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Adverb Word Order Ways of Speaking & Laughing

N 147 - Spain: 5,95/Brazil: R$14.90/Austria, Finland, Germany, Italy: 6.00

in English
Personality Test:
Slater character
are YOU?



England 8 414090 253369
Think 120 Find the answers to these
Where did Dylan Thomas lose
the only manuscript of Under questions and more in:
Milk Wood?


What does Its your call mean?




Think 124
Why did Dorothy Lawrence
disguise herself as a soldier
and go off to the Battle of the
Whats the difference between
wallet and purse?


Think 129




How can a smell be used as a
How do sun spots affect climate

Think 131
How have people in Liverpool
used books to cure?
Which has been the most-read "Simply put, it is the best magazine I have ever
novel amongst US soldiers in come across to learn good, accurate English."
Iraq? Miguel Angel Hernandez, on Think's Facebook page.

Good News! You can still

buy those magazines as
digital downloads.
Think in English MagazineIssue 147

Current Affairs
Editors Note 4 News & Anecdotes
Hello again, 6 Science
Welcome to Think 147. Weve gone for variety this 7 Internet Black Hawk Downed
month. The longest article asks female readers Which by Facebook
Shakespearean character are you? (pp. 14-17), a
light-hearted psychological quiz to determine which of
8 EconomicsCash-Free Future
the Bards parts is most similar to your personality. The 10 SaveSelling Techniques
answers may surprise you! 8
A second question we ask is Why learn the English of Culture
today when you can learn the English of tomorrow? 11 Travel Chichester: Little England
(pp. 28-29) really just an excuse to think about how the
14 TheatreWhich Shakespearean
language may change over the next thousand years.
Since were crystal-ball gazing Douglas has written an Character Are You?
excellent article about how banknotes and coins may 18 History A Spy Called Cicero
disappear over the next decade: our cashless future 20 FeatureMicro-Cosmos
(pp. 8-9). Another fascinating piece is Colmans look 22 ArtLandscapes
into the murky world of Second-World-War spying 24 Education Ferment in Academia
on pp. 18-19.
The debate on the CD looks at how economics once
11 26 CinemaChristian Slater
a marginal subject for people like me who didnt have the 28 LanguageTomorrows English
stomach to study law has moved centre stage in our
lives (tracks 1-5), not because economists have become Language
any better at predicting the future but in some sense 30 Functional Ways of Speaking and
precisely because they (we?) havent!
I really think theres something for everyone this
month. We look forward to hearing from you on 32 Pronunciation Phonics & Tefl
our rapidly-expanding Facebook community. The 35 IdiomsLandscape Expressions
Functional English article (pp. 30-31) arose because 36 Common MistakesAdverbs &
Cristian one of our Facebook community members 14 Word Order
asked for an article with audio on Ways of Speaking 38 Word Building Am I my brothers
and Laughing. So now you know what to do if theres
something youd like us to cover...
40 TranslationError Dectectives
 See you next month, 41 Crossword
 Nick Franklin, editor 42 Miscellany..................................................................... 43 Subscription form
44 Back issues coupon
magazine abbreviation & symbols Key
45 Tapescripts...................................................................
18 51 Next month
Listening: there is a recording on the CD connected
to the text.
Bookmark Birds by habitat
Exercise: there is an exercise in the subscribers
exercises relating directly to the text.

Conversation point: these questions prompt Contact us

discussion on topics related to the text.
Subject link: there is a related article on the pages
sth. = something, s.o. = someone, swh. = somewhere 20 Find us on Facebook too.

Current Affairs | News & Anecdotes

going to prevent18 accidents on a stretch19 of road because
of a bit of water and oil? Surely the Deity has better criteria for

Memory Shtick20
Photo by Evan Bench

Still on the subject21 of religion spare a thought for22 poor old

Father Martin McVeigh, a Roman Catholic priest23 from Pomeroy
in County24 Tyrone, Ireland. He was giving a talk to parents25 at
the local primary school. Part way through he plugged his pen-
drive into26 a computer and it started to display27 a slideshow28
of gay porn. The priest fled29 the room in horror only to return
20 minutes later to finish his talk. Father McVeigh insisted that
the images were not his.
Meanwhile30, Anglican vicar, Phil Ritchie, of Hove in East
Sussex recently declared that going to church in Holy11 Week
was optional. He was quoted as saying, There are plenty of ways
to celebrate [Easter31 Sunday] without coming to a draughty32
The Secret TO Finding Work Victorian building. Why not stay at home, have a lie-in33, have
2000 business decision makers in Britain were recently sex and eat chocolate?
polled1 about what led to2 a job-interview candidate getting
hired3. Only 20% said that a degree4 made a job applicant5 Detective Fiction
stand out6, while over 25% said they judged interviewees7 Some of the worlds greatest authors have been blind34. There
on how polite8 they were to reception staff9. is35 of course Homer, who wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey, and
John Milton, who wrote the only major epic poem in English,
Freeway to Heaven? Paradise Lost. 59-year-old Trish Vickers makes no claim to be36 a
What is it with Americans and religion? Last year a Christian great writer but she is a novelist and she is blind. Tragically, last
group blessed10 Highway 98 in Florida using sacred oil and year she wrote a 26-page chapter of her latest novel not real-
holy11 water. Recently, an atheist group Humanists of Florida izing37 that there was no ink in her pen. Hoping that something
symbolically cleaned the highway with brooms12 and a mop13 might be salvaged38 she took her blank 39 manuscript to the
and sprinkled14 unholy water to unbless the road. Local pastor local police in Winfrith, Dorset. There the forensic team started
Glen Copple made the logical comment, I find it absolutely to work on the indentations40 in the paper using special light
ludicrous15 that the atheists, who say they dont believe in in their lunch breaks. Five months later they delivered41 the
God, have to erase16 something they dont believe in. True, manuscript back to Trish, theyd deciphered every single line
but isnt it also a little daft17 to think that a Supreme Being is bar42 one. Ms. Vickers said she was gobsmacked43.

to poll s.o. ask s.o. questions that are written 24
county one of the traditional administrative
on a questionnaire districts in some English-speaking countries
to lead to (lead-led-led) result in 25
parents (false friends) mothers and fathers
to get hired (get-got-got) be employed, be 26
to plug A into B insert A into B
offered a job 27
to display show, exhibit
degree university qualification 28
slideshow series of pictures which are
job applicant candidate for a job shown individually and change after a speci-
to stand out (stand-stood-stood) (in this fied number of seconds
context) be noticed, attract attention 29
to flee (flee-fled-fled) run out of
interviewee job applicant5 30
meanwhile at the same time
polite courteous, considerate 31
Easter Holy Week
reception staff receptionists, reception employees 32
draughty characterized by draughts
to bless sth. ask Gods favour for sth. (= currents of cold air)
holy sacred, sanctified 33
to have a lie-in (have-had-had) stay in bed
broom longer than usual in the morning
mop 34
blind /blaind/ unable to see, sightless
to sprinkle spray, splash, 35
there is (in this context) examples include
spill, pour a little 36
to make no claim to be (make-made-made)
ludicrous ridiculous not say that one is
to erase eliminate 37
to realize (false friend) be conscious
daft silly, stupid, idiotic 38
to salvage rescue, save, recover, retrieve
to prevent stop 39
blank empty, with no visible writing on it
stretch section, extension 40
indentation mark
schtick act, routine, performance 41
to deliver sth. bring sth. to s.os home
subject theme, question, topic 42
bar (in this context) except for, apart from
to spare a thought for feel sorry for 43
to be gobsmacked (slang) be astonished,
priest churchman, cleric be speechless

4 Think in English Issue 147

Photo by Konstantinos Stampoulis

to pipe up chip in, contribute an opinion,
to chime in intervene, pipe up44
to glue stick, fix with adhesive
to run out (run-ran-run) come to an end,
be exhausted
ticking making the tick-tock noise of a
parcel (false friend) package, packet
to deal with (deal-dealt-dealt) tackle,
forlornly unhappily, disconsolately, pitifully
to mean to intend to, want to
to threaten menace, intimidate
to injure hurt, harm
current present
mess chaos, turmoil
border frontier
too radical a measure such a radical idea/
partner member state, associate

Ending the Greek Tragedy FYR Former (= ex-) Yugoslav Republic of

GDP gross domestic product, national
Want an easy way to solve the current55 mess56 in Europe? Heres one. Guarantee output
the EU average what an EU country typi-
Greeces borders57. It doesnt seem too radical a measure58, after all the EU is cally spends as a % of GDP
increasingly integrated economically, politically and in defence. It would seem 63
weapons arms
in line with proportional to
logical for the European partners59 to protect Greece from a Turkish (or FYR60 65
amount sum, quantity
Macedonian) invasion. Why do I mention this? Well, Greece spends 4% of its GDP61 66
bailout financial rescue package
hard difficult, arduous
on defence, twice the EU average62. Greece has twice as many tanks as the UK. From 68
to pay s.o. a compliment about (pay-paid-
2002 to 2006 the Greeks were the worlds fourth biggest importers of conventional paid) say sth. admiring about s.os
weapons63. If Greek defence spending was in line with64 the EU average62 the
makeup cosmetics
argument quarrel, squabble, irate conver-
saving over the last decade would have been 150 billion the same amount65 of sation
money as the last bailout66. Theres only one problem. The two countries that sell
to take a compliment the wrong way
(take-took-taken) misinterpret a positive
most weapons to Greece are... wait for it... Germany and France. 15% of German arms comment
exports and 10% of Frances go to Greece. So, it makes more sense in Paris and Berlin
to dismantle Greek civil society than to guarantee an EU member states borders57. Related Resources
Role-play: Divide the class into three
Ad Campaign Bombs groups: Humanists for Florida, Florid-
ian Evangelists, the local council. The
You can just imagine how it all made perfect sense at the brainstorming session in D two civilian groups should argue their
case. The council should try to negotiate
the publicity department of Convar Deutschland. Weve got to project the idea of a modus vivendi.
urgency, someone pipes up44. Hey, nothing does that like an alarm clock, somebody
else chimes in45. Thats it. What we can do is glue46 an alarm clock to a hard drive,
a third member of the team adds. Ive got the slogan, the first speaker concludes,
Your time is running out47!.
So the computer company posted ticking48 parcels49 to firms in Bonn, Berlin and
Frankfurt. A successful advertising campaign? Not exactly. Offices in all three cities
were evacuated as police were called to deal with50 the parcel bombs. A spokesman
for Convar declared forlornly51, At absolutely no point did we mean to52 threaten53
or injure54 anyone.

Sometimes its hard67 being a man. A UK poll found that, when their partners
pay them a compliment about68 their makeup69, 9% of women thought that
it meant that they were wearing too much.
- 22% believed that the comment You look well was a coded way of saying that
they were fat.
- A third of British women have had an argument70 with their partners because
they took a compliment the wrong way71.
42% of Britons would seriously consider emigrating.
China smokes 38% of the cigarettes consumed worldwide. Is smoking a symptom
of development and prosperity?

Issue 147 Think in English5

Current Affairs | Science & Technology

Cooking the Prehistory Books
Cooking food is probably the last uniquely human facet.
Once we could boast1 that we used language and tools2,
while other species dont. We thought that we had culture,
empathy, altruism, a sense of morality and a concept of death
in contrast to lesser species. The uniquely human aspect of
all these things is now called into question. However, cooking Fire, Flowers and Flashy Feathers
remains3. So, if hot food is what makes us unique when did T. rex wandering17 amongst18 the tulips19: its not the first
we start to cook? Surely, that is when we became human. image that springs to mind20 when we think of the worlds
Well, theres no general agreement about that. The oldest most famous predator dinosaur, is it? However, research
undeniable4 evidence of hearths5 is 400,000 years old. More from the Field Museum in Chicago suggests oxygen levels
questionable evidence of burnt6 wood and stones in Israel in the mid-Cretaceous were at their highest levels in the last
dates back nearly7 800,000 years. However, physiological 250 million years. The result would have been massive wild-
evidence may suggest that cooking is much older. Around fires16 as evidenced by charcoal21 deposits. The big winners
1.9 million years ago hominid molars8 shrank9 while crani- of the forest clearance caused by the fires were flowering
ums got bigger. Since10 cooked food requires less chewing11 plants, which suddenly became prolific 100 million years
and digesting, this would seem to fit the evidence. If jaw12 ago. They have the advantage over conifers, cycads22 and
muscles become weaker, the brain size can expand. ferns23 that they are faster growing and so can take better
New evidence partially resolves the discrepancy between advantage of burnt areas.
archaeology and physiology. Palaeontologists from the Meanwhile, Chinese palaeontologists have discovered
University of Toronto using microscopic analysis have found the largest feathered24 dinosaurs discovered yet25. Yutyran-
burnt bone13 and ash14 in the Wonderwerk Cave in South nus huali was a 9m.-long bipedal carnivore that probably
Africa, which was occupied a million years ago by Homo hunted in packs26. Nearly7 as big as a Tyrannosaurus rex,
erectus. The deposits were 30 metres inside the cave so they this beautiful feathered tyrant obviously couldnt fly. Its
are very unlikely to have been15 the result of wildfires16. feathers were spaced out, so they were probably for mating
displays27 rather than28 insulation.

The Best News Ever

There is a God! That is the only possible conclusion from find-
ings published by the University of California at San Diego. A
study of 1000 people concluded that eating chocolate several
times a week makes you thinner than only eating it occasion-
ally. The researchers still dont know why chocolate leads to29
lower fat deposits30... but who cares?!

Related Resources
?Does anything apart from cooking distinguish us from other animals?
Photo by Nathan McCord Use the Internet (in English) to test your ideas and report back to the class.

to boast talk proudly of, 8
molar back tooth, tooth at the been it is highly improbable 22
cycad (Cycadophyta) type of
mention with pride back of ones mouth that they were plant
tool instrument, implement, 9
to shrink (shrink-shrank-shrunk) 16
wildfire fire that is out of 23
fern (Filicinophyta) type of plant
utensil become smaller control, opposite of a bonfire 24
feathered that has plumage
to remain (in this context) 10
since (in this context) given that, 17
to wander roam, walk about 25
yet so far, until now
continue to be valid as, because 18
amongst among, (in this 26
pack group of predators work-
undeniable irrefutable, certain, 11
chewing mastication context) amid ing together
conclusive 12
jaw (adj.) mandibular (technical) 19
tulip flower associated with 27
mating display reproductive
hearth fireplace for cooking 13
bone osseous material, skeletal Holland exhibition
burnt cauterized, consumed remains 20
to spring to mind (spring-sprang- 28
rather than as opposed to,
by fire 14
ash dry fragments of burnt6 sprung) enter ones head instead of
nearly almost, just under, practi- material, cinerary particles 21
charcoal pieces of carbon from 29
to lead to (lead-led-led) result in
cally 15
they are very unlikely to have vegetation 30
fat deposits adipose tissue

6 Think in English Issue 147

Current Affairs | Internet

Blackhawk Downed
cautioned15 against taking pictures
with smartphones at other times. The
British army has even established a

by Facebook
social-media team which offers guide-
by Douglas Jasch
lines16 demonstrating just how serious
twitter: @douglasjasch they consider the question of geotag-
ging to be.
Last month I talked about a model which can predict a Twitter users
location to within1 a 100-metre radius with 85% accuracy2. The program
examines tweets3 from the target4s friends that include either geotags5 Can Video Games
or words in the tweets about the tweeters location. The program uses Make us Reckless?
several months worth of tweets6 and can accurately forecast7 where A new UK study has found that people
a target person will be from the information in their friends tweets. who play driving games are more
likely to crash17 in real-life than those
who dont.
Motorists18 who play games like
Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit and Gran
Turismo were found to be 44% more
likely to take risks on the road than
others. Tyre company Continental
commissioned a study of 2000 UK
motorists and found that gamers
were twice as likely to speed, suffer
from road rage19, take risks and/or be
stopped by the police.
Continental Tyres
spokesman Tim Bailey
said that computer
Geotagging Brings post will often automatically display12 games did improve20
Down Helicopter the location where the post is made. driver reaction times,
Now the US army has warned8 that Locations posted over the course of a but those who played
geotagging 9 photos through smart- month can create a pattern13 that can them were more
phones and then posting the geotagged be followed by others. Unfortunately, prepared to take risks
photos on social-networking sites can many Facebook users still do not set on the road. Road
put the lives of soldiers and their families their profile to private, while others add safety experts say that
at risk10. Many smartphones automati- friends that they do not really know. these games should
cally geotag photos with GPS co-ordi- not be confused with road-driving simu-
nates. In 2007 four US Army helicopters Managing Geotagging lator games, which simulate real driving
were destroyed in Iraq after geotagged in the Military and have a focus on safety. These are
photos were posted on the internet. The Anything personal posted by soldiers driver education tools21.
geotags informed the enemy of where on a social media site, such as family
the helicopters were operating. pictures, can be used against them Related Resources
While photos contain specific GPS by the enemy if they are captured in
Facebook chat: Cyberspace is a
information showing where they were action. To manage this, mobile phones place of fantasy fulfilment and as
taken, even signing into11 Facebook are banned14 by the British army in such presents similar attractions and
dangers as narcotics discuss22.
from a smartphone and making a operational zones, and soldiers are
within less than 7
to forecast predict 16
guidelines recommendations, directives
accuracy precision, exactness 8
to warn caution, alert 17
are more likely to crash have a greater
tweet Twitter message 9
to geotag include a geotag5 on probability of crashing
target (in this context) user, person in ques- 10
at risk in danger 18
motorist (false friend) car driver
tion, victim 11
to sign into register in 19
road rage violent anger at other motor-
geotag geographical information (latitude 12
to display show ists18
and longitude) added to a digital file 13
pattern tendency, guide 20
did improve (emphatic) improved
several months worth of tweets 14
to ban prohibit 21
tools (in this context) software
messages over several months 15
to caution warn, alert 22
to discuss (false friend) debate

Issue 147 Think in English7

Current Affairs | Economics

A Cashless Society
by Douglas Jasch, twitter: @douglasjasch

During the 1970s former1 Abba legend Bjorn Ulvaeus was singing
the famed song Money Money Money all the way to the top of the
US music charts2. Now, 46 years later, the songwriter has changed
his tune3. Since4 his son has been robbed three times over several
years, like many Swedish people, he is calling for money (coins5 and
notes6) to be phased out7. Money has been with us since the fourth
millennium BCE when it was introduced in ancient Egypt. After such
a long time in this world of amazing technology and change, has
money now finally outlived8 its usefulness?
former ex- The Disappearing Dollar
the charts the list
of the most popular Ulvaeus thinks so. On a recent blog he posted
songs There are no direct practical reasons, as far
to change ones
tune adopt a as I can see9, to have coins and banknotes. No
different attitude matter how passionate we are about a cashless
since (in this
context) given that,
society, after six thousand years no one believes
as that money will disappear overnight10. What is Photo by Marina Carresi
coins clear, however, is that there has been a growing
trend11 away from hard cash12 towards electronic will account for19 45% of transactions by 2018,
payments since the 1970s. compared with 73% in 1999. For better or worse,
(bank)notes bank The 1990s experienced a substantial move there is no denying 20 the trend11 away from 21
bills, paper money in thinking when even small grocery stores13 cash12 purchases22 .
to phase out
gradually eliminate started accepting electronic payments through
to outlive outlast, credit card and savings card. The growth in the Safety in Numbers
survive longer than
as far as I can see
number of ATM14 machines meant that people Ulvaeus believes that if people didnt carry
in my experience, in didnt need to carry as much cash12 on them as physical money then there would be less violent
my opinion previously. Stores and restaurants increasingly crime23 and robberies. This is a popular view in
overnight imme-
diately, instantly accepted electronic payments. Sweden. Supporting24 this view, after
trend tendency The trend towards using cards
a series of attacks on bus drivers,
(hard) cash physi-
cal money, coins instead of cash has become an
Swedens health-and-safety author-
and notes everyday part of life. MasterCard ity instructed bus companies to find
grocery store
corner shop, conve- held a survey16 which found that a way to protect the drivers. So, the
nience store three in four Americans use less bus companies stopped accept-
ATM automatic
teller machine, cash
cash today than they did 10 years ing notes6 or coins5 and these days
machine ago. In Sweden, over the past buses in Stockholm are cash-free.25
instead of rather decade the value of card payments Instead of15 cash12, people purchase
than, as opposed to
to hold a survey has increased fivefold , while
sim-based26 bus cards in advance of
Photo by Hannibal
(hold-held-held) the number of card payments has their journey. Payments can also be
do a questionnaire
fivefold five increased by a factor of eight18. The same trend11 made via mobile phones, so bus companies no
times, x5 is seen in the UK where it is predicted that by longer accept notes or coins.
by a factor of
eight eightfold, 2015, notes and coins will be used less often than Bernt Nilsson of the Swedish Work Environ-
eight times, x8 other forms of payment, such as plastic cards or ment Authority says that all indications are that
to account for
financial payments by mobile phones. there have been significantly fewer problems on
there is no deny- Even more profound, the Payments Council in the buses. The drivers are very happy with the
ing nobody can the UK has published a report suggesting cash situation.
question that
away from
against, of renounc- 22
purchase acquisition, act delinquency 25
as they are in London modulate (= a type of
ing (opposite of of buying sth. 24
supporting in support of, 26
sim-based based on smart card)
towards) 23
crime (false friend) in favour of subscriber-identification

8 Think in English Issue 147

Charitable Debit Cards All electronic payments are traceable and this
Charities are also benefiting from the demise27 of allows38 private companies to access your spend-
cash. Charities and voluntary organizations prefer ing patterns49. Also, while Ulvaeus believes that
regular donations through standing orders28 or a cashless society will have less violent crime, a
direct debits from peoples debit cards than cash society that relies on50 technology is certain to
donations because it gives have more cyber-crime51.
them certainty with their Are Ulvaeus and the
demise decline
standing order finances. Standing orders many Swedes correct? Is
instructions to come in every month, it time for us to ditch52 the
ones bank to make
periodic payments whereas29 cash donations cash society? Probably
to a specific organi- tend to be more sponta- so. However, despite the
whereas while,
neous. In 2007 in the UK advantages, I personally
by contrast card payments were used dont believe we will get
donor s.o. who by only 15% of donors 30 there in my lifetime. I do
gives voluntarily
amount sum, but accounted for19 29% of believe53 it is certain that
quantity the total amount 31 given. we will continue to rely
to work (in this
context) function Cash is the most popular less on physical cash and
likely probable form of giving but only eventually54 will dump 55
niche (adj.)
specialist accounted for 13% of the cash altogether 56 . It is
to develop sth. total amount given. Photo by Marina Carresi clear that the journey has
invent sth., create
already started. Just as
app application, The Technology the journey from barter43 to a cash12 exchange
piece of software The technology exists for a cashless soci- system allowed 38 us to evolve financially, I am
to launch (in this
context) create ety to work 32, says Andrew Scott, Professor of also certain that, after an adjustment period, the
to allow permit, Economics at the London Business School. The journey to a cashless society is the next logical
to bump tap, most likely33 replacement of physical cash is the place for us to go.
gently knock transfer of money from one person to another
yet (in this Related Resources
context) however, through a mobile phone. A number of niche 34
but businesses have been developing 35 systems F
Will you miss cash?
rather than as What are the dangers of a cashless society?
opposed to,
that operate safely, conveniently and cheaply for
instead of mobile owners.
just as in the One of the most famous is the Send Money
same way that
barter exchange app36 for the iPhone which was launched 37 by
of products (with- Paypal. The app allows38 two iPhone owners to
out using money)
ultimately (false bump39 their phones together to make a connec-
friend) in the end tion and send money from one person to the other.
smooth journey
easy process Mobile phones can just as easily transfer money
to struggle with from one person to another as an ATM14. Yet40,
have difficulty with
issues (in this
rather than41 having to find an ATM machine, it
context) problems can be done by anyone who has the relevant app.
trail series of As an economist I believe that just as42 we
pieces of evidence
pattern (in this moved away from a barter43 society to a cash
context) habit society ultimately44 we will abandon cash and
to rely on
depend on, count accept electronic transfers as the norm. However,
on this doesnt mean that I believe that it will be a
web-based delin- smooth journey45.
quency Many pensioners, being older, naturally
to ditch abandon,
struggle with46 the technology. They tend to
do believe prefer more traditional payment methods such
(emphatic) believe as written cheques. Civil libertarians also have
eventually (false
friend) in the end issues 47 with the concept of a cashless society
to dump ditch52 as they point out that, with cash, your privacy is
completely protected as there is no paper or electronic trail48.

