 0 6 19 9 0 2 0 0 6 19 9 0 2 0 0 6 19 9 0 2 0 0 6 19 9 0 2006 19 9 0 20 06 19 9 0 2006

The proportion of the population using an improved sanitation facility throughout Africa was 38 per cent in 2006.
The largest proportion is in Northern Africa, at 68 per cent, and lowest in Western Africa at 24 per cent. In
Western and Southern Africa the proportion sharing sanitation facilities is largest - 22 and 21 per cent
respectively. Open defecation is highest in Eastern Africa where 33 per cent of the population does not use any
type of sanitation facility. Eastern Africa however saw a 25 per cent decline in open defecation since 1990 - from
44 to 33 per cent. One in four people in Africa still practise open defection.
A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa 4
A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Five countries in Africa are on track to meet the MDG sanitation target
Figure 3: Progress towards the MDG sanitation target, by country, 2006

Progress towards the MDG


Sanitation target, 2006

Coverage in 2006 was less than 5 per cent below the rate it needed to be
On track
for the country to reach the MDG target, or coverage was higher than 95%

Progress but insufficient Coverage in 2006 was 5 per cent to 10 per cent below the rate
it needed to be for the country to reach the MDG target

Not on track Coverage in 2006 was more than 10 per cent below the rate it needed to be for the country to
reach the MDG target, or the 1990 - 2006 trend shows unchanged or decreasing coverage

Insufficient or no data Data were unavailable or insufficient to estimate trends

Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Efforts need to increase alm ost five-fold to m eet the


MDG sanitation target in Africa Meeting the MDG sanitation target in Africa
requires at least a quadrupling in the average
number of people served over the past 16
2006 - 2015 45.3 years. In the nine years from 2006 to 2015 just
over 400 million African people need to gain
access to improved sanitation - more than the
354 million people in Africa that had access by
1990 - 2006 9.2 2006.

0 10 20 30 40 50
People (m illions)
Figure 4: Average number of people per year who have
Average number of people that gained or need t o gain access to improved gained access or need to gain access to improved
sanitat ion, 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015 sanitation, 1990 – 2006 and 2006 – 2015.
A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa 5
A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Trends in population without access to sanitation


Over the period 1990 – 2006, 146 million people in Africa gained access to sanitation. However, due largely to
population growth, the number of people without sanitation increased by 159 million, from 430 million in 1990 to
589 million people in 2006.

Since 1990, the num ber of people w ithout im proved sanitation


in Africa increased by 159 m illion

700

600
Population (millions)

500

400

300

200

100

0
a
a

a
ca

a
a

ic
ic

ic
ic
ric

fr
fri
fr

fr

fr

A
Af
A

A
A

ll
n

n
n

al
n

A
er

er

er
r

tr
te
st

th
th

en
es
Ea

or

u
C

So
W

1990 2000 2006

Figure 5: Population without access to improved sanitation by sub-region


and Africa 1990, 2000, 2006 (millions)

234 million people in Africa practise open defecation

Population using Population using shared Population using Population practising


6
improved sanitation sanitation unimproved sanitation open defecation
(millions) (millions) (millions) (millions)
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
1990 106 102 208 47 33 80 34 110 144 17 189 206
2000 155 137 292 77 47 124 43 132 175 23 207 230
2006 190 164 354 100 54 154 50 150 201 26 209 234
2015 - - 762* - - - - - - - - -
* MDG target

In 2006, 354 million people in Africa used an improved sanitation facility.


Of the 589 million people without access, 154 million shared, and 201 million used an unimproved sanitation
6
facility. Some 234 million practised open defecation. .

In order to meet the MDG sanitation target the current number of people in Africa with improved sanitation needs
to more than double - from 354 million in 2006 to 762 million in 2015.

