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No.

69

No.69 Guidelines for non-destructive examination


(June 2000)
(Rev.1
May 2004)
of marine steel castings
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. General
1.1 Scope

2. Personnel Requirements
2.1 Qualifications

3. Casting Condition
3.1 Heat Treatment
3.2 Surface Condition

4. Extent of Examinations
4.1 Castings to be examined
4.2 Zones to be examined

5. Examination Procedures
5.1 Visual Inspections
5.2 Surface Crack Detection
5.3 Volumetric Inspections

6. Acceptance Criteria
6.1 Visual Testing
6.2 Surface Crack Detection
6.3 Volumetric Testing

7. Reporting

8. Rectification of Defects

Annex 1
Extent and methods of non-destructive examination to be applied to typical hull
steel castings.

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No. 69

1. General
No.69
(cont d) 1.1 Scope
1.1.1 This document is intended to give general guidance on the extent, methods and
recommended quality levels applicable to the non-destructive examinations
(NDE), of marine steel castings, except in those cases where alternative criteria
have been otherwise approved or specified.
1.1.2 Although no detailed guidelines are given for machinery components, the
requirements in these guidelines may apply correspondingly considering their
materials, kinds, shapes and stress conditions being subjected.

2. Personnel Requirements
2.1 Qualifications
2.1.1 Personnel carrying out NDE are generally to be qualified and certified to Level II
of a recognised certification scheme such as EN 473, ISO9712 or SNT-TC-1A.
2.1.2 Personnel responsible for the NDE activity including approval of procedures
should be qualified and certified to Level III.
2.1.3 Personnel qualifications are to be verified by certification.

3. Casting Condition
3.1 Heat Treatment
3.1.1 Non-destructive examinations applied for acceptance purposes should be
made after the final heat treatment of the casting. Where intermediate inspec-
tions have been performed the manufacturer shall furnish the documentation
of the results upon request of the Surveyor.
3.2 Surface Condition
3.2.1 Castings are to be examined in the final delivery condition free from any mate-
rial such as scale, dirt, grease or paint that might affect the efficacy of the
inspection. A thin coating of contrast paint is permissible when using magnetic
particle techniques.
3.2.2 Unless otherwise specified in the order, magnetic particle test shall be carried
out within 0.3mm of the final machined surface condition for AC techniques or
within 0.8mm for DC techniques.
3.2.3 Ultrasonic testing is to be carried out after the castings have been ground,
machined or shot blasted to a suitable condition. The surfaces of castings to
be examined should be such that adequate coupling can be established
between the probe and the casting and that excessive wear of the probe is
avoided.

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No. 69

No.69 4. Extent of Examinations


(cont d)
4.1 Castings to be examined

4.1.1 Castings to be examined by NDE methods are identified in Annex 1 to this


document. The list of castings is not definitive. Criteria for the examination
of other castings not listed in Annex 1 will be subject to agreement.

4.2 Zones to be examined

4.2.1 Zones to be examined in nominated castings are identified in Annex 1.


Examinations are to be made in accordance with an inspection plan approved by
the Society. The plan should specify the extent of the examination, the
examination procedure, the quality level or, if necessary, level for different
locations of the castings.

4.2.2 In addition to the areas identified in Annex 1, surface inspections shall be carried
out in the following locations:

- at all accessible fillets and changes of section,


- in way of fabrication weld preparation, for a band width of 30mm,
- in way of chaplets,
- in way of weld repairs,
- at positions where surplus metal has been removed by flame cutting,
scarifying or arc-air gouging.

4.2.3 Ultrasonic testing shall be carried out in the zones indicated in Annex 1 and also
at the following locations:

- in way of all accessible fillets and at pronounced changes of section,


- in way of fabrication weld preparations for a distance of 50mm from the edge,
- in way of weld repairs where the original defect was detected by ultrasonic
testing.
- in way of riser positions,
- in way of machined areas particularly those subject to further machining such as
bolt hole positions.

In the case of castings such as rudder horns, which may have a large surface
area still untested after the above inspections have been applied, an additional
ultrasonic inspection of the untested areas should be made along continuous
perpendicular grid lines on nominal 225 mm centres, scanning from one surface
only.

5. Examination Procedures

5.1 Visual Inspection

5.1.1 Steel castings nominated for NDE shall be subjected to a 100% visual
examination of all accessible surfaces by the Surveyor. Lighting conditions at the
inspected surfaces shall be in accordance with a nationally or internationally
recognised standard. Unless otherwise agreed, the visual and surface crack
detection inspections are to be carried out in the presence of the Surveyor.

