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Harnessing gigantic hydro power potential of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab

rivers in India
N. Sasidhar
Introduction:
The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) between India and Pakistan is followed to use water from the rivers Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and
Sutlej. The water available in Indian part from the Ravi, Beas and Sutlej rivers (called eastern rivers) can be fully utilized by India without
subjected to any restriction. The water available in India from the Indus, Jhelum and Chenab rivers (called western rivers) can be used for
irrigation in limited area only in the basins of western and eastern rivers. However diversion, regulation and control of western rivers flow by
India for harnessing hydro power potential of western rivers is permitted fully in any manner except the limitations imposed on creating the intra
basin live storage capacity of reservoirs/dams. Additionally, domestic and non-consumptive water uses of western rivers are not restricted for
inside the basin uses. IWT considers the Gaghar, Luni, Saraswati, Aji Nadi, etc river basins in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
and Gujarat as part of Indus basin area. These rivers are joining the Indus River on its left bank side with occasional water flow or flowing in to
creeks of Indus River. The critical analysis (Annexure-1 of this paper) of IWT provisions found that ITW is not a major detriment to harness the
full potential of western rivers’ water in India. The yearly average water inflows in western rivers are around 95 billion cubic meters (bcm) in
India. The yearly average flow in Chenab River is around 25 bcm and Jhelum River with another 10 bcm and rest from the Indus River. This
conceptual paper explains how most of the water flowing in the Indian part of western rivers can be diverted by envisaging long tunnels to the
eastern rivers for harnessing huge hydro power potential (567 billion kWh / year by 112,000 MW) without violating the IWT stipulations. It is
proposed to overcome the live storage restrictions on western rivers by using pumped storage schemes (PSS) to store adequate Indus River
water on nearby catchment area of land locked lakes (Tso Moriri, Pangong, etc) which are located outside the basins of the western rivers. It
is also proposed to construct a 1,300 km long navigation canal from Kandla in Gujarat to Yamuna river near Delhi for benefitting from cheaper
water transport of imports and exports from North India. As there is IWT restriction to use western rivers water for agriculture use, the available
water from Indus River is proposed for full use in transforming the dry lands of Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat into aqua culture ponds. It is

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estimated that the entire proposed infrastructure cost is nearly US$ 250 billion. However, the export value of the aqua culture produce alone
(15 million tons/year or US$ 30 billion/year) is adequate to pay back the debt in a decade even the entire project cost is met from foreign funds.
This paper also explains the plan to achieve full irrigation potential with water supply throughout the year in Jammu & Kashmir state by using
the water yield from the catchment areas of Pangong lake, Tso Moriri lake, Tso Kar lake, Startsapuk Tso lake and Sutlej river without violating
the IWT stipulations.

Indus and Upper Chenab rivers water transfer to Beas river via Ravi river:
The water of Indus river and its tributary Shyok river would be diverted to Chenab river to generate 25,500 MW hydro power. The combined
waters of Indus and upper Chenab rivers are transferred to the Ravi river basin to generate 6,500 MW hydro power. This water is further
transferred to the Beas river basin to generate 1,250 MW additionally. All the inter river transfer links are accomplished by a network of gravity
tunnels. The details of this scheme are given below:

1. From Shyok tributary of Indus river (location 34° 52’ 57” N & 76° 48’ 53” E at 2800 m MSL) to Indus main river (location 34° 34’ 41” N &
76° 31’ 43” E at 2790 m MSL) connected by a 45 km long tunnel. (Refer Google Earth for more clarity)

2. From Indus main river (location 34° 34’ 41” N & 76° 31’ 43” E at 2790 m MSL) to Gangyur Kur River (location 34° 29’ 11” N & 76° 6’ 13”
E at 2775 m MSL) in the upstream of Kargil barrage connected by a 17 meter diameter and 48 km long gravity tunnel. (refer WRIS
Geo-Visualization map)

The adjacent left side Dras river/tributary water (location 34° 32’ 33” N & 75° 59’ 09” E at 2780 m MSL) can also be transferred to the
Gangyur Kur River at 2775 m MSL connected by a 11 km long gravity tunnel to augment the water supply.

The adjacent right side Wakha Rong river/tributary water (location 34° 29’ 29” N & 76° 12’ 39” E at 2915 m MSL) can also be transferred
to the Gangyur Kur River at 2775 m MSL connected by a 13 km long gravity tunnel to augment the water supply.
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3. From the above Gangyur Kur River at 2775 m MSL) to Chenab river basin (location 33° 58’ 23” N & 75° 30’ 49” E at 2750 m MSL)
connected by a 17 meter diameter and 80 km long gravity tunnel.

4. From the above Chenab river basin (location 33° 58’ 23” N & 75° 30’ 49” E at 2750 m MSL) to the downstream Chenab river basin
(location 33° 14’ 37” N & 75° 39’ 09” E at 2715 m MSL) connected by a 17 meter diameter and 100 km long gravity tunnel. This tunnel
purpose is to route the water to the power house. A 25,500 MW hydro electric station is planned using nearly 1795 meters head while
releasing the water at 920 m MSL in the downstream Chenab river to generate 91.22 billion kwh electricity annually with the available
water (23 bcm @1785 cumecs) from the Indus river.

Though there is no technical requirement of using the water transport by one tunnel, it reduces the cost of the hydro power generation
by having all the power generation capacity at one location to select very high head and very large capacity turbine set exceeding 1000
MW. The 100 km long tunnel located at higher elevation is also envisaged to supply irrigation water by gravity (after recovering hydro
power potential) at various points/streams in the adjacent Jhelum river basin of Kashmir valley. It is also possible in future to extend this
tunnel further from both ends by 200 km long smaller size gravity tunnels to girdle the entire Kashmir valley which is surrounded by a
continuous mountain range in circular shape. This garland tunnel (total 300 km) at higher elevation can be used for supplying irrigation
water to the high lands in the Chenab river basin also which are located on the outside slopes of the circular mountains.

5. From Chenab river (location 33° 8’ 47” N & 75° 47’ 41” E at 920 m MSL) to Ravi river basin (location 32° 36’ 17” N & 75° 48’ 29” E at
898 m MSL) connected by a 19 meter diameter and 64 km long tunnel. From this point water is released in to the Ranjit Sagar reservoir
at 500 m MSL. The available water head of 398 meters is harnessed by locating 6,500 MW capacity hydro electric power station to
generate 24.6 billion kwh electricity annually with the available water (28 bcm @ 2100 cumecs) from the Indus and Chenab rivers.

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6. From Rangit Sagar reservoir in Ravi river basin (location 32° 25’ 35” N & 75° 48’ 55” E at 500 m MSL) to Beas river basin (location 32°
10’ 15” N & 76° 1’ 59” E at 485 m MSL) connected by a 19 meter diameter and 35 km long tunnel. Nearly 75 m head is available for
1250 MW power plant with 4.64 billion kwh generation in a year by feeding water to the Maharana Pratap Sagar reservoir (location 32°
4’ 75” N & 76° 1’ 51” E at 410 m MSL) with the use of 28 bcm @2100 cumecs Indus and Chenab rivers water.

The entire water transfer scheme from Shyok/Indus/Chenab river to the Beas river requires total seven water diversion dams/barrages only
with five in Indus river basin and two in Chenab river basin whose storage capacity would be fixed complying with IWT stipulations applicable
for power storage works/dams or run of the river (RoR) power plants. Thus Indus and Upper Chenab rivers water is diverted @ 2100 cumecs
(28 bcm) to the Beas basin (another 27.5 bcm with PSS).

The above scheme (pink color lines as shown in Figure A) is consisting series of 350 km long tunnels to transfer water from Indus and upper
Chenab waters to eastern rivers. The planned power generation capacity is 33,250 MW at three locations one each in Chenab, Ravi and Beas
river basins. The annual electricity generation is of the order of 120.47 billion kwh of value Rs 48,184 crores at Rs 4 per kwh. Excluding the
irrigation benefits, the revenue from power generation alone is worth of investing nearly Rs 337,300 crores (US$ 51.89 billion) on this scheme.