6
Excluding shared sanitation and open defecation
A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa 6
A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

All Africa: Slow overall progress, Africa: 589 million people without improved
urban progress stagnating sanitation
100

80
Coverage (%)

60
52 52 Eastern Africa Western Africa
213 mln 211 mln
40 38
33
28
23
20

0 Southern Africa
Urban Rural Total 24 mln
Central Africa
1990 2006 Northern Africa 79 mln
62 mln

Figure 6: Coverage with improved sanitation, urban, rural, total, Figure 7: Population without improved sanitation, among sub-regions
1990 and 2006 (%) (millions)

Urban Africa: 190 m illion people used an Rural Africa: 62 m illion people gained
im proved sanitation facility; another 100 access to im proved sanitation; over 200
m illion shared a sanitation facility m illion practised open defecation
600 600
500 500
400 400
300 300
200 200
100 100
0 0
Rural
1990 Urban 2006 1990 2006

Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n

Figure 8: Distribution of urban population in Africa using Figure 9: Distribution of rural population in Africa using different
different sanitation options 1990-2006 sanitation options 1990 - 2006
A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa 7
A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Africa is not on track to meet the MDG sanitation target

Africa: Sanitation coverage trend


100

80
66
Coverage (%)

60

40 38 41
33

20

0
1990 2006 2015
Sanitatio n trend

Trend required fo r M DG target

Figure 10 :Sanitation coverage trend 1990 – 2015 and coverage trend required
to meet the MDG sanitation target, 2006 -2015

But some countries have made good progress

Countries making rapid progress in sanitation


Sanitation Coverage (%) % increase
Country 1990 2006 1990-2006
Central African Republic 11 31 182
Benin 12 30 150
Comoros 18 35 94
Guinea 13 19 46
Morocco 52 72 38
Namibia 26 35 35
Egypt 50 66 32
Cameroon 39 51 31
Malawi 46 60 30
Mali 35 45 29

Figure 11: Countries that increased coverage by at least 25% between 1990
and 2006 and that had at least 10% coverage in 1990. Table includes
only countries for which data were sufficient to estimate trends

Some countries have made better progress in urban than in rural areas and vice versa.
A Snapshot of Sanitation in Africa 8
A special tabulation for AfricaSan: Second African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene

Figure 12: Coverage with improved sanitation by country in 2006

Sanitation coverage in Africa, 2006


Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 97
Mauritius 94
Algeria 94
Tunisia 85
Morocco 72
Djibouti 67
Egypt 66
Malaw i 60
South Africa 59
Zambia 52
Gambia 52
Equatorial Guinea 51
Cameroon 51
Sw aziland 50
Botsw ana 47
Zimbabw e 46
Mali 45
Kenya 42
Burundi 41
Angola 38
Lesotho 36
Gabon 36
Sudan 35
Namibia 35
Comoros 35
Tanzania, United Republic 33
Uganda 33
Guinea-Bissau 33
Liberia 32
Mozambique 31
Democratic Republic of the Congo 31
Central African Republic 31
Benin 30
Senegal 28
Nigeria 28
Sao Tome and Principe 24
Mauritania 24
Côte d'Ivoire 24
Somalia 23
Rw anda 23
Congo 20
Guinea 19
Burkina Faso 13
Togo 12
Madagascar 12
Sierra Leone 11
Ethiopia 11
Ghana 10
Chad 9
Niger 7
Eritrea 5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Coverage (%)
Central Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006
WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008
---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----
Data sources
JMP based its 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for the nine countries that make
up this region:, Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao
Tome and Principe; Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data points. The sanitation coverage estimates here are based on
the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures

% Population using % Population using % Population using % Population practising


improved sanitation shared sanitation unimproved sanitation open defecation
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
1990 50 9 22 9 3 5 30 52 45 11 36 28
2000 46 18 29 17 6 10 29 45 39 8 30 22
2006 46 24 33 18 7 12 29 40 36 7 29 20
2015 - - 61* - - -
*MDG target

Sanitation practices Trends in coverage


C e n tr al Afr ica: T o tal co ve r ag e
in cr e as e d b y 50 p e r ce n t b u t u r b an
Sanitation coverage in Central Africa
increased by 50 per cent between co ve r ag e d r o p p e d
1990 and 2006 100

