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Philosophy of Man

Philo
- means Love of Wisdom (right and proper)

Etymological Definition of Philosophy (Pythagoras)


Philia Love
Sophia Wisdom

Science
- Body of knowledge
- based on facts

Philosophers
-which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside of either theology or science.
The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek (philosophos) meaning "lover of
wisdom"

3 Division of Philosophy
*Ancient/Classical Pre Christian (7th century BC 3rd Century AD)
A.D means Anno Domini

3 Sub Division of philosophy

Pre-Socratic (Aristotle)
-metaphysical speculations
-refers to Greek philosophers active before Socrates, or contemporaries
of Socrates who expounded on earlier knowledge.

Thales (All Is water)


- 68% Body
-Father of Philosophy
- was an early Pre-Socratic philosopher
-He was one of the so-called Seven Sages of Greece
-first philosopher in the Western tradition.
-He was the founder of the Milesian School of natural philosophy
-He was perhaps the first subscriber to Materialist and Naturalism
-Hes trying to define the substance or substances of which all material objects were
composed, which he identified as water.

Sayings/Doctrines:
*The past is certain, the future obscure.

Anaximander (All Is water)


- 80% Brain
- key figure in the Milesian School
- Student of Thales
-He created a map of the world that contributed greatly to the advancement
of geography.
-explains how the four elements of ancient physics (air, earth, water and fire) are
formed.
-By speculating and arguing about the "Boundless" he was the first metaphysician.
Anaximenes (All is air)
- first Greek to distinguish clearly between planets and stars, and he used his principles
to account for various natural phenomena, such as thunder and lightning, rainbows,
earthquakes, etc.
- condensation = wind > clouds > water > earth > stone

Heraclitus (All is fire)


-soul of man is fire
-Father of History
- He claims to announce an everlasting Word (Logos) according to which all things are
one, in some sense.
-held extreme views that led to logical incoherence. For he held that
(1) everything is constantly changing and
(2) opposite things are identical, so that
(3) everything is and is not at the same time.

Atman
- individual soul
Brahman
- Universal Soul

Atomists
*Empedocles
*Democritus
-Man is mingling of atoms

Molecules > atoms > cells > tissue > organs > system > BODY

Pythagoras (All is mind)


-power of human mind
-all is mind
trust is my vision of the soul
Socratic or Classical period
-the Ancient era of philosophy denotes the Greek contemporaries and near
contemporaries of the influential philosopher Socrates.
-Methods of analysis/definition/synthesis

3 PHILOSOPHERS
a.) Socrates
3 important aspects of Socrates
*truth
*beauty
*justice

Doctrine: An unexamined life is not worth living


Man is a dichotomy of body and soul

- He was more concerned with how people should behave, and so was perhaps the first
major philosopher of Ethics.

b.) Plato -
- Theory of forms
*1 head
*1 heart
*365 hair

c.) Aristotle -
- Application of logic

Doctrines: Man is a rational animal

Ren Descartes
-(1596 - 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist and writer of the Age
of Reason. He has been called the "Father of Modern Philosophy", and much of
subsequent Western philosophy can be seen as a response to his writings. He is
responsible for one of the best-known quotations in philosophy:
"Cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am").
-He was a pioneer and major figure in 17th Century Continental Rationalism.

Doctrines: Pogito, negro ako


I thinks therefore I exist

II. Medieval / Christian 4th A.D


-God centered
-philosophical thought after the intellectual drought of the Dark Ages.
Major Philosophers
*St. Thomas Aquinas
- patron saint of UST

Summa Contra Gennies


-summary of Christian faith
Summa theologeaic
-summary of theology

Theology God(bible)
Theodicy- God (human reason)
Pope Pius XI
- he proclaims St. Albert to be the patron saint of students

Ambrose
- adviser of St. Augustine

Tedeum
-the one who baptized St. Augustine

Opera Omnia
-book written by St Albert

St. Francis of Assisi


-gave the name Bonaventure

Empedocles
-air, water, fire, earth