Issue 147 Think in English9

Culture | Save

Sales Techniques

Photo by Web Design Hotspots

Over the years vast sums of money have been spent devel-
oping techniques to sell you what you dont want by over-
riding1 your rational thoughts. Fear, surprise, empathy and
self-respect can all be used to make you buy.
The foot-in-the-door technique: favour. When this is denied 2 , the
you are asked to do something trivial salesperson asks for something more mention another interested customer
answer a questionnaire or accept a reasonable. One study asked students but if there really were someone else
free sample and later asked to buy to work everyday for two years as interested at that price, why is the sales-
something. Studies suggest that this counsellors3 for juvenile delinquents. person bothering to try to sell to you?
technique can increase successful All refused4. They were then asked to
sales from 22% to over 50%. take a juvenile delinquent to the zoo Non-Buying Techniques
The door-in-the-face technique: this for two hours: half agreed. However, Refuse to enter into conversation
is just the opposite. First the salesper- when a control group were asked just 5 with a salesperson who has contacted
son asks for a completely unrealistic the second request6, only 17% agreed. you. End the conversation politely20
The low-ball technique: an excellent but firmly.
deal7 is offered to you but later addi- Refuse to answer a few questions.
tional costs are revealed. Our need to Serious companies pay for market
be consistent for our self-image is so research.
important that most of us still buy at Whenever an offer is made for
the higher price. something you are interested in
The bait 8 -and-switch 9 technique: buying, demand that offer in some
an excellent deal is offered to you but sort of written form.
later only a more expensive product or Never make a spot21 decision on an
an inferior product is actually10 avail- offer for something you didnt intend
able. Again, our wish to be consistent to22 buy in the first place23.
often causes us to accept the worsened Remember salespeople never prior-
conditions. itize your interests over their commis-
The camaraderie technique: the sion (however friendly they may seem).
salesperson will establish some tenu-
ous11 relationship with the customer Of course there are salespeople who
before the sales pitch12 . One study give impartial advice24 in the interests of
suggested that the personal bond13 building up long-term trust. However, the
between salesperson and customer pressure to fulfil sales targets25 makes
could increase sales from 10% to 26%. them an endangered species26.
The deadline14 technique: the sales-
person creates the impression that an Related Resources
opportunity is only briefly15 on offer, Have you ever been convinced to
make a purchase you didnt want?
thus16 rushing 17 the customer into A Describe the experience. How did you
Photo by Miguel Borges feel afterwards?
making a purchase18. One trick19 is to
to override (-ride/-rode/-ridden) cancel out, 9
to switch change 18
to make a purchase (make-made-made) buy sth.
annul 10
actually (false friend) really, in fact 19
trick ruse, stratagem
to deny refuse4, turn down, opposite of accept 11
tenuous dubious, superficial 20
politely in a courteous/civil way
counsellor advisor, guide, mentor 12
sales pitch spiel, talk directed at convincing 21
spot (adj.) immediate, spontaneous
to refuse say no, opposite of accept s.o. to buy sth. 22
to intend to plan to
just (in this context) only 13
bond connection, affiliation 23
in the first place initially, from the beginning
request petition, thing that is asked 14
deadline time limit 24
advice recommendations, suggestions
for 15
briefly for a short time 25
target (false friend) objectives
deal bargain, offer 16
thus in this way 26
endangered species (literally) type of animal
bait 17
to rush s.o. pressure s.o. to do sth. quickly or plant that is in danger of becoming extinct

10 Think in English Issue 147

Culture | Travel

Little England
Chichester /titist/ is the perfect destination
for anyone who wants all their preconceptions
about gentrified1 Olde2 England confirmed.

An Olde Town
The English like old things and Chichester could
justifiably claim3 to be the oldest English-speak-
ing town in the world. The Romans seem to have
founded the town of Noviomagus Reginorum on
the site shortly after their invasion in 43CE4. The
modern towns basic street plan with roads from
Chichester all four cardinal directions meeting at the market

Photo by Marina Carresi The Norman Bell Tower

cross is almost two thousand years old. You can

also see Roman mosaics through a window under
the cathedral floor. However, to get a real taste of
the times you have to go 3km west of town to Fish-
bourne5, the largest6 and best-preserved Roman
Palace in the UK.
Chichesters stuttering7 name comes from the
Saxon Cissas ceaster8 (= Cissa9s fort). This reflects
the fact that the Saxons took over10 in the late 5th
or early 6th Century.

A Place of Peace & Love

However, Chichesters outstanding 11 tourist
attraction dates from comparatively recently...
well 1070. The Normans started building Chich-
ester cathedral shortly after invading. In fact, the
building has only undergone12 minimal changes
Roman mosaic at Fishbourne
since 1300. One of these is a rather13 fine stain-
Photo by Charlesdrakew
glass window14 by Marc Chagall.
gentrified upper- 3
to claim declare oneself 7
stuttering stammering, Saxons. The local area is 12
to undergo (-go/-
middle-class, prosperous, 4
CE Common Era (= anno that repeats a syllable called Sussex (= South went/-gone) suffer,
conservative, Domini) 8
ceaster pronounced Saxons) experience
characterized by 5 chester comes from the 10
to take over (take-took- 13
rather (in this
gentlemen properties-to-discover/ Latin castrum taken) take control context) very
Olde pseudo-archaic fishbourne-roman-palace 9
son of lle, the first 11
outstanding top, 14
spelling of old 6
largest biggest king of the South superlative window

Issue 147 Think in English11

1 2

3 4

Captions: Despite its age, the cathedral follows the music, but not particularly religious. Theres a
1. Chichester
cathedral exterior modern Anglican policy15 of playing down16 the fantastic temporary exhibition of sculptures,
2. Chichester religion and playing up17 the happy, happy. We including a bronze of a bishop22 in the bath with
cathedral interior
3. Bronze sculpture
were welcomed at the entrance by a charming18 his dog, which is quite frankly to-die-for23. The
of bathing bishop elderly man in a purple19 tunic who greets20 us Church of England seems to see its main24 role as
with his dog like a prodigal son and daughter. Can we take being the last bastion against rampant25 consum-
4. Sculpture
photos for a magazine article? Of course, thank erism, which I find laudable26 enough. This is a
Photos by
Marina Carresi you for asking. Despite the altar and other clues21 space of peace, culture and the vaguest27 hint28
that this is a functioning church, the cathedral of spirituality an oasis from Next, Macdonalds
has something of the air of an arts centre. Theres and The Phone House.
a young woman practising on the organ classical
policy strategy agreeable, delightful 22
bishop head of a diocese unrestrained
to play down downplay, 19
purple reddish blue 23
to-die-for wonderful, 26
laudable admirable
opposite of emphasize 20
to greet welcome, say fantastic 27
vaguest faintest, subtlest
to play up emphasize hello 24
main primary, principal 28
hint indication, insinua-
charming very pleasant, 21
clue indication 25
rampant out-of-control, tion, suggestion

12 Think in English Issue 147

West Street
would be too if
the local authori-
ties would only
allow Burger
King, GAP and
Virgin to set
up shop in the
slightly margin-
/keitri/ for for,
to venture out
leave, abandon
edge limits,
taste flavour,
sample experi-
rather (in this
context) more
airfield simple
replica (adj.)
imitation, dupli-
famous RAF Photo by Marina Carresi Market Cross from East Street
fighter plane
Spitfire The Anonymous British High Street A Feast of Festivals
The centre of Chichester as we said is marked by Chichester punches well above its weight42 in
the market cross, an elegant early Tudor struc- terms of culture. It hosts43 a major theatre festi-
ture built in 1501. North Street, East Street and val44, a real-ale-and-jazz festival45 and an inter-
South Street are dominated by exactly the same national film festival46.
to punch well
above ones shops as you now find on every high street in 6km north of Chichester is Goodwood
weight be stron- Britain.29 There are perhaps a slightly30 greater Park47. This racecourse 48, known as Glorious
ger than ones size
would suggest.
number of tearooms and cake shops, catering Goodwood is second only to Ascot in the social
The population for31 this most gentrified1 of towns. calendar of people with big, silly49 hats and more
is only 100,000. If you venture out 32 to the southern edge33 of money than sense. Another must50 for confirm-
Its called a city
for historical town a few kilometres you come to Chichester ing your preconceptions about the (upper-class51)
reasons Harbour34 and sandy beaches. English.
to host organize,
be the location for
http://www.cft. Their Finest Hour
http://www.chich- The last great expression of the Old Englishness was Churchill and the Battle of Britain. You can even get
a taste35 of that in Chichester (or rather36 5km to the
film-festival east). Tangmere Military Aviation Museum37 is on
http://www. the site of one of Britains oldest airfields38, founded
home.aspx in 1917. The base played its part in the Battle of Brit-
racecourse ain itself and you can see replica39 Hurricanes40
place where
horses race and Spitfires41 in their natural habitat.
silly ridiculous
must (n.) sth. Related Resources
one must see/visit
upper-class We travel to reaffirm out preconceptions about other
affluent, rich, E, H countries and tourist authorities would do well to
remember this. Discuss. Photo by Peter V. Facey Chichester harbour

Issue 147 Think in English13

Culture | Theatre/Psychology Test

Which Shakespearean
Character Are You?
Shakespeares Women
William Shakespeare created nearly 400 characters in his plays,
some of them amongst the most memorable in world theatre.
Which of these people do you most resemble? Ladies first.

1 Look, this is a mans world and

unless you learn to play by their
rules youre finished. I learned this
test before I let things go to stage two10.
Better safe than sorry11 in matters12 of
the heart, I say.
early on at home because my father
always preferred my characterless,
pretty little sister. To get on1 in this
world a woman has to be wily2 and
4 Im at a crucial moment of change
in my life. Ive always been a good
girl doing what my parents13 have told
tougher3 than any man: its survival me to but Ive come to realize14 they
of the fittest4. I got to where I am using dont always know whats best for me. I
my intelligence and nobody is going to will have to live with the consequences
take advantage of me. of the decisions that are taken about
my life, so I should be the one taking

2 You know when they say that

behind every successful man
theres a strong woman? Well, I am that
the decisions. I have to be true to
myself even if it means that my family
and friends abandon me in the process.
woman. I know society doesnt allow5
a woman to get to the top so Ive been
the driving force behind my husbands
ambition. Lately6, however, Ive been
5 I believe in solidarity between
women and I will always defend
my gal pals15 against the mistreat-
feeling some remorse 7 about what ment16 and slander17 of men. I some-
weve had to do to get him to the top. times wish I were a man so that I could
take revenge18 for the awful19 things

3 Im good-humoured and talkative8

but also practical. No problem is
insurmountable9 if you put your mind
men do to women. I am not sentimen-
tal and I would never fall for20 a man
unless he had proved himself with
to it with sufficient energy. Theres a deeds21 first, not just22 hollow23 words.
guy I really like and he thinks he loves I know I am the intellectual equal of
me, but Im going to put his love to the any man.

to get on (get-got-got) be successful, 13
ones parents (false friend) ones mother
progress and father
wily /waili/ cunning, clever, astute 14
to come to realize (come-came-come)
tough (in this context) resolute, determined become conscious
the fittest the most capable/competent 15
gal pal friend who is female
to allow permit, enable 16
mistreatment abuse, persecution
lately recently 17
slander defamation of character, calumnies,
remorse contrition, repentance, self- false accusations
reproach 18
to take revenge (take-took-taken) avenge
talkative chatty, loquacious oneself, wreak vengeance
insurmountable insuperable, impossible 19
awful horrible, horrid, terrible
to go to stage two (go-went-gone) become 20
to fall for s.o. (fall-fell-fallen) (in this context)
more serious fall in love with
better safe than sorry I prefer to be 21
deeds actions, acts
prudent 22
just (in this context) simply, only
matter question 23
hollow empty, insincere Lady Macbeth

14 Think in English Issue 147

6 A glamorous woman can get what
she wants when she wants from
men. Glamour, however, isnt simply a
9 I try not to stand out 35 too much
preferring not to be noticed. I often
find situations overwhelm 36 me and
question of appearance. A woman has emotional situations intimidate me.
to know how to tantalize24 and how to I dont usually have a personal opin-
command; how to be the centre of atten- ion but rather37 tend to go with the
tion... always. To be truly25 mesmeriz- flow38 . When people mistreat 39 me I
ing26 a woman has to be cultured, fear- sometimes have dark thoughts about
less and elegant, and have a command whether40 life is worth41 living.
of languages and a harmonious voice.
Privately, I dont have time for an inner
world27 as I live my life in public. 10 Discret ion is t he bet ter
part of valour as far as Im
concerned42 and if you play your cards

7 You k now, when a woman

behaves28 like a man in relation-
ships shes called a slut 29. Well, if so
close to your chest43 you can get what
you want out of44 life. People tell me
that I am hard-headed45, charming46,
then I suppose Im a slut, but so are modest and good fun. I guess47 I show
all men. When Im with a man Im in people the facet they want to see,
love with him but I soon fall out of though not in a deceitful48 way.
love in most cases. Men are attracted
to me and I enjoy sex why shouldnt
I pursue30 my own pleasure? After all,
thats what men do.
11 My life has been marked by
several tragedies and this
probably accounts for49 my slightly50

melancholic temperament. However,

8 All I really ask for is equality. All I

get is a situation in which the men
around me ignore or contradict what I
I am a practical girl and know how to
look after myself. I am happiest in male
company when men are willing to51
say without even listening to me. This accept me as an equal. Even so, my
is really frustrating and I admit that passions run deep52 .
sometimes I have a sharp tongue31
but you should see some of the idiots
I have to deal with32 . To be honest the
women are worse than the men and I
12 Im a lucky woman: Ive got a
loving trusting 53 husband, a
happy family and a respectable middle-
cant stand33 female company. Perhaps class home. I do my bit, however. I
I should learn to be more positive and expose immorality and try to help my
to manipulate the situation rather children to move in socially advanta-
than 34 always being confrontational geous circles. Im a good friend, loving
but I dont see how I can until my wife, a devoted mother and a decent
circumstances change. woman, though I say it myself.

to tantalize fascinate, allure 39
to mistreat ill-treat, persecute
truly really, 100% 40
whether if (but if cannot be used after a
mesmerizing tantalizing, captivating preposition)
inner world private passions, emotions and 41
to be worth merit, compensate the effort of
desires 42
as far as Im concerned in my opinion
to behave act, conduct oneself 43
to play ones cards close to ones chest not
slut whore, promiscuous woman reveal ones thoughts or intentions
to pursue go after, desire, strive for 44
out of (in this context) from
to have a sharp tongue (have-had-had) 45
hard-headed practical
respond in a venomous/vitriolic way 46
charming delightful, loveable, likeable
to deal with (deal-dealt-dealt) interact with 47
I guess I suppose
cant stand cant bear, hate, detest 48
deceitful dishonest, insincere, duplicitous,
rather than as opposed to, instead of hypocritical
to stand out (stand-stood-stood) be 49
to account for explain
conspicuous, be distinctive 50
slightly marginally, moderately
to overwhelm be too stressful for 51
to be willing to be ready to, be prepared to
but rather (in this context) by contrast I 52
my passions run deep (run-ran-run) I am
to go with the flow (go-went-gone) accept very passionate
the majority opinion 53
trusting unquestioning, opposite of suspicious Hermione

Issue 147 Think in English15


1 2 4 5

13 I am confident of my own virtue

as a wife but suffer from having
a foolishly54 jealous husband. Anyway,
16 I am both a loving mother and a
proud mother; call me a matri-
arch if you will. My son is the main63
of it is that Ive been so mistreated39 by
men that I dont trust a guy even when
he is sincere in his affections. Mr Right
with help of my female friends I hope focus of my life and I will do anything must be out there somewhere but hes
to show my husband what an idiot hes to turn him into the great man I know sure taking his time.
being by not trusting55 me. he is.

14 I am assertive and forth-56

right 57 about my opinions. I 17 I have striven to be the 64

perfect wife, mother and host-

19 I am quiet and practical. Im
a good friend to my friends,
and I can be witty69 and sarcastic if
certainly dont like being told what ess. Unfortunately, the man I love has its the only way to stop them making
to do. At times I can be mercurial in turned out to be65 impossibly jealous. fools of70 themselves. I have one fatal
temperament. At the same time I am I know deep down that my husband weakness: I tend to fall in love at first
constant in love. Im rather 58 self- is a good man but his jealousy has sight Hey-ho, you cant be practical
conscious about my height and think destroyed our family. I have had to in everything, can you?
that my gal pal15 may be more success- leave him, though I hope that one day
ful than me romantically because she
is taller.
he will learn to manage66 his emotions
so that we can be friends again. 20 If you think mens vengeance
can be terrible you havent
seen an avenging 71 woman! When

15 I am a woman of passion who

grieves 59 bitterly60 when in
mourning61 but I also fall head over
18 I admit Im not the most beauti-
ful girl in the world but Im not
exactly ugly either. Its pathetic how all
someone hurts a member of my family
I will go to any lengths72 to get revenge
no holds barred73. I married an idiot
heels in love 62 . I like to conduct my the guys go drooling after67 the same because he was a powerful fool but I
affairs with propriety. I am sensible, belle of the ball68, even though obvi- never loved him. My only loyalties are
compassionate and understanding. ously they cant all have her. The worst to my lover and my children.
foolishly idiotically, stupidly become infatuated, become passionately pursue obsessively
to not trust s.o. (in this context) be suspi- enamoured 68
the belle of the ball the prettiest girl
cious of and jealous about s.o. 63
main primary, principal 69
witty intelligently humorous
assertive confident and convincing 64
to strive (strive-strove-striven) make a great 70
to make a fool of oneself (make-made-made)
forthright frank, direct, candid effort act in a ridiculous way
rather somewhat, quite 65
the man I love has turned out to be it has 71
avenging vengeful, vindictive
to grieve mourn, lament become clear that the man I love is 72
to go to any lengths (go-went-gone) do
bitterly (in this context) with great sadness 66
to manage (in this context) control anything
in mourning after s.o. one loves has died 67
to go drooling after s.o. (go-went-gone) 73
no holds barred there are no limits or
to fall head over heels in love (fall-fell-fallen) (literally) follow s.o. salivating, (metaphorically) restrictions on what is permitted

16 Think in English Issue 147

1. Goneril in King Lear. she ends up killing herself with a dagger74 after poisoning75
her sister.
2. Lady Macbeth in Macbeth: she dies suddenly76 full of remorse7. She may have
committed suicide.
3. Rosalind in As You Like It: she marries the guy of her dreams, Orlando. Their marriage
is sure to be a happy one, so long as she continues to dress up as77 a boy called
4. Juliet in Romeo and Juliet: she commits suicide with a dagger74 when she wakes up
to find her husband dead beside her.
5. Beatrice in Much Ado About Nothing: she ends up marrying Benedick her erstwhile78
verbal sparing partner79, thus80 proving that opposites attract.
6. Cleopatra in Antony and Cleopatra: she commits suicide by allowing herself to be
bitten81 by an asp82 after hearing that her husband is dead and that Octavius plans
to publicly humiliate her.
7. Cressida in Troilus and Cressida: she ends up as a camp-follower83 in the Greek
camp outside Troy.
8. Katherina in The Taming of the Shrew: she marries Petruchio, surprisingly satisfied
to have at last found a man who is able to dominate her.
9. Ophelia in Hamlet: she goes mad84 and drowns85 herself.
10. Portia in The Merchant of Venice: having outwitted86 both her new husband, Bassa-
6 nio, and his friend (and her possible rival for his affections) Antonio, she presumably
1. Rosalind, 2. Goneril, 3. Viola, 4. Beatrice, settles down to87 a happy marriage. In any case they are both deeply indebted
5. Cressida, 6. Cleopatra
to88 her and know they are no match for her intelligence.
11. Viola in Twelfth Night: having found out89 that her twin brother90, Sebastian, is
to poison s.o. kill s.o. with a toxic alive, she marries the man of her dreams, Orsino, while Sebastian marries Olivia,
substance a rich widow91. However, Orsino and Olivias sexuality is so ambiguous that it is
suddenly unexpectedly
to dress up as wear the clothes of
anyones guess what happens next.
erstwhile former, previous, ex- 12.Meg Page in The Merry Wives of Windsor: having helped her friend, Alice Ford, and
verbal sparring partner s.o. who accepted her daughters marriage to Fenton, she settles back92 into respectable
you enjoy arguing with
thus therefore, in this way marital bliss93.
to bite (bite-bit-bitten) attack with 13. Alice Ford in The Merry Wives of Windsor: having humiliated the lecherous94 Falstaff
ones mouth
asp type of venomous snake (= serpent) and demonstrated to her husband that he should trust her, she also settles back92
camp-follower (historical) woman who into respectable marital bliss93.
accompanied an army providing a variety of
services 14.Hermia in A Midsummer Nights Dream: she finally gets her man, Lysander, following
to go mad (go-went-gone) go crazy a delirious night in the forest.
to drown oneself commit suicide in water
to outwit s.o. show that you are more intel-
15.Olivia in Twelfth Night: she ends up marrying Sebastian, though she may in fact be
ligent than s.o. in love with his twin sister90, Viola.
to settle down to accept 16.Volumnia in Coriolanus: her meddling in95 her sons affairs results in his destruc-
to be deeply indebted to owe a lot to, be
significantly obligated to tion. We must assume96 she dies in bitterness97 and regret98 having destroyed
to find out (find-found-found) discover what she most loved.
twin brother/sister sibling who was born
at the same time and has a very similar 17.Hermione in A Winters Tale: she pretends to be99 dead for 16 years. Finally convinced
appearance of her husbands remorse7, she returns to him and is able to reconstitute their family.
widow woman whose husband has died
to settle back relax, conform oneself with 18.Helena in A Midsummer Nights Dream: after lots of forest fun and not a little100
marital bliss a happy marriage magic, she finally marries her beloved Demitrius.
lecherous lascivious
to meddle in interfere with
19.Celia in As You Like It: she falls madly101 in love with Orlandos brother, Oliver, and
to assume (false friend) suppose they are married and live happily ever after.
bitterness acrimony, (in this context) self- 20.Tamora in Titus Andronicus: Titus Andronicus feeds102 her her own sons
regret remorse7 baked103 in a pie104. Moments after telling her what she has been eating he
to pretend to be simulate that one is stabs105 her to death. 
not a little quite a lot of
madly (in this context) passionately
to feed s.o. sth. (feed-fed- Related Resources
fed) give s.o. sth. as food
to bake cook, roast Next month well look The assumption is that types of women who existed
to stab kill with a dagger, knife or sword
at the male characters. G, V 400 years ago still exist today. Do you agree with this
assumption? Why/why not?