80
Coverage (%)

60
Open 50
46
defecation 20
40 33
28
24 22
20
9

0
Urban Rural Total
1990 2006

Central Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006


Population (percentage)

36
10 0
Unimproved
80
Coverage (%)

45
60
51 51
40 38 36
12 31 31
24
20 20
Shared 9
0
5
e
a
n

go

d
on

o
l ic
la

ci p
ne
oo

ha
ng
go

ab

ub

on
ui

ri n
er

C
Co
An

ep
G

C
lG
am

P
e
R

33
ria

d
th
C

an
n
to

Improved
ca

of
ua

e
fri

ic

22
Eq

lA

bl

To
pu
tra

o
Re

Sa
en
C

tic
ra
oc
em

1990 Central Africa 2006


D
Central Africa: More than half of the urban Central Africa: Tw o out of seven people
population uses im proved or shared in rural areas practise open defecation
sanitation facilities
80 80

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0
Urban Rural
1990 2006 1990 2006

Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation


facility, Central Africa, 2006

78 million people in Central Africa


without improved sanitation, 2006
Democratic Republic of the Congo 42.1
Angola 10.3
Chad 9.5
Cameroon 8.9
Congo 3.0
Central African Republic 3.0
Gabon 0.8 0 - 25%
Equatorial Guinea 0.2 26 - 50%
Sao Tome and Principe 0.1 51 - 75%

Population without improved sanitation in Central 76 - 100%


African countries, 2006 (millions) No data

Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not
imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Central Africa is not on track to


m eet the MDG sanitation target 6 m illion people per year need to gain access to
100 im proved sanitation in Central Africa

80
2006 - 2015 5.9
Coverage (%)

61
60

40 39 1990 - 2006 1.3


33
22
20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 People (m illions)
1990 2006 2015
Sanitatio n trend A verage number of peo ple that gained o r need to gain access to
impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015
Trend required to meet M DG target
Eastern Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006
WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008
---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----
Data sources
JMP based the 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for the 16 countries that make up
this region: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Uganda, United
Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data points. The sanitation coverage
estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures

% Population using % Population using % Population using % Population practising


improved sanitation shared sanitation unimproved* sanitation open defecation
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
1990 31 24 25 33 9 13 18 18 18 18 49 44
2000 36 25 27 34 10 15 17 20 19 13 46 39
2006 37 27 29 36 10 16 20 23 23 8 40 33
2015 - - 63** - - - - - - - - -

* Excludes shared sanitation and open defecation **MDG target

Sanitation practices Trends in coverage

Open defecation in Eastern Africa Eastern Africa: Three out of 10 people


reduced by 25 per cent from 44 in Eastern Africa use an im proved
percent in 1990, to 33 per cent in sanitation facility
2006 100

80
Coverage (%)

60

33 40 37
Open 31 29
defecation 24 27 25
44
20

0
Urban Rural Total
1990 2006
Coverage (percentage)

23 Eastern Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006


10 0 94
Unimproved
Coverage (%)

18 80
67
60
60 52
46 42 41
16 40 33 33 33 31
Shared 23 23
13 20 12 11 5
0
b ia
w e

as a

Er pi a
b a ia
M uti
D tius

of ga s
om d i

M Tan da

Et c ar

ea
Zi am i

Ke e
Bu ya

M So da
Z w

R i qu
am an
l ic U oro

a g ali
m b
bw

C n
o
a

it r
n

o
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ji b
ri

oz z
al

hi
r
au
M

Improved 29
25
ub
ep
R
d
te
ni
U

1990 Eastern Africa 2006


Eastern Africa; 23 m illion urban dw ellers Eastern Africa is predom inantly rural
use an im proved sanitation facility, w hile w ith 93 m illion people still practising
24 m illion share a sanitation facility open defecation
240 240

