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# 11/5/2009

## STRAINS AND STRESSES IN BEAMS-1

UD load w kN/m
Fc

Ft
wL/2
x

Gallileos Method

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The magnitude of the load dictates the amount the beam deflects and hence the resulting
CURVATURE of the beam. As the load increases, so does the curvature of the beam.

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Now consider the end elevation or any cross-section through the beam. We have
already determined that the top will be in compression and the bottom in tension.

Side elevation

=L/L

Remember, position (iii) is the NEUTRAL AXIS, NA, where the strain
is always equal to ZERO.

## When we refer to the top of the beam, this is the cross-sectional

area above the NA and the bottom of the beam is the cross-
sectional area below the NA.

## TO SUMMARISE: As the load increases, so does the deflection and

curvature of the beam and also the strain in the beam.

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## (i) Elastic - brittle material

If the material is an elastic - brittle material then the beam will crack in tension
at its extreme bottom surface once maximum strain has been reached (and
begin to buckle at its extreme top surface where it is in compression).

## Consider the stress - strain relationship for an elastic - brittle material.

(Remember Hooke's Law for an elastic material.)

From the strain distribution over the depth of the beam (previously) and the
relationship between stress and strain we can plot the stress distribution over
the depth of the beam.

max max

max

Strain Stress
Cross section

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## Why are we interested in the stress distribution?

If we know the distribution of stress over the section, then we know the value of the
compressive and tensile forces within the beam due to the applied load and where these
forces act (location of the centroid of a triangle).

Why do we want to know the value of the compressive and tensile forces and where they
act?

If we know the value of Fc and Ft and where they act, then we know the value of the
internal couple (MOMENT) these forces produce and this is equivalent to the maximum
moment that the beam section can resist and hence the maximum load that the beam can
support.

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FC

FT
b

## Cross section Strain Stress

(REMEMBER: the distribution of compressive / tensile stresses on the top / bottom section of the
beam, respectively, is analogous to a non-uniformly distributed load. We can, therefore, represent
these non-udl's by a single concentrated force (Fc and Ft) acting at the centroid of the stress
distributions.) By inspection, the distribution of stress is triangular and the centroid of a triangle is
1/3 of the distance from its base. Since the height of the triangular stress distributions is h/2, we
can immediately see that the equivalent concentrated load acts at a distance h/6 from the top face
of the section (compressive force) and a distance h/6 from the bottom face of the section (tensile
force). The lever arm (the distance between the compressive and tensile force) is therefore,

h-h/6-h/6=2h/3
max max

FC

h 2h/3

h/6 FT
b

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max max
FC
FC

h 2h/3

h/6
FT FT
b

## Where fb is fmax, and b is width of the beam, d is the

depth (height) of the beam

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## Let us now consider the more

complicated elastic - plastic material.
Consider the stress - strain relationship
for an elastic - plastic material. -max -max/2

max/2 max

max max

max/2

-max/2

h/4
b

## Cross section Strain Stress

h/4

The distribution of stress over the depth of the section is now slightly more
complicated.

To simplify the situation we can use the Principle of Superposition and break the
stress distribution down in to two more manageable distributions, generating two
forces in compression and two equal and opposite forces in tension

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max max
FC1 h/8
max h/12
FC2
h/4 3h/4

FT2
FT1

## a) Plastic stress distribution

By inspection the value of FC1 = bh/4 x max,

Where bh/4 is the area over which the uniform stress acts and max, is the
average stress. The centroid is at the centre of the area of the uniformly
stressed part of the section, which is h/8 from the top surface.
The lever arm is therefore:

## M1 = bhmax/4 3h/4 = 3bh2max/16

max
FC1 h/8
max h/12
FC2
h/4 3h/4 h/3

FT2
FT1
b) Elastic stress distribution
By inspection, FC2 = the area on which the stress acts (bh/4) multiplied by the average
stress max /2. Therefore FC2 = bh max /8
The centroid of a triangle is 1/3 of the height from the base = h/4 x h/3 = h/12
The lever arm is:
h - h/4 - h/4 - h/12 h/12 = h/3

## Hence, the internal moment is:

M2 = bhmax/8 h/3 = bh2max /24

For the elastic - plastic beam the moment of resistance is equal to the sum of the two
moments, MI and M2:
M= 3bh2max/16 +bh2max /24 = 11bh2max /48

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## Finally, a brief note on an elastic - plastic

material where the maximum strain of the
material is very large. As the maximum strain
increases, the area of the section subjected to
a triangular stress distribution reduces until, at -max -e
very large strains, the triangular part is ignored
and it can be assumed that there is uniform e max
compressive and tensile stress over the top
and bottom half of the
beam, respectively.
max max

e
h

-e

b -max

## When this is the case, the beam is said to be a PLASTIC beam.

The PLASTIC MOMENT OF RESISTANCE is obtained as before:

max max

FC

h h/2

FT
b -max

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