Issue 147 Think in English17

Culture | History

was to furnish the wily8 Turk with 9 numerous
opportunities to ransack10 the many secrets in
the British ambassadors safe11.
Sir Hughe, a close friend of Anthony Eden12 ,
decidedly belonged to the old-fashioned type of

the Eloquent Spy

diplomat and never for one moment imagined
that anyone at the embassy might be a spy. This
attitude of mind, stemming from13 a false sense
of security, led to14 gross15 negligence, an example
by Colman Keane
of which was the diplomats preference
for keeping diplomatic black boxes at his
ambassadorial home rather than16 at the
chancery17. He followed a tight18 sched-
ule which he seldom19 altered and this
greatly facilitated the spying activities of
the kavass. The imperturbable ambassa-
dor who slept in a separate room from his
wife, took two baths a day and after lunch
played the piano in the drawing-room in
order to relax. The ambassadors predict-
able habits played into the valets hands
and gave the kavass numerous opportu-
nities to pry into20 office papers, oppor-
tunities which were greatly enhanced 21
when Bazna made wax impressions22 of
his employers keys while the latter was
having one of his many baths.

Pierre Makes Contact

Elyesa Bazna Bazna first photographed British secret

documents in late October 1943. On
to dub (in this ithout any doubt Elyesa Bazna was the 26th of that month he approached the German
context) call infor-
mally most successful Nazi spy of World War embassy compound23 on Atatrk Boulevard and
staggering II. Dubbed1 Cicero (for the eloquence of asked to speak to Albert Jenke a high-ranking24
impressive, aston-
ishing the secrets he revealed) by the German ambas- aide25 for whom Bazna had worked the previ-
although Bazna sador in Ankara Franz von Papen, Bazna in an ous year. Jenke, who had a clear distaste for26
told Moyzisch he
was Albanian, he
intense four-month period from late October espionage and, not wanting to get his fingers
was in fact born in 1943 to early March 1944, managed to success- burnt 27, referred Bazna to Ludwig Moyzisch,
the Balkan town fully photograph four hundred top-secret docu- the cultural attach28. Bazna, who in his deal-
of Pristina in the
western Ottoman ments at the British embassy and sell them to the ings29 with Moyzisch would call himself Pierre,
Empire in 1904 Germans for the staggering 2 sum of 300,000 demanded 20,000 for two rolls of film and gave
this Turkish term
for servant sterling. For years the 38-year-old Turk 3 had the Germans four days in which to come up with30
carried a certain worked as a kavass4 in the Turkish capital before the money. After receiving clearance31 from von
to hire s.o. being hired5 by the British as valet6 to Sir Hughe Papen, Moyzisch met the valet6 on the night of
employ s.o. Knatchbull-Hugessen, a coveted7 post which 30th October at the German embassy. While
valet /vlei/
manservant, 11
safe (n.) 15
gross (in this context) improve 27
to get ones fingers burnt
personal attendant 12
Both attended flagrant, terrible 22
wax impression silhou- (get-got-got) expose
coveted /kvtid/ Balliol College. 16
rather than instead of, as ette created when an oneself to the unpleasant
desirable At the time of opposed to object is pressed into a soft consequences of a decision
wily /waili/ crafty, these events 17
chancery (in this context) substance (= wax) 28
cultural attach diplo-
cunning, astute Eden was the ambassadors office 23
compound complex, mat specializing in cultural
to furnish s.o. with British Foreign Secretary 18
tight rigorous, full group of buildings questions
provide s.o. with, 13
to stem from be caused 19
seldom rarely, only occa- 24
high-ranking senior, top 29
dealings interaction
offer s.o. by sionally 25
aide (in this context) 30
to come up with (come-
to ransack plun- 14
to lead to (lead-led-led) 20
to pry into spy on official came-come) find, produce
der, pillage, rob result in 21
to enhance magnify, 26
distaste for dislike of 31
clearance permission

18 Think in English Issue 147

Baznas Dream is Shattered51
to remain stay,
to lock up
imprison, confine Ciceros most prolific period was a four-week
adjoining adja-
cent, next-door
purple patch52 from the second week of Decem-
wad /wod/ ber to early January in which the Turk produced
bundle, roll, stack new rolls of film three to four times a week. By
to stuff push
parcel (false now Bazna would make a rendezvous53 in the old
friend) packet, quarter of the city, get into the attachs28 moving
overcoat Mercedes and, while the car purred through54 the
dark streets of Ankara, he would exchange rolls of
film for British banknotes. Moyzisch would then
Franz von Papen Ludwig Moyzisch decelerate enabling Bazna to alight from55 the
slowly moving car. Despite the amazing56 quality
Bazna remained 32 locked up 33 in Moyzischs of the spys exposures, the Wilhelmstrasse57 was
office, the cultural attach went to an adjoin- still full of doubting Thomases58. In fact, it was
ing 34 dark-room where he revealed the two not until Sofia was heavily bombed59 in January
sneering self-
satisfied, conceited rolls of 35-millimetre film containing 52 photo- 1944 that the bigwigs60 in Berlin finally accepted
Moyzisch, Ludwig graphs before paying the Turk in wads35 of British that Ciceros photographs were indeed61 sound62.
C. Operation
Cicero. New York: banknotes. As he stuffed36 the parcel37 of notes The story of Cicero is full of ironic twists63.
Coward-McCann, under his overcoat38 a curiously sneering39 and The Germans failed to accept that defeat64 was
from the very triumphant tone came into his voice40 as he set staring them in the face65, so Ciceros daring66
outset right from a second meeting for the following evening. espionage was a waste of time. The affair was a
the start, from the
demain, Monsieur. la mme heure40 . major embarrassment for the complacent British
sheer (emphatic) From the very outset41 Moyzisch and Papen who prided themselves on their second-to-none
consummate, were extraordinarily impressed by the sheer42 wartime intelligence. Finally, Cicero discovered too
but rather (in this quality of the photographs which they felt were late to his chagrin67 that he had been cheated68
context) he was by of incalculable value. Clearly, Cicero was not an by the unscrupulous Nazis. They had paid him for
German Foreign agent provocateur but rather43 a spy who seemed invaluable information (which they failed to use)
Minister to be playing a lone hand. Nevertheless, their with counterfeit69 banknotes, thus70 shattering51
Head of the SD, or
Security Service. bosses in Berlin (von Ribbentrop44 and Walter his dream of leaving the life of a kavass behind.
to find out (find- Schellenberg45) were burning with curiosity to Bazna died in Munich in 1970. In a final twist63,
discover, learn
find out46 more about Cicero and his motives. after the war, British Intelligence claimed71 that
to worm sth. out Moyzisch tried to worm information out of47 the Cicero had been a double agent working for them
of get sth. from kavass but all he was told by the theatrical spy all along, like the Catalan Garbo.
In fact Baznas
father had died was that he used a Leica, worked alone, was Alba-
in bed nian, hated the British and that his father had
self-assurance, been shot by an Englishman48. Most of his photo-
optimism graphs were taken quickly and under varying
to run risks (run-
ran-run) take conditions. Full of confidence49, Bazna ran big
risks, put oneself in risks50 and quite often took the documents from
to shatter ruin
the safe11 to his room where he photographed
purple patch (in them and had them back in the safe11 before his
this context) period employer had finished playing the piano.
of success and
good fortune
rendezvous Related Resources
meeting From what youve read, do you think Cicero was a German
M spy or a British double agent? Do research on the internet Sir Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen (British Ambassador in
to purr through (in English) and report back to class with your findings. Turkey) standing second from left beside the British Foreign
traverse making a Secretary Anthony Eden.
pleasant sound
to alight from 58
doubting Thomas suspi- people were killed surprise exasperation
(formal) get out of, cious mind, sceptic 60
bigwig VIP 64
defeat failure, opposite of 68
to cheat fool, hoodwink,
leave 59
Ciceros photographs told 61
indeed (emphatic) really, victory defraud
amazing incred- the Germans of the forth- in fact 65
to be staring s.o. in the 69
counterfeit fake, false
ible, fantastic coming attack on Sofia. 62
sound trustworthy, face be imminent 70
thus as a result, in this
German Foreign They chose to do nothing legitimate 66
daring audacious way
Ministry and several thousand 63
twist (in this context) 67
chagrin irritation, 71
to claim say, declare

Issue 147 Think in English19

Culture | Feature

Small is beautiful.
e pride ourselves on1 being more enlightened2 than our
ancestors. We dont believe in a flat earth, Galenic medicine
or a literal interpretation of Genesis. However, in one sense
we are no better than our forefathers3; we accept the world as being
what we see. Take biodiversity. We (rightly) worry about whales4,
tigers, pandas and fish stocks. However, by any objective measure5
life, and its diversity on Earth, is a question of micro-organisms. For
Yellow mite
instance6, the bio-mass of microbes is infinitely greater than that
of the kingdom Animalia. The microbial kingdoms are much more Of course most of the microbes you
diverse, though we have studied them so comparatively little that carry around with you are harmless20
they dont seem so. Microbes can be just as vulnerable to extinction, and some of them are essential to keep
too. There is an anaerobic fungus that only lives in the hindgut7 of you alive. Bacteria in your guts21 help
the Somali wild ass8. Unfortunately for the symbiotic microbe, the ass to break down 22 food and keep your
is an endangered9 species, so when it disappears well have lost two immune system healthy. Gut 23 flora
species. We dont know the effect of anthropogenic climate change protects against harmful microbes
on the micro-cosmos because the question hasnt been sufficiently such as Clostridium difficile. Antibiot-
studied, but it may be much more catastrophic than the loss of large ics often kill gut flora leaving the coast
clear for C. difficile, which is why this
bug24 is so prevalent in hospitals.
Our obsession with things that are macroscopic10 means that we Research at McMaster University in
automatically assume11 that alien life will be more or less human size Hamilton, Ontario, also suggests that
when it is more likely to12 be microscopic (or immense). normal healthy gut23 bacteria help us
to behave 25 normally. Experiments
Illustration by Gaspirtz

The Good Guys on mice26 suggest that the absence of

You are a transport system for micro- healthy gut 23 flora can cause strange
organisms. Some 72 million live on behaviour27, aggression and learn-
your forehead 13 alone. There are ing difficulties all of which could be
microbes on you, in you, through- reversed by re-establishing healthy gut
out14 your home15, on trees, in the air, flora.
everywhere. Bacteria can eat iron and Just as28 some bacteria are essen-
other metals, masonry16, tarmac17 and tial for our bodies and brains to work
latex as well as any biological matter18. properly29, micro-organisms in the
Bacteria can survive for hundreds of compost community are at the base
years in completely dry or freezing19 of all ecosystems.
to pride oneself on be proud of, take satis- becoming extinct 20
harmless innocuous, benign
faction in, congratulate oneself on 10
macroscopic visible with the naked eye 21
guts intestines
more enlightened better informed/ 11
to assume (false friend) suppose 22
to break sth. down (break-broke-broken)
educated 12
it is more likely to it will more probably decompose
forefathers ancestors 13
forehead brow, part of your face above your 23
gut (adj.) intestinal
whales cetaceans eyes and below your hairline 24
bug germ, pathogen, microbe
by any objective measure if it is measured in 14
throughout in every part of 25
to behave act
any objective way 15
two million mites live in your bed 26
mouse (plural mice) small rodent
for instance for example 16
masonry the stones of buildings 27
behaviour (UK English) behavior (US English),
hindgut colon and rectum 17
tarmac (UK English) asphalt (US English) conduct
wild ass (Equus asinus) 18
matter material 28
just as in the same way that
endangered in danger of 19
freezing, frozen, subzero 29
properly correctly, appropriately

20 Think in English Issue 147

Nasty Micro-organisms to the modern bacteria. That means
Generally speaking, we are ignorant that the human population has evolved
about microbes until after they have resistance to the disease 31, which
a serious impact on humanity. An shouldnt stage a comeback32, though
undoubted candidate for that defini- 2000 people a year are still infected
tion is Yersinia pestis. These bacte- around the world.
ria have joined the privileged list Now the bad news. Globalization
of species that have had their DNA means we are more vulnerable to
mapped30. Moreover, unlike Dolly the pandemics than ever before. Remem-
Sheep, Yersinia pestis has had DNA ber how the WHO exaggerated the
mapped twice: from a modern speci- danger of swine flu33 a couple of years
men and from a 600-year-old sample. ago. The virus ended up infecting 10%
Why? Because Yersinia pestis is the of the worlds human population and
scientific name for the Black Death killing 100,000 people. The disease did
bacteria. Killing 50 million people in go global, it just wasnt quite as deadly
the mid-14th Century means that the as predicted. It could easily be next Staphylococcus aureus bacteria
bubonic plague qualifies as interest- time. Where will the next pandemic
ing. The good news is that six-century- come from? According to Global Viral
old Yersinia pestis are almost identical Forecasting there are viral hotspots34 Evil42 Little Blighters43
places where humans come into The brilliantly evil42 thing about some
Photo by JO2, Ryan C. McGinley

contact with a high density of wild micro-organisms is that they can

animals. This increases the risk 35 that fundamentally change the physiology
viruses will jump species 36 . If this of their hosts44 to aid their replica-
happens close to transport networks tion45, despite being minute46. While
or large 37 populations, pandemics gut flora helps us to be emotionally
result 38 . The two biggest concentra- stable, the RNA virus rabies, for exam-
tions of hotspots34 are in Central Africa ple, can make a dog more aggressive in
and Southeast Asia. order to replicate. This, despite the fact
Some microbes are resistant to that the virus is a minimal package47
antibiotics. Moreover, it is now emerg- of genetic information. The rabies
ing that about half of the infectious viruss mind-altering abilities are noth-
diseases that are difficult to treat with ing compared to those of the micro-
antibiotics are persistent. Researchers scopic worm48 known as the Lancet
are finding that a growing list of micro- fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum). This
organisms can stop multiplying, cease micro-organism penetrates the brain
all activity and effectively play dead39 of an ant49 and drives the ant to the
until after an antibiotic treatment has top of a blade50 of grass51 so that it
Scientist cultivating a sample to test for drug run its course40. They are then back will be eaten by a cow or a sheep. It
resistant bacteria. in business41. persuades the ant to sacrifice itself so
that the fluke can undergo52 the next
to map (in this context) chart, survey, decode 45
their replication (in this context) the multi- stage of its life cycle in the herbivores
disease illness plication of the virus
to stage a comeback return triumphantly, 46
minute /mainju:t/ tiny, stomach. Similarly, the Gordian worm
(in this context) cause another pandemic microscopic (Nematomorpha) gets inside a cricket53
swine flu type of virus associated with pigs 47
package packet, bundle,
hotspot point of especially intense activity combination and eventually54 convinces its host to
risk danger, peril 48
worm drown itself55 so that it can proceed to
to jump species change vector 49
large (false friend) big 50
blade (in this context) leaf (of
the aquatic stage of its life cycle.
pandemics result the result is a pandemic grass) Micro-organisms may be small but
to play dead simulate death, act as if dead 51
grass they punch above their weight56.
to run its course (run-ran-run) stopped 52
to undergo (-go/-went/-gone)
having an effect experience
to be back in business (in this context) be 53
Related Resources
able to propagate again 54
eventually (false friend) in the end
evil malignant 55
to drown oneself commit suicide by suffo- Environmental problems at a
blighter irritating person; sth. that causes an cating in water macroscopic level are too urgent to
infestation/affliction 56
to punch above ones weight be more S worry about microcosmic biodiversity.
host (in this context) vector important than their size would suggest Do you agree?

Issue 147 Think in English21

Culture | art

Empty Art believed that the Second Command-
If you had shown a landscape painting ment 5 prohibited religious images,
to a Renaissance connoisseur, he (they which were of course the painters and
tended to be men) would have found sculptors bread and butter6 until then. Winter Landscape with Skaters by H. Avercamp
it oddly1 empty, as if the artist forgot Of course, some work7 could be found
to include the subject of the painting. painting portraits, thanks to human- Dutch model and added more weather.
Indeed 2, our imaginary connoisseur isms new emphasis on the individual Landscape painting as we know it is in
would have viewed the picture much but even so, Northern Europe was a fact largely11 weather painting. North-
like3 some people still see colour-field bad place to be as an artist following ern Europe doesnt offer much in the
abstract painting of the 20th Century. the emergence of Protestantism. way of staggering12 scenery13. What we
Painted landscapes existed before do have14 is weather. Why is weather
the 17th Century but they were almost The Pathetic Fallacy so important?, you ask. Because of the
exclusively in the background4 . Ironi- The Low Countries 8 were the first to pathetic fallacy: the idea that inani-
cally, religion changed all that. develop the possibility of landscape mate things in this case the weather
paintings sans saint in the fore- reflect our emotions. In other words
A New Religion ground 9 . The new landschappen 10 why15 its always raining when people
The Reformation was potentially a emerged partly as an expression of are melancholy16 in movies. People
catastrophe for art. The Protestants Dutch nationalism. The British took the began to buy landscapes because they

Gordale Scar by James Ward Aurora Borealis by Frederic Edwin Church

oddly strangely, surprisingly most of ones income 12
staggering sublime, astonishing
indeed (emphatic) in fact 7
some work a few jobs 13
scenery (false friend) landscape, countryside,
much like in a similar way to that in which 8
the Low Countries Belgium, the Netherlands, terrain
and not painted by the master painter but Flanders and Luxembourg 14
do have (emphatic) have
by his apprentices 9
in the foreground in the front of the picture, 15
why (in this context) it is the reason why
commandment one of 10 orders given by closest to the viewer according to the perspective 16
melancholy (adj.) sad, lugubrious,
God to Moses. N 2 prohibits the adoration 10
the English word landscape comes from depressed. Notice that although melan-
of images the Dutch landschap cholic exists we prefer to use melancholy
ones bread and butter work that generates 11
largely primarily, principally as an adjective (except in literary contexts)

22 Think in English Issue 147

The Denizens
The Hunters in the Snow (1565) by
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Winter Landscape with Skaters (c.
1608) by Hendrick Avercamp
- Avercamp painted a series of simi-
lar winter landscapes with similar
Vesuvius from Portici (c. 1775) by
Joseph Wright of Derby
- Wright actually33 painted a whole
The Hunters in the Snow by Pieter Brueghel the Elder series of views of the volcano, which
he was lucky enough to visit when
made them feel sunny or wistful17. came with the Post-Expressionists: it was active (but not too active!).
W hen the Romantic painters van Gogh, Czanne and Pisarro. In Gordale Scar (c. 1812) by James
came along18 , sublime19 landscapes the 20th Century as landscapes became Ward
were employed 20 to transmit awe 21. increasingly abstract they tended to Wanderer above the Sea of Fog34
Further22 nuance 23 could be added lose their facet as emotional conduits. (1818) by Caspar David Friedrich
by the representation or at least Expressed another way, a largely11 The Hay35 Wain36 (1821) by John
the insinuation of a change in the abstract landscape cant have weather Constable
weather, which suggested emotional and therefore30 fails to be the object of - you can wrong-foot37 many a Brit-
dynamism. By the mid-19th Century pathetic fallacy. ish art-lover by pointing out38 that
landscape painting had moved centre this painting is really called Land-
stage24: from being the poor cousin of The Denizens Dozen scape, Noon
historical and religious painting it had This series of articles began as a look Rain, Steam39 and Speed (1844) by
become the dominant European genre. at the generic names used in different William Turner
genres of painting. We saw that reli- Aurora Borealis (1865) by Fredric
The Worlds Favourite Genre gious and classical art tended to fall Edwin Church
The Surrealists built on 25 the great under31 thematic titles. However, last - just one example of the Hudson
advances of Constable and Turner month it became evident that portraits River Schools paintings of the Big
as they readily26 admitted and, couldnt be categorized in this way. The Country.
three centuries after landscape paint- same is largely11 true of landscapes. Mont Sainte-Victoire (c. 1885) by
ing emerged as the forlorn27 result of So, as with portraiture, instead of 32 Paul Czanne
religious strictures28 , it became the presenting you with generic titles, here - Czanne was obsessed by this
worlds favourite genre in the hands we offer you a list of the dozen land- mountain, which he painted dozens
of Monet, Sisley and co. scape paintings you should know the of times.
The summit 29 of landscape paint- names of if you want to talk about art Wheat 40 Field with Cypresses
ing as emotional expression surely in the Anglosphere. (1889) by Vincent van Gogh
Haystacks 41 (1890) by Claude
wistful nostalgic, pensive, melancholy16 30
therefore so, for that reason
to come along (come-came-come) appear, 31
to fall under (fall-fell-fallen) be categorized by Monet
emerge 32
instead of rather than, as opposed to - again, Monet in fact painted 25
sublime (in this context) awesome, majestic 33
actually (false friend) in fact
and terrifying 34
fog an atmospheric effect similar to mist that impressions of the same haystacks
to employ (in this context) use reduces visibility (especially common at sea) at different times of day.
awe wonder, astonishment 35
hay dried grass used as winter food for cows
further additional and horses The Persistence of Memory (1931)
nuance subtle differentiation 36
wain (archaic) wagon, cart by Salvador Dal
to move centre stage become central/ 37
to wrong-foot s.o. take s.o. by surprise,
dominant embarrass s.o. - no pathetic fallacy here!
to build on (build-built-built) develop, 38
to point out mention
expand 39
steam hot water vapour used to power a
readily willingly, happily locomotive
Related Resources
forlorn miserable, desperate, melancholy16 40
wheat type of cereal grain (typically used to Do you find landscape paintings kind
strictures restrictions, restraints make bread) P of empty? Whats your favourite
summit zenith, climax 41
haystack accumulation of hay35 landscape painting?