180 180

120 120

60 60

0 0
Urban Rural
1990 2006 1990 2006

Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation


213 million people in Eastern Africa
facility, Eastern Africa, 2006
without improved sanitation, 2006
Ethiopia 72.0
United Republic of Tanzania 26.3
Kenya 21.2
0 - 25%
Uganda 19.9
26 - 50%
Madagascar 16.8
51 - 75%
Mozambique 14.5
76 - 100%
Rwanda 7.3
No data
Zimbabwe 7.1
Somalia 6.5
Zambia 5.6
Malawi 5.4
Burundi 4.8
Eritrea 4.4
Comoros 0.5
Djibouti 0.3
Mauritius 0.1
Population without improved sanitation in Eastern Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not
African countries, 2006 (millions) imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Eastern Africa is not on track to meet


the MDG sanitation target
100
Efforts need to increase at least seven-fold to m eet
the MDG sanitation target in Eastern Africa
80
2006 - 2015 15.0
Coverage (%)

63
60

40 1990 - 2006 1.9


29 31
25
20
0 5 10 15 20
People (m illions)
0
1990 2006 2015 Average number o f peo ple that gained o r need to gain access to
Sanitation trend impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015
Trend required to meet MDG target
Northern Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006
WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008
---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----
Data sources
JMP based its 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for the six countries that make up
this region: Algeria, Egypt, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia. Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data
points. The sanitation coverage estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures

% Population using % Population using % Population using % Population practising


improved sanitation shared sanitation unimproved* sanitation open defecation
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
1990 79 40 57 6 5 5 13 21 18 3 35 20
2000 82 47 64 6 7 6 9 22 16 3 25 14
2006 84 51 68 6 7 7 8 23 14 3 19 11
2015 - - 79** - - - - - - - - -

* Excludes shared sanitation and open defecation **MDG target

Sanitation practices Trends in coverage


Northern Africa: Urban residents are
Almost 7 out of 10 people in Northern
one-and-a-half tim es m ore likely to
Africa use an improved sanitation
facility have sanitation than rural residents
100
84
80 79
Open 11
68
defecation
Coverage (%)

20
60 57
51
14 40 40

Unimproved
20
18 7

Shared 0
Urban Rural Total
Coverage (percentage)

5 1990 2006

Northern Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006


10 0 97 94
85
80 72
Coverage (%)

66
60
68
Improved 35
40
57
20

0
a

t
co

n
ria

yp
si
y

da
iri

oc
ge

ni

Eg
ah

Su
Tu

or
Al
m

M
Ja
ab
Ar
an
by

1990 Northern Africa 2006


Li
Northern Africa: 89 of the 99 m illion urban Northern Africa: Population practising
dw ellers use im proved sanitation open defecation in rural areas decreased
facilities from 27 m ln in 1990 to 18 m ln in 2006
100 100
80 80
60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0
Urban Rural
1990 2006 1990 2006

Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation


facility, Northern Africa, 2006

62 million people in Northern Africa


without improved sanitation, 2006
Egypt 25.1
Sudan 24.6
Morocco 8.5
Algeria 2.0
Tunisia 1.5
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 0.2
Western Sahara -
Population without improved sanitation in Northern
African countries, 2006 (millions)
0 - 25%
26 - 50%
51 - 75%
76 - 100%
No data
Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not
imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Northern Africa is just on track to


m eet the MDG sanitation target
100 Though just on track in 2006, increased efforts are
required to m eet the 79 per cent MDG coverage target
80 79
68 74
2006 - 2015 4.9
Coverage (%)

60 57

40
1990 - 2006 3.0

20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 People (m illions)
1990 2006 2015
Sanitatio n trend A verage number o f peo ple that gained o r need to gain access to
Trend required to meet M DG target impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015
Southern Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006
WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008
---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----
Data sources
JMP based its 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for the five countries that make up
this region: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. Estimates are based on a linear regression of the available data points. The
sanitation coverage estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures

% Population using % Population using % Population using % Population practising


improved sanitation shared sanitation unimproved* sanitation open defecation
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
1990 64 41 52 24 16 20 10 14 12 1 29 16
2000 65 44 55 25 17 21 8 12 10 2 27 14
2006 66 46 57 25 17 21 6 11 8 3 26 13
2015 - - 76** - - - - - - - - -