The total length of 350 km tunneling can be achieved by deploying nearly 35 tunnel boring machines (TBM) to dig 10 km/TBM on average and
complete the scheme in a period not exceeding 7 years from the investment approval date. The total rock/earth excavation involved is nearly
150 million cubic meters or 375 million tons. All the tunnels would be dug following latest tunneling practices like Sequential Excavation Method
(SEM). Refer link https://tunnelingonline.com/advanced-technologies-help-overcome-tunneling-challenges-save-time-money/ for information on
SEM. Also the new methods/technology being followed by China in construction of lengthy tunnels shall be examined and adopted for
completing the tunneling at the earliest. Refer link “China constructing 600 km tunnel network to funnel Yangtze river water to Yunnan
province” https://www.gokunming.com/en/blog/item/4038/china_considering_plan_to_make_xinjiang_desert_a_new_california

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Tunneling methodology:
Conventional water tunnels: These are generally less than 40 km long straight or curved tunnels. The tunneling can be done from both ends by
two tunnel boring machines to reduce the construction time. The tunnel is given downward gradient towards its ends to facilitate natural
drainage. The average work pace of a TBM is up to 400 meters per month depending on the encountered soil/rock strata.
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Long water tunnels inside hill ranges: These water tunnels are planned inside the continuous hill ranges at required elevation to transport water
to cross the multiple intermittent high level ground/ridges where open canal is found very lengthy, time consuming and costly. These tunnels
need not be in straight path and follow curved path wherever required to maintain the minimum required depth under the varying surface
topography of the hill range. These long continuous tunnels are constructed simultaneously by multiple TBMs, deploying one machine for each
10 kms tunnel length, to complete the entire tunneling works within 5 to 7 years. These water tunnels can be two types.

 Elevated tunnel: The tunnel bottom level is located above the level of outside foot hills along the total tunnel length. Thus natural water
drainage from the tunnel is feasible without the chance of getting flooded during the construction.

 Underpass tunnel: The tunnel bottom level is located below the local ground level along the total tunnel length. Thus natural water
drainage from the tunnel is not available and adequate artificial drainage by installing pumps to each segment of the tunnel is required.
There is possibility of tunnel flooding in case of unanticipated situation when available pumping capacity is not adequate.

To start the main tunneling activity, access tunneling works are to be completed first from the nearby foot hills to reach the designated main
tunnel intermediate locations. The access tunnel may also serve the main tunnel drainage or separate drainage tunnel of adequate capacity is
constructed. By using the access tunnel, the required cavity/void in the main tunnel portion is to be excavated to make room for assembly of
the tunnel boring machine. The access tunnel shall be of adequate size to transport the largest part of the tunnel boring machine to assemble
the tunnel boring machine inside the cavity/void. Sometimes the tunnel boring machine is assembled in a trench outside the hill range and
proceed to the designated location of the tunnel to carry out the main tunnel works if found economical. In this case there is no need of access
tunnel for the access of work force and material, muck/tailings evacuation, ventilation, power supply, water drainage, etc. Each access tunnel
is used for assembly of two number TBMs which will bore the tunnels in opposite direction. After the commissioning of main water tunnel, the
access/drainage tunnels are used for drawing water by gravity from the main tunnel for local use.

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In case of underpass type tunnel, additionally there shall be reliable artificial water drainage system and safe evacuation system for the work
force in case of tunnel flooding by providing dedicated workmen access/evacuation tube with water tight double doors (two meter diameter
steel pipe along the tunnel length at its top level suitable to withstand possible outside water pressure). The deployed TBM and other major
machinery shall be designed to withstand water submergence without undergoing major damage. The safety features incorporated to protect
the work force would be better than the safety features available to millions of miners, subjected to same occupational risks, working regularly
in underground mines.

Sometimes the water tunnel is located deep inside the very high mountains (ex: Himalayan mountains up to 5000 m MSL) with snow cover,
rarified atmosphere, inaccessible by road and the access tunnel length exceeding 10 km, then the Primary Access & Drainage Tunnel (PADT)
is planned parallel to the water tunnel at slightly lower elevation at safe distance. PADT will be excavated from multiple points with the help of
Auxiliary Access Tunnels (AAT) with their starting point located on the mountain slopes at higher elevation near to the path of PADT.

The 80 km long proposed underpass tunnel segment feeding water from Indus river basin to the Chenab river basin is the most critical part of
the entire scheme as the tunnel is passing under the wide and tall mountains. The water tunnel is proposed to be completed within 60 months
from the commencement of first two TBMs assembly. Minimum 6 tunnel boring machines are considered with tunneling pace of 0.4 km per
month/machine and 6 months assembly time for each TBM. The first two TBMs start working from both ends/sides of the tunnel.
Simultaneously by drilling and blasting method, PADT construction is also taken up at a pace of 1 km per month from both ends at a safe
distance but at slightly lower elevation to facilitate water drainage from the water tunnel. Thus natural gradient is available for the seepage
water evacuation from the water tunnel via PADT to natural drain. The PADT size is just adequate (5 meters width and 8 meters height) for
transporting biggest single part of the TBM to be placed at intermediate points of the water tunnel by road trucks in addition to meet the space
needs of water drainage piping, muck removal conveyors, power supply, etc from all intermediate locations of the water tunnel. AATs would
also serve for providing ventilation to the water tunnel and the PADT.

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It may happen that the actual work progress of the water tunnel and the PADT are not found satisfactory within few months due to presence of
hard rock strata, etc. More intermediate points of main tunnel would be selected to deploy additional TBMs to finish the total work in time. For
this purpose, adequate AATs will be started from elevated locations along the PADT path to complete it at required pace from multiple
locations. Thus depending on the difficulties encountered, adequate TBMs are put in to service to complete the job within 60 months. In case,
a working TBM is struck up for long time due to unstable geological condition, additional TBM will be put in to service from a nearby point with
the help of PADT for not prolonging the water tunnel completion schedule. After completing the water tunnel works, the PADT will be
transformed in to a road tunnel for public transport. Following same methodology, other tunnels can also be completed within 5 years to match
with the hydro power station construction schedule. The total power requirement for one TBM operation is approximately 25 MW without the
need of much diesel fuel or explosives which are produced from costly and imported crude oil.

The essence of above tunnel construction methodology is to deploy maximum number of tunnel boring machines (one for each 10 km length)
simultaneously and complete the total tunnel works in 5 years irrespective of the tunnel length. Thus very large water transfer projects mostly
with tunneling works can be planned and constructed economically within unprecedented time schedule by the machinery without deploying
large work force. The electricity produced by the hydro power station in a year by avoiding delays is five times more than the cost of required
additional TBMs. Every year, the quantity of ores/coal/minerals extracted in India from underground mines exceeds 500 million tons and the
mined material is transported hundreds of kilometers for utilization. The rock/earth excavation and transportation (nearly 75 million tons per
year) involved in the proposed tunneling projects is achievable without major problems. Moreover, there is scope of reducing the tunneling
costs drastically with more and more exposure and experience as the learning curve is in the initial phase and more water tunnels are to be
created inside many of Indian mountain ridges for interlinking the Indian rivers in future. Past tunneling experience and data gained in the J&K
mountains under Kishenganga, Dul Hasti and other projects is also useful for this scheme.

Compliance with IWT:
Though irrigation water use from the western rivers is limited to specified acreage in India, Indus water treaty (IWT) between India and
Pakistan does not restrict India from using all the available water in western rivers for hydropower generation, domestic use and non-
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consumptive uses like fish culture. Per Article I of IWT, Indus river basin area is not only located in J&K state but also in Himachal Pradesh,
Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat states. Koree Creek of Great Rann of Kutch and Hadakiya Creek of Little Rann of Kutch located in
India are part of Indus Main as the Indus river water is flowing in to these creaks to reach the Sea during Indus river floods and are thus
hydraulically connected with Indus River. Any river draining in to these creeks becomes the tributary of Indus river per Article I of IWT. Many
rivers whose waters in the natural course are directly or otherwise flowing into Indus Main in India and not named as separate rivers in IWT,
are deemed to be tributaries of Indus River. Thus Gaghar river with its basin area spread in Himachal, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan states
is a tributary of Indus River. Similarly, the desert streams in Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaneer districts of Rajasthan state, are connected
hydraulically / flowing into the Indus Main on its left bank side are part of Indus river. The Luni river flowing in to Koree Creek is also part of
Indus river. Also the Saraswati, Rupen, Aji Nadi, etc rivers draining in to Hadakiya Creek are tributaries of Indus river. Since IWT permits the
Indus river water fully for domestic and fish culture uses, vast area of dry lands in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat states can be
converted into fish ponds to consume nearly 55 BCM of Indus river water. Fish culture consumes water similar to irrigated agriculture in the
form of evaporation and seepage losses.