Issue 147 Think in English23

Culture | Education

Ferment in the
just16 rivalry can determine who first
gets a new idea published, and, if a
referee12 is thinking along similar

Creative World
lines17, she or he is able to manipulate
the length of time the pre-publication
process takes.
At the same time those administer-
ing the journals, aware1 that authors
by Prof. Raoul Franklin are themselves evaluating the length of
time a particular journal5 takes, have
Most readers of Think will be aware1 of the problems that the music resorted to making18 the refereeing
industry is having over piracy and the use of copyright law to try to process a box-ticking19 exercise when
prevent2 it. There are also problems arising from3 the ability of writers such a method of evaluation is contrary
on almost any subject to publish their work, or thoughts, without having to proper scholarship20.
to involve a commercial publisher. Now there is a debate emerging which This has resulted in a conflict situ-
concerns4 the academic and scientific world. ation. Referees are, in general, not
paid or otherwise rewarded21 for their
The Journal5 Jungle submission11. The article is then sent expertise, time and effort; nor can they
Usually these scholarly6 publica- to one or more reviewer or referee12 for be held accountable22 . Indeed23, they
tions are called journals, and articles comment on the quality of the work. carry out 24 their work anonymously.
published in them are subject to peer Most of the time this process has Most journals have in place a method
review7. That is, an author or authors worked quite well because the commu- of appeal 25, but that does not always
submit8 a manuscript to the journal5. nity has been a closed one. But it has work to the satisfaction of all parties
Nowadays 9 the journal prescribes been subject to abuses because of the concerned26.
the format and, as a result, all of what credit given to primacy13. That is, who But the problem has become more
used to be in-house work10 for the first came up with14 a new idea or way widespread 27 because avaricious
journal is done by the author before of looking at things. So jealousy15 or publishers have put up the prices of

Academic progress Photo by Joichi ito

to be aware be conscious 11
submission (in this context) the presenting of 20
proper scholarship real erudition, academic
to prevent stop the manuscript to the journal5 standards
arising from resulting from 12
referee adjudicator, arbitrator, arbiter, 21
to reward recompense, remunerate
to concern (in this context) relate to judge 22
to hold s.o. accountable (hold-held-held)
journal academic magazine 13
primacy being first consider s.o. responsible
scholarly erudite, academic 14
to come up with (come-came-come) think 23
indeed (emphatic) in fact
peer review constructive criticism from other up, invent, formulate 24
to carry out perform, do
academics 15
jealousy (in this context) envy 25
appeal complaint, re-examination, recon-
to submit present, propose 16
just (in this context) simply sideration
nowadays these days 17
along similar lines in a similar way 26
concerned in question, involved
in-house work work done by employees of 18
to resort to making start to make 27
widespread generalized
the journal5 19

24 Think in English Issue 147

FREE Telephone Support
their journals relying on28 university
libraries continuing to subscribe, while
universities anxious to reduce their
costs have reduced the number of Barcelona, Spain - The language service
journals they subscribe to, even resort- company Backuplines S.L., specialist in
ing to29 forbidding30 departments from distance language teaching and learning
making their own decisions. for 17 years, has announced an amaz-
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The Academics Strike Back to all Spanish students who have failed
Now the intellectual community is their English exams. From the second
striking back 31. Some are withdraw- of July 2012, Backuplines will open a
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recruiting 37 less experienced people grammatical doubts solved by profes-
who then have to be told how to do the sional English tutors and thus43 improve
work but without a mentor on hand to their chances44 of passing the recupera-
guide them. That then results in refer- tion exam, normally in September.
ees reports that competent authors are Many students who have failed
not prepared to accept. English at school cant opt for univer-
At this point anarchy threatens38, sity entrance exams. After the end of
and takes the form of using modern the summer term, students typically
technology to get rid of39 ancient prac- have nowhere to turn45 for help with
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Related Resources stop English from being a stumbling
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Wikipedia is checked?
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to rely on count on, depend on
to resort to (+ -ing) (in this context) have to
(+ infinitive) Details & Further Practice
to forbid (-bid/-bade/-bidden) prohibit, ban The Skype contact form will be operational for the month of July,
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make an arbitray selection

Issue 147 Think in English25

Culture | Cinema

Christian Slater:
One Life to Live in 1976. The same year
seven-year-old Christians parents14
got divorced, which was understand-

His Own Worst Enemy

ably traumatic. But life went on15 and
Mary Jo became his primary parent
figure: I was raised16 by my mother,
whos grown to become17 my greatest
confidante and the person I trust most.
by Marina Carresi
Christian later gravitated towards
Some stars make movies because they want to change the world: George Clooney surrogate18 father-figures he met in
and Sean Penn spring to mind1. Others are focused on perfecting their craft2, the theatre. One of these was Dan
as is the case with Meryl Streep or Russell Crow. No doubt others simply want to Lauria (the father on US TVs The
be rich and famous. Christian Slater, by contrast, acts to evade life. He once said, Wonder Years). Lauria has remained19
Work is my hobby, staying sober3 is my job. In his obsession to be occupied a constant presence in Christians life
acting the 42-year-old has made almost 60 films over the last 25 years as well and he has remarked that Christian
as starring in several TV series and periods on the stage4. Unfortunately, the was as close to a son as Ill ever have.
impression is that Slater will accept anything and if youve seen Alone in the Lauria was running20 a theatre and he
Dark (2005) youll know what I mean! This is a shame5 since as you can see in occupied the pre-teen21s time22 paint-
two of his relatively recent works Slipstream (2007) directed by Anthony Hopkins ing sets23, cleaning toilets and acting. I
and He Was a Quiet Man (2007) directed by Frank Cappello he is capable of always thought Christian was happier
much more if he would just select his movies with a minimum of criterion. onstage than anywhere else, even in
real life, he later commented.
Nest remember hanging out backstage at my
Michael Hawkins and Mary Jo Slater fathers shows. There were a lot of places Precocious Success
were not conventional parents. She was to hide11 and Id sneak around12, spying At nine Christian got a role24 in a play
an acting agents assistant and he was on the girls as they were getting dressed. called The Music Man staring Dick Van
a young actor. They met backstage 6 Itd looked so much fun that I really Dyke with which he toured for nine
at a Greenwich Village production of knew that I wanted to be part of that months away from home. I gained
the anti-Vietnam-War satire MacBird. from an early age. His earliest appear- a lot of professional experience and
They married eight months later and ance was on the daytime soap opera13 learned how to deal with25 people, he
on 18 August 1969 their first child
Christian Michael Leonard was born.
He was named after7 Marlon Brandos
character, mutineer Fletcher Chris-
tian, in Mutiny on the Bounty. When
he was three months old his mother
carried him out onto the stage8 of an
empty theatre and told him, This is
your life, my son. When Christian
was still a toddler9, Mary Jo became
a casting director, so Christian grew
up backstage6 and in auditions says
his mother. At the same time he would
go along with10 his father Michael: I Further reading
to spring to mind (spring-sprang-sprung) be 9
toddler small child who is just learning to walk he matures
the first that one thinks of 10
to go along with s.o. (go-went-gone) 17
to grow to become (grow-grew-grown)
craft (in this context) talents accompany s.o. gradually become
sober opposite of drunk 11
to hide (hide-hid-hidden) conceal oneself, 18
surrogate substitute
on the stage in the theatre be out-of-sight 19
to remain continue to be
a shame a pity, unfortunate 12
to sneak around (sneak-snuck-snuck) move 20
to run sth. (run-ran-run) manage sth.
backstage in the part of a theatre reserved about furtively 21
pre-teen pre-pubescent child
for the actors and technicians 13
soap opera melodramatic TV series 22
to occupy s.os time find things for s.o. to
to be named after be named for (US English), 14
ones parents (false friend) ones mother and do such as
be given Xs name to honour X father 23
set (in this context) decorative backdrop
the stage the platform in a theatre on which 15
to go on (go-went-gone) continue 24
role part, acting job
actors act 16
to raise rear, bring up, care for a child as s/ 25
to deal with (deal-dealt-dealt) interact with

26 Think in English Issue 147

TV Series

concluded. After that he enrolled with He was sentenced to 10 days in jail. In violent argument in a Las Vegas hotel
New Yorks Professional Childrens 1994, he was arrested when he tried to Ryan threw a glass bottle at Christian,
School. At the age of 15 he was work- board a passenger plane with a gun which struck39 him on the neck causing
ing almost full-time in Hollywood so in his luggage; he was sentenced to a significant gash40. Ryan was arrested.
the next logical step was to move out26 community service. In 1997, Slater The tempestuous couple formally sepa-
to California permanently, which he was convicted of assaulting his girl- rated in 2005 and got divorced in 2007.
did. The film that gave Christian his friend, Michelle Jonas, and a police
breakthrough role27 was The Name of officer while under the influence of A Quiet Man at Last?
the Rose (1986); he was just 16 during drugs and alcohol. He spent over 100 The first decade of this century saw
the shoot 28. For the next decade the days in a rehabilitation centre while Christian in a string41 of forgettable
world was Christians oyster 29. He out on bail32 and then was sentenced to crazy psychopath roles on screen.
starred in blockbusters such as Robin a three-month term in jail followed by However, meanwhile he was garner-
Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991), True three more months in rehab. May 24, ing stage accolades 42 for his work
Romance (1993), Interview with the 2005, Slater was arrested in Manhattan, in One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest in
Vampire (1994) as well as cult teen after he allegedly33 sexually harassed34 Britain in 2004 and in The Glass Menag-
movies like Heathers (1989). a woman on the street.35 erie in 2005 in New York. Some of the
Meanwhile36, in 2000 Slater married undoubted acting ability that he has
Very Bad Things Ryan Haddon and they have two chil- managed so effectively to conceal43
However, success at such a young age dren. However, any idea that Christian in a score of44 movies over the last
led almost inevitably to30 substance had now settled down to37 domesticity decade revealed itself almost by
abuse31. As early as 1989, Slater was vanished when the couple made the chance in He Was a Quiet Man (2007).
arrested for drunk driving and assault. tabloid headlines38 in 2003. During a With focus Christian Slater could still
fulfill the potential of the teenager
to move out transfer, go 34
to harass molest who played the novice in The Name
breakthrough role acting job through which 35
Slater denied the accusation
s.o. becomes known to the general public 36
meanwhile at the same time of the Rose. Unfortunately, judging by
shoot (n.) filming 37
to settle down to become more tranquil in his choices since he made Quiet Man, I
the world was s.os oyster s.o. was in a 38
to make the tabloid headlines (make-made-
position to take advantage of everything life made) appear in sensationalist newspapers
wouldnt hold out too much hope.
has to offer 39
to strike (strike-struck-struck) hit
to lead to (lead-led-led) result in 40
gash deep cut Related Resources
substance abuse abuse of narcotics and/ 41
string series, succession Slater has been arrested for diverse acts of
or alcohol 42
to garner stage accolades be congratu- seriously antisocial behaviour yet he has
to be out on bail be free before a judicial lated in the theatre never stopped working or been ostracized by
N Hollywood. His co-star on Heathers, Winona
process 43
to conceal hide, camouflage
Ryder, stole a dress and ruined her career.
allegedly supposedly 44
a score of approximately 20 Are Hollywood and society incurably sexist?

Issue 147 Think in English27

Language | Language


Photo by Marina Carresi

Why learn the English of today when you
1,200 years. We could take things further; a growing number of
linguists dont actually9 believe that English descends directly
from Anglo-Saxon (the language of Beowulf), though obviously

can learn the language of tomorrow? the two western-Germanic languages are closely related.10

The Great Slowdown

The Beowulf Comparison So, lets go to one of the earliest undeniably11 English texts, The
What future English looks and sounds like depends largely 1
Owl and the Nightingale (c. 1200). Now, instead of12 confronting
on how fast languages change. Typically, we are told that a a text that is more difficult than Modern German (the case of
text like the one you are reading will be incomprehensible to Beowulf)13, we have a text which an educated native speaker
English speakers a thousand years from now. The standard can more or less read after 30 minutes training. And (as with the
comparison is with Beowulf (written sometime between the Beowulf example) we have to factor in14 the difficulty inherent
7th and the 9th Centuries CE2). As a recent article on the topic3 in the fact that this is poetry. Any modern poem requires effort
in The New Scientist said, You might be able to understand to be understood, too.
Bowulf is min name4 but a millennium of language evolution So, in the 800 years of uncontested history of written English,
has washed away5 the meaning from grimma gast Grendel (= the language has evolved but is still recognizable. Has it evolved
the ghastly6 demon Grendel). Except of course, it hasnt. We steadily15 over16 those eight centuries? Of course not. The change
could translate the last line as the grim7 ghost Grendel on between 1200 and, say17, The Paston Letters18 (1425-95) is immense.
the understanding that ghost was a more general term for That change has decelerated constantly since then. Why? First,
a terrifying supernatural being. In fact, neither of these two because of standardization and secondly because of universal
simple statements8 presents massive change over perhaps literacy. The more people speak a language the more inertia it
has because the less an individual can influence its evolution.
Photo by Marina Carresi

Moreover, for centuries people have been learning that there is a

right and wrong to language. For over a century everyone in the
Anglosphere has been learning standardized English at school
following national curricula19. Besides20, for a century everyone
in the Anglosphere has been listening to more or less the same
prestige speakers (on gramophones, on the radio, on TV and at
the movies).21 Indeed22, perhaps a fifth of the worlds population
is now learning standardized English. Thats a lot of inertia.

Transitory Language
Of course, every generation has its slang and its buzzwords23
but these come and go. People use their generational argot so
that they wont be understood by parents24, teachers or police
officers but they also have to be able to speak the standard
largely primarily, principally frightful, horrible, horrendous 13
that fact alone suggests that 19
curriculum syllabus,
CE Common Era, AD (= anno (all synonyms given in the New English does not come directly programme of studies
Domini) Oxford Thesaurus [2000]) from Anglo-Saxon 20
besides whats more, moreover
topic (false friend) theme, question 8
statement (in this context) 14
to factor in take into consid- 21
the effect on local varieties
= Beowulf is my name declarative phrase eration (dialects) of this has been
to wash away gradually elimi- 9
actually (false friend) in fact 15
steadily at a constant rate devastating
nate 10
see Think 106, pp. 24-25 (= speed) 22
indeed (emphatic) in fact
ghastly horrible, frightful, 11
undeniably unquestionably 16
over during 23
buzzword fashionable words
horrendous 12
instead of rather than, as 17
say (in this context) for example 24
parents (false friend) mothers
grim dreadful, ghastly, opposed to 18
see Think 47 and fathers

28 Think in English Issue 147

when they want to be understood by parents, teachers, custom-
ers, etc. If you look at a list of the latest colloquialisms of the
1920s or even the 1960s much of it can seem as alien25 as the
3 Words that present unnecessary pronunciation or spell-
ing difficulties like diphthong or asthma are likely to
be simplified (to dithong or difong and asma or azma
argot in a 300-year-old novel like Moll Flanders (1722). An aver- perhaps).
age of 2000 words a year may be added to the Oxford English
Dictionary but only a tiny26 fraction enter general usage for any
length27 of time. English is remarkably stable and the impact of
4 Punctuation is likely to be radically simplified. Hyphens37,
apostrophes, colons38 and semi-colons39 are all likely to40
being a world foreign language used primarily in formal speech
and writing (from video-conferencing to Wikipedia) means that Meeting Flash Gordon
it is likely to28 remain29 pretty30 stable. Of course, its perfectly possible that in a few years time writing
will disappear as everything will be spoken into and transmit-
ted by machines. If computers do become41 an important
interface42 within43 and between languages, then English
will probably stop evolving since44 machines will standardize
the language.
What will certainly not change unless English is replaced
by another language45 or humanity becomes extinct are
elements of core46 vocabulary like pronouns, numbers and
everyday nouns and verbs.47 We should be able to understand
Flash Gordon is my name a thousand years from now!
Dont worry about learning the English of tomorrow (or that
of 3012); to a large extent48, youre already learning it.

Related Resources
Change You Can Count On Will the critical mass of English mean that it is still a major language in a
The analogy of saying that English in 1,000 years time would W thousand years time or will it have been replaced by another language?
Do languages evolve quickly or slowly in the modern world?
look as foreign31 to us as Beowulf is clearly false. There will,
however, be changes. What are they likely to be?

1 The number of irregular verbs is likely to32 fall significantly.

Over the past millennia their ranks have declined from
around 400 to less than 100. Those undergoing cryogenics33
should be ready to say, he teached and she builded a house.34

2 Within35 our lifetimes we will probably see the loss of the

plural forms there are and there were.36
alien (in this context) foreign, 39
semi-colon a dot over a
unfamiliar comma (= ;)
tiny /taini/ minute, very small 40
are all likely to will all probably
length (in this context) period, 41
do become (emphatic) become
duration, stretch 42
interface system for transmit-
it is likely to it will probably ting information
to remain continue to be 43
within inside
pretty (adv.) reasonably 44
since given that
foreign unfamiliar 45
an unimaginably massive
is likely to will probably change given the critical mass
those undergoing cryogenics English has already acquired.
people who have paid to have Latin, for example, only affected
their cadavers frozen in the hope the literate minority in the
that they can be reanimated in European and Mediterranean
the future world. The range of English is far
as opposed to he taught and greater and deeper.
she built 46
core (adj.) central, essential
within (in this context) in 47
the most basic English words
leaving there is/theres and mother, bird, stone, we,
there was for both singular summer, hold, great, one, two,
and plural three, yes, owl and nightin-
hyphen small horizontal line gale are already a thousand
used to connect words years old
colon two vertically aligned 48
to a large extent by and large,
dots (= :) more or less, to a large degree

Issue 147 Think in English29

Language | FUnctional ENglish

Ways of Speaking
& Laughing
On our community page ( Think in English
magazine) Cristian Dopazo asked for an article
explaining the different ways of speaking and laugh-
ing with accompanying audio. Well, here it is:
Is it Something I Said? plead: beg5:
state: declare, announce. The idea e.g.Please give me another chance 6! Photo by Isabel Rodriguez
here is that you are saying something he pleaded.
clearly, loudly enough1 for every- complain: protest, moan, bleat7: Literally, lions and bears11 roar.
one present to hear. In most cases e.g.Theres no hot water and the TV
what is stated is said in some official doesnt work, she complained. Stage Whispers
capacity2: whisper: murmur. Say in a quiet voice
e.g.The country is now officially in reces- Pump Up8 the Volume so that only the intended12 person or
sion, he stated. The general verb for speaking at great people can hear you:
remark: mention, comment. What is volume is shout. e.g.Dont tell anyone I told you, she
said is said informally to provide extra scream: yell, bawl, shriek. The main9 whispered.
information: idea here is that volume is combined In the theatre it is sometimes impor-
e.g.You havent said much, he remarked. with hysteria: tant to seem to be saying something
claim: assert3, contend4, allege. Here e.g.Get out of my life! she screamed. privately but at the same time the audi-
the idea is that the speaker is simply roar: bellow10, holler. The idea is ence has to hear what you are saying. In
communicating what was said but is similar to the previous one but with this situation actors use a type of loud
not confirming that it is true: a deeper more masculine voice: whisper known as a stage whisper.
e.g.I was late because my car broke e.g.How dare you speak to me like that! People in general use a similar voice
down, she claimed. he roared. to suggest that they are trying not to

Photo by Gregor Younger Pleading Photo by Nina Aldin Thune Screaming

loudly enough with sufficient volume 5
to beg (in this context) implore 10
to bellow (literally) make a
capacity (in this context) role, function 6
chance opportunity loud sound like a bull; (in this
to assert declare, maintain, contend, argue, 7
to bleat (literally) make a pathetic sound like context) roar, shout, bawl, thun-
postulate, insist a sheep der, boom
to contend maintain, affirm, insist, state, 8
to pump up (informal) increase 11
declare, allege 9
main primary, principal 12
intended desired

30 Think in English Issue 147

Countable Nouns
In most cases the noun corresponding
to these verbs has exactly the same
form. In other words:
bawl, bellow10, bleat7, cackle, chortle,
chuckle, claim, comment, croak, giggle,
guffaw, holler, laugh, roar, mention,
moan, mumble, mutter, protest 27,
remark, scoff, shriek, sneer, snigger,
snicker, titter, whisper, yell
- are all countable nouns, too.
e.g.Did you hear that yell? I think some-
body is in trouble.
e.g.That remark was completely out of
Cackling Photo by Leonardo L. Carresi Whispering place. I think you should apologize.
Notice, however, these different forms:
disturb others while also projecting their Typically children snigger/snicker.
voices: scoff: say something while22 laughing VERB NOUN
e.g.What time does the library close? he sarcastically: allege allegation
said in a stage whisper that was audi- e.g.You dont believe in that superstitious announce announcement
ble throughout13 the reading room. nonsense23 , do you? he scoffed. assert3 assertion
mutter: mumble. Here the emphasis Typically, cynics scoff. complain complaint
is on the fact that what is said is not contend4 contention
clearly audible: Laugh Your Head Off declare declaration
e.g.Im sorry I ate your biscuit, he We have a number of verbs that are plead plea
mumbled. more nuanced24 than laugh. Notice that state statement
croak: rasp14, say hoarsely15. The most of these words are used primar- Whats more, notice that beg5 and
important thing here is that you have ily to describe the laughter and not the rasp14 dont have a corresponding
a dry throat16: words that accompany it. countable noun.
e.g.Could I have something to drink, chuckle: laugh softly, usually to
please? he croaked. oneself: Uncountable Nouns
Literally, frogs17 croak. e.g.Ill never forget the look on my bosss Finally, you should be aware that more
face when I told him! he chuckled. of these words are more frequently
Negative Vibes18 chortle: chuckle gleefully25: used as uncountable nouns ending
sneer: s ay something with e.g.Thats a great joke! he chortled. -ing:
contempt19 in your voice: Typically, pompous people chortle. bawling, begging, bellowing, bleat-
e.g.Youre not wearing that dress to the giggle: titter, snigger, snicker. Laugh ing, cackling, chortling, chuckling,
party, are you? she sneered. in a nervous, foolish or childish way: complaining, croaking, giggling,
Typically, cynics sneer. e.g.Look, a man in a skirt! he giggled. guffawing, hollering, roaring, moan-
snigger (UK English), snicker (US Typically, children giggle. ing, mumbling, muttering, pleading,
English): say something laughing cackle: laugh loudly and in a cacoph- scoffing, shrieking, sneering, snigger-
disrespectfully at someone elses onous way, guffaw26: ing, snickering, tittering, whispering,
misfortune: e.g.Did you hear that joke? the old lady yelling
e.g.Look, he dropped20 his lunch tray21! cackled. e.g.Im sick of your complaining (or any
he sniggered. Literally, chickens cackle. of the other -ing forms).
The uncountable noun of laugh is
throughout in every part of 21
to rasp say hoarsely15, say with a dry throat 22
while (in this context) at laughter.
hoarsely with a harsh/croak- the same time as
ing voice, huskily, raspingly 23
nonsense rubbish, clap-
throat oesophagus, windpipe, trap, ridiculous ideas
Related Resources
trachea 24
nuanced subtly differentiated
frog 25
gleefully exuberantly, triumphantly Y Track 6
vibes (literally) vibrations, (informal) feeling 26
to guffaw laugh loudly/heartily, roar with
contempt disdain, scorn, ridicule laughter Do certain nationalities talk in specific ways? Which
would you associate with the different speaking
to drop sth. let sth. fall (in this context) 27
notice that in this case the stress changes: words? Do you tend to chuckle, chortle, snigger ,
accidentally proTEST (v.) PROtest (n.) cackle or giggle or does it depend on the situation?