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5.2 Surface Crack Detection


No.69
(cont d) 5.2.1 The testing procedures, apparatus and conditions of magnetic particle
testing and liquid penetrant testing are to comply with recognised national or
international standards. Magnetic particle inspection will be carried out in
preference to liquid penetrant testing except in the following cases;

- austenitic stainless steels,

- interpretation of open visual or magnetic particle indications,

- at the instruction of the Surveyor.

5.2.2 For magnetic particle testing attention is to be paid to the contact between
the casting and the clamping devices of stationary magnetisation benches in
order to avoid local overheating or burning damage in its surface. Prods shall not
be permitted on finished machined items. Note that the use of solid copper at
the prod tips must be avoided due to the risk of copper penetration.

5.2.3 When indications have been detected as a result of the surface inspection,
acceptance or rejection is to be decided in accordance with Section 6.

5.3 Volumetric Inspection

5.3.1 Volumetric inspection in accordance with these guidelines is to be carried out by


ultrasonic testing using the contact method with straight beam and/or angle
beam technique. The testing procedures, apparatus and conditions of ultrasonic
testing are to comply with the recognised national or international standards.
Radiographic testing may be carried out on the basis of prior agreement with
the Classification Society.

5.3.2 Only those areas shown in the agreed inspection plan need to be tested. The
plan should include those locations nominated in section 4.2.3 together with the
scanning zones identified for the relevant casting in Annex 1.

5.3.3 Ultrasonic scans are to be made using a 0o probe of 1 - 4MHz (usually 2MHz)
frequency. Whenever possible scanning is to be performed from both surfaces of
the casting and from surfaces perpendicular to each other.

5.3.4 The backwall echo obtained on parallel sections should be used to moni tor
variations in probe coupling and material attenuation. Any reduction in the
amplitude of the back wall echo without evidence of intervening defects should
be corrected. Attenuation in excess of 30dB/m could be indicative of an
unsatisfactory annealing heat treatment.

5.3.5 Machined surfaces, especially those in the vicinity of riser locations and in the
bores of stern boss castings, should also be subject to a near surface (25mm)
scan using a twin crystal 0o probe. Additional scans on machined surfaces
are of particular importance in cases where boltholes are to be drilled or where
surplus material such as padding has been removed by machining thus
moving the scanning surface closer to possible areas of shrinkage.
Also, it is advisable to examine the machined bores of cast ings using
circumferential scans with 70o probes in order that axial radial planar flaws
such as hot tears can be detected. Fillet radii should be examined using 45o,
60o, or 70o probes scanning from the surfaces/direction likely to give the best
reflection.

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No.69 5.3.6 In the examinations of those zones nominated for ultrasonic examination the
reference sensitivity is to be established against a 6mm diameter disk reflector.
(cont d)
Sensitivity can be calibrated either against 6mm diameter flat bottomed hole(s)
in a reference block (or series of blocks) corresponding to the thickness of the
casting provided that a transfer correction is made, or, as a preferred alternative,
by using the DGS (distance-gain-size) method. The DGS diagrams issued by a
probe manufacturer identify the difference in dB between the amplitude of a back
wall echo and that expected from a 6mm diameter disk reflector. By adding this
difference to the sensitivity level initially set by adjusting a back wall echo to a
reference height eg 80%, the amended reference level will be representative of a
6mm diameter disk reflector. Similar calculations can be used for evaluation
purposes to establish the difference in dB between a back wall reflector and disk
reflectors of other diameters such as 12 or 15 mm.

5.3.7 Having made any necessary corrections for differences in attenuation or surface
condition between the reference block and the casting any indications received
from the nominated zones in the casting that exceed the 6mm reference level
should be marked for evaluation against the criteria given in 6.3 below. Evaluation
should include additional scans with angle probes in order that the full extent of
the discontinuity can be plotted.

6. Acceptance Criteria

6.1 Visual Testing

6.1.1 All castings shall be free of cracks, crack-like indications, hot tears, cold shuts or
other injurious indications. Thickness of the remains of sprues or risers is to be
within the casting dimensional tolerance.

6.1.2 Additional magnetic particle, dye penetrant or ultrasonic testing may be required
for a more detailed evaluation of surface irregularities at the request of the
Surveyor.

6.2 Surface Crack Detection

6.2.1 The following definitions relevant to indications apply:

- Linear indication = an indication in which the length is at least three


times the width.