* Excludes shared sanitation and open defecation **MDG target

Sanitation practices Trends in coverage

78 percent of the population in Southern Africa: Only m odest


Southern Africa use improved or increase in coverage although m any
shared sanitation people gained access
100

80
Open 13
16 64 66
Coverage (%)

defecation 57
60
52
46
8 41
40
12 Unimproved

20

21 0
Shared Urban Rural Total
Coverage (percentage)

20
1990 2006

Southern Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006


10 0

80
Improved 57
Coverage (%)

52 59
60
50 47
40 36
35

20

1990 Southern Africa 2006 South Sw aziland Botsw ana Lesotho Namibia
Africa
Southern Africa: Nine out of ten people in Southern Africa: Just over a quarter of
urban areas use im proved or shared the rural population practises open
40 sanitation facilities defecation
40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0
Urban Rural
1990 2006 1990 2006

Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved sanitation


facility, Southern Africa, 2006

24 million people in Southern Africa


without improved sanitation, 2006
South Africa 19.7
Namibia 1.3
Lesotho 1.3
Botswana 1.0
Swaziland 0.6
Population without improved sanitation, in Southern
African countries, 2006 (millions)

0 - 25%
26 - 50%
51 - 75%
76 - 100%
No data
Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not
imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Southern Africa is not on track to


m eet the MDG sanitation target
100 Southern Africa needs to m ore than double its efforts
to m eet the MDG sanitation target
80 76
2006 - 2015 1.4
Coverage (%)

60 57 60
52

40
1990 - 2006 0.6
20

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5


0
1990 2006 2015 People (m illions)
Sanitatio n trend
A verage number o f peo ple that gained o r need to gain access to
Trend required to meet M DG target
impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015
Western Africa – Sanitation Summary Sheet 2006
WHO/UNICEF – JMP special tabulation for AfricaSan – February 2008
---- Preliminary estimates, 2006 ----
Data sources
JMP based its 2006 coverage estimates on data from nationally representative household surveys and censuses for 15 of the 16 countries that
make up this region: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria,
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo. Data for Cape Verde were insufficient to derive a 2006 estimate. Estimates are based on a linear regression of the
available data points. The sanitation coverage estimates here are based on the JMP definitions.

Basic facts and figures

% Population using % Population using % Population using % Population practising


improved sanitation shared sanitation unimproved* sanitation open defecating
Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total
1990 32 15 21 34 8 17 23 29 27 10 48 35
2000 33 16 23 37 9 20 19 29 25 11 46 32
2006 34 17 24 38 10 22 17 28 23 12 45 31
2015 - - 60** - - - - - - - - -
* Excludes shared sanitation and open defecation **MDG target

Sanitation practices Trends in coverage

31 per cent of the population in Western Africa: Rural sanitation


Western Africa still practise open coverage is low est in Africa
defecation
100

80
Coverage (%)

60

31
35 Open 40
defecation 32 34
24
21
20 15 17

0
Urban Rural Total
Coverage (percentage)

1990 2006
23
Unimproved
27
Western Africa: Sanitation coverage, 2006
10 0

80
Coverage (%)

22
Shared 60
52
17 45
40
33 32 30
28 28
24 24
20 19
13 12 11 10 7
Improved 24 0
21
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Western Africa
Si
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1990 2006
G
Western Africa: 78 m illion in urban areas Western Africa: 72 m illion people in rural
use im proved or shared sanitation areas practise open defecation
facilities
160 160

120 120

80 80

40 40

0 0
1990 Urban 2006 1990 Rural 2006

Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n Impro ved Shared Unimpro ved Open defecatio n

Percentage of the population using an improved


sanitation facility, Western Africa, 2006
211 million people in Western
Africa without improved sanitation,
2006
Nigeria 104.3
Ghana 20.6
Côte d'Ivoire 14.4
Niger 12.8
Burkina Faso 12.6
Senegal 8.7
Guinea 7.4
Mali 6.6
Benin 6.1
Togo 5.7
Sierra Leone 5.1
Percentage of the population using an
Liberia 2.4 improved sanitation facility, 2006
Mauritania 2.3 0 - 25%
26 - 50%
Guinea-Bissau 1.1
51 - 75%
Gambia 0.8
76 - 100%
Cape Verde - No data
Population without improved sanitation in Western Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do
African countries, 2006 (millions) not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations and WHO.