Also there is no restriction to transfer western rivers water to the eastern rivers or other rivers for the development of hydro power. There is no
limitation to store the western rivers water outside their basin areas. The water of a western river can be taken outside its basin area to another
river basin and brought back if required. It is not compulsory to let flow western rivers water into Pakistan from India. Most of contentious
issues in IWT are analyzed in detail in Annexure-1 given at the end of this paper. The previous interpretations of IWT provisions by Permanent
Court of Arbitration (PCA) and neutral expert (NE) are also considered in this analysis. The gist of the IWT terms applicable to India with
respect to various water uses and water storage restrictions are given in Table A below. To harness fully the water available in India from the
Indus system of rivers, it is found that the IWT restrictions applicable to India are not major hurdles and can be overcome economically with the
latest technological solutions. The gist of the conclusions is presented in the Table A given below:

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Table A: River basin wise permitted water uses in India by IWT
Water Agriculture use Domestic uses Non-consumptive Run of River (RoR) Power generation with Flood
generat (municipal and uses (navigation, power generation use storage works control and
ed in industrial uses) floating of property & protection
the timber, fishing & fish storage
basin of culture and wild life
the river protection uses.)
Inside Outside Inside the Outside Inside the Outside Inside the Outside Inside the Outside Inside the
the the basin the basin the basin the Basin basin the Basin basin
basin Basin Basin Basin
Indus 70,000 nil @Unlimite nil but @Unlimited nil but Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited nil
acres d use with unlimited use with unlimited use with use with use within use with
with 0.25 limited storage limited storage limited limited limited unlimited
maf conservati permitted conservatio permitted pond pond 0.15 maf storage
limited on storage n storage storage storage power
general storage
storage
Jhelum 400,000 nil Unlimited nil but Unlimited nil but Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Limited to
acres use with unlimited use with unlimited use with use with use within use with 0.75 maf
with limited storage limited storage limited limited limited unlimited Flood
limited conservati permitted conservatio permitted pond pond 0.25 maf storage storage and
0.5 maf on storage n storage storage storage power not located
general storage on Jhelum
storage Main river
Chenab 225,000 6,000 Unlimited nil but Unlimited nil but Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited nil
acres acres in use with unlimited use with unlimited use with use with use with use with
with 0.5 Ravi limited storage limited storage limited limited 1.2 maf unlimited
maf basin conservati permitted conservatio permitted pond pond limited storage
limited on storage n storage storage storage power
general storage
storage
Eastern Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
rivers use use use use use use use use with use use with storage
including including including limited limited
in in in pond power
western western western storage on storage on
rivers rivers rivers a western western

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basin basin basin rivers rivers
Other Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
rivers use use use use use use use use with use use with storage
including including including limited limited
in in in storage on power
western western western a western storage on
rivers rivers rivers rivers western
basin basin basin rivers
Refer Annexure-1 for detailed analysis;

Western Rivers: Jhelum river basin, Chenab river basin and Indus river basin taken together.

@Indus river: Indus river basin also includes Ghagar, Luni, etc river basins in Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat
states which are draining in to Pakistan or Great Ran of Kutch (Koree Creek) or Little Ran of Kutch (Hadakiya Creek). 70,000 acres new
irrigated agriculture only is permitted in the basin with 0.25 million acre feet (maf) general storage. Additionally 0.15 maf (maximum 0.40
maf) storage can be built for domestic and non-consumptive water uses. The water storage already created before 31 March 1960
(effective date) and the storage under construction at the time of effective date is excluded from permitted live storage in Annexure E of
IWT. Additional irrigated agriculture is possible by the imported water from other river basins outside the Werstern Rivers.

Chenab river: Panjnad river located in Pakistan is part of Chenab river basin.

Eastern Rivers: Sutlej, Beas and Ravi river basins taken together.

Other rivers: Adjacent rivers to the western rivers basins such as Pangong lake basin rivers, Tso Moriri lake basin rivers, Narmada,
Chambal, Yamuna, etc.

Other feasible water transfer schemes:
It is also feasible to transfer most of the available water flows in Jhelum river basin, remaining water flows in Indus and Chenab river basins to
the eastern rivers as explained below. Also water yield in the Pangong, Tso Morirri lakes, etc can be transferred to the Indus, Chenab and
Jhelum rivers for use in agriculture in the J&K and HP states as explained later.

Upper Chenab and Zanskar rivers water transfer to Ravi river:
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Zanskar river is a tributary of Indus river and joins the Indus river on its right side at 3100 m MSL near Leh town. Its basin area is located
between Indus and Chenab basins. It has substantial catchment area with good water yield from its glaciers and monsoon rainfall. A tall dam
with FRL 3500 m MSL near location 33° 47’ 8” N & 76° 50’ 50” E at 3355 m MSL is feasible for diverting most of the water of Zanskar river (5
bcm annual flow @ 308 cumecs) to upper Chenab river at 33° 15’ 51” N & 76° 10’ 31” E at 1790 m MSL for power generation by connecting
back waters of the reservoir with a 75 km long tunnel (black color lines in Figure A). Another 2.0 bcm @ 123 cumecs (explained later) is also
available in the Zanskar river by diverting water from the Tso Moriri, Tso Kar and Startsapuk Tso catchment areas. The hydraulic head
available is nearly 1680 m with 7.0 bcm annual flow @ 431 cumecs. The power station capacity is 5777 MW with 26 billion kwh annual
electricity generation.

A dam is proposed near Naunut (location 33° 19’ 13” N & 75° 59’ 31” E at 1610 m MSL) with FRL 1770 m to divert upper Chenab river water to
the adjacent Ravi river basin by a 79 km long gravity tunnel to reach the end point (32° 41’ 15” N & 76° 1’ 41” E) at 1730 m MSL. From this
point water is released in to the Chemera reservoir /dam (location 32° 39’ 43” N & 76° 1’ 33” E) at 775 m MSL. The available water head of 955
meters is harnessed by locating 10,320 MW capacity hydro electric power station to generate 46.44 billion kwh electricity annually with the
available water (22 bcm @ 1358 cumecs) from Chenab (15 bcm) and Zanskar rivers.

From Chemera reservoir (location 32° 39’ 43” N & 76° 01’ 33” E at 775 m MSL), water (22 bcm @ 1358 cumecs) is further transferred to the
downstream Rangit Sagar reservoir (location 76° 1’ 41” E & 75° 48’ 55” E at 500 m MSL) with the available water head of 260 m for a 2750
MW power plant with 12.35 billion kwh generation in a year. The tunnel starts at location 32° 36’ 25” N & 76° 0’ 45” E at 775 m MSL and
terminates at location 32° 32’ 33” N & 75° 52’ 49” E at 770 m MSL with a length of 15 km.

The value of 84.81 billion kwh hydro electricity generated in a year by 18,847 MW capacity power stations at three places is nearly Rs 33,925
crores at Rs 4 per kwh and the affordable investment is nearly 237,400 crores.

Diverting Lower Jhelam and Lower Chenab river water to Ravi river:
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Most of the Jhelum river water in India is available (location 34° 8’ 57” N & 74° 9’ 33” E at 1475 m MSL) at downstream of Lower Jhelum hydro
power plant. A diversion wier/dam is needed at the downstream of Lower Jhelum power plant to divert most of water available up to 617
cumecs. The FRL of the RoR power plant dam is to be fixed by selecting suitable dead storage to facilitate satisfactory water diversion without
the need to release water in to the downstream Jhelum river.

The Jhelum river water available from the location (34° 8’ 57” N & 74° 9’ 33” E at 1475 m MSL) can be transferred by a series of gravity tunnels
to the upstream of Salal dam across the Chenab river. There is feasibility of a 4,650 MW hydro power station while 10 bcm @ 617 cumecs of
Jhelum river water is released in to the Salal hydro power project reservoir at 490 m MSL with available hydraulic head of 945 meters. The
hydro power station will have a potential to generate nearly 20.89 billion kwh electricity annually. The total length of main tunnels (11 meters
diameter) is nearly 135 km to feed water in to the Salal reservoir (location 33° 10’ 45” N & 74° 47’ 49” E). These tunnels also supply irrigation
water in Jhelum and Chenab basins and also collect water from the streams of these rivers by constructing pick up dams across the streams.

