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Research Paper
Submitted to the faculty of the
Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering
College of Engineering and Information Technology
Cavite State University
Indang, Cavite

In partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor in Science of Civil Engineering
AENG 65 Hydrology

September 2017

I. Introduction

II. Discussion

A. Concept of Storm Water Tank

B. Purposes of Water Tank Detention

C. Impact Assessment and Mitigation

D. Benefits and Advantages

a) Health

b) Industry

c) Economic Growth

E. Filtration Process of Storm Water

F. Privilege of Filtered Storm Water

a) Community

b) Government

c) Environment

III. Summary

IV. Conclusion

V. References

The Philippines is located along the Southeast Asia within the pacific typhoon belt with most

of the population vulnerable to impacts of natural calamities is visited by an annual average of

twenty tropical typhoons entering Philippines area of responsibility (PAR) which can be more

powerful, more destructive and may even have an increasing number due to climate change. Six

to eight of these cyclones directly hit the country and according to Asian Disaster Reduction

Center, five of which are more destructive causing large water-related destruction and damages

to properties and human lives. According to the report of the Office of Civil Defense and

National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council, approximately five-hundred to

thousands of people every year are killed and/or missing due to floods brought by the typhoons.

Cavite is a province in the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the

Calabarzon region on Luzon Island. Situated just twenty-one kilometres south of the capital, it is

one of the most industrialized and fastest growing provinces because of its close proximity to

Metro Manila. With a population of 3,678,301 in 2015, it is the most populated province in the

country. Despite the urbanization and industrialization Cavite still is predominantly an

agriculture province. Cavites economy is largely dependent to agriculture. Still there are plenty

of challenges to have a genuine leisurely fun. The cities and municipalities in Cavite for

instances the Cavite City, Kawit, Noveleta, Bacoor, Rosario and Naic are always flooded

especially during a non-stop torrential rain. As well as the main roads like Aguinaldo highway,

Tirona Highway, Manila-Cavite Road, Magdiwang Highway, A. Soriano Highway and other

streets and within the vicinity whenever they are flooded.

This condition led the researchers to come up with a design of a detention tank using stored

water to be reused for domestic purposes by the nearby residents and for the city government of

Cavite. Through this project, the water stored inside the detention tank will be filtered then

distributed to the above mentioned which represents a recycling of urban storm water. The idea

of a detention tank and its stored storm water to be used domestically, will not only give benefit

in terms of water supply, but will also greatly help in the decrease of flooding within the area of

the project.

Statement of the Problem

Flooding is one of the most recurring problems in the Philippines. This perennial problem is

caused global warming, which results to several heavy intensity typhoons and melting of polar

ice caps that contributes to the rise of sea level. Although Cavite does not belong to the cities

most exposed to one-meter sea level rise, Cavite is still affected when there is rise on sea level

taking in consideration that Cavite is located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the

Calabarzon region situated just twenty-one kilometres south of the capital. There are also a

bunch of rivers located along the vicinity of Cavite which may overflow due to continuous heavy

rains that contributes to the occurrence of flood making several places in town flooded of

rainwater. With this, flooding in Cavite is a continuous recurring problem that causes a lot of

damage to properties and inconvenience to human lives.

Importance of the Study

The study mainly proposes an idea for civil engineering students to provide solutions on flood

situations. And through this research proposal, the Government of Cavite and the people living in
this town will benefit. The storm water detention tanks proposed preferably for giving a long

term solution to the recurring problem about floods and serve as a future deterrent for major

catastrophe brought about by powerful storms thus attracting more investors in the city which

helps the economy of the local government. It will also avoid loss of life and damages to the

infrastructure and the livelihoods of the people living in Cavite. The stored storm water in the

detention tank can be an alternative for industrial and economic use as well as for domestic use

of the people.

Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this project is to design a storm water detention tank structure that

prevents flooding within certain areas in Cavite such as Cavite City, Kawit, Noveleta, Bacoor,

Rosario and Naic. It uses storm filtered water coming from the rain that can be used domestically

for the benefit of the neighbouring establishments. This project will not only help solve the

recurring problem of Cavite about flooding but will also help us to reuse water thus saving a lot

of money in the process and avoiding inconvenience to people and damage to properties.

Furthermore, it will also promote the use of storm water detention tanks to give solution to the

flooding within and outside Cavite especially on catch basin and below sea level areas like

Caloocan, Navotas and Manila.

