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Definition of Terms

Admixture. Admixture is one of the ingredients in making concrete that is added to the

mix instantly before or during mixing. Admixture is used to reduce the cost of concrete

construction; to modify the properties of hardened concrete; to ensure the quality of concrete

during mixing, transporting, placing, and curing; and to overcome certain emergencies during

concrete operations.

Cement. Cement is the binding ingredient of a concrete, and commonly used in

construction that sets, strengthen, stick to other materials, and bind them together.

Coarse Aggregate. The coarse aggregate is one of the materials used in making concrete

and it is the aggregate that is retained in 4.75mm sieve size

Compressive Strength. The ability of material to resist compressive load. It is the

corresponding strength of the material due to the effect of curing. The characteristic of a material

used in ranking the strength of concrete.

Concrete. Concrete is a porous solid that is created by combining four basic materials:

cementitious binder, aggregates, admixtures, and water.

Concrete Hollow Blocks. The concrete hollow block is used as a walling material. A

concrete hollow block is made from cast concrete that is made up of cement and fine aggregates.

Cracks. The most common cracks are typically, defined as hairline cracks less than one-

eighth inch wide or less than twelve inches in length. Common cracks can appear at any time in

the life of a typical structure. Common causes of cracking were the settlement of walls due to

degradation of concrete walls.


Curing. Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from

concrete during cement hydration. Curing encompasses the control of temperature as it affects the

hydration rate in cement.

Curing time. Curing time is the length of time of the curing process. The period of time

that concrete should be protected from freezing, abnormally high temperatures, and against loss of

moisture depends upon a number of factors: the type of cementing materials used; mixture

proportions; required strength, size and shape of the concrete member; ambient weather; and future

exposure conditions. The curing days was 7, 14 and 28 days based on this study.

Fine Aggregate. The fine aggregate is usually sand or crushed stones used as an ingredient

in making concrete and passes through 4.75 sieve size and retained to 0.0075 sieve size.

Hydration. Hydration is a chemical reaction in which the cement substance reacts to water

molecule and become hydrate.

Mixture. Mixture is the combination of ingredients of concrete, hollow blocks and plaster

with the right ratio of these ingredient.

Plaster. Plaster is a building material that is used as wall covering.

Ratio. Ratio is the corresponding proportion of cement-sand-gravel used in the mixture.

Sand Samples. The specimens used in the experiment to determine it strength for market

value that will benefit the contractor for their projects.

Spray Curing. Spray curing is one of the curing method that enables a concrete, hollow

block and plaster to maintain their moisture content.


Temperature. Temperature is one of the factors that greatly affects the quality of different

samples especially to its strength.

Water Absorption. Water absorption is also called ASTM C 140. It is used to measure

how much water can a sample absorb and it also help to prevent freezing and thawing of the

sample.