Another series of gravity tunnels of 120 km length (15 meters diameter) starting at 490 m MSL from backwaters of Salal dam across Chenab
river, carry the combined waters of the Jhelum and Lower Chenab rivers to a location at 455 m MSL close to the Shapurkandi dam (under
construction) with water level at 380 m MSL. A hydro power station is feasible with available 75 m head when the 20 bcm @ 1235 cumecs
water joins the Ravi river in the upstream of Shapurkandi dam (location 32° 23’ 35” N & 75° 40’ 51” E). The hydro power station of capacity 735
MW has potential to generate nearly 3.31 billion kwh electricity annually. These tunnels also supply irrigation water in Chenab and Ravi basins
and also collect water from the streams of these rivers with the help of pick up dams across the streams. Since the tunnel is also passing in the
catchment area of Devak Nadi / Basantar river in Ravi river basin after crossing the Chenab basin, storage reservoirs/dams can also be
constructed as per IWT.

Thus this scheme (blue color lines in Figure A) consisting of nearly 255 km long main tunnels, transfers nearly 20 bcm waters of Jhelum and
Chenab river basins to Shapurkandi dam in Ravi basin after supplying water for irrigation to low lying lands in J&K state. Thus most of waters
entering in to Pakistan area from Chenab, Jhelum and Ravi rivers are collected by the tunnel and diverted to the Ravi / Beas main river after
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harnessing the huge power generation potential. The value of 24.20 billion kwh hydro electricity generated by 5385 MW power stations at two
places in a year is nearly Rs 9,680 crores at Rs 4 per kwh and the affordable investment is nearly 67,760 crores.

Linking Ravi and Beas Rivers to Sutlej River:
Jhelum and Chenab rivers water (20 bcm) imported into Shapurkandi reservoir/dam on Ravi River at 380 m MSL will be transferred to the tail
pond (at 327 m MSL) of the Maharana Pratap Sagar reservoir across the Beas River by a 55 km long gravity tunnel (Refer Figure D) with
provision for power generation. The head available for power generation is 40 meters which would produce 1.77 billion units with 220 MW
power generation capacity. This water available in tail pond is further transferred to the Rupnagar barrage (location 30° 59’ 31” N & 76° 31’ 23”
E at FRL 265 m MSL) located across the Sutlej river by a 135 km long tunnel cum deep cut canal. The head available for power generation is
25 meters which would produce 1.11 billion units with 138 MW power generation capacity. 10 bcm Indus water available in Maharana Pratap
Sagar reservoir is let in to its tail pond by generating power and supplied to Rajasthan canal and Bikaner canal for aqua culture cultivation in
Gaghar, etc river basins in Punjab and Rajasthan states. Also Indus water (45 bcm) and upper Chenab water (15 bcm) diverted to the
Maharana Pratap Sagar reservoir (location 32° 4’ 75” N & 76° 1’ 51” E at 410 m MSL) is transferred to the Rupnagar barrage by 120 km long
tunnels. The head available for power generation is 110 meters which would produce 14.58 billion units with 1,820 MW power generation
capacity. Nearly 80 bcm western rivers water from the Rupnagar barrage is fed to a gravity canal continuously throughout the year to supply
water to fish farms located in Gaghar river basin area in Punjab and Haryana and also feeds (70 bcm) a 1,300 km long navigation canal at 245
m MSL southwest of Bhiwani town. Wherever topography is not permitting, the gravity canal is routed on raised earth bund along the dividing
line between the catchments of Gaghar and Yamuna rivers. The saved Sutlej river water by the use of Indus water in Haryana will be used for
the needs of Sutlej Yamuna link canal. With these diversion tunnels and canals, the flood waters of Eastern Rivers can also be discharged to
the navigation canal from Rupnagar barrage for irrigation use in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Presently, flood waters of Eastern
Rivers are flowing in to Pakistan and available for its use.

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Navigation canal from Kandla to New Delhi:
All the Western Rivers water transferred continuously throughout the year to the Rupnagar barrage is further used for navigation, additional
hydro power generation at navigation canal drops and fresh water aqua culture needs (Refer Figure D) to benefit vast area (50,000 square km)
in Rajasthan and Gujarat states. It is proposed to construct nearly 1,300 km long (250 m wide, 7 m depth and flow 2,000 cumecs) navigation
canal from Kandla in Gujarat to Yamuna river at Baghpat in Uttar Pradesh state. With the construction of the navigation canal, all the imports
and exports of North India can be handled by the ports constructed in Haryana and Rajasthan states. Ship building and ship breaking can also
be done in Rajasthan and Haryana states. This canal can be extended by 110 km in future to connect to adjacent Ganga River for water
transport up to Kolkata city. This above sea level canal, similar to Panama canal, would also generate electricity (17 billion kWh/year) at
navigation canal level drops (total available 245 m head drop) using water sourced from Jhelum & Chenab rivers before letting the water (35
bcm) to the Arabian Sea via Hadakiya Creek of Little Rann of Kutch. This canal will also supply water sourced from the Indus river to domestic
and aqua culture sectors and supply water sourced from the Eastern Rivers to agriculture water needs. The electricity generated at canal drop
power houses is adequate to pump the water for aqua culture cultivation, irrigation and domestic uses from the navigation canal. Underpass
tunnels are envisaged for roads, railway lines and power cable/lines to cross the navigation canal.

Aqua culture consumes more water in the form of seepage and evaporation similar to water consumption in irrigated agriculture. Fresh water
aqua culture is also more profitable industry compared to irrigated agriculture. Nearly 55 billion cubic meters water available in the Indus river
of J&K state can be used for aqua culture cultivation on vast barren lands in Rajasthan and Gujarat for next level of economic prosperity.
Punjab and Haryana can also adopt aqua / fish culture on irrigated agriculture lands in Gaghar river basin to use the Indus river water under
non-consumptive uses. The saved water of Eastern Rivers, by using the Indus river water, can be used for irrigation in dry lands of Haryana,
Rajasthan and Gujarat states.

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Full utilization of eastern rivers water in India:
Ravi basin water drained from the south
uth western part of J&K state (Basantar, Bhabban, Bein, Tarnali Nadi, Chhab Nala, Ujh, Syar Khad, etc
tributaries) is directly entering in to Pakistan before joining the Ravi main river downstream of Madhopur barrage. The water flow in to Pakistan
from these
se tributaries can be minimized by constructing storage dams to contain flood waters and the water can be used to irrigate
downstream area in J&K state. Pakistan is under obligation to let flow all the water generated in the Indian part of Ravi and Sutlej rivers from its

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territory without using for agriculture as per Article II. Per Article IV (7), no country shall divert water from the Ravi/Sutlej river in between the
high banks from the river stretch between Madhopur & Lahore for Ravi river and between Harike & Suleimanke for Sutlej river. To facilitate
water diversion from Ravi main river, a gated barrage (location 31° 56’ 33” N & 74° 45’ 51” E at FRL 226 m MSL) would be constructed by
India to build up the water level up to the high bank level. This barrage pond would not submerge any land in Pakistan as both sides of the
river are located in India. From this barrage a 110 km long flood flow canal is constructed to feed the water to the Beas river upstream of
Harike barrage (at 203 m MSL). Ravi river water diverted to the Beas river would be diverted by gravity canal from the existing Harike barrage
across the Sutlej river for use in Punjab and Rajasthan states. Thus most of the water passing in to Pakistan without being used in India
previously will be fully utilized after constructing the needed barrage and flood flow gravity canal.

Live storage capacity creation on the catchment area of land locked lakes:
As per the IWT stipulations, creation of general storage beyond 0.25 million acre feet (maf) in Indus basin by India is not permitted. Per
Annexure E(20), IWT permits the releases from the general storage in any manner India may determine like stopping the dam overflows fully
by diverting all the inflows to the extent possible. Substantial inflows are available in monsoon months (July, August, and September) from the
rainfall in the basin area. Though the proposed capacity of the Indus river water diversion schemes is at (1785+431=) 2216 cumecs, there is
possibility of river water overflowing from the planned dams to escape in to downstream area of Pakistan. To minimize this possibility, the only
solution is to install Pumped Storage Schemes (PSS) for pumping substantial water from the uplands of Indus main river into few massive
reservoirs created on the catchment areas of nearby land locked lakes for optimizing the power generation of the downstream hydro power
plant (25,500 MW), non consumptive uses and also to store the water as reserve for use in a bad monsoon year. The pumping operation to
store the water is planned during the monsoon months continuously when the river is flowing above average. The pumping operation is also
planned on daily/weekly basis during the low power demand hours to consume the surplus cheap power and to store the water supposed to go
waste (last dams over flowing) when the downstream power stations are not working due to low power demand or non availability of few power
generation units. When the downstream power stations are facing water shortage in winter season to meet the power demand, the stored
water in the reservoirs is released in to the Indus River by operating the PSS units in turbine mode.