Western Africa is not on track to


m eet the MDG sanitation target
100 Efforts need to increase at least eight-fold to m eet the
MDG sanitation target in Western Africa
80
2006 - 2015 15.6
Coverage (%)

60 60

40
1990 - 2006 1.9
21 24 26
20
0 5 10 15 20
0 People (m illions)
1990 2006 2015
Sanitatio n trend A verage number o f peo ple that gained access o r need to gain
Trend required to meet M DG target access to impro ved sanitatio n 1990 - 2006 and 2006 - 2015
Sanitation coverage: Country and regional estimates by type of sanitation facility (1990 and 2006)

Countries Urban Rural Total


Total %
Areas & (%) (%) (%)
Population Urban
Territories Year (millions) Population

Unimproved

Unimproved

Unimproved
Defecation

Defecation

Defecation
Improved

Improved

Improved
Shared

Shared

Shared
Open

Open

Open
Algeria 1990 25,283 52.1 99 - 1 0 77 - 5 18 88 - 3 9
2006 33,351 64 98 - 1 1 87 - 2 11 94 - 1 5
1990 10,534 37.1 61 - 6 33 18 - 15 67 34 - 12 54
Angola
2006 16,557 54 56 - 23 21 16 - 9 75 38 - 17 46
1990 5,179 34.5 32 - 17 51 2 - 4 94 12 - 8 79
Benin
2006 8,760 40.5 59 - 6 35 11 - 4 85 30 - 5 65
1990 1,367 41.9 60 4 24 12 22 4 21 53 38 2 22 36
Botswana
2006 1,858 58.2 60 4 36 0 30 5 31 34 47 4 34 14
1990 8,871 13.8 23 7 58 12 2 1 9 88 5 1 16 78
Burkina Faso
2006 14,359 18.7 41 13 38 8 6 3 8 83 13 5 14 69
1990 5,692 6.3 41 18 40 1 44 4 49 3 44 1 48 3
Burundi
2006 8,173 10.3 44 20 34 2 41 3 55 1 41 5 53 1
1990 12,239 40.7 47 7 46 0 34 4 56 6 39 3 52 4
Cameroon
2006 18,175 55.5 58 9 32 1 42 5 39 14 51 7 35 7
1990 355 44.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cape Verde
2006 519 58.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Central African 1990 3,008 36.8 21 12 57 10 5 2 44 49 11 4 49 35
Republic 2006 4,265 38.2 40 23 33 4 25 13 29 33 31 17 31 22
1990 6,113 20.8 19 15 39 27 1 2 3 94 5 5 10 80
Chad
2006 10,468 25.7 23 19 44 14 4 4 8 84 9 8 17 66
1990 527 28.2 34 2 62 2 12 1 81 6 18 1 76 5
Comoros
2006 818 37.7 49 3 48 0 26 2 72 0 35 2 63 0
1990 2,422 54.3 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Congo
2006 3,689 60.6 19 45 33 3 21 24 37 18 20 37 35 9
1990 12,780 39.7 39 25 30 6 8 8 20 64 20 15 24 41
