lqr method uav

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lqr method uav

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FOR A QUADROTOR UAV

Ian Cowling

James Whidborne

Alastair Cooke

Fixed Camera Onboard Camera

Draganflyer

Contents

Quadrotor dynamics including differentially flat dynamics

Quadrotor dynamics

4 Control inputs

U1 F1 F2 F3 F4

U 2 l ( F3 F4 )

U 3 l ( F1 F2 )

U 4 1 2 3 4

where Fn is thrust from nth rotor,

l is arm length

n is torque from nth rotor

Quadrotor dynamics

4 Outputs

y [ x, y, z, ]

12 States

x [ x, y, z, x, y , z, , , , ,, ]

positions,

is pitch angle,

is roll angle,

is yaw angle.

Rotational matrix

Typically the equations of motion of air vehicles are determined using

the standard aeronautical rotational matrix Rxyz

For the quadrotor the equations of motion can be simplified using an

alternative rotational matrix Rzyx

using Rzyx

x U1 (sin cos )

y U1 ( sin )

z g U1 (cos cos )

Missions

Vertical flight

Climb 5m in 7 seconds with crosswind

Obstacle avoidance

Fly 6m north in 15 seconds avoiding obstacle with tailwind

Mineshaft mission

Fly 10m north and drop down mineshaft with tailwind

Differential Flatness

Differential flatness is a dynamic property within some dynamic

systems which allows for the expression of state and input as a

function of output and its derivatives.

output as shown

x

arctan

g z

y

arcsin

U1

Trajectory Generation

Differentially flat equations enable trajectory generation

to occur within output space as opposed to control space.

at the end of the time horizon with the lowest possible fuel consumption

min for t 0, T

s.t. c y 0;

x0 h1 ( y (0)) 0

yT y (T ) 0

Parameterization of output space

Reduce problem to finite dimensional problem

The polynomial is probably the most widely used basis function but there

are alternatives which can improve conditioning

M

f (t ) ak k (t )

k 0

is a basis function. The search space hence becomes R4(M+1)

Possible parameterizations

Polynomials k t k

Chebyshev polynomials k ( x) cos(ny ) where x cos( y )

Laguerre polynomials 0 (t ) 1

1 (t ) 1 t

(k 1)K 1 (t ) (2 K 1 t )K (t ) kK 1 (t )

Comparison of basis functions

Tested each basis function for a number of missions. The number of iterations

required to determine find the optimal trajectory is recorded for comparison

cylindrical in nature therefore the

initial and terminal boundary Iterations The Well Obstacle Vertical

conditions can be determined

analytically Polynomial 30 85 17

Laguerre 21 33 18

polynomial

Chebyshev 15 33 17

polynomial

Taylor 30 30 20

LQR control

Recalling the standard LQR problem for a linear state-space model

of the plants dynamics

x (t ) Ax (t ) Bu (t )

A control input is determined

u (t ) uref K c x(t )

So that the closed loop system

x [ A BK c ]x(t )

Is stable and the performance measure is minimized

J ( x(t )Qx(t ) u (t ) Ru (t )) dt

0

Trajectory following

Following time dependent reference trajectory xref

The reference control signal from the trajectory optimization is fed forward

where uref and xref are the reference control signal and reference state from

the trajectory optimization. k is the LQR gain matrix obtained. x is the state

matrix.

Simulation model

Simulation model is used to validate control algorithms

by some of our colleagues in the Dynamic, Simulation

and Control group

TIME

To Workspace

10

Out10

0.444

11

Mass Out11

0.008336624

12

IXX

Out12

relationship

1

0.007148562

Out1

IYY

0.012464701

IZZ north 2

phi theta psi east Out2

0

altitude

IXY northdot

mass properties

3

eastdot

XY Z L MN uv w

0 altdot Out3

phi theta psi

grav ity

0

mass properties uv w

IZX 16

(X Y Z L M N) - grav ity pqr Out16

0

Out17

equations of motion

0

YCG 18

Out18

0

ZCG

4

Out5

Out6

pqr

1

In1 Phidot, Thetadot Psidot 6

Out7

7

2 angular motion

transf ormation Out4

In2

motor v oltages XY Z L MN

13

3 Out13 Demux 8

In3 Out8

powerplant

Demux 14

4

Out14 9

In4

Out9

15

Out15

Results

Obstacle avoidance fly from [0,0,0] to destination at

[6,0,0] in 15 seconds with a tailwind and avoid the obstacle.

Results

Mineshaft mission fly from [0,0,0] to the top of and down

the mineshaft in 25 seconds with a tailwind

Conclusions

Differentially flat dynamics enable efficient trajectory

optimization within the output space

space parameterization

Future work

Presented MBPC control scheme at 21st UAV Systems conference

or suboptimal, reoptimization is required to determine a new trajectory.

or group manoeuvring. The circumcentre law guarantees rendezvous of multiple

vehicles with limited sensor range and no communication between vehicles.

for trajectory optimization can be achieved by supplying the gradients

of the constraints into the optimization routine. AD is an alternative approach

to the calculation of these gradients where the analytical solution by hand is

time consuming or impossible.

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