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The diversion of Indus river water outside the basin for storage purpose can be claimed under non consumptive uses for the navigation,
floating of property and fishing/fish culture purposes in the Indus and Shyok rivers per Articles I(11), III(2) and IV(2) of IWT. There is no
restriction to store western rivers water outside the western rivers basin for power generation also per Annexure D (1) of IWT. During the winter
season, the surface area of these rivers/reservoirs freezes when adequate flow in the river is not taking place. By maintaining adequate flow
from the stored water during the lean flow/winter season, navigation and fishing/fish culture growth would be established to create the badly
needed transport facilities and additional economic avenues from the river water. Also by keeping the rivers and reservoir surface area free
from complete freezing during lean flow/winter season, the available water surface area can be used by boats to accommodate residential,
services and industrial needs of the growing population as there is severe shortage of plain land/wide valleys in the river basin. It is also a non
consumptive use (i.e. floating of timber or other property) as per Article I (11) by which people are able to reside and work on water surface
area of reservoirs and enjoy better mobility in the form of water transport/navigation to use the limited area of valleys for better living in a hilly
area subjected to inclement climate. Article I (11) clearly says the associated seepage and evaporation losses are permitted for a non
consumptive use. The stored water shall be brought back to the same river basin after its control or use when claimed under non consumptive
use. So, water transfer from a general storage reservoir on Indus/Shyok rivers by pumping in to a PSS reservoir located outside (land locked
lakes) the river basins of western rivers is fully permitted under non consumptive use/control provided the water is returned back to the same
river basin (Indus river).

The water storage in the PSS reservoirs located outside the river basin area is intended mainly for the navigation, floating of residential, etc
property, electricity generation in downstream hydro power plants and fishing/fish culture purposes. As per 2(e) and 17 of Annexure E, flood
control means storing the upstream river flood water temporarily in reservoirs when river water level rises nearer to the maximum safe level in
a location and releasing the flood water once the flood has waned out to keep the reservoirs empty for containing the subsequent flood.
Whereas river water is pumped in to the PSS reservoirs on daily basis even when the river is not causing any inundation/ flooding and the
water releases from the PSS reservoirs is made when the river flows/levels are falling below the comfortable requirements of navigation,
fishing/fish culture and floating of property on daily or seasonal basis. So water storages created by PSS reservoirs for non consumptive uses
are entirely different from the flood control reservoirs.
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Round trip operational (pumping and generation together) loss of PSS is 25% (100 units consumed in pumping mode gives 75 units in
generation mode by using the same water quantity). By using the water released from the PSS, the downstream hydro stations either generate
more electricity at higher capacity utilization or less number of power generation units needed for the same power generation.

PSS using Tso Moriri catchment area: Tso Moriri Lake is a land locked / endorheic lake located (location 33° 0’ 15” N & 78° 16’ 55” E) at
4527 m MSL with a surface area of 120 square km and nearly 4000 square km catchment area (green lines in Figure B). Annual water inflows
in to the lake are nearly 4 bcm. Tso Moriri lake is located on the left side of the Indus river within 35 km distance. The lake water level is at
higher level compared to the adjacent level of the Indus River basin. A dam/reservoir (location 33° 18’ 19” N & 78° 23’ 51” E at 4100 m MSL)
declared as general storage works per Annexure E (20) is planned for diverting the upper Indus river water for storage in PSS. The FRL of the
dam is 4161 m MSL whose waters would spread up to the border with China and most of its storage is dead storage and only its
general/live/surcharge storage is used for drawing water to the PSS. Preferably, the PSS can be located on a small tank (less than 700 acre
feet storage with its FRL same as the FRL of the main reservoir on Indus river but its dead storage level is below the dead storage level of the
main reservoir) located in a side valley drawing water by gravity from the main reservoir. The main reservoir and the small tank are divided by
a weir up to dead storage level and water overflows over the weir on both sides depending on the level in the small tank. When the PSS is
working in pump mode, this small tank pond acts as downstream reservoir to the main reservoir. When the PSS is working in turbine mode,
this small tank pond acts as upstream reservoir to the main reservoir. The proposal is to raise the water level of the Tso Moriri lake by 100
meters to 4627 m MSL to have provision of storing nearly 12.5 bcm Indus water. The south end of the lake (location 32° 47’ 45” N & 78° 20’ 7”
E) would be blocked by a 110 meters high earth cum rock fill dam to prevent spilling in to the Ungti Chu river which is a tributary of Sutlej river.
Thus when the water is released from its spill way, it will have provision to transfer Indus river water to the Sutlej and Chenab rivers.

From the Indus river (FRL 4161 m MSL), PSS pumps water by pressure pipes in to a surge shaft (located on nearby hill slope at FRL 4645 m
MSL) from where water is transferred to Tso Moriri lake by gravity tunnel (diameter 15 meters and 35 km length). The gravity tunnel is

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connected to the Tso Moriri lake below 4527 m MSL. To operate in generation mode when Tso Moriri lake level is above 4527 m MSL, Tso
Moriri water is drawn by the same tunnel directly and PSS generates power by releasing water to the Indus river at 4161 m MSL.

12.5 bcm water storage up to 4627 m MSL, will be created installing 5150 MW capacity PSS (pumping mode) to pump water @ 870 cumecs
by 475 m high for 4000 hours in a year. The net power consumption is 7.399 billion units with 20.552 billion kwh power consumption and
13.153 billion kwh power generation. PSS-1 would enhance the power generation potential of the downstream power stations (33,250 MW) by
62.67 billion kwh by increasing capacity utilization by nearly 1867 hours of operation every year. The net increased power generation is 55.27
billion units worth of 22,108 crores with an affordable investment of Rs 154,756 crores.

PSS using Pangong Lake catchment area: Pangong lake is a land locked / endorheic lake (location 33° 48’ 23” N & 78° 39’ 45” E) at 4250 m
MSL located in between Shyok river basin and the Spanggur Tso basin with a surface area of 600 square km and nearly 10,000 square km
catchment area (see Figure B). The lake area is located both in India and China. The average water yield from the catchment of the lake is
nearly 5 bcm.

The plan is to store water up to 4400 m MSL by creating a 100 m deep reservoir on Chhago Tokpo tributary of Pangong lake. The openings to
the Pangong lake (location 33° 40’ 29” N & 78° 32’ 43” E at 4300 m MSL) and Spanggur Tso (location 33° 33’ 3” N & 78° 44’ 45” E at 4331 m
MSL) are closed by constructing two earth cum rock fill dams of 110 m high and 80 m high respectively. The live storage of this reservoir is 10
bcm at 4400 m MSL. PSS pumping capacity is 700 cumecs operating for 4000 hrs/year each in pumping mode as well as generation mode.

Water storage of 10 bcm up to 4400 m MSL will be created by installing 2200 MW capacity (pumping mode) PSS to pump water @ 700
cumecs by 250 m high. The net power consumption is 3.48 billion units with 8.80 billion kwh power consumption and 5.32 billion kwh power
generation. PSS would enhance the power generation potential of the downstream power stations (33,250 MW) by 50.13 billion kwh by
increasing capacity utilization by nearly 1556 hours of operation every year. The net increased power generation is 46.65 billion units worth of
18,660 crores with an affordable investment of Rs 130,620 crores.
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PSS-1 (location 33° 14’ 45” N & 78° 53’ 51” E at 4161 m MSL) would pump water from the Indus main river based reservoir with FRL 4160 m
MSL using pressure piping in to a nearby surge shaft at 4420 m FRL (green lines in Figure B). The balancing pond is connected by a gravity
tunnel of 25 km long (15 m diameter) at 4300 m MSL to the upper reservoir located on the Pangong lake catchment area.

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A reversible turbine power plant is also installed at the tow of the dam at 33° 40’ 29” N & 78° 32’ 43” E to pump water from the nearby Pangong
Lake. This power station can be used for water exchanges between Shyok and Indus rivers for optimum use of the downstream power
stations.