- Non-linear indication = an indication of circular or elliptical shape with a


length less than three times the width.

- Aligned indication = three or more indications in a line, separated by 2mm


or less edge-to-edge.

- Open indication = an indication visible after removal of the magnetic


particles or that can be detected by the use of
contrast dye penetrant.

- Non-open indication = an indication that is not visually detectable after


removal of the magnetic particles or that cannot be
detected by the use of contrast dye penetrant.

- Relevant indication = an indication that is caused by a condition or type of


discontinuity that requires evaluation. Only the
indications which have any dimension greater than

1.5mm shall be considered relevant.

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No.69 6.2.2 For the purpose of evaluating indications, the surface is to be divided into
reference band length of 150 mm for level MT1/PT1 and into reference areas of
(cont d)
22500mm2 for level MT2/PT2. The band length and/or area shall be taken in the
most unfavourable location relative to the indications being evaluated.

6.2.3 The following quality levels recommended for magnetic particle testing (MT)
and/or liquid penetrant testing (PT) are;

Level MT1/PT1 - fabrication weld preparation and weld repairs.

Level MT2/PT2 - other locations nominated for surface crack detection in Annex
1.

The allowable numbers and sizes of indications in the reference band length and/or
area are given in Table 1. The required quality level should be shown on the
manufacturers inspection plan. Cracks and hot tears are not acceptable.

Table 1 Allowable number and size of indications in a reference band length/area

Quality Level Max. number Type of Max.number Max. dimension of


of indications indication for each type single indication, mm2

MT1/PT1 4 in 150 mm length Non-linear 41) 5


Linear 41) 3
Aligned 41) 3

MT2/PT2 20 in 22500 mm2 Non-linear 10 7


area Linear 6 5
Aligned 6 5

Notes: 1) 30 mm min. between relevant indications.


2) In weld repairs, the maximum dimension is 2mm.

6.3 Volumetric Testing

6.3.1 Acceptance criteria for ultrasonic testing are identified in Table 2 as UT1 and
UT2. As stated in 4.2.1 the quality levels applicable to the zones to be examined
are to be identified on an inspection plan. The following quality levels are
nominated for the castings identified in Annex 1.

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No. 69

No.69 Level UT1 is applicable to:


(cont d)
- fabrication weld preparations for a distance of 50mm,

- 50mm depth from the final machined surface including boltholes,

- fillet radii to a depth of 50mm and within distance of 50mm from the radius end,

- castings subject to cyclic bending stresses e.g. rudder horn, rudder castings
and rudder stocks - the outer one third of thickness in the zones nominated for
volumetric examination by Annex 1,

- discontinuities within the examined zones interpreted to be cracks or hot tears.

Level UT2 is applicable to:

- other locations nominated for ultrasonic testing in Annex 1 or on the inspection


plan.

- positions outside locations nominated for level UT1 examination where feeders
and gates have been removed.

- castings subject to cyclic bending stresses - at the central one third of thickness
in the zones of nominated for volumetric inspection by Annex 1.

6.3.2 Ultrasonic acceptance criteria for other casting areas not nominated in Annex 1
will be subject to special consideration based on the anticipated stress levels and
the type, size and position of the discontinuity.

Table 2 Ultrasonic Acceptance Criteria for steel castings

Quality Level Allowable disc shape Max. number of Allowable length of


according to DGS1) indications to be linear indications
mm registered2) [mm]3)

UT1 >6 0 0

UT2 12-15 5 50
>15 0 0

Notes:
1) DGS: distance-gain size.
2) grouped in an area measuring 300 x 300 mm
3) measured on the scanning surface

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7. Reporting
No.69
(cont d) 7.1 General

All reports of non-destructive examinations should include the following items;

(1) Date of testing.

(2) Names and qualification level of inspection personnel.

(3) Type of casting.

(4) Product number for identification.

(5) Grade of steel.

(6) Heat treatment.

(7) Stage of testing.

(8) Locations for testing.

(9) Surface condition.

(10) Test standards used.

(11) Results.

(12) Statement of acceptance / non-acceptance.

(13) Locations of reportable indications.

(14) Details of weld repairs including sketches.

7.2 In addition to the items listed in 7.1, reports of surface crack detection
inspections are to include at least the following items:

- for liquid penetrant testing; the consumables used,

- for magnetic particle testing: method of magnetising, test media and magnetic
field strength.