Côte d'Ivoire
2006 18,914 45.4 38 25 33 4 12 13 24 51 24 18 28 30
Democratic Republic 1990 37,942 27.8 53 - 41 6 1 - 74 25 15 - 65 20
of the Congo 2006 60,644 32.7 42 - 55 3 25 - 62 13 31 - 60 10
1990 561 76 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Djibouti
2006 819 86.6 76 6 15 3 11 1 12 76 67 5 15 13
1990 55,137 43.5 68 2 29 1 37 5 40 18 50 4 35 11
Egypt
2006 74,167 42.9 85 2 13 0 52 7 41 0 66 5 29 0
1990 340 34.8 60 - 40 - 46 - 54 - 51 - 49 -
Equatorial Guinea
2006 496 39 60 - 40 - 46 - 54 - 51 - 49 -
1990 3,158 15.8 20 24 26 30 0 0 0 100 3 4 4 89
Eritrea
2006 4,692 19.8 14 18 25 43 3 0 2 95 5 4 7 85
1990 51,148 12.6 19 25 0 56 2 0 2 96 4 3 2 91
Ethiopia
2006 81,021 16.2 27 35 27 11 8 2 16 74 11 7 18 64
1990 918 69.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Gabon
2006 1,311 84.2 37 40 21 2 30 24 41 5 36 37 24 2
1990 962 38.3 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Gambia
2006 1,663 54.8 50 43 6 1 55 23 15 7 52 34 10 4
1990 15,579 36.5 11 47 31 11 3 19 47 31 6 29 41 24
Ghana
2006 23,008 48.6 15 69 8 8 6 34 28 32 10 51 18 20
1990 6,033 28 19 22 53 6 10 2 36 52 13 8 41 39
Guinea
2006 9,181 33.4 33 39 27 1 12 3 47 38 19 15 40 26
1990 1,017 28.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Guinea-Bissau
2006 1,646 29.6 48 8 41 3 26 1 26 47 33 3 30 34
1990 23,447 18.2 18 71 8 3 44 24 8 24 39 33 8 20
Kenya
2006 36,553 21 19 77 2 2 48 26 12 14 42 37 10 11
1990 1,601 17.2 - - - - 30 4 15 51 - - - -
Lesotho
2006 1,995 18.9 43 37 11 9 34 5 10 51 36 11 10 43
1990 2,137 45.3 59 - 41 - 24 - 76 - 40 - 60 -
Liberia
2006 3,579 58.8 49 - 51 - 7 - 93 - 32 - 68 -
Libyan Arab 1990 4,364 78.6 97 - 3 - 96 - 4 - 97 - 3 -
Jamahiriya 2006 6,039 85.1 97 - 3 - 96 - 4 - 97 - 3 -
1990 12,033 23.6 15 25 27 33 6 10 7 77 8 14 12 67
Madagascar
2006 19,159 27 18 28 37 17 10 16 29 45 12 19 31 37
1990 9,446 11.6 50 39 7 4 46 13 6 35 46 16 6 31
Malawi
2006 13,571 17.6 51 40 7 2 62 18 7 13 60 22 7 11
1990 7,669 23.3 53 4 40 3 30 3 32 35 35 3 34 28
Mali
2006 11,968 31 59 5 32 4 39 4 29 28 45 4 30 21
Countries Urban Rural Total
Total %
Areas & (%) (%) (%)
Population Urban
Territories Year (millions) Population