PSS using Pangong Lake surface area:
A general storage reservoir /dam across the Shyok river (location 34° 10’ 11” N & 78° 15’ 31” E at 3661 m MSL) with full reservoir level (FRL)
at 3900 m MSL is envisaged to divert Shyok river water to the Pangong Lake area (see Figure B). It is proposed to select a 250 meter high
earth cum rock fill dam to build up the water level for pumping water in to the nearby Pangong lake at 4260 m level to use it as PSS reservoir.
Most of the dam/reservoir capacity will be accounted under dead storage except the needed live/ general storage as required under Annexure
E (20). The North western portion (35 km length) of the Pangong lake would be separated at 33° 43’ 33” N & 78° 41’ 25” E from the eastern
part by constructing a earth cum rock fill dam (7 km long) up to 4270 m MSL. Overflow arrangement from the eastern part to western part will
also be provided in case of level build up in the eastern part. The water yield in the total catchment area of Pangong Lake would be available in
the low level western part of lake for use /transfer outside the lake. The depth of the lake located in India is not deeper and its average depth is
nearly 30 meters. China cannot raise any objection as the portion of the Pangong Lake in its area is unaffected. This portion of the lake has
storage capacity of nearly 5 bcm at 4260 m MSL. The low level ridge (location 33° 58’ 11” N & 78° 24’ 49” E) separating the Pangong lake from
the Shyok river basin is elevated to 4270 m MSL with overflow provision.

PSS (location 34° 9’ 05” N & 78° 15’ 59” E at 3900 m MSL) would pump water from the reservoir at FRL 3900 m MSL on Shyok river using
pressure piping in to a nearby surge shaft at 4270 m FRL. The surge shaft is connected by a gravity tunnel of 25 km long (10 m diameter) at
4210 m MSL to the Pangong Lake (green lines in Figure B).

The available 5 bcm water storage up to 4260 m MSL will be created by installing 1600 MW capacity (pumping mode) PSS to pump water @
350 cumecs by 360 m high. The net power consumption is 2.267 billion kwh with 6.267 billion kwh power consumption and 4 billion kwh power
generation. PSS would enhance the power generation potential of the downstream power stations (33,250 MW) by 25.07 billion kwh by
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increasing capacity utilization by nearly 778 hours of operation every year. The net increased power generation (22.81 billion kwh) is worth of
9,124 crores with an affordable investment of Rs 63,868 crores.

The water quality in the Pangong Lake is brackish with salinity/TDS around 2000 ppm. The lake water being saline and cold at high altitude is
very poor in biota with no ecological resources. No fish or crustaceans are found in the lake waters except where the water is not saline at the
confluence points of major streams in to the lake. The ecological resources of the lake can be enhanced many times by converting a portion of
the lake (35 km long north western portion) in to fresh water PSS reservoir. The salinity of the water would become normal once the water is
drained in to the Shyok river. The increase in the river water salinity by mixing saline Pangong lake water would be negligible. The saline water
of lake would become fresh water in 2 or 3 years period of PSS operation to flourish biologically.

Water can be diverted by gravity from a left side tributary of Shyok river called Lung Yogma (location 33° 56’ 39” N & 78° 14’ 49” E at 3661 m
MSL at 4243 m MSL) by constructing a dam of suitable height. The water (nearly 1 bcm) from the dam/reservoir is transferred for storage by a
15 km long tunnel to the Pangong Lake.

Water can also be diverted by gravity from another left side tributary of Shyok river called Chang Cheamo river (location 34° 16’ 17” N & 78°
30’ 43” E at 3661 m MSL at 4260 m MSL) by constructing a dam of suitable height. The water (nearly 2 bcm) from the dam/reservoir is
transferred for storage by a 35 km long tunnel to the Pangong Lake. These gravity transfers substantially reduce the PSS pumping and are
feasible by enhancing water level further in the Pangong Lake. In addition 5 bcm more water is also available as yield from the catchment area
of the Pangong lake.

There are few more lakes located at higher elevation but not draining in to the nearby Indus river. Tso Kar and Startsapuk Tso are 23 km away
from the nearby Indus river at 4535 m MSL (location 33° 18’ 31” N & 78° 0’ 47” E) with nearly 1000 square km catchment area. Yaye Tso is 5
km away from the nearby Indus river at 4695 m MSL (location 33° 18’ 45” N & 78° 28’ 41” E). These two are promising lakes for storing the
nearby Indus river excess water flows by envisaging PSS.
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With the availability of total 27.5 bcm live storage, the downstream power stations (25,500 MW) operating hours would be increased by 4501
hrs enhancing the total possible operating hours to 8080 in a year. The capability to use the total Indus river water for power generation would
go up to 55.5 bcm from 28 bcm by installing the PSS. The water handling capacity of the downstream power stations (31,277 MW) and the
water pumping capacity of PSS together is (1785+431+1920 =) 4136 cumecs which could handle the largest flow that would take place once in
10 years at diversion points of Indus/Shyok/Zanskar rivers. Similarly the total water/flow transfer capacity of the downstream power stations
(17,555 MW) is (2100+1358+1235=) 4693 cumecs for all the western rivers together at any instant. Since all river water diversion from
western rivers to the eastern rivers has to take place via Chenab river, once in ten years flow of Chenab and Jhelum rivers together can be
comfortably diverted when Indus river is not flowing too high. Refer http://www.compositerunoff.sr.unh.edu/html/Polygons/P2837100.html for
water flow data of Chenab and Jhelum rivers.

Power generation from the Indus river valley:
From the proposed dam (location 33° 18’ 19” N & 78° 23’ 51” E at 4100 m MSL) with FRL 4160 m MSL, a series of tunnels (15 m diameter) of
250 km length are constructed at an average elevation of 4100 m MSL up to the last reservoir on the Indus river (location 34° 34’ 41” N & 76°
31’ 43” E) at FRL 2790 m MSL. These tunnels (Ash color line in Figure C) would also collect the inflows from the streams draining in to the
Indus River with the help of pick up dams on the right side of the Indus River. The available water flow is nearly 1570 cumecs or 25.2 bcm
(2.7+22.5) and the water head is 1250 meters. The feasible capacity of the hydro power station is 15,700 MW with annual power generation of
70 billion kwh in a year. The value of the electricity produced is Rs 28,000 crores with an affordable investment of 196,000 crores. By
envisaging 250 km long tunnels from the first reservoir to the last reservoir, most of the water inflows are diverted from the downstream dams.

In addition, many RoR hydro plants can be installed in the 250 km length of the river between above two dams by constructing one dam for
every 100 m drop in the river level. It would also generate around 5.48 billion units annually by installing nearly 1,220 MW power generation
capacities at 500 m head and 310 cusecs (5 bcm). Thus most of the power generation potential in the main Indus river valley can be
harnessed. To overcome the inadequate live storage permitted by IWT at these dams, water powered pump (WPP) units are the best solution
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for reducing peak flows in to the downstream reservoirs/dams. In WPP units, the available water head (energy) is used for driving the water
turbine which in turn drives a pump to lift part of the water to higher elevation to feed the nearby elevated tunnel transporting water to the last
downstream high head hydro power plant. WPP units are compact, reliable and rugged as the variable and low speed turbine shaft power is
used to drive a water pump directly instead of generating electricity. WPP units are also more suitable even for underground or flooded
installations as their submergence during unexpected peak floods do not cause any damage. Refer
https://www.scribd.com/document/58789354/Nagarjuna-Sagar-WPP-Units for more information on WPP units. They are also cheaper as there
is no electricity generation and its transmission.

The quantum of water lifted by WPP depends on the water head available for energy/power generation and the required pumping head/lift
(ratio of turbine head/ pump head). The rest of the water handled (other than pumped water) is released in to the downstream river thus
reducing the flood flows to the extent pumped in to the nearby gravity tunnel. WPP units (Figure-1) can be designed for minimum required
head ratio up to 0.2 (pumping head is 5 times the turbine head). As the electricity demand is low in the region and surplus electricity is
generated, it is economical to prefer WPPs to pump the water rather than generating multipurpose electricity minimizing the electricity
transmission needs. Each dam/reservoir can have electricity generation units for meeting the local electricity demand only. There is need of
eliminating legacy bias towards electricity generation among the planners/engineers by preferring need based solution to serve the ultimate
requirement. The tunnel running parallel to the river is literally another river flowing at higher elevation to follow the IWT restrictions for not
allowing the freedom to fix the live storage at each dam. However the live storage/pondage of every intermediate dam is designed based on
the historical flows available at each dam as per IWT. Thus the permitted pondage would be adequate to generate electricity at high capacity
utilization to harness the total hydro potential of the river valley.