Issue 147 Think in English31

Language | Pronunciation

Can Phonics be
Used for TEFL?
ver the past decade or so there spelling and pronunciation is, shall we
has been something of a revolu- say, indirect.
tion in the way reading is taught With Government support8 phonics
to children in Britain. In the world of UK now has the ascendancy9 in British
primary-school teaching the synthetic schools. In other words British children
phonics1 has become a battle cry2. For are encouraged4 to decode5 words into
many decades there has been a raging3 smaller parts to try to work out10 their
debate between those who believe that pronunciation. Surprisingly, this is even
children should recognize whole words done with made-up11 words like clursty
and those who believe that children to ensure that the children are using
should be encouraged 4 to decode 5 their phonic decoding skills12 rather
words by spelling them out. In phonetic than13 recognizing words they already
languages like Spanish, Italian or German know. Most phonic systems also include
this is a no-brainer6 because broadly sight words14, which resist decoding
speaking7 d-o-g spells dog. However, as and should be recognized as a single Photo by Bridget Franklin Kite
you might have noticed, for most words unit. As I listened to teachers explaining
in English the relationship between the concept of phonics on BBC Radio 4s Womens Hour I thought to myself,
What are the implications of all of this
for TEFL15?
A search on the Internet found little.
Only Tom Way, who teaches English in
Indonesia, seems to have written anything
(as he says, I cant find any really repu-
table articles on [phonics for TEFL]). Mr
Way is pretty16 negative about phonics
for TEFL. One reason he states17 is that
learners dont have as large18 a bank19
of oral language as native speakers do.
However, there are two reasons why this
argument is flawed20. First, phonics starts
being taught in Britain to four-year-olds;
not a group usually acknowledged as
having a large18 bank19 of oral language.
Secondly and more importantly, as weve
already mentioned, phonics is taught to
native-language primary school learners
partly through made-up11 words. If thats
the case then no bank or oral language
Photo by Marina Carresi Queue-cue is necessary.
synthetic phonics the teaching of combina- 7
broadly speaking in general, more or less 14
see the box What are Sight Words?
tions of letters and how they relate to sounds 8
support backing, approval 15
TEFL teaching English as a foreign
battle cry slogan, watchword, mantra 9
to have the ascendancy (have-had-had) be language
raging intense dominant, be hegemonic 16
pretty (adv.) rather, surprisingly
to encourage stimulate, prompt, urge 10
to work out determine 17
to state say, give
to decode decipher, decrypt 11
made-up invented 18
large (false friend) big
no-brainer sth. that is obvious and requires 12
skills abilities, talents 19
bank (in this context) reserve
no mental effort 13
rather than instead of, as opposed to 20
flawed defective, spurious

32 Think in English Issue 147

Photo by Marina Carresi Pear-pair Photo by Marina Carresi Quay-key

What is a Sight Word?

probably be less than 100 words.
Now one of the fortunate things
Over 75% of English words
The pronunciation of most English about many sight words is that follow phonic rules relating
words can be guessed 21 from the they have homophones. It really to clusters60 of letters.
spelling, its just a question of knowing doesnt matter if these are rare26
the rules of phonics. However, certain or arcane 27. By associating the sight Although the sight words should be
words cannot be worked out10 by words to their homophones we can help taught separately, they certainly shouldnt
analogy; they dont follow any phonic to fix the pronunciation. Here are a few be avoided55. Rather56 they should be
rule. In other words their pronuncia- examples: brought up57 regularly. The best way to
tion is only indirectly related to their reinforce them is for the EFL student to
spelling and you have to learn the bear-bare28, break-brake29, choir30 - hear them first each time, then to see
whole word as a unit. For instance22, quire 31, climb-clime 32 , colonel- them preferably on a flash card58 with
none should be pronounced /noun/ kernel33, coup34 -coo35, done-dun36, an illustration59 and, where one exists,
like known; where /wer/ and were gaol37-jail, great-grate 38, heir 39 -air, the corresponding homophone.
/w3: r/ should be homophones of iron-ion, isle-Ill, know-no, mayor40 -
weir23 /wir/;24 are /a:r/ should be a mare41, none-nun42, one-won, pear- Decoding
homophone of air, rather than25 of pair, people-peepul 43, quay44 -key, In the past British primary-school teach-
ah. Other sight words include build, queue 45 -cue 46, rough-ruff47, shoe- ers expected children to pick up 61 the
does, doubt, ghost and women. shoo48, son-sun, steak-stake49, sure- rules of English pronunciation intuitively.
shore50, sword-sawed51, talk-torque52, This policy62 resulted in many children
Phonics for Foreign Learners through-threw, yolk 53-yoke54, were- feeling frustrated so that they ended up
So, what would a TEFL phonics course whir, and where-wear. Of course, other hating reading. One of the advantages
involve? Well, the first move would be sight words such as does, loose, said of phonics is that it explicitly teaches
to identify a list of sight words14. The and what just have to be learned but the pronunciation of clusters of letters
core vocabulary on such a list would there arent that many of them. through detective work.
to guess determine 37
gaol (UK English) jail (US English) small prison 51
to saw (saw-sawed-sawn)
for instance for example 38
to grate shred, fragment, pulverize 52
weir a low wall built across a river to control 39
heir s.o. who inherits 53
yolk the yellow part of an egg
the flow of water 40
mayor municipal leader 54
in fact, where is a homophone of wear, 41
mare female horse 55
to avoid (in this context) ignore
and were is a homophone of whir 42
nun religious woman who lives in a convent 56
rather by contrast
rather than as opposed to 43
peepul (or pipal) (Ficus religosa) an Indian 57
to bring up (bring-brought-
rare uncommon tree (which is sacred to Buddhists) brought) (in this context)
arcane obscure, recondite 44
quay dock, wharf, part of a mention
bare naked, undressed port where merchandise can be 58
flash card card with a clear
brake mechanism for stopping a vehicle unloaded word or picture on it used in
choir group of (religious) singers 45
queue (UK English) line of teaching
quire (technical) a 24-page section of a book people waiting 59
there are a lot of free flash
clime region characterized by a specific climate 46
cue signal to start cards to download from the
kernel core, essence 47
ruff internet and print out
coup (dtat) putsch, military takeover 48
to shoo frighten away, chase off 60
cluster group
to coo murmur (like a pigeon) 49
stake 61
to pick up acquire, learn
dun greyish-brown 50
shore coast(line) 62
policy (in this context) strategy

Issue 147 Think in English33

Language | Pronunciation

It is counterintuitive that right is a

homophone of write and rite. However,
imagine we present an EFL learner with
the following three lists:
1. blight63, bright, fight, flight, fright64,
knight65, light, might, night, plight66,
right, sight, slight, tight67
2. wrap68, wreak69, wreck70, wrist71, write,
wrong, wry72
3. bite, kite, mite73, rite, site, trite74, white Photo by Mario Herrera Mare-mayor
He or she would be able to work out10 on
their own75 that
1. -ight is pronounced /ait/ in English,
2. w- is silent when a word begins wr-,
3. -ite is pronounced /ait/

A native teacher should be able to set

up76 that type of exercise on the hoof77 in
the moment that an EFL student mispro- Photo by Raul Puy Shore-sure Photo by Marina Carresi Nun-none
nounces a word. Even if the teacher is
a non-native and feels insecure about severe, sincere, sphere. ad hoc78 exercise on the basis of a word
producing these sorts of lists ad hoc78, Then, where, there and were can be that the student has mispronounced, the
he or she should be able to prepare them introduced as sight words. pronunciation exercise becomes relevant
with relative ease for the next class. and therefore90 of interest.
Once students are trained to deduce in The Advantages of Phonics for But what is even more important in
this way, the teacher can begin to introduce TEFL15 this sense is that the system mimics91
exceptions, which should be treated as EFL learners face 87 a number of inter- how native English speakers actually92
sight words14. So, for instance79, if the list: related problems. First, the relationship store vocabulary in their brains. Steven
4.appear, clear, dear, ear, fear, hear, between spelling and pronunciation can Pinker has demonstrated in Words and
gear80, near, rear81, smear82, spear83, seem bewildering88. At the same time Rules that we store some words, usually
tear84, year teaching pronunciation as such can seem the most common ones as sight words,
produces the rule: -ear is pronounced very abstract. Indeed, if the student feels, while the majority are left to be inter-
/ir/, afterwards bear-bare, tear85-tare86 OK, youve got me to say it correctly now preted according to the rules that we
and wear-where can be introduced as but how am I going to retain the pronun- have picked up93 intuitively. However,
sight words, to be learned together with ciation of one specific word when I need EFL learners dont have to learn the
their homophones. to know hundreds if not thousands? rules intuitively; they can accelerate the
The application of the sort of phonic process through phonics.
Similarly, students should be able to system we have described should kill two
deduce that -ere is pronounced /ir/ from birds with one stone89. First, the learn- Related Resources
the list: ers are arriving at rules for themselves, Do you think phonics could be useful
5.adhere, atmosphere, austere, here, so they are finding order in the appar- I for Tefl? Is there any way that you could
generate your own rules?
interfere, mere, persevere, revere, ent chaos. Secondly, by developing an
blight infestation, affliction 74
trite banal, clichd, predictable 84
tear drop of salty water that falls from ones
fright scare, shock 75
on their own by themselves, alone, without eye when one cries
knight help 85
to tear (tear-torn-torn) break (e.g. paper)
plight predicament, difficult 76
to set up (set-set-set) create 86
tare (Vicia hirsuta) a plant of Eurasia and
situation 77
on the hoof spontaneously, in an impro- North Africa
tight secure, taut, restricting vised way 87
to face be confronted by
to wrap cover, swathe, sheathe 78
ad hoc for a specific purpose/situation 88
bewildering perplexing, impenetrable and
to wreak inflict, cause 79
for instance for example frustrating
wreck derelict vehicle, ship/car that has 80
gear equipment and clothing for 89
to kill two birds with one stone solve two
been destroyed a specific job problems with a single action
wrist articulation where ones 81
rear (adj.) posterior 90
therefore for that reason
hand meets ones arm 82
smear streak, smudge, blotch, 91
to mimic imitate, copy
wry /rai/ ironic, sardonic dirty mark; false accusation 92
actually (false friend) really, in fact
mite 83
spear 93
to pick up acquire, learn

34 Think in English Issue 147

Language | Idioms

The Lie of
the Land
Heres a selection of expressions
that refer to landscape and terrain.
a blot on the landscape
= an eyesore1, sth. ugly that spoils2 the appearance of a place: Photo by Marina Carresi As old as the hills.
e.g.That power station is a real blot on the landscape. Who would
ever think of putting a power plant in such a beautiful valley? to get the lie of the land [get-got-got]
to see how/the way the land lies [see-saw-seen]
the cultural landscape = try to discover what the situation really is before taking a
= the cultural panorama: decision:
e.g.The cultural landscape is pretty3 desolate in times of recession. e.g.I havent decided yet. I need to see how the land lies.
A related idea is a cultural desert, which describes a place
in which little or no intellectually stimulating entertainment as old/ancient as the hills5
is on offer. = very old. Since the Bible hills have been alluded to in meta-
phors referring to permanence:
thats how/the way the land lies e.g.This computer is as old as the hills. We need to get a new one.
= thats the current situation:
e.g.Im sorry if I havent been very encouraging4 but thats the to be over the hill
way the land lies. = be past ones best, be on the decline:
e.g.In a sport like that youre over the hill at 30.

You cant see the wood for the trees (UK English)
You cant see the forest for the trees (US English)
= you are so focused on details that you fail to see the big
e.g.How can you plan the long-term strategy if you are running7
the company on a day-to-day basis? You cant see the wood
for the trees.

were not out of the woods yet

= still havent escaped from danger/ difficulties:
e.g.There are some tentative signs that the economy is bottoming
out8 but were not out of the woods yet.

to get bogged down [get-got-got]

= have difficulty progressing. A bog is an area of land with heavy
Photo by Marina Carresi You cant see the wood/forest for the trees. wet soil9 on which it is difficult to walk:
e.g.Dont get bogged down in the details. Its the overall10 idea
eyesore ugly sight considered as a whole from an thats important.
to spoil ruin, blemish objective perspective
pretty (adv.) rather, somewhat, 7
to run sth. (run-ran-run)
reasonably manage sth. Related Resources
encouraging stimulating, 8
to bottom out stop declining
enthusiastic and stabilize
hill small mountain, elevated 9
soil earth, loam, sod, turf, Think up situations in which you could use each of these expressions.
Z Write them down and try to use them.
terrain terrain
the big picture the situation 10
overall general

Issue 147 Think in English35

Language | Common Mistakes

The Position
of Adverbs
The fundamental rule about adverbs and e.g. They are carefully checking the records.
word order is: e.g. The number of bacterial species has yet
to be4 adequately calculated.
Dont put the adverb between e.g. Have they correctly interpreted the
the verb and its object if they situation?
appear together. e.g. She was slowly stirring5 her coffee.
Photo by Leonardo L. Carresi provided by CEDEM
Nevertheless, in all these cases the adverb
Adverbs of manner1 come after the verb: could also go at the end of the sentence.
e.g. The choir2 sang beautifully. infinitive (to gradually sell) but there
or after the object (if there is one): Adjective-Noun Equivalents is nowhere else to put the adverb while
e.g. The choir sang the aria beautifully. So, which is better: the adverb within6 retaining the meaning.
e.g. He wrote his essay carefully. the verbal structure or at the end? This e.g. I gradually decided to sell... or I decided
It would be wrong to put the adverb is often a question of taste but, accord- gradually to sell...
between the verb and the object: ing to one view, if the adverb + the verb both means that the decision was gradual.
e.g. The choir sang beautifully the aria. naturally suggest an adjective and a noun e.g. sell gradually all the books...
e.g. He wrote carefully his essay. they should be next to each other: sounds unnatural because we are putting
e.g. The reconstruction process has virtu- the adverb between the verb and its
However, if there is a preposition between ally been completed. object13.
the verb and the object, the adverb can - implies virtual completion. e.g. sell all the books gradually I had
go between the verb and the preposition: e.g. The boss said he was seriously consid- collected.
e.g. He depended totally on his daughter. (or ering my proposal7. sounds even worse. Finally,
He depended on his daughter totally.) - implies serious consideration. e.g. ...all the books I had collected
Complex Verb Forms The Split Infinitive suggests that the books were gradually
When the verb consists of two or more In the past people made a big deal collected (and they probably were but
pieces (i.e. auxiliary verb(s) + main 3 about8 not putting the adverb between thats a different idea from the original
verb) we can put an adverb after the first to and the verb (e.g. to boldly9 go. sentence).
element: This crime10 was called splitting11 the
infinitive. The reason why a split infini- Have To, Need To, Ought To,
Photo by Karine Koehler

tive was considered wrong was that you Used To

cant split the infinitive in Latin (because With these verbs the most natural place
the Latin infinitives are single words). This for an adverb is before have to, ought
is a ridiculous argument since12 the two to and used to (never between the verb
languages are significantly different in all and to):
sorts of ways. Moreover, not splitting the e.g. I definitely have to remind him to
infinitive often results in sentences which lock14 the door.
are less natural or less clear. e.g. You really ought to tell me things like
e.g. I decided to gradually sell all the books that when they happen.
He likes animals very much. I had collected. e.g. I never used to get hay fever15.
Some people may object to the split
nearly all typical adverbs ending -ly are help the sugar to dissolve 11
to split (split-split-split) break, divide
adverbs of manner. 6
within inside 12
since (in this context) given that, as
choir /kwair/ group of singers (usually in a 7
proposal plan, suggestion 13
and so breaking the rule introduced at the
religious context) 8
to make a big deal of (make-made-made) beginning of the article
main principal, primary agonize about 14
to lock sth. securely close sth. using a key
has yet to be still has not been 9
boldly courageously, valiantly or a bolt
to stir move a spoon around in a hot drink to 10
crime (sarcastic) mistake 15
hay fever allergy to pollen

36 Think in English Issue 147

Photo by Leonardo L. Carresi provided by CEDEM
They carefully planned the hike. The members of the armed militia have never been identified.

Well and Very Much last night usually come at the end of the Concluding Remarks
A common problem for EFL16 learn- sentence (though they can come at the The information given here is just
ers arises17 with well. Some European beginning for emphasis): a starting-point. There are many
languages tend to use a word order e.g. Ive got a lot of work today. (or Today more irritating little rules for specific
equivalent to: Ive got a lot of work.) adverbs, which you just21 have to pick
e.g. You speak well English. up22 by reading, listening to and using
e.g. She wrote well French but she spoke Adverbs of Indefinite Time English. However, most of the time the
it badly. Adverbs like often, never, seldom18 and incorrect positioning of an adverb may
This word order is wrong in English. The rarely come before the main3 verb: sound foreign23 but it shouldnt stop
adverb well comes after the object: e.g. Mary-Anne always arrives late to you being understood.
e.g. You speak English well. rehearsals19. Moreover, there is some evidence
e.g. She wrote French well. e.g. He has occasionally seen bears20 in that the rules are becoming more
The same is true of very much those mountains. relaxed. For instance24, once25 it was
e.g. She likes very much animals. e.g. Those Minoan texts have never been necessary to put also with the verb in
e.g. He likes animals very much. deciphered. the middle of the sentence. Now many
However, adverbs come after the verb young native speakers and appar-
Adverbs of Definite Time be: ently all Australians are incapable of
Adverbs like yesterday, tomorrow or e.g. Mary-Anne is always late for rehearsals. following this rule.

EFL English as a foreign language 21
just (in this context) simply Related Resources
to arise (arise-arose-arisen) appear, emerge 22
to pick up (in this context) acquire, absorb
seldom rarely, only occasionally 23
foreign (in this context) unnatural
Life is too short to worry about word
rehearsal practice session (for 24
for instance for example order so long as native speakers
musicians or actors) 25
once in the past understand me do you agree?

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Issue 147 Think in English37
Photo by Marina Carresi
Language | Word Building

Am I My
Keep has been around in English for over a thousand years and is related
to the Anglo-Saxon verb cepan-cepte. Over the centuries it has meant
hold, watch, take care of and preserve among other things. A keep
was the donjon1 of a castle, while a keepsake is a souvenir kept for the
sake of2 remembering the giver. However, our interest in this article is
the agent noun keeper and compound nouns formed from it. It must be lonely being a lighthouse-keeper.

Hes a Keeper
Keeper on its own is used in a number Sporting -keepers
of ways. If someone says Hes a keeper As regards10 compound nouns ending
or Shes a keeper this often means that in -keeper, goalkeeper is probably
the person is worth keeping3. In other the word you are most likely to11 come
words if a mother says to her adult daugh- across12. However, the world of sport also
ter, Johns a keeper this means John offers us wicketkeeper in cricket. The
is worth marrying, You should marry roles of these two players are in fact radi-
John. However, in the context of football, cally different. The goalkeeper is there
keeper is just4 a more colloquial way of to protect the goal to stop points being
saying goalkeeper5. Its slightly6 more scored, while the wicketkeeper tries to
formal than goalie: catch the ball and, if the batsman13 is not
e.g. Johns been our keeper for two years in the crease14, knock over15 the wicket16
now. to eliminate him.
Meanwhile7, the expression, Am I my
brothers keeper? is a way of disclaiming8 Animal -keepers
responsibility for someone you are closely In the context of animals -keepers are
associated with. It comes from the Bible custodians who care for the animal in
(Genesis, IV, 9) and was Cains answer to question. A beekeeper is someone who
God, when he was asked where Abel was. looks after bees in their hives17 in order to
Finally, the expression finders-keepers is collect honey. A zookeeper is someone
a way of claiming9 that if you have found who takes care of zoo animals. Some-
Photo by Spike Call something which didnt have an obvious times we have more specialist -keepers
UN peacekeepers
owner, it is yours because you found it first. in a zoo, such as a lion keeper. However,
donjon central citadel 7
meanwhile at the same time 13
for the sake of for the purpose of 8
to disclaim deny, refuse to accept, reject 14
crease (in cricket) the
is worth keeping should be 9
to claim declare, say designated area around the
retained 10
as regards in relation to, in terms of wicket16
just (in this context) only, simply 11
to be most likely to have the greatest prob- 15
to knock over
goalkeeper ability of (+ -ing) topple, demolish
slightly margin- 12
to come across (come-came-come) encoun- 16
ally, a little ter 17

38 Think in English Issue 147

paradoxically a crowkeeper is not some-
one who looks after crows18 but someone
employed to scare them away19.

