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AP European History

Mr. Mercado
SOCIAL HISTORY STUDY GUIDE
LATE MIDDLE AGES 16th and 17th CENTURIES 18th CENTURY 19TH CENTURY
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY: MARRIAGE AND FAMILY: MARRIAGE AND FAMILY: MARRIAGE AND FAMILY:
Nuclear family Nuclear family Nuclear family Ideal of romantic love now most
Divorce nonexistent Divorce available in certain cases Growth of Cottage Industry. important reason
Marriages arranged for economic More prostitution Marriages based more on romance. Fewer children per family; more
reasons. Marriages still based on Average age for marriage: late 20s love towards children
Prostitution in urban areas economics but increasingly more or later; takes longer for couple to Middle class more apt to
Ave. age for men: mid-late 20s romantic. be ready economically for marriage. consider economic reasons
Avg. age for women: less than Average age for marriage: 27 for Many women dont marry; Many men married late
20 years old. men; 25 for women. spinsters Women closely monitored
Church encouraged cult of Increased infanticide. Illegitimate birth explosion:1750- Sexual double standard
paternal care. Low rate of illegitimate births. 1850 Rate of illegitimacy declined
Many couples did not observe Dramatic population growth until Increase in infanticide. after 1850 in working classes
church regulations on marriage. 1650; growth slows until 1750. Foundling hospitals created Prostitution sought by middle &
Manners shaped men to please Young people increasingly worked upper middle class men
women. away from home in the city. Freud: early childhood is vital
Relative sexual equality Spare the rod, spoil the child. Lower class kids less dependent
Rise of humanitarianism (influenced on parents financially than
by Enlightenment). middle class kids
STATUS OF WOMEN: STATUS OF WOMEN: STATUS OF WOMEN: STATUS OF WOMEN:
Status of upper-class women Status of upper-class women Protestant women still expected to After 1850, increasingly separate
better than in next two centuries. declines in Renaissance. manage the home. spheres: men worked in
Most women not affected by Upper-class Catholic women had factories; women stayed at
Renaissance. self-development options in home.
Educated women allowed religious orders. By late-19th century, women
involvement but subservient to worked outside the home only in
men. poor families
Sexual double standard Middle class women began
Woman was to make herself working to organize and expand
pleasing to the man (Castiglione) their rights
Rape not considered serious
crime.
Protestant Reformation: womens
occupation is in the home.
Catholic orders for women grew.
LATE MIDDLE AGES 16th and 17th CENTURIES 18th CENTURY 19TH CENTURY
EDUCATION: EDUCATION: EDUCATION: EDUCATION:
Mostly for upper-classes Protestantism spurred increased Increase among middle class
education for boys and girls.
Humanitarianism of Enlightenment
led to improved education
RELIGION: RELIGION: RELIGION: RELIGION:
Dominated by Catholic Church Protestant Reformation Protestant Pietism in Germany. Rerum Novarum
Reform movements: Wyclif and Catholic Counter Reformation Rise of Methodism Syllabus of Errors
Hus. Religious wars Catholic piety remains. Kulturkampf
Some persecution of witches New Monarchs and Absolute Decrease in witch hunts Increased emphasis on morality
Monarchs take control of national among middle class
churches. Decline among urban working
Major persecution of alleged classes.
witches.
NUTRITION AND HEALTH NUTRITION and HEALTH: NUTRITION and HEALTH NUTRITION and HEALTH
Poor harvests created Poor life expectancy (about 25 Improved diet: more vegetables Public Health Movement:
malnutrition. years) (esp. potato). Bentham & Chadwick
Black Plague resulted in loss of Price Revolution = less food Increased life expectancy from 25 Bacterial Revolution: Pasteur-
1/3 of population. consumption due to higher prices years to 35 years. germ theory
(until about 1650). Major advances in control of plague Antiseptic (Lister)
Bread is staple food for poor and disease (esp. Small Pox Increased life expectancy
classes. Edward Jenner) Significant decline in infant
Upper-classes eat large quantities William Harvey: Circulation of mortality after 1890
of meat. Blood Poor living conditions in cities
Smallpox and famines still Development of public health
ravaged parts of Europe. Hospital reform
Reform for mental health
institutions
LATE MIDDLE AGES 16th and 17th CENTURIES 18th CENTURY 19TH CENTURY
SOCIAL STRUCTURE: SOCIAL STRUCTURE: SOCIAL STRUCTURE: SOCIAL STRUCTURE:
Feudalism dominated most of Population growth began in 16th Cottage Industry in rural areas. Increased standard of living for
Europe. century until about 1650. Growth of cities. average person; higher wages
Cities grew faster than rural areas. Serfdom in eastern Europe. Society more diverse and less
Two major hierarchies existed: unified
1. Countryside: landlords, Middle Class
peasants, landless laborers Upper Middle Class:
2. Urban: merchants, artisans, Banking; industry; large-scale
laborers commerce
-- Clergy, lawyers, teachers, & Diversified middle class groups
civil servants fit awkwardly Moderately successful
in both hierarchies. industrialists, merchants,
Advancement up the hierarchy professionals (doctors, lawyers)
possible through education. Lower Middle Class:
Enclosure movement Shopkeepers, small traders
Putting out system Lower Class: (80% of population)
Serfdom in eastern Europe Highly skilled: Foremen; highly
skilled handicraft trades
Semi skilled: Craftspeople
Low skilled: day laborers;
domestic servants
SLAVERY: SLAVERY: SLAVERY SLAVERY:
Few Africans lived in Europe. African slavery introduced. Still exists in Portuguese, Spanish Ends in Latin America as
Dramatic increase in slave trade and British empires. Spanish and Portuguese leaders
in New World. are overthrown and Latin
American countries become
independent.
Britain ends slavery in 1833
France ends slavery in 1848
Remains in U.S. until 1865
20th Century 20th CENTURY 20th CENTURY 20th CENTURY
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY: STATUS OF WOMEN: EDUCATION: RELIGION:
Baby Boom after WWII Equality in communist Russia Key to social advancement after Christian existentialism after
Women having children earlier Female suffrage after WWI in W WWII WWI
and fewer children (about 2.0) & C Europe After WWII, college widely Lateran Pact (1920) between
Middle class children less Traditional and oppressed role in available in W & C Europe Mussolini and the Papacy
economically dependent on Fascist Italy and Germany Emphasis on science and math Religion far less prominent than
parents Women work in war industries "Big Science" in any previous century
in WWI and especially WWII Student revolts in France, 1968 1963 Catholic Ecumenical
Women's rights movement in Council (end of Latin in Mass)
1960s

NUTRITION AND HEALTH: SOCIAL STRUCTURE:


Increased life expectancy after Increase in the welfare state
WWII throughout century
Leaner healthier lifestyle after Large increase in middle-class
1970 after WWII
Fewer class distinctions after
WWII
Aristocracy loses ground
economically after WWII
Increase in white-collar jobs