Time and Place of the Study

The installation of storm water detention tanks may be applied on certain areas in Cavite

where floods are frequent to occur. Cavite City, Kawit, Noveleta, Bacoor, Rosario and Naic are

some of the places which are targeted by this project proposal. The installation of this project
depends upon whenever the Government of Cavite or the Municipalities of the given places

approve this project. Nonetheless, it is necessary to install this project during dry season, to

prevent unnecessary disturbances due to rain and climatic factors when installing the project.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This project covers the design of the storm water detention tank within certain areas in

Cavite that are often flooded such as Cavite City, Kawit, Noveleta, Bacoor, Rosario and Naic.

The distribution of filtered water into the consumer is not included here and the sewerage

systems/lines of the coverage of the study area.


The concept of the storm water detention tank is to temporarily store excess storm water

runoff. This is to avoid hydraulic overload of the sewer system, which could result in the

flooding if roads and building with untreated wastewater or its release directly into the

environment, causing pollution. When space is available in the sewer system, the detained water

is released at a rate not exceeding the capacities of the sewer system, and the tank should be

cleaned ready for the next flush. Storm water is an effective way of reducing peak flow and

equalising flow rates from storm water run-off in the sewer system. Placed strategically, Storm

water tanks mean better utilisation of the existing sewer system, allow for intelligent

management of storm water flows, and ultimately save on infrastructure investments. Storm

water tanks are cost effective solution because sewer lines are already constructed and generally

have a substantial remaining lifetime and existing pipes in an urban environment is in addition to

being very expensive is also troublesome.

The impacts to the people around the proposed installation that may imply during the

construction will be the air quality, odor, waste, noise pollution, and occupational health and

safety. The researchers of this proposal used the enhancement measures which include the said

impacts. For air quality, it is one of the critical factors since the dust coming from the project site

would not only affect the air, but also to the people and vehicles passing within the vicinity. The

solution for this is to clean the project area and sprinkle water to dust prone areas, especially

during excavation, to decrease dust emission. For water quality, the proper waste water disposal

should be strictly followed to avoid mishaps. For noise quality, the project area is located in a

park along major arterial roads which means there are a lot of people and vehicle around hence

there should be a proper schedule and maintenance of construction equipment. For traffic, since

the project is situated near two important roads, there should be additional traffic aides and

warning signs to avoid road congestion and confusion. For waste and population, waste coming

from the site should be segregated properly and people should be informed to avoid accidents

and overcrowding in the site area.

The sustainable development concept involves storm water being filtered using rapid filtration

process in which filter sand and gravels are used before the water goes in the detention tank for it

to be readily used domestically or be dumped in the river and/or bay near the proposed

installation. The demand of water used for domestic purposes will lessen because of the

recycling and reusing of storm water inside the detention tank. This will diminish the negative

impacts on the environment while solving the problem of shortage in water supply within the

The storm water detention tank detains the rain water surge which reduces temporarily the

speed and volume of the surface water and helps prevent flooding. The intensity and amount of

rainfall is increasing every year. Although repairing and building new pipes and pumps or even

cleaning the drainages can contribute to decrease of flood, it does not really give a permanent

solution to the flooding which is very important as to having a large positive impact for the city

government and the people of Cavite. By proposing this kind of study, it not only gives a good

amount of beneficial advantages such as the reuse of the treated storm water but also it

contributes to a lasting solution for the prevention of flood in the certain area of Cavite that are

prone to typhoon storm.



Our research is entitled Installation of Storm Water Detention Tank for Flood Prevention on

Certain Areas in Cavite and Reuse of Filtered Storm Water for Domestic Purposes. This study

aims to mitigate the perennial problem on certain areas in Cavite which is flooding that causes

large destruction and damage to human lives and properties as well as using the filtered storm

water inside the detention tank to be used domestically. It will also help disseminate information

and give and give awareness about the benefits this project would produce so that they would

understand the importance of the structure and its long term solution that it can provide for a city

that has always a problem with flooding.

The structure consists of three filtration tanks that are attached above the detention tank. All

of the storm water that went in the catch basin will be going directly to the filtration tank, by
pipes and will be filtered properly using rapid sand filter process in which filtered sands and

graded gravels are used. The filtered storm water will be then used domestically which will help

water consumers to lessen their water consumption and help them and the local Government of

Cavite to save money and at the same time attract businesses and investors due to decrease in

cost of living which in turn will generate more income for the city. Lastly, the researchers

proposed this study carefully and intelligently to help their fellow countryman. This would not

only help in economic terms, but also socially.