Custodians of Buildings
Compound nouns ending -keeper often
refer to a person who is the custodian
of a building. So, for example a light-
house20 -keeper lives in and maintains a
lighthouse20, while a housekeeper looks
after the general running21 of a home.

-keeper = Manager
In the context of places that sell goods22
and services a -keeper is often simply a
manager. For instance, a shopkeeper is
someone who manages23 a shop (British
English), while a storekeeper manages
a store (US English). Likewise 24 , an
innkeeper is somebody who manages23
an inn25. US English also has barkeeper as Photo by Marina Carresi Park keepers or groundskeepers/groundkeepers
an alternative to barman or bartender.
term is groundskeeper/groundkeeper: Last But Not Least
Open-air -keepers someone who takes care of a tract28 of Finally, you should know several other
Not all -keepers work indoors26, though. land, sports fields or a park. Following this kinds of -keepers.
A gamekeeper is someone who manages model, a greenkeeper in somebody who A bookkeeper is an accountant33,
and takes care of animals which are going cares for a golf course. Such a person is a someone who looks after a compa-
to be hunted27 (on a game reserve). Simi- greenskeeper in US English. nys account books.
larly, a park keeper looks after the plants A peacekeeper keeps the peace
and animals in a park. A more general Controlling Access between two conflicting groups.
Sometimes -keepers are the people who Peacekeepers are often soldiers
control access to a building or person. A employed by the United Nations.
doorkeeper, for instance29, is the person On the other hand, a timekeeper
who guards the access to a building and is someone who officially records34
decides who can enter and who cant. A how long something takes.
gatekeeper has a similar job, except that However, if we describe someone
he or she controls access into an open-air as a good/bad timekeeper this
area by guarding the gate30. Metaphori- simply means that he or she is
cally, a gatekeeper is also somebody who punctual or unpunctual.
controls access to an important person by e.g.Diane is an excellent timekeeper.
filtering telephone calls and only permit- Everyday shes there sitting at her desk
ting access to the VIPs office if the visitor when I arrive at 9.00 each morning.
has an appointment31.
Indirectly related is the term lock- Related Resources
keeper. This is someone that lives near
Which of these jobs or activities most
Photo by Marina Carresi A zookeeper a lock 32 in a canal and who opens and L appeal to you? Which least?
closes it when required for canal boats.
crow (Corvus 22
goods products 30
corone) 23
to manage sth. run sth., be in charge of 31
appointment pre-arranged
to scare sth. 24
likewise in a similar way meeting
away frighten 25
inn tavern (usually with several bedrooms) 32
lock type of valve in a canal that
sth. off, chase sth. 26
indoors inside buildings permits the level of water to change
away 27
to hunt kill for sport 33
accountant s.o. who writes down and super-
lighthouse 28
tract area, expanse vises the expenditure and income of a company
running management 29
for instance for example 34
to record (in this context) register, write down

Issue 147 Think in English39

Language | Translation

Error Detectives
Can you improve the English on these labels1?
1. IGIENE & PRIVACY2 3. Suggested Preparation
Clear Cat3 - Defrost11 the arepa12 into13 the microwave over14 45 seconds.
- sticker4 on the side of a cat-litter tray5. - To warm up15 the grill, frying pan16 of teflon17 or irons18
to fire higher toasting19 furnace20 to 230C/450F.
Photo by Marina Carresi

- Grill according to taste

- on a packet of frozen corn arepas filled with cheese from Colombia

Photo by Fabiola Vieyra

You have choosen the original2
maschera del galeone
A real Venice6
hand made product.7
Artists have realized8
and decorated it in full respect - Grill according to taste
of9 artisan traditions and
original designs developed
flame or in the oven at 230C/450F.
in Venice together with10
- Heat under the grill, in a Teflon frying pan16 or a griddle pan22 over a high
COMMEDIA DELLARTE 3. Defrost11 the arepa (maize cake) in the microwave for 45 seconds.
during the late 17th Century. in21 the late 17th Century.
- label on a carnival mask. traditions and original designs developed in Venice for the Commedia DellArte
hand-made product. Artists have crafted and decorated it respecting artisan
Related Resources 2. You have chosen an original maschera del galeone An authentic Venetian
Most people ignore the writing on a packet, 1. Hygiene & Privacy: Clean Cat
so it isnt very important. The quality
1 of the language on a package reflects the Suggested Improvements
quality of the product. Which of these
statements do you agree with.

label tag, piece of paper or plastic attached 7
punctuation: this phrase could be better 15
wrong tense: use the imperative for instruc-
to a product that offers information about the punctuated tions
product 8
wrong word: to realize means to become 16
frying pan
misspelling: one of the words is misspelt conscious. We need a different verb. 17
unnatural word order
wrong word: clear can imply that something is 9
unnatural expression: native speakers would 18
wrong word
intelligible, obvious or transparent. None of never write in full respect of 19
meaningless phrase
these meanings seems relevant to the context. 10
wrong word: together with makes little sense 20
wrong word: we dont talk about a furnace in
They probably intended to use a similar word here a kitchen
which? 11
to defrost thaw, increase the temperature of 21
during is not wrong; we would say during the
sticker adhesive label1 food to > 0C 17th Century. However, by making the time
cat-litter tray container for the absorbent 12
non-translation: somewhere on the package it period more specific the late 17th Century
granular material in which domestic cats should explain what an arepa is in sounds a little more natural.
urinate and defecate 13
wrong preposition: into implies movement. 22
griddle pan type of round metal plate used
wrong form: we need the adjectival form of 14
wrong preposition: over with time means like a frying pan16 but with little or no oil
Venice more than

40 Think in English Issue 147

Test how well you have retained the vocabulary from this issue of think by doing the following crossword:
If you find the crossword difficult, do the easy clues (in red) first. This will make the rest of the words much easier to find.


11 00


4 5 6 00





1. precision, exactness
3. lively, dynamic; risqu, sexy
7. fragment, bit; fight. Anagram of carps
8. excrement; nonsense
9. knock (n.); reprimand; type of music
00 16 17 18 00 19 20 21 22 12. on one occasion; in the past. Anagram of cone
13. pain. Anagram of each
16. groan, complain
23 24 00 00 25 18. indefinite article
19. breed of dog. A region of Canada
22. conjunction. Homophone of 12 DOWN
00 26 00 00 00 27 28 00 29 30 23. matchless, superlative
26. same as 22 ACROSS
27. Radar and Electronics Association (initialism)
29. cinerary particles, type of tree
31 32 33 00 34 00 00 35 36 31. monopolies (n.); relies on
32. oxidizes
34. therefore. Homophone of sew
00 37 00 38 00 39 40 00 41 42 35. expanse of salt water. Homophone of C
37. same as 18 ACROSS
39. Royal Town Planning Institute (initialism)
43 00 44 45 46 00 47 48 49 40. 3.1415927
41. health farms with curative waters. Anagram of pass
42. since; arsenic (chemical abbreviation)
43. conjunction
50 51 00 52 53 00 54 55 00 00 44. electronic correspondence
45. post
47. yellowish-brown (UK spelling)
56 57 58 00 59 60 61 62 50. exists
52. mystery, conundrum
54. constricting snake
63 64 00 65 00 66 00 56. day of the month; romantic rendezvous, fruit
57. consumed food
59. adviser, consultant; therapist
61. same as 26 ACROSS
00 00 00 67 68 00 69 00 00 70 71 63. cicatrix
64. automobile
65. regulation; govern
72 00 73 74 00 75 76 77 78 79 66. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (abbreviation)
67. operational taxonomic unit (initialism)
69. hello
80 81 00 82 83 00 84 00 00 85 70. (I) exist in the morning?
73. condiment
75. (Lathyrus odoratus) a fragrant climbing plant; term of
endearment for a child (5, 3)
00 86 87
77. spherical green legume
80. subject pronoun
81. subject pronoun
82. affirmative adverb
84. possess. Anagram of won
85. same as 61 ACROSS
Down 28. same as 70 ACROSS meat 86. financial institution specializing in commercial loans
1. sum, quantity 29. tarmac 55. elderly, ancient and financing (10, 4)
2. amalgam, composite, building 30. scorch, scald. Anagram of 58. informal thank you. 87. edge, slope; financial institution
complex arse Homophone of tar
3. bellow. Homophone of raw
4. chronicles
32. pillage, plunder 60. preposition. Not here? think 146 solutions
33. at that time; next 62. comment. Correct again?
5. cubic centimetres (initialism) 34. impetus, incentive 65. gowns, ceremonial clothing M O B WO L V E R I N E T
6. shriek, bawl 36. auricular protrusion 68. you and me American? I R O E A G O C A R
7. shriek, bawl 38. female chicken 69. carved in stone. Anagram of
8. North African country 39. French stew when
9. colour 40. aircraft. Homophone of 70. age, epoch (UK spelling) C A N R O T M A N I A
10. buy plain 71. stain, blemish; correct (v.) A V C A T U R N G A S
11. hill; horse 41. reprimand 72. same as 42 ACROSS R E H E A R S A L T E A O
12. paddle 43. a viral disease (initialism); 73. same as 38 DOWN
13. competent. Homophone and helps 74. cereal used for making bread R S N O C A R A V A N
anagram of Abel 45. germs, bugs and whiskey. Homophone I D G O P E A R E N A
14. dairy product; lotion 46. minor street, path of wry A R O S E G O R E T B
15. possessed; obtained 47. compliant, acquiescent 76. misery, sorrow. Homophone
17. paddles. Homophone of ores
48. chilly, unfriendly of whoa
20. fixed-wing aircraft 49. stop 78. same as 70 (US spelling) E P I C A N T P O L I C E
(UK English) 51. bag (n.); dismiss (v.) 79. Noahs boat D N D R O O P Y R
21. advertisement (abbreviation) 52. ghostly, creepy 81. same as 69 ACROSS O H C O C O A U P A K
24. British monetary unit 53. inflammation of ones joints 83. saint, street (abbreviation)
25. pursue, hunt caused by eating too much 85. preposition activated?

Issue 147 Think in English41


& Exercise

Picture Description
Try to describe the two photographs
on this page. First, for each picture,
Photo by Marina Carresi
describe what you can see. What are the
people doing? Remember to describe
colours, textures, materials and spatial
relationships. Mention similarities and
contrasts between the two photos.
Finally, comment on your personal reac-
tion to what you can see.

How do you feel about buying food

in the street?

When you have finished, listen to the

model version on the CD (track 12) and
try to follow what the native-speaker
is describing. Finally, read through the
tapescript for the recording (on p. 50)
while1 you listen again. Remember
there is a large-type2 version to down-
load at Write
down any new words or expressions you
have come across3.
Photo by Almudena Cceres

Pair-work Practice
Describe another photograph from the magazine to a partner. Your partner can take notes and draw pictures but shouldnt see
the magazine. When you have finished, pass the magazine to your partner, who must then try to find the picture described.
Change roles.
Notice that you are not competing. Both of you win when the correct picture is found.

Related Resources
while at the same time as 3
to come across (come-came-come) encoun-
large-type in big letters ter Track 12

42 Think in English Issue 147

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Tapescripts 147 Think 147 | Tapescripts

Download an illustrated version with larger Obama did in the car industry in America, the automo-
bile industry in America, very successfully and saved an
productive in the future.
SW: No, thats understood I think.
type at entire industrial sector in the United States. To be fair25 EM: I mean27, there was a case during the French Revo-
I think George Bush II, or whatever hes called, started lution when to reduce unemployment they basically
Debate: the Economization of Modern that process and its exactly the opposite of what weve got hundreds of thousands of French citizens to move
Life  (19m58s) been doing in Europe. a mountain literally, I mean27, to dig up46 a mountain
Commentary: Listen to these people talking about SW: And to what costs to the American government? and move a huge34 quantity of earth from one place to
the evolution of Homo economicus. EM: In the case of Obama none at all. They paid back 26 another. It didnt actually32 have any economic advan-
almost all the money; the car industry paid back the tage in doing that. Obviously if you build a road or build
1. Part 1: Two Schools of Thought (6m16s) money. So, I mean27, it was a very, very intelligent a new port or improve facilities47 in some sense for in
South-African Woman (SW): What I dont under- thing to do by on the part of those two American that sense then youre spending on productive capacity
stand in this particular financial crisis in which Europe presidents. in the future.
finds itself, well the whole world finds itself... Why do SW: Cos28 surely it makes more sense not to spend SW: Right.
some people advocate1 budget cuts2 and austerity what you havent got.
campaigns and other people says that does not stimu- EM: It depends because if I spend money on what you 2. Part 2: Banking Tsars  (1m46s)
late the economy and what should happen is more do, yeah? AM: The other thing that Ive noticed recently it seems
expenditure by governments and more loans3 granted4 SW: Yeah. like governments, whether48 theyre conservative or
by banks? EM: Im going to give money to you and you are going to more socio-democratic leaning49, it seems like every-
American man (AM): I think basically there are two spend more money on what she does and shes gonna29 one is at the mercy of50 the markets, what the markets
different schools of thought of economists. I think those have more money and shes going to spend more are going to do. So, I think in some cases governments
that think that stimulation/government spending on money on what he does. And so that money multiplies end up doing51 not necessarily what they want but
investment or industry is the answer to kick-start5 and it creates an economic ripple30 that goes through- what they think needs to be done so the markets are
the economy and to get over6 or to get through7 out31 the economy and the economy grows. If the econ- happy. And so, therefore52, institutions and banking
the economic crisis. And whereas8 the other school omy grows; that means the state has more revenue21. institutions and banks loan53 money.
of thought is that you need to clean up do some SW: Well, then why are so many European countries EM: Yeah but what weve been seeing is that, certainly in
housecleaning9, clean up your budget10, make sure actually32 cutting33 budgets10 and having these huge34 the case of Europe, is that the markets will just42 decide
you have a low budget deficit and by doing that its austerity campaigns? Quite a few European countries to go for54 a particular country and theres almost noth-
their opinion is thats another way of getting them out are involved in that. ing that country can do however much it tries to cut
of the financial crisis. EM: My answer is: For ideological reasons but Ill back 55. I mean27, the case of Greece is the obvious one.
Englishman (EM): Youre still not happy. OK, for exam- let anybody35 else speak. If I mean27, you have a situ- Yknow56, and they will just42 they can torture and
ple, imagine a firm goes bust11, right? ation where a socio-democratic policy36 will tend to humiliate the majority of their population. It does abso-
SW: Uh huh. distribute income whereas37 a neo-classical economic lutely no good.
EM: What tends to happen12 when the firm goes bust11 solution in inverted commas38 will make the rich AM: But should we stand for57 that? I mean27, I think
is that in terms of dividing up their assets13 the Inland richer and the poor poorer. So there is an ideological thats ridiculous that we let the markets dictate.
Revenue14 will come in first and grab15 what they think interest in having those types of austerity solutions SW: It does seem to me in some respects that markets
theyre owed16 and then the workers will be paid and because that means that the people that right-wing39 thats a kind58 of word that I dont really understand, but
then another company will be the other companies, parties represent get richer and keeps the wage rate40 I understand the word banks. Big banks are as power-
like their customers17 or their suppliers18 will get19 down and keeps the rest of us poor. ful now as the feudal lords were and the tsars of Russia
whatever crumbs20 are left, if there are any left, probably SW: But thats more or less whats happening all over were in the time that they were powerful and it seems
arent. And that in itself is something which means that the world today, isnt it? I mean27, the rich are getting as though were pawns59 as to what they decide. Thats
problems of debt will be passed on to other companies richer and the poor are how it feels.
and you can have a process of a domino effect. One EM: Its a natural process of capitalism, yeah.
company closes and another company closes and etc. AM: But I think the problem with that is I mean27 if 3. Part 3: The Age of Accountants (2m47s)
SW: Right. the austerity measures are so severe that you destroy EM: Yeah. I mean27, I think its also a situation where you
EM: In that situation the government is reclaiming what the business in the country. I mean27, in effect, youre have allowed60 over61 the last 30 years accountants62
is theirs if you like taking away the revenue21. to take over, business corporations etc. etc. replacing
SW: Yes. EM: Of course. engineers and so people who are worried about short-
EM: but at the same time they are causing revenues21 AM: So, I mean27, if theyre doing that to help their term balance sheets63 rather than64 long-term produc-
that could be coming in22 in the future to be to not cronies41 in big business I dont think its a very intel- tivity and long-term efficiency are the people who are
exist because if that hole has been punched23 in one ligent idea. But running65 the economies of the world. I mean27, some-
company and passed on to other companies... means EM: I think the question theres also the question body like Mitt Romney, for example, is somebody who
that theyre not going to be getting the tax back from if youre talking about the government just42 spend- made hundreds of millions of dollars out of66 asset
those companies in the future. ing money for the sake of it 43 painting buildings stripping67, buying up companies, ripping them to
SW: So what they should do is bail out 24 a failing and doing sort of44 silly45 things, then thats not a pieces68 and selling off the bits.
company? good idea. It has to be you have to spending money AM: Downsizing69, yeah.
EM: That is one solution. That is, for example, what on an investment or something which is going to be EM: Now yknow56 his great claim to fame70, his

to advocate support, campaign for, recommend 24
to bail out rescue 50
to be at the mercy of be vulnerable to, be in the power of
budget cuts reduction of expenditure 25
fair just, honest 51
to end up doing do... in the end
loans money lent, credit 26
to pay back (pay-paid-paid) return 52
therefore for that reason
to grant (in this context) concede 27
I mean (pause filler) yknow, like, sort of, kind of 53
to loan lend, offer as credit
to kick-start activate, energize 28
cos (slang) because 54
to go for (go-went-gone) attack
to get over (get-got-got) get past, survive 29
gonna (slang) going to 55
to cut back (cut-cut-cut) reduce expenditure
to get through (get-got-got) survive, weather (v.) 30
ripple wave, sequential effect 56
yknow (pause filler) I mean, sort of, kind of, like
whereas while, although 31
throughout through all of 57
to stand for (stand-stood-stood) tolerate, accept
to do some housecleaning (do-did-done) put ones house 32
actually (false friend) in fact 58
kind sort, type
in order, tidy up 33
to cut (cut-cut-cut) (in this context) reduce 59
pawn puppet, s.o. whose opinion is not considered
budget planned expenditure, the quantity of money you 34
huge enormous, great 60
you have allowed one has permitted
plan to spend 35
it should be somebody 61
over during
to go bust (go-went-gone) become bankrupt 36
policy strategy, programme, plan 62
accountant bookkeeper, financial expert
tends to happen usually occurs 37
whereas (in this context) by contrast, while 63
balance sheet document comparing what a company has
assets property 38
inverted commas speech marks earned and what it has spent
the Inland Revenue the fiscal authorities, the tax collector 39
right-wing conservative, reactionary 64
rather than instead of, as opposed to
to grab take, snatch, seize 40
the wage rate the quantity of money that is paid to a typical 65
to run sth. (run-ran-run) manage, control
to be owed should be paid worker 66
out of from
customer client 41
crony friend, associate, confederate 67
asset stripping the practice of buying a company cheaply
supplier company that provides components or products 42
just (in this context) simply when it is in difficulties and then selling all the things it owns
that another company sells 43
for the sake of it with no other purpose than the action itself in order to make a quick profit
to get (get-got-got) receive, be given 44
sort of (pause filler) kind of, yknow, like, I mean 68
to rip sth. to pieces break sth. up
crumbs scraps, vestiges 45
silly ridiculous, stupid 69
downsizing a euphemism for significantly reducing the
revenue income, earnings 46
to dig up (dig-dug-dug) excavate number of employees in a company in order to make it more
could be coming in they could be receiving 47
facilities amenities, services, infrastructure profitable
to punch a hole in a company turn a companys potential 48
whether irrespective of whether (= if) 70
claim to fame reason for being famous, selling point,
revenue into bad debt 49
leaning in their political perspective supposed advantage

Issue 147 Think in English45

Related Are we in the middle of an economic war against democracy? Is economics just the note of realism
Tapescripts | Think 147 K
Resources that stops politicians from promising everyone that they can have their cake and eat it?

