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KZK

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KZK

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0554

equation with power law attenuation

Xiaofeng Zhao Robert J. McGough

Electrical and Computer Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering

Michigan State University Michigan State University

East Lansing, Michigan 48824 East Lansing, Michigan 48824

equation is a parabolic approximation to the Westervelt equation 1 2 p 20 3 p 2 p2

2 p 2 + + = 0, (1)

that models the effects of diffraction, attenuation and nonlinear- c0 t2 c0 t3 0 c40 t2

ity. The original form of the attenuation term in the KZK model

yields frequency squared attenuation. However, for soft tissues,

the attenuation follows a power law with respect to frequency where p is the pressure, c0 is the sound speed, 0 is the

with a power law exponent between 1 and 1.5. A KZK model density, 0 is the attenuation constant, and is the nonlinearity

that incorporates the effects of frequency-squared attenuation parameter. After a parabolic approximation is applied, the

is presently included in FOCUS, the Fast Object-oriented C++ Westervelt equation reduces to the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-

Ultrasound Simulator, and a nonlinear KZK simulation that Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, which is defined in cylindrical

accounts for power law attenuation is also needed. When the

KZK equation is combined with the power law wave equation coordinates (r, z) as

[4], a continuous wave KZK model with power law attenuation

is obtained. Simulation results are evaluated in both linear lossy 2p 2 p 1 p 3p 2 p2

c0

media and nonlinear lossy media. Simulations in the linear lossy = + + 0 + , (2)

medium are evaluated with the KZK approach and compared to z 2 r2 r r 3 20 c30 2

results obtained with the fast nearfield method in FOCUS. The

results match well in the paraxial region but differ elsewhere. The where = tz/c0 is the retarded time. On the right hand side

effects of nonlinearity are then included in CW KZK calculations of this equation, the three terms from left to right represent the

that model the contributions from several different harmonics. effects of diffraction, attenuation, and nonlinearity. When the

The nonlinear pressure field is generated by a spherically focused

transducer with an aperture radius of 7.5mm and a radius of pressure is replaced with a series expansion that includes the

curvature of 60mm. The peak pressure on the surface of the contribution from each harmonic, the pressure for continuous

transducer is 1.5MPa and the fundamental frequency is 1MHz. wave (CW) propagation is given by

The lossy medium is defined for brain with = 4.3, = 0.6

dB/cm/MHzy , and y = 1.46, and blood with = 4.05, = 0.16 NX

max

dB/cm/MHzy , and y = 1.2. The number of harmonics computed p(z, r, ) = Cn (z, r)ejn2f0 . (3)

in each simulation is Nmax = 20. The pressure fields for the first n=Nmax

four harmonics are shown.

The amplitude coefficients are then expressed as

I. I NTRODUCTION

The Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation 2

is a parabolic approximation to the Westervelt equation. Al- dCn (z, r) c0 Cn (z, r) 1 Cn (z, r)

=j +

though the KZK equation is only valid in the far field of the dz 4nf0 r2 r r

2

paraxial region for mildly focused or unfocused transducers, 0 (2nf0 ) Cn (z, r)

the KZK equation is widely applied in medical ultrasound NX

max

jn2f0

simulations. An approach for simulating nonlinear continuous- Cm (z, r)Cnm (z, r)

wave (CW) pressure fields with the KZK equation is presented 20 c30

m=Nmax

in Berntsen [1]. Similar work has been done by Curra [2] and n = 1, 2, ..., Nmax . (4)

Soneson [3]. However, the attenuation term in the KZK model

yields frequency squared attenuation, which is inconsistent In soft tissue, attenuation of ultrasound follows the power-

y

with the power law attenuation observed in soft tissue, where law () = 0 || , which is exactly satisfied by the power

the power law exponent is between 1 and 1.5. Thus, there is a law wave equation

need to incorporate power law attenuation into the nonlinear

KZK equation for medical ultrasound applications. 1 2p 20 y+1 p 02 2y p

2 p 2 2

y+1

II. T HEORY AND M ETHODS c0 t c0 cos (y/2) t cos (y/2) t2y

2

978-1-4799-7049-0/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE 2225 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings

When the parabolic approximation is applied to the power law

wave equation and the nonlinear term from the KZK equation

is appended to the result, this yields the expression

2p c0 2 p 1 p 0 y+1 p

= ( 2 + )

z 2 r r r cos(y/2) y+1

c0 02 2y p 2 p2

+ , (6)

2

2cos (y/2) 2y 20 c30 2

the power law KZK equation is given by (a)

=j ( + )

dz 4nf0 r2 r r

0

(j2nf0 )y Cn (r, z)

cos(y/2)

c0 02

(j2nf0 )2y1 Cn (r, z)

2cos2 (y/2)

Nmax

j2nf0 X

Cm (r, z)Cnm (r, z)

20 c30

m=Nmax

n = 1, 2, ..., Nmax , (7)

The power law KZK equation is numerically calculated

plane by plane along the z direction with a finite difference Fig. 1: Linear simulation results for CW pressures with

method. For each plane, the effects of diffraction, attenua- 0 = 0.6dB/cm/M Hz y and y = 1.46. (a) KZK method.

tion, and nonlinearity form a tridiagonal system of equations (b) FOCUS / fast nearfield method.