7.3 In addition to the items listed in 7.1, reports of ultrasonic inspection should
include at least the following items:

- flaw detector, probes, calibration blocks and couplant used.


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8. Rectification of Defects
No.69 8.1 Defects and unacceptable indications must be repaired as indicated below;
(cont d)
8.1.1 Defective parts of material may be removed by grinding, or by chipping and
grinding, or by arc air-gouging and grinding. Thermal methods of metal removal
should only be allowed before the final heat treatment. All grooves shall have a
bottom radius of approximately three times the groove depth and should be
smoothly blended to the surface area with a finish equal to that of the adjacent
surface.

8.1.2 Weld repairs should be suitably classified. Major repairs are those;

- where the depth is greater than 25% of the wall thickness or 25mm whichever
is less,

- where the total weld area on a casting exceeds 2% of the casting surface not-
ing that where a distance between two welds is less than their average width,
they are to be considered as one weld.

Major repairs require the approval of the Classification Society before the repair
is carried out. The repair should be carried out before final furnace heat treat-
ment.

8.1.3 Minor repairs are those;

- where the total weld area (length x width) exceeds 500mm2.

Minor repairs do not usually require the approval of the Classification Society
but should be recorded on a weld repair sketch as a part of the manufacturing
procedure documents. These repairs should be carried out before final furnace
heat treatment.

8.1.4 Cosmetic repairs are;

- all other welds.

Cosmetic repairs do not require the approval of the Classification Society but
should be recorded on a weld repair sketch. These repairs may be carried out
after final furnace heat treatment but are subject to a local stress relief heat
treatment.

8.1.5 As advised in UR W8 castings in carbon or carbon manganese steel may


require pre-heating prior to welding and also a post weld stress relieving heat
treatment depending upon their chemical composition and the dimensions and
position of the weld repairs. Post weld heat treatment should be carried out at a
temperature of not less than 550C.

8.1.6 Castings subject to the removal of defects may be supplied without welding
under the specific conditions;

- on un-machined surfaces where the depth of defect removal is not over 15mm
or 10% of wall thickness, whichever is less, and the length of the removed part
is not over 100 mm.

8.1.7 Parts which are repaired should be examined by the same method as at initial

inspection as well as by additional methods as required by the Surveyor.

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No. 69

No.69 Annex 1 Extent and methods of non-destructive examination to be


(cont d)
applied to typical hull steel castings

Notes: Location of non-destructive examination

1) All surfaces: Visual examination


2) Location indicated with (OOO): Magnetic particle and
Ultrasonic testing
3) The detailed extents of examinations and quality levels are given
in Sections 4 and 6.

Fig.1 Stern Frame


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IACS Rec. 2000/Rev.1 2004
No. 69

No.69
(cont d)

Notes: Location of non-destructive examination


1) All surfaces: Visual examination.
Magnatic particle and Ultrasonic testing.

2) The detailed extents of examinations and quality levels are


given in Sections 4 and 6.

Fig. 2 Rudder stock


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No. 69

No.69
(cont d)

Notes: Location of non-destructive examination


1) All surfaces: Visual examination
2) Location indicated with (OOO): Magnetic particle and
Ultrasonic testing
3) Location indicated with (^^^^): Ultrasonic testing
4) The detailed extents of examinations and quality levels are given in
Sections 4 and 6.

Fig. 3 Stern Boss


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No.69
(cont d)

Notes: Location of non-destructive examination


1) All surfaces: Visual examination
2) Location indicated with (OOO): Magnetic particle and
Ultrasonic testing
3) Location indicated with (^^^^): Ultrasonic testing
4) The detailed extents of examinations and quality levels are given in
Sections 4 and 6.

Fig. 4 Rudder Hangings


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No.69
(cont d)

Notes: Location of non-destructive examination


1) All surfaces: Visual examination
2) Location indicated with (OOO): Magnetic particle and
Ultrasonic testing
3) Location indicated with (^^^^): Ultrasonic testing
4) The detailed extents of examinations and quality levels are given in
Sections 4 and 6.

Fig. 5 Rudder (Upper Part)


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No.69
(cont d)

Notes: Location of non-destructive examination


1) All surfaces: Visual examination
2) Location indicated with (OOO): Magnetic particle and
Ultrasonic testing
3) Location indicated with (^^^^): Ultrasonic testing
4) The detailed extents of examinations and quality levels are given in
Sections 4 and 6.

Fig. 6 Rudder (Lower Part)



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