great sort of44 economic thing is that he balanced AW: Yeah. Cos28 I mean 27 people say OK AW: Well, it looks like whats going to happen though.
the budget71 in Massachusetts. Yknow56, wonder- yknow56 its all about boom and bust82, but really SW: It sounds really dismal103.
ful, hey ho! But if the only way you know how to make I mean27 as you were saying this sort of44 rational EM: I mean27, again there may also be an element to
money is by ruining industry, ruining real productive type of economics its not. Its the economics that we which the West as we know it is giving way to104 other
power in your country. Well, Im not American, but I have in a democratic society that actually32 make for88 producers, especially in Asia and to some extent 84
wouldnt want you as a president. I mean27, the biggest booms and busts82. in South America and so we are an economy on the
problem with the other point of view, the Keynesian EM: But I mean27 theres also that sort80 of cyni- decline like whatever late Rome or the Ottoman
point of view is that it requires government when the cal comment that economics is very bad at predict- Empire.
economy is taking off72, when the economy is boom- ing, especially about the future in the sense that AW: Yeah, I think thats very true actually32, yeah.
ing73 to be doing some of the austerity thing, getting yknow56 every time that any type of economics EM: So, maybe
yknow56 paying off its debts etc. etc. and theres tries to predict whats going to happen in the future SW: Thats not much more optimistic!
obviously a huge34 temptation democratically to say, I mean27, obviously if you consult 12 economists its EM: We need to
Oh, the economys going wonderfully. Well keep quite its possible the other alternative will happen AW: No, its probably less optimistic, in fact, with the
spending some money and theres more tax money but youll get 12 different answers. with the other analysis there was at least going to be
coming in and well use that tax money to spend on lots AW: True. light at the end of the tunnel one day. With this idea
of things because we imagine the economy is going to EM: Its quite possible that one of those will be correct. none really!
grow indefinitely. But in terms of getting things right about predicting EM: But again because of the whole connectivity of
Australian woman (AW): Well, thats one of the the future using the economic models that exist, the thing its so much more difficult to keep one part
problems here, isnt it? I mean27, thats exactly what economics is a complete disaster. of the world economy yknow56 bubbling over105
happened, you know? And thats kind of74 human AW: Yeah, true. well while yknow56 the rest of us are going into
nature. For me for people not to be thinking of auster- EM: I mean27, even sort of44 weird89, wacky90 things states of austerity etc.
ity measures and being sensible75 with money when like sociology which doesnt have a great deal of91 AW: Yeah, with globalization nowadays101 thats just42
theres lot of it or they think theres lots of it even theoretical underpinning92 can be more successful not possible any longer.
though it was just76 credit anyhow77 and sort of44 than economics. I mean27, its a complete disaster. EM: But erm yeah, its a dismal103 science economics.
not necessarily very sustainable. But, yeah, thats what Yknow56, I say that having studied it. AM: Uh huh.
tends to happen. SW: That makes us all victims of society completely AW: Yeah.
EM: Big credit bubbles78. without any room93 to manoeuvre. Were just42 going AM: And I think as long as106 we have credit, as long as
AW: Uh huh. to be swayed with the tide of94 one economist or credit is offered and we continue with the capitalistic
EM: But, I mean27, you again I think theres a prob- another. society or system I think we are condemned to the
lem with saying, Now why do we let the markets do EM: But or boom-bust cycle.
these things? because the alternative is this sort of44 AW: But then society is people so to say that were all AW: Yeah, yeah, I agree with that too.
phantom called socialism which the immense major- just42 victims. I mean27
ity of the Western world have been taught to reject EM: Yeah, but I in terms of seeing what Merkel etc. 5. Part 5: Ignorance is This  (3m52s)
as a knee-jerk79 reaction. I mean27 if, for example, in are doing now in Europe for me is very, very reminis- AM: And I just42 think because the majority of people,
America the healthcare plan is considered some sort80 cent of95 Mrs. Thatcher. at least in the US, dont fully understand the economy
of yknow56 socialist imposition its AW: True. or economics in general and weve seen over the last
AW: Yeah. EM: You actually 32 hear people around Europe 10 years people
AM: Oh, yeah, definitely. saying, T.I.N.A. there is no alternative in different EM: But the majority of economists dont understand
EM: then any other understanding of the economy languages obviously. And yknow56 that was totally economics!
is like completely out of the question. Yknow56, for her phrase. There is no alternative. We have to do AM: Yeah, but I think they understand the basics.
example, in Europe that sort 80 of healthcare plan is this because we have to this because thats what the AW: It doesnt help much though, does it?
accepted even if grudgingly81 by all the right-wing39 economy requires and there is no other way of doing EM: But if understanding it means that you know what
parties. things and you just42 have to accept it and yknow56, is going to happen if X, Y and Z are put in place107, they
just42, sort of44 yknow56 keep your head down96 dont. They quite clearly dont.
4. Part 4: The Boom-Bust Cycle  (5m17s) sort 80 of thing. And the huge34 period of growth in AM: I dont buy that108. Perhaps they know. Like take,
AW: But what about boom and bust82? Are we always Britain was after her period when different policies36 for example, subprime mortgages109. There were
doomed to boom and bust?
were in place97, largely98 based again, as we were banks giving these loans110 for houses to families that
EM: I think thats part of the combination of three saying on a credit bubble78 etc. etc. private credit Im sure they had a good idea that five or 10 years down
factors: human nature, that you mentioned, democracy etc. I mean27, theres... especially if you have a situation the road111 that they would have problems
and the other thing capitalism. I mean27, in the sense where large99 sectors of the world or a whole economic AW: Im sure they had more than a good idea.
that to some extent84 its possible maybe to if you union like the European Union are going for austerity, it AM: paying for these mortgages.
have people who really have some basic understand- just42 sort of44 so youre just42, sort of44, yknow56 EM: Right.
ing of economics and its completely rationalistic, an circling the plughole100. Its going lower and lower AM: So they sold these on to other banks and these
amoral motor you can keeps things as they have been and lower until you have a minimal level of activity banks had these mortgages insured and whatnot112.
doing in China without that bust85. But you cant do because the state has to pay the police and things like So, they knew enough, they understood the system
that with democracy because theres86 always going that. And then obviously from that minimum you can enough to know how to make money out of66 it,
to be more people going, me, me, me, me, me. And start having growth again. whether113 it was moral or not thats another question.
thats the huge34 problem with Keynesianism that it AW: Yeah. But they know more than your typical114
doesnt fit 87 very easily into democracy, whereas37 EM: To go to that point before you start to actually32 EM: Probably the same people because you have to
of course a neo-classical economics just42 sort of44 grow the economy as Americans like to say nowa- live somewhere would yknow56 could have been
ignores democracy; economics is more important days101 is crazy102 I think personally. putting away money in renting115 a property as they
than democracy. AM: Yeah. were in I mean27, the level of economic collapse

to balance the budget reduce expenditure to the point at 86
theres (substandard English) there are 102
crazy (informal) mad, illogical, unreasonable
which it equals income 87
to fit match, function 103
dismal depressing, dispiriting
to take off (take-took-taken) start to expand 88
to make for (make-made-made) (in this context) create 104
to give way to (give-gave-given) capitulate before, cede
to boom prosper, expand 89
weird strange, bizarre ones place to
kind of (pause filler) sort of, like, yknow 90
wacky unscientific, weird89 105
to be bubbling over be economically active and expand-
sensible (false friend) responsible 91
a great deal of a lot of, much ing
just (in this context) only 92
underpinning basis, grounding 106
as long as so long as, provided that, if (and only if)
anyhow anyway 93
room (uncountable) space 107
to put sth. in place (put-put-put) implement sth.
credit bubble situation in which a lot of people have 94
to sway with the tide of passively accept the consequences 108
I dont buy that (informal) I dont agree with that, I dont
accepted too much credit even though they wont be able to of accept that
return the money if the economy declines 95
to be reminiscent of be comparable to, be similar to 109
subprime mortgage credit for buying a house given to s.o.
knee-jerk automatic, reflex, involuntary, unthinking 96
to keep ones head down (keep-kept-kept) try to avoid who under normal circumstances would not be offered credit
sort type, kind being noticed, try not to attract attention to oneself 110
these loans (in this context) these mortgages, this credit
grudgingly reluctant, unwilling, unenthusiastic 97
to be in place be being implemented 111
down the road later
boom and bust a periodic economic cycle which sees peri- 98
largely primarily, principally 112
and whatnot and so on, etc.
ods of expansion followed by periods of recession 99
large (false friend) big 113
whether if (but if isnt used before or)
to be doomed be fated, be predestined 100
to circle the plughole be on the verge of catastrophe, be 114
your typical [person] the average person, the man in the
to some extent to some degree, in part facing disaster street
bust recession (following a period of expansion) 101
nowadays these days 115
to rent pay monthly for the right to live in a house/apartment

46 Think in English Issue 147

Think 147 | Tapescripts

since 19- I dont know why I said 19-, Im in the wrong 6. Functional English: Ways of Speaking swords160 and no storyline whatsoever, this ones for
century! since 2007-2008 yknow56 was pretty116 & Laughing (2m23s) you. I, however, recommend keeping well away from
difficult to predict just 42 because yknow56 we Commentary: Listen to these phrases and sounds from it. Other movies I regret watching161 include most of
havent seen something like that since the 1930s. If pp. 30-31. what Sylvester Stallone has starred in, except for Rambo
it had been a more minor collapse then the houses and Rocky. I think his worst movie of all time is Stop! Or
wouldve justified yknow56 foreclosing117 on them, Monologues: My Most Missable Movies My Mom will Shoot! Another movie thats near the top
taking them back into the banks property and the  (14m46s) of my worst-film list is Guy Richies Swept Away, which
banks would still have made money Commentary: Listen to these people talking about starred Madonna. In my opinion she cannot act. She
AM: Yeah. films they wish theyd never seen. should stick to162 doing what she does best, her music.
EM: and those people in one sense if theyd been
paying rent as opposed to supposedly paying a mort- 7. Monologue 1 [American English] (3m49s) 8. Monologue 2 [British English]  (4m25s)
gage118 they wouldnt have been any better off119 or Until my early thirties I would watch any movie at all, My most missable movies lets see. I think Id define
worse off120. So, the idea that this is some this is regardless of137 genre and quality. What can I say, I this in various different ways. The first is disappoint-
some type of evil121. I mean27, in one sense I think its really enjoyed watching them. For the past few years, ment163. A movie that was made in 2009 called The Boat
quite a good thing because you were allowing122 the however, I have watched fewer and fewer movies. The that Rocked made by directed by Richard Curtis of
possibility for the whole section of the population, main138 reason for this is simply a question of time. Four Weddings and a Funeral fame164 with a spectacular
who were just42 excluded from the housing market, Before I would use my free time as if it were a cheap, cast: Philip Seymour Hoffman, the Oscar winner, Rhys
had some sort80 of possibility of entering it. The logi- unlimited commodity139, whereas37 now I realize140 Ifans, Bill Nighy, Nick Frost, Kenneth Branagh. I thought
cal thing there would have been to say instead of123 just141 how precious it really is. That said, during my that with a line-up165 like that it had to be excellent.
bailing out24 banks were going to bail out the indi- misspent youth142 there were plenty of143 films I wish I And also a story that was potentially one that was very,
viduals who have some realistic chance124 of paying had never seen. One that immediately comes to mind is very interesting to me, the story of Radio Caroline and
of continuing with their mortgage. And so the state a film from 1998 titled Wild Things. It stars Neve Camp- the pirate ship. That was a radio station that fed166 a
takes over125 those mortgages118 which are considered bell, from Scream, Matt Dillon and Kevin Bacon, who generation and, yes, a great deal of167 nostalgia about
bad debt, but in a long-term sense people I mean27, also starred in Footloose another flick144 I wish I had the idea of where this ship was and how it came into
because a lot yknow56 most people will only fail never seen. Now, Id have to say that Wild Things is one being because it was technically illegal and that added
to pay their mortgage in yknow56 in really dire126 of those films that is so bad that its good because I to the interest and excitement of it all. And I was really
circumstances. They will cut back on127 all sorts80 of actually32 finished watching it. Without spoiling145 very interested to see a movie about the story of Radio
other things. the movie, its basically your146 typical revenge story. Caroline. And when it came to it they picked probably
AM: Sure. My problem with the movie is that it has way too the least interesting aspect of the whole affair which
EM: Its actually32 not a very bad thing to have as many147 plot twists148. Just when you think the story was to say, yeah, there were a bunch of168 DJs out there
collateral128 on a debt. Theres 86 all sort 80 of other has reached its climax they throw another twist at you in the middle of the ocean somewhere getting high169
things that youll just 42 let go129. Somebody says and then another, and another and another. It really and being silly170 and having parties, but that wasnt
somebody wants to reclaim130 your yknow56 your becomes laughable because you think they couldnt the point. It so wasnt the point. And I was very, very
wonderful sports car that you bought and you say possibly go on, but they do, over and over again. So, if disappointed171. So, there you go. Dont, especially,
Well, OK, whatever, take it. you like movies with tons of unrealistic plot twists148 especially if you have fond172 memories of Radio Caro-
AM: Yeah. then this is for you. If not, avoid it at all costs. Another line, dont go see that one, The Boat that Didnt Rock!
EM: But its not a bad asset131 a piece of property. So, film that I started to watch a few months ago is Sucker Let me see, choice number two, missable movies of
the problem is that nobody was predicting the level Punch. Directed by Zack Snyder, who also directed all time. Yes, this was actually32 surprisingly enough
of that crash132. And I havent seen anybody really the great film 300. Sucker Punch is about a girl that recommended by a friend, a film called Let it Ride made
yknow56 in the mainstream133 who was predicting is wrongfully committed to an insane asylum149 by in 1989 with Richard Dreyfuss, an actor I really like a lot.
it until yknow56 just134 before it happened. her abusive stepfather150. Once institutionalized, she The trouble173 with this movie is that the message is
AM: Yeah. withdraws151 into a fantasy world she creates in her just42, as far as Im concerned174, the most missable
EM: Cos28 they dont know whats happening. Econo- imagination. For some odd reason the asylum is full element of the entire thing. It is about a man whos
mists dont know whats happening. of women who also work in a bordello/strip club. The addicted to gambling175 who has a lucky day and just42
AM: Yeah, yeah. main152 character, along with a group of girls from the makes bets176 and keeps winning. And he thinks
EM: And thats the dangerous thing with following asylum, hatches a plan153 to escape. When the main152 in the beginning theres an idea of a message that
yknow56 its like following some sort80 of Moses, character practices her striptease dance shes so good perhaps this isnt a good thing and he really ought to177
some sort80 of prophet who says we have to go up this that everyone becomes entranced154. While dancing be giving it up178 and going back to try and mend179
hill135 and yknow56 look for tablets and blah, blah, she goes into her imaginary world where she and her his marriage. But he just42 ends up winning180 and his
blah, blah, blah. Why? Prove to me. friends fight robots and other ridiculous characters wife sort of44 comes in line181. It was sad beyond
SW: And you question the word victim? that are not even loosely155 tied to156 the story. In fact, belief182. So, I really I couldnt see the point of that at
AM: Yeah. this film has no story whatsoever and poorly written all, not from beginning to end, and none of it was of any
EM: Prove to me that that is actually32 the case. When dialogue. The only thing it has going for it157 is its interest. That was choice number two. The third choice,
have you got it right136 in the past? And then fine, well special effects. The movie was so bad that I had to probably not even really a movie, its something that I
do that. turn it off after about 20 minutes. If you like movies like to do when Im working on putting together183 a
with scantily clad158 women wielding159 samurai script184 or something, I like to get a hold of185 as much
pretty (adv.) rather, quite 140
to realize (false friend) be conscious 161
to regret watching wish I hadnt watched
to foreclose (of banks) take possession of property because 141
just (in this context) quite, exactly 162
to stick to (stick-stuck-stuck) limit oneself to, keep to
a creditor has not returned credit in the agreed way 142
misspent youth wasted/dissipated younger years 163
disappointment frustration of expectations
mortgage credit for buying a house or apartment 143
plenty of more than enough, an ample number of 164
of X fame who is famous for X
to be better off be richer, be more affluent 144
flick (colloquial) movie, film 165
line-up (in this context) cast
to be worse off be poorer 145
to spoil (spoil-spoilt-spoilt) ruin 166
to feed (feed-fed-fed) (in this context) cater for, sustain,
evil immorality, corruption, villainy 146
your (colloquial/in this context) a nourish
to allow permit, enable 147
way too many (emphatic) far too many 167
a great deal of a lot of, much
instead of as opposed to, rather than 148
plot twist surprise in the story(line) 168
a bunch of a group of
chance possibility 149
insane asylum mental hospital 169
to get high (get-got-got) get stoned, experience the
to take over (take-took-taken) take charge of, take respon- 150
ones stepfather the husband of ones mother who is not effects of drugs
sibility for ones biological father 170
silly foolish, idiotic, ridiculous
dire horrible, grim, disastrous 151
to withdraw (-draw/-drew/-drawn) 171
to disappoint s.o. dissatisfy ones expectations
to cut back on (cut-cut-cut) reduce expenditure on retreat, retire 172
fond affectionate, nostalgic
collateral property that guarantees a loan (credit) if it 152
main (in this context) central, focal 173
trouble problem
cannot be paid 153
to hatch a plan devise a plan, plan 174
as far as Im concerned in my opinion
to let go give up, renounce a strategy 175
gambling games of chance (e.g. in casinos)
to reclaim (in this context) repossess 154
to entrance enchant, captivate, 176
to make bets (make-made-made) risk money in games of
asset thing of value, property in some saleable form mesmerize, hypnotize chance (e.g. in casinos)
crash economic collapse 155
loosely vaguely, imprecisely 177
ought to should
the mainstream orthodoxy, the conventional wisdom 156
to be tied to be linked to, be 178
to give sth. up (give-gave-given) stop doing sth.
just (in this context) immediately connected with 179
to mend fix, repair
hill small mountain, area of elevated terrain 157
to have going for it have in its favour 180
to end up winning win in the end
to get it right (get-got-got) make a correct prediction 158
scantily clad underdressed, semi- 181
to come in line (come-came-come) accept the situation
regardless of irrespective of naked 182
sad beyond belief (in this context) ridiculously pathetic
main primary, principal 159
to wield brandish, swing, use 183
to put together (put-put-put) prepare, organize
commodity item, product, thing 160
samurai sword 184
script (in this context) text for a play

Issue 147 Think in English47

Tapescripts | Think 147 T Whats the worst film you ever saw? Why was it so insufferable?

footage186 as I can of whats been made of the story. first time around, well, we just42 cant watch it. But as I
And this was a story that is a curious little piece. Its... say, it just42 made me realize140 that I think Im not nine 11. Improvisation: His Posthumous
there are many, many, many film versions out there. Its years old anymore. Career  (15m55s)
been staged187 many, many times called The Canter- Commentary: Listen to the following improvisation.
ville Ghost by Oscar Wilde and it should be a stormer188. 10. Monologue 4 [British English] (3m38s) Arnold Spinn (AS): OK, I dont think I need to explain
Its a bizarre189 little story about an American family OK, my theory about how to make a bad film. Well, there why I called this meeting.
who moved into this house which has a ghost. And it are two basic ingredients to a movie. First you intro- Ken Tonn (KT): No, its been really hard239 lately240. Im
should be very, very funny. And I chose absolutely the duce the characters and then you see what happens really, really devastated.
wrong version because I was seduced again by an actor. to them. The most common mistake amongst217 film- Finn Boweller (FB): Its a major shame241.
It starred Patrick Stewart of Star Trek fame. 1995, The makers is not to establish the characters properly218 at KT: Such a musical genius should leave us so soon.
Canterville Ghost with Patrick Stewart and Neve Camp- the beginning of the story. The central roles have to be Macey Joberg (MJ): My poor Johnny.
bell, definitely, definitely one to miss. They I think idiosyncratic enough to be believable and yet219 have FB: Yeah, Im really sorry about that.
what it was190 was a made-for-American-television to have enough universal qualities for the viewer to AS: Macey, Im sorry that I forgot to give you my
version and nobody gets191 it, nobody got why it was be able to identify with them. Often disaster movies condolences. It just42 it sent this my world into
funny and that came across loud and clear192. So, there fail to establish the character before the action starts. this spin242.
you go, three more to miss big time193. A classic example is the 2006 remake of The Poseidon FB: Your world?!
Adventure called Poseidon. The ship capsizes220 too AS: Im sorry. I just42 forgot. I forgot to tell you that Im
9. Monologue 3 [Irish English] (2m54s) early and you have these people you dont know and so sorry that Johnnys gone and I forgot to tell you.
My most missable movies. The first movie I think was dont care about221 crawling through222 an obstacle MJ: Well, I wouldnt have been able to pick up the
one of the most missable that Im sure everyone has course223. Some of them die in the process but as a phone243 anyway. Im just42 so devastated. And thanks,
seen it, its Titanic by James Cameron. Yeah, the actual viewer you are completely indifferent about this. even if its two weeks after oh, no two days, sorry.
Titanic194 took about 2 hours 40 minutes to sink but A less common mistake is to establish a character well Yeah, Im just42 so
the damn movie ran for195 almost three and a quarter but then for too little to happen to him or her. A clas- FB: It seems like two weeks. I mean27, in situations like
hours. James Cameron needed an extra half an hour to sic example is the Franco-Vietnamese film The Scent this yknow56 time kind of74 plays games on
suck us in196 and suck us dry197. The problem is when of Green Papaya. Its a beautiful delicate piece but its your head, you know?
I go to the movies I usually go to the bathroom first to just42 too ponderous224. Its like watching footage186 in KT: Yeah, I mean27, even though I this I know were
avoid any yknow56 awkwardness198 during the very slow motion for over an hour and a half. The same all sad and this is a very, very difficult time for all of us.
movie, so I dont have to annoy199 anybody Im sitting sort80 of thing be said for both the 1972 Russian version FB: Thats right.
next to. And thats another reason why I sit at the end of Solaris and 2002 remake starring George Clooney. KT: I think we really need to to focus here even if it
of a row200 of seats, so I can get out to the bathroom All three of these films have great merits, but, please, is for a few minutes because the next steps244 that we
without causing any trouble201. But, of course, during dont ask me to watch them again. take are very important not only for Johnny but for
a three-and-quarter-hour movie it happened. About Of course, if the two problems mentioned are all of us and
halfway through I had to I had to go to the bath- compounded225 thats much, much worse. Take the FB: I agree, I agree.
room. And all this North Atlantic icy water and pipes202 case of Spielbergs 1941; ridiculous, badly drawn char- KT: But and after being Johnnys agent for such a
bursting203 and water coming up to peoples waists204 acters in a completely nonsensical226 plot227. Another long time yknow56 its I really dont know what
didnt help. So, eventually205 I had to just42 get up and example is Nicolas Cages 1993 movie Deadfall. In fact, to do with life. But the last thing I do and this I prom-
Excuse me, excuse me. Im sorry. Excuse me. Im sorry. almost anything Cage has done since 1990 could fall ised Johnny before he left us was to make sure that
Excuse me. And all along the row everybody popping into this category. This is a shame228 because his first yknow56 Ken that the material thats still out there,
up206 and then of course coming back Sorry, excuse few films were rather229 good. He seems to have an the last stuff245 you recorded and we havent released
me. Sorry, excuse me, everybody getting up again. unequalled capacity to choose bad scripts230. However, yet, that we would release it and make sure that it was
And then of course not to mention that song by Celine if I had to choose an all-time worst movie ever it would tasteful246. I think that
Dion, I think its called My Heart Will Go On207. And it probably be Wild Things. On paper it looks promising. AS: Do you have any idea?
did go on and on208 and I dont know how many years Its got some good actors in it, including Bill Murray KT: Johnny would really appreciate that.
every time I hear that introduction on the is it a flute and Kevin Bacon. However, its glossy231 and clichd in AS: I wasnt aware of247 this. What kind58 of material
or the tin whistle209?... gives me a shiver210. Another the worst possible Hollywood way and it has the most did he give you?
movie that made me realize140 in a certain way I had ridiculous plot227 Ive ever seen. Truly232, truly awful. KT: Well, theyve they were working on a new album,
grown up, that I wasnt nine years old anymore was Its interesting because often I find that movies that werent you, right?
when George Lucas announced that the Star Wars are universally lambasted 233 arent that bad. For FB: Yeah, we were working on yeah, I dont know
was coming back. After about 20 years of pining and instance234, Catwoman and Battlefield Earth were both the title now under the situation, but yknow56 we
yearning211 it finally happened. Lucas announced it and viciously235 panned236 and I found them perfectly were working on this one the title of the CD was
geeks212 and 30-somethings213 all over the world went watchable, not good but viewable at least. So, I think Drunk Again in LA, you know? And I feel kind of74
giddy214. But if you ask me it sucked215. The Phantom the expectations you have when you see a movie obvi- bad since248 yknow56 basically he yknow56
Menace it was called. Yknow56, the title alone sucked ously have a big impact on your level of disappoint- I mean27 we all know he drank himself to death
pretty bad216. And the worst character in the movie ment163. Christopher Lambert, Chuck Norris or Steven yknow56 I mean27 So I dont know if we should
was this kind58 of giant seahorse called Jarjar. A lot of Segal couldnt disappoint171 because I expect nothing change that.
people who havent seen the first three movies Star from them. They could only pleasantly surprise me. MJ: The poor tortured soul249!
Wars movies back in the 70s, 80s actually32 enjoyed However, if an actor or director I appreciate makes a FB: Yeah, torture, thats a good way to describe things,
this latest trilogy. But those of us who were there the dud237, I feel cheated238. yeah.
to get hold of (get-got-got) obtain 209
tin whistle 225
to compound combine, occur together
footage moving images 210
to give s.o. a shiver (give-gave-given) 226
nonsensical ridiculous, ludicrous, idiotic
to stage sth. perform sth. in the theatre cause s.o. to tremble 227
plot (of a film or book) story(line)
stormer (slang) impressive/admirable thing 211
to pine and yearn want sth. 228
this is a shame this is unfortunate
bizarre weird, strange, surprising nostalgically 229
rather (in this context) surprisingly
what it was (informal) the problem was that it 212
geek socially inept person 230
script text for a movie (before it has been made)
to get (get-got-got) (in this context) understand 213
30-something s.o. aged between 231
glossy shiny, lustrous
to come across loud and clear (come-came-come) be 30 and 39 232
truly really
very evident 214
to go giddy (go-went-gone) (in this 233
to lambaste criticize, condemn
big time (emphatic) certainly context) become delirious 234
for instance for example
the actual Titanic (false friend/emphatic) the Titanic itself 215
to suck (informal) be awful, be 235
viciously fiercely, vigorously
to run for (run-ran-run) continue for terribly bad 236
to pan (colloquial) criticize, lambaste
to suck sth. in absorb sth. 216
to suck pretty bad (informal) be 237
dud (in this context) awful movie
to suck s.o. dry (in this context) exhaust s.o. reasonably awful 238
to cheat bamboozle, dupe, defraud
awkwardness discomfort 217
amongst among, (in this context) by 239
hard (in this context) difficult, arduous
to annoy irritate 218
properly appropriately 240
lately recently
row line of things that are side to side 219
and yet but 241
major shame really sad thing, great misfortune
trouble inconvenience, nuisance 220
to capsize (of a boat or ship) turn over in the water 242
into this spin (in this context) out of control
pipe tube 221
to not care about s.o. have no empathy for s.o. 243
to pick up the phone answer the telephone
to burst (burst-burst-burst) break, explode 222
to crawl through clamber through, traverse using ones 244
steps measures, moves, strategy
waist pelvis hands and feet 245
stuff things, (in this context) music
eventually (false friend) in the end 223
obstacle course (literally) series of obstacles over an area 246
tasteful in good taste, appropriate, decorous
to pop up (in this context) quickly stand up of terrain (used for training sportspeople, adventurers and 247
to be aware of be conscious of
to go on (go-went-gone) (in this context) continue living soldiers) 248
since (in this context) because, given that
did go on and on (emphatic) continue for a long time 224
ponderous laboured, slow, turgid 249
soul spirit, psyche, person