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Power generation from the Shyok river valley:
A RoR dam (location 34° 8’ 25” N & 78° 7’ 7” E at 3800 m MSL) at FRL 3900 m FRL is proposed across Shyok Gong which is left side tributary
of the Shyok river. The dam catchment area is substantial with good continues inflows. From the PSS dam across the upstream Shyok river
(location 34° 10’ 11” N & 78° 15’ 31” E at FRL 3900 m MSL) via this pick up dam, a series of tunnels (13 m diameter) of 185 km length are
constructed at an average elevation of 3850 m MSL up to the last reservoir on the Shyok river (location 34° 52’ 57” N & 76° 48’ 53” E at 2800
m MSL) at FRL 2850 m MSL (dark red color line in Figure C). These tunnels would also collect the inflows from the streams draining in to the
Shyok River with the help of pick up dams on the left side of the Shyok River. These pick up/diversion of medium height (< 30 meter high from
river bed) dams can be constructed mostly by steel in place of concrete. This type of dams are called steel dams which are easy to construct in
hilly areas where material transport cost is substantial mainly for bulk materials like cement, sand, etc. Refer to
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https://www.scribd.com/document/58789323/Fixed-Steel-Dams for more data on steel dams. The available water flow is nearly 700 cumecs or
(5+6.28=) 11.28 bcm and the water head is 1000 meters. The feasible capacity of the hydro power station is 5,600 MW with annual power
generation of 24.93 billion kwh in a year. The value of the electricity produced is Rs 9,973 crores with an affordable investment of 69,812
crores. By envisaging 185 km long tunnels from the first reservoir to the last reservoir, most of the water inflows are diverted from the
downstream dams.

HIGH LEVEL CANAL

Hp

The efficiency (Ewpp) of the WPP unit is as
indicated below
RIVER
Ht x Qt x Et x Eg = Hp x Qp / Ep
Ewpp = (Hp / Ht) x (Qp / Qt) = Et x Eg x Ep

Where
Qp is the pumped water
Ht Qt is water used by turbine
Ht is the head available to the turbine
WATER
Qp Hp is the head created by pump
POWERED Et is the turbine efficiency ( more than 85%)
PUMP
Ep is the pumping efficiency (more than 85%)
Qt
Eg is the gear box transmission efficiency(if any)
DOWN STREAM RIVER

FIGURE-1: WATER POWERED PUMP UNIT

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In addition, many RoR hydro stations can be installed in the 185 km length of the river between above dams by constructing one dam for every
100 m drop in the river level. It would also generate around 5.00 billion kwh annually by installing nearly 1,115 MW power generation
capacities @350 cusecs (5.64 bcm) and aggregate water head of 400 m. Thus most of the power generation potential in the Shyok river valley
can be harnessed fully. WPP units can also be installed in place of power generation units. However the live storage/pondage of every
intermediate dam is designed based on the historical flows available at each dam site as per IWT. Thus the permitted pondage and surcharge
storage would be adequate to generate electricity at high capacity utilization to harness the total hydro potential of the river valley.

The remaining yield (total average yield is nearly 60 bcm) in the Indus river basin (other than the water used for power generation (52.12 bcm)
in the upstream) is also substantial whose water yield (7.88 bcm) to the Indus main river will be directly used in the 25,500 MW power plant (to
the extent possible) giving first preference to the uncontained water flows from the entire basin area. The tributaries of other two western rivers
(Chenab and Jhelum) also have substantial hydro power potential which can be harnessed for power generation. All western rivers (including
Indus river) have nearly 15,000 MW with 67.5 billion kwh additional electricity generation potential. Refer to the links
https://sandrp.files.wordpress.com/2018/03/hydro_-electric_projects_in_chenab_river_basin.pdf and
https://sandrp.files.wordpress.com/2018/03/hydro_electric_projects_on_jhelum_river_basin.pdf for more details.

Pangong, Tso Moriri, etc lake’s water for irrigation in the basins of western rivers:
India is not allowed to use water from the western rivers for additional irrigation in excess of 701,000 acres cropped area as stated at Annexure
C (5) but the extent and intensity of irrigation to be provided is much more in the J&K and HP states. However, there is no restriction (para 1 of
Annexure C and para 15 of Article IV) on irrigated area if the water is imported /transferred from outside the catchment areas of the western
rivers as they are not affecting the availability of water in Pakistan. One such possibility is to use water available (nearly 8.5 bcm) from the
catchment area of the Pangong, Tso Moriri, etc lakes located in the J&K state for the additional irrigation needs to the extent of 3,500,000
acres (500% more than the additional permitted irrigation use by IWT) by using 5 bcm from Pangong Lake and 1.5 bcm from Ungdi Nadi/Tso
Moriri lake, 1.5 bcm from Ungti Chu river and 0.5 bcm from Tso Kar and Startsapuk Tso lakes. These natural lakes along with their catchment
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areas are separate from the western river basins and the water transfer of these lakes/rivers to Indus/Chenab/Jhelum rivers by gravity tunnels
is feasible as these lakes/rivers are located at higher elevation to the nearby Shyok/Indus/Zanskar basins. India can draw the corresponding
water from any western river in lieu of water imported from these lakes without the actual supply of lakes water separately to the fields to be
irrigated. Pangong, Tso Moriri, etc lake waters transferred along with the Indus river water can be supplied for agriculture use in Indus, Jhelum
and Chenab basins in the entire J&K state as explained earlier by forming a garland tunnel inside the circular mountain range.

Lingdi/Ungdi Nadi located in J&K state is a tributary of Tso Moriri Lake which is joining the lake at its southern end. It has nearly 1500 square
km catchment area with 1.5 bcm yield. If a dam/reservoir is constructed near 32° 45’ 9” N & 78° 17’ 29” E at 4543 m MSL) where it is joining
the Tso Moriri Lake, the river water can be transferred to the Zanskar basin by a 45 km long tunnel to Tsarap Chu river near Dar Takshan town
(location 32° 50’ 51” N & 77° 45’ 27” E at 4283 m MSL). Also nearly 260 m total water head is available to install a hydro power plant (190 MW)
to generate 0.86 billion kwh annually. Nearly 0.5 bcm water can also be made available from Tso Kar and Startsapuk Tso lakes for irrigation
use in J&K state. Tso Kar and Startsapuk Tso lakes water at 4535 m MSL can be transferred by a 25 km long gravity tunnel to the Zanskar
river basin (33° 19’ 3” N & 77° 42’ 19” E at 4405 m MSL). Another 1.5 bcm water can be diverted from Ungti Chu river (location 32° 39’ 19” N &
78° 34’ 33” E at 4360 m MSL) to the Indus basin (location 32° 45’ 15” N & 78° 53’ 59” E at 4320 m MSL) by a 35 km long gravity tunnel. For
diverting water to the Indus basin, a dam/barrage would be constructed across the Ungti Chu river (a tributary of Sutlej river) before entering
(location 33° 19’ 3” N & 77° 42’ 19” E) in to the Tibet/China area. The water diverted (1.5 bcm) to the Indus river can be used for agriculture in
J&K state and additional power generation in the downstream hydro power stations.

As explained earlier, nearly 103.5 bcm water mostly from Indus, Chenab and Jhelum rivers (95 bcm) can be transferred throughout the year to
large area in Indus system of rivers located in India for aqua culture, irrigation, domestic, Industrial and hydro power uses in Jummu and
Kashmir, Punjab, Hayana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat states to convert the barren lands into productive lands. As the proposed
navigation canal is passing parallel to the nearby international border with Pakistan, India can also supply water by gravity flow to Pakistan
lands on chargeable basis subject to Pakistan’s cordial relations with India.

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Conclusion:
The advancements in technology and the methods of its application intensively and extensively, with passage of time, are able to find out
economic solutions which were not technically feasible and beyond the human imagination few decades back. Use of tunneling technology to
build water tunnels stretching hundreds of kilometers length inside the mountain ridges is indeed one such case.