Ax = b. The diagonal terms in A describe the diffraction and

attenuation, and the non-diagonal terms in A strictly describe

the diffraction. The array b includes contributions from both the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method is applied for the

diffraction and nonlinearity. This tridiagonal system is solved rest of the simulation.

by the Thomas algorithm [1]. The KZK codes are m-files Simulations in a linear lossy medium are evaluated with the

that run in 64-bit Matlab (2010b), and the FOCUS / FNM KZK approach and compared to the results obtained with the

routines are compiled C-language mex routines that also run in fast nearfield method (FNM) in FOCUS. For this simulation,

Matlab. These programs are executed on a Windows 7 pro 64- the nonlinearity parameter = 0. The spatial step size for

bit system, which has a Intel core i7-2600 @3.4GHz processor the CW KZK method is defined as /10 , where = c0 /f

and 32GB Memory. is the wavelength of the excitation. Figures 1a and 1b match

well in the paraxial region. These figures shows that there is

III. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION some nearfield structure that is evident in the FOCUS / fast

Simulation results are evaluated in both linear lossy media nearfield method results but not in the CW KZK results.

and nonlinear lossy media. The simulated pressure field is The effects of nonlinearity are then included in the CW

generated by a spherically focused transducer with an aperture KZK calculations that model the contributions from several

radius of 7.5mm and a radius of curvature of 60mm. The different harmonics. The maximum number of harmonics de-

peak pressure on the surface of the transducer is 1.5MPa, fined for these simulations is Nmax = 20. The spatial step size

and the fundamental frequency is 1MHz. The sound speed in the simulation is N max /10 , where N max = c0 /fN max

is 1500m/s, and the density is 1000kg/m3 . The properties is the wavelength of the highest harmonic. The pressure fields

of the lossy medium are defined for brain with = 4.3, for the first four harmonics are shown in Figure 3 and 4.

0 = 0.6dB/cm/M Hz y , and y = 1.46, and blood with Figure 3 shows that the peak value of each harmonic

= 4.05, 0 = 0.16dB/cm/M Hz y , and y = 1.2 [5]. For occurs on axis, and the location of the peak pressure moves

the CW KZK approach, the first 20 iterations are computed slightly away from the transducer for the higher harmonics.

with the implicit backward Euler finite difference method, then Furthermore, for each higher harmonic, the amplitude of the

(a)

(b)

0 = 0.16dB/cm/M Hz y and y = 1.2. (a) KZK method.

(b) FOCUS / fast nearfield method.

frequency in Figure 3 with Figure 1 (a), the pressure distribu-

tion is similar with almost the same peak value in the focal

zone. With a smaller step size applied in the simulation of

Figure 3, more nearfield structure is observed in Figure 3.

However, these points are only detected in the fundamental.

Figures 3 and 4. However, for the higher harmonics, especially

the fourth harmonic, the peak value in the brain attenuation

model is much smaller than that in the blood attenuation

model, due to the effect of both the larger attenuation pa-

rameter and the larger power-law exponent. The effect of the

power-law exponent becomes stronger for higher harmonics.

Also, the extent of the focal zone for each harmonic is larger in

the blood attenuation model. Further evidence of the effect of

different attenuation values is observed in the fourth harmonic Fig. 3: First four harmonics of nonlinear CW simulation results

at z = 10cm on the main beam, where the pressure amplitude with the KZK power law model. The parameters for this

decreases to 20% of the peak value for the brain attenuation siumlation are 0 = 0.6dB/cm/M Hz y , y = 1.46, and

model. However, for the blood attenuation model, the pressure = 4.3.

amplitude is about 40% of the peak value in the same location.

IV. C ONCLUSION

The original formulation of the Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya

- Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is for a viscous medium with

power law exponent y = 2. When the KZK equation is

combined with the power law wave equation to obtain the

power law KZK equation, the resulting expression models

diffraction, nonlinearity, and power law attenuation. The power

law KZK equation provides a model for simulating nonlinear

pressure fields using an appropriate attenuation model for

soft tissue. Linear simulations are validated by comparing

the results obtained with the CW KZK method and the fast

nearfield method in FOCUS. The results match in the paraxial

region, but some differences are noted elsewhere. Nonlinear

simulations of the power law KZK equation are evaluated for

the first 20 harmonics, and the first four of these are shown.

The results suggest that the power law KZK equation is an

effective model for diffraction, nonlinearity, and power law

attenuation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported in part by NIH grant R01

EB012079.

R EFERENCES

[1] Berntsen, J., Numerical Calculations of Finite Amplitude Sound Beams,

in M. F. Hamilton and D. T. Blackstock, editors, Frontiers of Nonlinear

Acoustics: Proceedings of 12th ISNA, Elsevier (1990): 191-196.

[2] Curra, F. P., Mourad, P. D., Khokhlova, V. A., Cleveland, R. O., &

Crum, L. A. (2000). Numerical simulations of heating patterns and tissue

temperature response due to high-intensity focused ultrasound. IEEE

Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 47(4),

1077-1089.

[3] Soneson, J. E. (2012). A parametric study of error in the parabolic

approximation of focused axisymmetric ultrasound beams. The Journal

of the Acoustical Society of America, 131(6), EL481-EL486.

[4] Kelly, J. F., McGough, R. J., & Meerschaert, M. M. (2008). Analytical

time-domain Greens functions for power-law media. The Journal of the

Acoustical Society of America, 124(5), 2861-2872.

[5] Duck, F. A. (1990). Acoustic properties of tissue at ultrasonic frequencies.

Physical Properties of Tissues-A Comprehensive Reference Book, 73-135.

with CW KZK power law model. The parameters for this

simulation are 0 = 0.16dB/cm/M Hz y , y = 1.2, and

= 4.05.

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