48 Think in English Issue 147

Think 147 | Tapescripts

MJ: What about re-issuing250 the stuff245 from? You yknow56 I guess268 I guess all this is AS: Finn? Finn?
know I think its a good time for a tribute and all the MJ: Yeah, we all know what he was like. FB: I was telling him all the time. I said, Stop your
stuff245 that his fans loved we should probably try to KT: But we cant deny269 that he was definitely a musical damn drinking!
promote some of that. genius and I think whatever we do AS: Save it for282 the wake283.
FB: Yeah. FB: Musical genius? KT: Yeah.
MJ: You know? KT: Yes, and I think whatever AS: OK.
FB: Yeah, we should. I do would like to have also FB: He got up there and shouted and threw up259 FB: Well
yknow56 my name included in that. I dont wanna251 on stage258! I mean27, come on! Thats called genius? AS: We know how you feel.
sound egotistic or anything, but after all I did write all Come on! FB: Yeah.
the music. I know he was yknow56 he was the one KT: But thanks to that youve been around for so many AS: Any other ideas for how we can lets say
up there with the crowd252, facing253 the crowd, and years and you made quite a good living. well?
yknow56 he was the showman and everything. But FB: But at the concerts whos singing the choruses270 KT: I think we should just42 be blunt284 about it.
and I am I think its necessary also that we do bring out there? Whos singing the choruses? The publics FB: Well
out yknow56 a lot of the maybe a compilation singing my choruses, OK? KT: I mean27, were here to make money and to make
of the big hits that we did together. AS: Finn the most out of what you guys created in the past
AS: Well, I dont mean to sound callous254, but since FB: Theyre my choruses. 15 years.
Johnny passed away255 all his stuff245 has just42 fallen AS: Finn, Finn FB: You know we could
off the shelves256 and even the online stuff245. And I FB: Im sorry. KT: I mean27, for me, for you, Finn, and for you as
think the fans are ready for a new album. AS: Alright, but youre right, absolutely right. I well285, Macey.
FB: Yeah, that sounds good. But like as I said yknow56 mean27 AS: To make money and of course to eulogize286
Im gonna29 have to yknow56 I mean27, this is a FB: I know Im right! I was there 15 years from the begin- Johnny.
business meeting, so we have to talk and bring things ning from the beginning! FB: Well, how about a T-shirt, Thank God Johnnys
out in the open. But, I mean27, really I would like to AS: Youre absolutely right. I never acknowledged271 it. Dead! yknow56 Im sorry.
make sure that I do get257 some credit on this because MJ: You were there 15 years? MJ: Yeah, I think that I think that we should take
after all I mean27 Johnny was singing my songs FB: You were there even longer. I mean27 advantage of the situation and try to make the most
and yknow56 his extremism on stage258 was a big AS: So Ill tell you what, Finn of the fact that this man ruined our lives and tortured
attraction and FB: I dont know how you did it, but I have to give I us for 20 years.
KT: Sure, Johnny sold your music though really. have to hand it to you272. You really did a FB: Well, you know Im amazed287 that youre
FB: Yeah, drinking and throwing up259 on stage258 AS: Finn, Finn KT: So, the truths coming out288?
and not being able to get yknow56 through260 FB: Yeah. FB: admitting that. Yeah. So
the songs. But, I mean27, people kind of74 love that AS: Ill tell you what, why dont you produce the retro- KT: The truths coming out288 in this meeting, huh,
kind58 of thing, you know? I mean27, people like people spective of Johnnys gems273? How does that sound? Macey?
who are yknow56 self-abusive261 and put on a For next Christmas, hows that? You can pick 274 the FB: So
good show, you know? I mean27, but but, yeah, if songs. AS: Did I just did I just hear right there, Macey?
KT: Sure, but I mean27 at the same time though, FB: Well, weve got MJ: I Im sorry to say it was very tough289 living with
Ken, youre still alive and Johnnys the one thats dead. AS: Youll be duly275 noted276 on all the covers277 him. It was very difficult. I put up with290 a lot and all I
FB: Yeah. FB: OK. want is some peace now.
KT: I think we should really concentrate on Johnnys AS: you wrote the stuff245, you wrote the material. AS: Johnny?
legacy here, not yours. FB: Well, you know what the funny was that I wrote KT: I cant believe this.
FB: Yeah, well, erm the material but who gave them the titles? Yknow56, AS: What?
KT: Cos28 you still have time to make your own legacy. I mean27, Ive got titles like Sex on the Beach, Loves of FB: Wow! Im really
FB: Yeah, well, but yknow56 a lot of my legacys tied Sun what is it? Songs of Sun and Love I mean27 KT: I think we know two different Johnnys here.
up in262 Johnny, you know? I mean27, I was constantly AS: Get yBitch Ass Back to278 Minnesota. AS: OK. Alright.
taking him I mean27 yknow56 wed have shows FB: But that actually32 that one did279 really well. FB: Well, what Johnny do you know? I dont know.
and hed be drunk and passed out263 in yknow56 That one did really well. Everybody loves the title of Where were you?
the hotel room and yknow56 wed have to pour264 that song. But and I have to hand it yknow56 AS: The widow291 has spoken.
cold water and ice on him and then take him into the to272 Johnny. He did pick 274 a good one on that one. FB: I mean27, youre his agent. You should know him
shower. I mean27 yknow56 I mean you know Johnny But Tequila Twist did really well too. I mean27, we could fairly292 well.
was a little excessive, you know? probably yknow56 take stuff245 from that and put KT: I do know293 him very well.
KT: Sure. it on the compilation. AS: Pardon me.
FB: And theres a lot of work going in there. AS: Well, Ill let you pick 274 them all. MJ: Oh, come on! Dont
KT: I was there. FB: Oh AS: The widow291 has spoken. OK, so, hey, I mean27,
FB: You know 15 years I was doing that stuff265! AS: Thats your job. you opened that genie294. Its yours.
KT: I know, Ken. I was there. I was there the whole time. FB: Well, OK, OK. KT: I cant believe youre saying that, Macey. After
FB: You know, I mean, come on! You know, I mean27, I AS: You get the honour. everything that Johnny put up with290
know that you know FB: Im for that. Im for that. I appreciate that. As long FB: You cant believe shes saying that?!
KT: But thanks to Johnny we all we all were able to as106 I get my names in the credit also. You said that, KT: No, I cant. I really cant. You know
eat, we all made a living266. didnt you? FB: You know what we all had to go through for the
FB: Yeah, thats true. We all made a living, but, man, AS: Did I say you werent going to? last 15 years? Jesus!
was that a hard267 living to make. Yknow56, I mean27, FB: No. Yes, I think you did say280 that. OK, OK. I mean27, KT: Yeah.
getting him to turn up to recording sessions was almost of all times281, you know? When we were at the top FB: The vomit sessions were incredible! Days I mean
impossible. You know, I mean27 of yknow56 on the top of it all, on top of the world week binges295, binges. I just Ill shut up.
KT: Sure, but you cant and he goes and drinks himself to death. I mean27, KT: Yeah, well, youve had some problems with drink-
FB: Im sorry Marcy I mean27, Macey. Im sorry, but Jesus Christ! ing as well285, Ken. So, I mean27, you cant you cant

to re-issue re-release, publish again 266
to make a living (make-made-made) earn a salary worse moment
wanna (slang) want to 267
hard difficult, arduous 282
save it for (in this context) leave it until
the crowd (in this context) the audience 268
I guess I suppose 283
wake party after a funeral
to face (in this context) appear in front of 269
to deny negate, opposite of admit 284
blunt (in this context) frank
callous unfeeling, cold-hearted 270
chorus refrain, part of a song that is repeated several times 285
as well too, also
to pass away (euphemistic) die 271
to acknowledge express gratitude for 286
to eulogize commemorate
to fall off the shelves (fall-fell-fallen) sell like hot cakes 272
I have to hand it to s.o. I salute your/s.os merits 287
to be amazed be astonished, be very surprised
do get (emphatic) get, receive 273
gems (in this context) most valuable songs 288
to come out (come-came-come) emerge
on stage in performance, in front of an audience 274
to pick choose, select 289
tough difficult, arduous
to throw up (throw-threw-thrown) vomit 275
duly appropriately 290
to put up with (put-put-put) tolerate, suffer
to get through sth. (get-got-got) finish sth. 276
to note (in this context) acknowledge, recognize 291
widow woman whose husband has died
to be self-abusive do things that harm ones health 277
covers outside of a CD 292
fairly quite, reasonably
to be tied up in be linked to, be connected with 278
get ybitch ass back to (slang) come back to, return to 293
do know (emphatic) know
to pass out faint, lose consciousness 279
to do (do-did-done) (in this context) sell 294
to open that genie open that can of worms, implicitly gave
to pour tip, splash, drop 280
did say (emphatic) said permission for that theme to be openly talked about
that stuff those things, (in this context) looking after him 281
of all the times (in this context) he couldnt have chosen a 295
binge drinking session

Issue 147 Think in English49

Related Can you think of any pop stars who made a good career move by dying? Is our reverence
Tapescripts | Think 147 4
Resources for dead celebrities hypocritical?

criticize him too much for that. AS: Are you coming to your confession here? will do the gems273 and you will pick 274 the tracks322 for
FB: Drinking? I drank one beer to every five of his and FB: What? What? I cant believe you said that to me, the live recording. Hows that? For Christmas.
that was just76 to keep him happy, so he had a drinking man! FB: Youre serious?
buddy296, you know? AS: Oh, it wasnt you? Im sorry. AS: Absolutely!
MJ: Thats OK. When he drank 50 it wasnt that good. FB: No, it wasnt me, man. I dont know who it was, FB: Youre serious?
You didnt look that good either, no. but it wasnt me. AS: Absolutely. I mean27, hey, look
FB: No, no. But I KT: Ive FB: Ill be able to choose Ill be able to choose the
MJ: And you got him into a lot of trouble297. MJ: I wouldnt be surprised of that, poor fellow306. songs?
FB: I got him into trouble?! Oh, gosh!307 AS: Its out in the open now. Macey has spoken. Its
MJ: Yeah. AS: It was all this bonding308 over the bottle, you know? out in the open.
FB: I got him into trouble? Hes the one who always FB: I mean27, yeah, the bonding over the bottle, but FB: OK.
suggested going here and going there. We went come on, man! You know I dont care. I mean27, to each AS: I have to confess here. I if I show any deference
to every dive298 in LA. Thats where we got the title their own309, you know? They have their thing, what its for the widow291 here and she appears to be show-
Drunk in LA. Every dive you could imagine, holes in they want to do. But, man ing absolutely no no loss.
the walls299 we went to and I had to sit there while he AS: Not that theres anything wrong with it. MJ: What do you mean?
just42 yknow56 drank himself silly300 I mean silly. FB: No, theres nothing wrong with it, man. Theres AS: No?
I dont know how many fights we got into because of nothing wrong with it. But it just 42 wasnt with me, MJ: No, Ive lost Ive lost a lifelong partner323 here.
his yknow56 belligerent and insulting attitude to you know? I mean27 Its Im sad. He was just42 a very hard267 person to
people. I dont know AS: I see. live with. And you all contributed to making him the
AS: Then having to explain to Phil Spector about why KT: You guys! Ive been biting my lip310 far too long311 person that he was and the person that you could not
yknow56 the star of the show wasnt there. in this meeting. talk to after 11 oclock in the morning after the first
FB: Well Phils another hes another case too. Boy, FB: Was it you? couple of drinks.
Phil I mean27 Phil and his gun, you know? That would KT: No. Talking about Johnny and his drinking problem, KT: Here we go!324
get him out of the bed, you know? you know who drove him to drink so much, dont you? MJ: He was a very difficult person to live with. But that
AS: And the missed headline301 and what else? It was you, Macey, and you, Ken. I mean27 doesnt mean that I didnt love him once.
FB: Phil would pull out his gun and then Johnny get FB: What exactly are you implying? FB: Well, we all loved him in our own kind of 74
up yknow56 I mean... KT: you guys drove him to his drunken binges295. way, you now? I mean27 he was a bastard but still I
AS: I mean27, Ive got my litany302 too. But you were Macey, for example, I knew from the start that Johnny mean27 you had to feel something cos28 there was
there with him Finn. was getting himself in a whole heap of312 trouble when something different about different about Johnny.
FB: What am I supposed to do? We were a duo he hooked up with313 you. KT: Yes, he yeah, genius.
yknow56 there were the two of us, you know? I MJ: Dont be a fanboy314, Ken.
mean27 KT: No, I knew. 12. Picture Description (2m11s)
AS: Hey, that sounds like a great next album cover MJ: Youre so blind to315 him and his ways all the time. Commentary: Listen to this person describing the
What Am I Supposed to Do? KT: I knew he could do so much better. two photographs on p. 42.
FB: Yeah. MJ: You tolerated so much stuff316. Examiner: Id like you to describe these two street
AS: Were a Duo. KT: But, no, he wouldnt listen to me. photos.
MJ: Life without Johnny. MJ: Oh, come on! Examinee: In the first picture we see a street market,
AS: What to Do with a Duo? KT: And look. Look what happened. two stalls 325. The one in the background 326 has
FB: Thats you know MJ: What happened? clothing and the one in the foreground327 is a stall
AS: What to Do with a Duo? KT: Look at what has happened. selling fresh fruit. There are many varieties of fruit.
FB: What to Do with a Duo? What Do We Do? Do we FB: You know, youre just The salesman is talking animatedly to a prospective
Do we Do KT: Tragedy. costumer about his fruit presumably. Its a bright sunny
AS: What to Do with A Duo Now that Were One? FB: All you did was brownnose317 him all the way. Your day and the colours are very bright in the picture. We
FB: Yeah, Now that We Are One. Yeah, thats good. Were nose is so brown from brownnosing him about all his see melons and bananas and pears328 and plums329
gonna29 have to find somebody. wonderful stuff245 that he did. You know, come on! and different fruit. In the second picture a young man
AS: We have for the best of it. Come on! is standing looking at a van330 selling traditional ice
FB: Do you know any alcoholics? KT: Thats because hes a musical genius and I saw it cream. There is only one person in this picture and
MJ: You know you could probably project him on. from day one318. he appears to be deciding which ice cream he would
Remember like you could do a projection of Johnny FB: Musical genius? He didnt write anything. I wrote like to buy. So both pictures are about food and
and you could do a duo with a projection of him. it all! I wrote it all! or something to eat and about buying something to
AS: Its like a holograph. AS: Yeah, but Ken represented him. eat erm on the street. In the first picture there are
FB: Yeah, yeah, well I think we just need to find KT: Yes. several people and its a busy picture and in the second
another drunkard thats all. FB: But actually32 he represented he represented us. picture theres only one young man with his back to
MJ: No drinking, no sleeping around303, no KT: No, Im Johnnys agent, really, Ken. I just42 happen us contemplating the ice cream van.
AS: I mean27 to look after 319 you cos28 you were there. But my Examiner: How do you feel about buying food in
FB: You knew about that? Im sorry. I mean 27 responsibility was Johnny. the street?
yknow56 I always felt I needed to tell you but I just42 FB: Man, I really cant believe this. I really cant believe Examinee: Oh, I think that depends on what sort 80 of
couldnt. You know I didnt have the heart to304 do this. I dont know I dont know. food one buys in the street. Im quite sure that buying
it, you know? AS: Well, Finn fresh fruit or vegetables on a market stall325 is the same
MJ: Oh, thank you, thank you very much. Five years FB: Just screw it all320, man! Screw it all! Screw it all! as buying the fresh fruit or vegetables in a supermar-
into this marriage when I started figuring things out305. Im not going Im not gonna29 go with this. Im not ket or for that matter331 buying ice cream from an
That was very fun. gonna29 go with this. ice-cream van. Im not sure that I would however buy
AS: So whats what was Johnny like in bed, Finn? AS: Now that Johnnys gone youre no longer second prepared food or cooked food from a stall325 on the
FB: What? What? What? What? What? banana321, OK? So, now youll do the compilation, you street.
drinking buddy friend one drinks with, companion drinker 306
fellow guy, bloke, man, chap 320
just screw it all I dont care about anything anymore
to get s.o. into trouble (get-got-got) create problems 307
gosh! (minced oath) God! 321
to be second banana play second fiddle, be s.os deputy
for s.o. 308
bonding camaraderie 322
track song
dive (slang) disreputable bar 309
to each their own people should do what makes them happy 323
partner significant other, lover
hole in the wall dive298 310
to bite ones lip (bite-bit-bitten) not say what you want to say 324
here we go! now s/hes started!
to drink oneself silly drink until you are unconscious/ 311
far too long much too long 325
stall stand, booth
comatose 312
a whole heap of (colloquial) a lot of 326
the background the part of the picture furthest
headline (in this context) opportunity to be the headliner 313
to hook up with (colloquial) begin a relationship with from the speaker (according to the perspective)
(most prominent musical group/entertainer) of a show/ 314
fanboy (slang) extreme fan, obsessive follower 327
the foreground the part of the picture
concert 315
to be blind to s.o. not be conscious of what s.o. is doing nearest to the speaker (according to the
litany (in this context) list of criticisms 316
so much stuff so many things (in this context) so much perspective)
sleeping around promiscuity misconduct 328
not have the heart to (have-had-had) not be able to do 317
to brownnose s.o. (US colloquial) try to ingratiate oneself 329
sth. because it seems too cruel to s.o., flatter s.o., be sycophantic to s.o. 330
to figure sth. out work sth. out, become conscious of what 318
from day one right from the start, from the very beginning 331
for that matter given that we have
is happening 319
to happen to look after s.o. take care of s.o. fortuitously mentioned it

50 Think in English Issue 147



In Next MonthsThink

Agustn Buelta

Nick Franklin

Artistic Director
Marina Carresi

Nathan Burkiewicz

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Photo by Erik van Leeuwen

Hamish Binns, Nathan Burkiewicz, Nick Franklin, Ruth

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Irene Martn

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