Unimproved

Unimproved

Unimproved
Defecation

Defecation

Defecation
Improved

Improved

Improved
Shared

Shared

Shared
Open

Open

Open
Mauritania 1990 1,945 39.7 33 9 31 27 11 8 45 36 20 8 39 32
2006 3,044 40.6 44 12 26 18 10 7 8 75 24 9 15 52
1990 1,057 43.9 95 5 0 0 94 6 0 0 94 6 0 0
Mauritius
2006 1,252 42.4 95 5 0 0 94 6 0 0 94 6 0 0
1990 24,808 48.4 80 14 1 5 25 3 4 68 52 8 3 38
Morocco
2006 30,853 59.3 85 15 0 0 54 6 6 34 72 11 2 14
1990 13,544 21.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Mozambique
2006 20,971 35.3 53 - 26 21 19 - 18 63 31 - 21 48
1990 1,417 27.7 73 12 5 10 8 2 4 86 26 5 4 65
Namibia
2006 2,047 35.7 66 11 4 19 18 4 9 69 35 6 7 51
1990 2,047 35.7 16 17 41 26 1 1 3 95 3 3 9 84
Niger
2006 13,737 17 27 29 25 19 3 1 4 92 7 6 8 80
1990 94,454 35 32 39 21 8 22 8 35 35 26 19 30 26
Nigeria
2006 144,720 49 32 39 16 13 24 9 35 32 28 24 26 23
1990 7,294 5.4 31 19 47 3 29 12 53 6 29 12 53 6
Rwanda
2006 9,464 20.2 34 21 42 3 20 8 68 4 23 11 63 4
Sao Tome and 1990 116 43.7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Principe 2006 155 58.9 29 4 14 53 18 5 9 68 24 4 12 59
1990 7,896 39 52 22 17 9 9 9 24 58 26 14 21 39
Senegal
2006 12,072 41.8 54 23 19 4 9 9 43 39 28 15 33 24
1990 4,087 30.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sierra Leone
2006 5,743 41.4 20 44 30 6 5 13 40 42 11 26 36 27
1990 6,717 29.7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Somalia
2006 8,445 35.6 51 29 16 4 7 6 6 81 23 14 10 54
1990 36,577 52 64 25 10 1 45 18 14 23 55 22 12 12
South Africa
2006 48,282 59.8 66 26 5 3 49 19 11 21 59 23 7 10
1990 25,933 26.6 53 - 37 10 26 - 26 48 33 - 29 38
Sudan
2006 37,707 41.7 50 - 36 14 24 - 23 53 35 - 28 37
1990 865 22.9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Swaziland
2006 1,134 24.3 64 28 5 3 46 21 8 25 50 23 7 20
1990 3,961 30.1 25 46 5 24 8 16 2 74 13 25 3 59
Togo
2006 6,410 40.8 24 44 9 23 3 6 13 78 12 22 11 56
1990 8,219 59.6 95 2 0 3 44 6 4 46 74 4 2 20
Tunisia
2006 10,215 65.7 96 2 2 0 64 8 14 14 85 4 6 5
1990 17,841 11.1 27 27 43 3 29 10 39 22 29 12 39 20
Uganda
2006 29,899 12.7 29 30 39 2 34 11 40 15 33 13 40 13
United Republic of 1990 25,494 18.9 29 22 46 3 36 9 44 11 35 11 44 9
Tanzania 2006 39,459 24.6 31 24 44 1 34 9 43 14 33 13 43 11
1990 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Western Sahara
2006 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1990 8,122 39.4 49 34 14 3 38 7 10 45 42 18 12 28
Zambia
2006 11,696 35.1 55 39 3 3 51 9 7 33 52 20 6 22
1990 10,487 29 65 34 1 0 35 17 0 48 44 22 0 34
Zimbabwe
2006 13,228 36.3 63 33 1 3 37 18 6 39 46 23 4 26
(sub-) Regional Sanitation Estimates
Total
Population % Urban Urban Rural Total
Region Year (millions) Population (%) (%) (%)
Unimproved

Unimproved

Unimproved
Defecation

Defecation

Defecation
Improved

Improved

Improved
Shared

Shared

Shared
Open

Open

Open

1990 637,421 32.0 52 24 16 8 23 8 25 44 33 13 22 32


Africa
2006 943,300 38.7 52 28 12 7 28 10 26 36 38 17 21 25
1990 73,632 32.5 50 9 30 11 9 3 52 36 22 5 45 28
Central Africa
2006 115,760 40.4 46 18 29 7 24 7 40 29 33 12 36 20
1990 197,244 18.0 31 33 18 18 24 9 18 49 25 13 18 44
Eastern Africa
2006 300,103 22.4 37 36 20 8 27 10 23 40 29 16 23 33
1990 143,963 44.8 79 6 13 3 40 5 21 35 57 5 18 20
Northern Africa
2006 192,793 51.6 84 6 8 3 51 7 23 19 68 7 14 11
1990 41,828 49.0 64 24 10 1 41 16 14 29 52 20 12 16
Southern Africa
2006 55,316 56.8 66 25 6 3 46 17 11 26 57 21 8 13
1990 180,754 32.8 32 34 23 10 15 8 29 48 21 17 27 35
Western Africa
2006 279,329 43.0 34 38 17 12 17 10 28 45 24 22 23 31