The proposed hydro power stations (567 billion kwh per year by 112,000 MW) can generate reliable and dispatch-able power on daily basis for
meeting both peak and base loads unlike solar PV power plants. Due to mega size of these power projects, involving very high head and large
capacity turbine units, the entire project cost will not be exceeding Rs 6 crores per MW or Rs 11.95 investment per one kwh generation in a
year and the total investment (hard cost plus soft cost) will be paid back in first six years of operation @ Rs 2 per kwh sale price. If the same
quantum of electricity is to be generated by solar power PV plants (intermittent power generation source and not dependable on daily basis),
the required land is nearly 672,000 hectares and the required investment is Rs 26.67 per kwh generation in a year with simple payback period
of 13.33 years @ Rs 2 per kwh sale price. Solar PV plant produces 1500 kwh/kw in a year @ Rs 4 crore/MW investment. There is negligible
human displacement and productive lands submergence by these proposed massive water storage and transportation projects. The hydro
power potential of western rivers can be used to pump the surplus water available from the Bhramhaputra and Ganga rivers by constructing a
massive fresh water coastal reservoir (storage 360 bcm) on the sea adjoining Odisha, West Bengal and Bangladesh. This massive lift irrigation
project would supply nearly 560 bcm additional water to all the Indian cultivable lands for irrigation throughout the year irrespective of monsoon
failures and also provide adequate environmental and base flows in the over exploited Indian rivers. Refer
https://www.scribd.com/document/390880621/Feasibility-of-coastal-reservoir-to-harness-Brahmaputra-and-Ganga-surplus-waters for more
details. 430 billion kwh electricity is adequate to meet the net pumping power requirements of this project to lift 560 bcm water in to the Indian
rivers at various points. Rest 120 billion kwh can be used for the ultimate needs of J&K state and Himachal Pradesh. Pakistan can also make
use out of the total 1200 bcm water available in Bhramhaputra and Ganga rivers system to convert its remaining vast uncultivated desert lands
including Balochistan desert in to fertile irrigated lands by importing water from India and Bangladesh. The water availability above 2000 m
MSL in Tibet from Bramhaputra main river is not exceeding 50 bcm which may be used by China. Thus the surplus waters of Bhramhaputra
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and Ganga rivers system going waste to the sea is put to productive use by the joint cooperation of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan to bring
peace and prosperity in Indian subcontinent.

The annual export revenue in international currency from the fisheries production (15 million tons) alone is nearly US$30 billion which can
payback (even it is funded mostly by foreign capital) within a decade the entire project cost (US$ 250 billion) incurred for harnessing the total
water available in Indus system of rivers in India for aqua culture, agriculture, navigation, hydro power, etc purposes.

The J&K state can be converted in to another Switzerland by harnessing its hydro power potential for supplying cheap, clean and renewable
hydro power to cater the full requirements of entire agriculture sector of India. Similarly Rajasthan deserts will thrive similar to Califonia state
with massive aqua culture farms creating blue revolution in India. In the process of constructing these gigantic hydro power plants of J&K state,
the state can become an Eldorado for the engineers, technicians, construction work men, etc seeking higher wages / salaries at par with
developed countries rather than working in Gulf countries in equally harsh climatic conditions.
………..

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Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) provisions applicable to India.
Annexure-1
IWT reference PCA or Neutral Expert Explanation
interpretation
1. The basin area of the Indus River and its tributaries in India.
Article I: Para IV (A) 365 of The ‘Preamble’ says the purpose of the IWT is to attain the
2. The term "Tributary" of a river means any Permanent Court of most complete and satisfactory utilisation of Indus system of
surface channel whether in continuous or Arbitration (PCA ) verdict rivers. IWT further divided the Indus system of rivers in to six
intermittent flow and by whatever name called, dated 18 February 2013 on rivers which are Sutlej, Beas, Ravi (called eastern rivers),
whose waters in the natural course would fall Hydro power use in Chenab, Jhelum and Indus (called western rivers). Each of
into that river, e.g. a tributary, a torrent, a Kishanganga project dispute: these rivers includes its connecting lakes and all its
natural drainage, an artificial drainage, a nadi, tributaries.
a nallah, a nai, a khad, a cho. The term also IV (A) The territorial scope
includes any sub-tributary or branch or of the treaty A tributary of a river is defined as any surface channel
subsidiary channel, by whatever name called, whether in continuous or intermittent flow whose waters in the
whose waters, in the natural course, would 365. The Court recognizes natural course would fall into that river…… The term also
directly or otherwise flow into that surface that the text of the Treaty includes any sub-tributary or branch or subsidiary channel, by
channel. itself, read in context and in whatever name called, whose waters, in the natural course,
light of its object and would directly or otherwise flow into that surface channel.
3. The term "The Indus," "The Jhelum," "The purpose, is paramount in
Chenab," "The Ravi," "The Beas" or "The resolving the disputes Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum rivers are actually the
Sutlej" means the named river (including brought before it. The major tributaries of the Indus river but considered as separate
Connecting Lakes, if any) and all its Tributaries Preamble of the Treaty refers rivers for the purpose of IWT. Any tributary or surface channel
: Provided however that to the Parties’ desire to attain of Indus system of rivers which is not part of Sutlej or Beas or
the “most complete and Ravi or Chenab or Jhelum river, is deemed to be part of
i. none of the rivers named above shall be satisfactory utilisation of the Indus river per Articles I (2) and (3)
deemed to be a Tributary; waters of the Indus system of
rivers” and states further that Indus Main means main stem of Indus river excluding its
ii. The Chenab shall be deemed to include the the Treaty fixes the rights tributaries, but including all channels, connecting lakes and
river Panjnad; and and creeks of the Indus river. Thus Indus Main connects to the
obligations of the Parties Arabian sea through its delta channels and various creeks
iii. The river Chandra and the river Bhaga shall concerning the use of “these located in Pakistan and India. So all these delta channels and
be deemed to be Tributaries of The Chenab. waters.” These words are creeks are deemed to be part of Indus Main river. Any river
emblematic of the Treaty’s which is joining the creeks of Indus Main is also tributary of
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4. The term "Main" added after Indus, Jhelum, intent to apply to the Indus river per Article I.
Chenab, Sutlej, Beas or Ravi means the main aggregate of the Indus river
stem of the named river excluding its system and not only to those The Koree Creek of Great Rann of Kutch and the Hadakiya
Tributaries, but including all channels and waters flowing through Creek of Little Rann of Kutch located in India are part of
creeks of the main stem of that river and such uncontested territory. The Indus Main as Indus river water is flowing in to these creeks
Connecting Lakes as form part of the main Parties have not pointed to— to reach the Sea during Indus river floods and are
stem itself. and the Court has not hydraulically connected with Indus river. Any river draining in
found—any provision that to these creeks becomes the tributary of Indus river per
Article IX (2) would exclude from the Article I of IWT. Many rivers in India, not named as separate
If the Commission does not reach agreement scope of the Treaty any rivers in IWT, whose waters, in the natural course, are directly
on any of the questions mentioned in portion of the waters of the or otherwise flowing into Indus Main are tributaries of Indus
Paragraph (1), then a difference will be Indus system of rivers that River. Thus Ghagar river with its basin area spread in
deemed to have arisen, which shall be dealt flow through Pakistan and Himachal, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan states is a
with as follows : India. Moreover, four of the tributary of Indus River. Similarly, The desert streams, in
rivers governed by the Treaty Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaneer districts of Rajasthan state,
(a) Any difference which, in the opinion of (the Indus, the Jhelum, the flowing / joining the Indus Main on its left bank are part of
either Commissioner, falls within the provisions Chenab and the Ravi) flow Indus river. The Luni river flowing in to Koree Creek is also
of Part 1 of Annexure F shall, at the request of partly through the territory of part of Indus river. Also the Saraswati, Rupen, Aji Nadi, etc
either Commissioner, be dealt with by a Jammu and Kashmir. Were rivers draining in to Hadakiya Creek are tributaries of Indus
Neutral Expert in accordance with the the Treaty to exclude these river.
provisions of Part 2 of watercourses during their
Annexure F; transit of the region, it would Thus vast area located in Himachal Pradesh, Haryana,
…. fall significantly short of Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat states of India is also part of
providing the comprehensive Western Rivers basin area. Article III (2), Annexure C, D and
ANNEXURE F solution sought by the Parties E are applicable to these tributaries similar to the Indus basin
Part 1—Questions to be referred to a Neutral for the development and area located in J&K state. Any question on the extent of
Expert allocation of the waters of the drainage basin area of the Indus river is to be settled by the
…. Indus system. Neutral Expert (NE) per Article IX (2a) and Annexure F, Part
2. Determination of the boundary of the 1 (2).
drainage
basin of The Indus or The Jhelum or The
Chenab for the purposes of Article III (2).
….
2. Is it required for India to let flow water of Western Rivers in to Pakistan? Absolutely No.
Article III (1) Permanent Court of Article III (2) can be divided in to three parts for better clarity

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Pakistan shall receive for unrestricted use all Arbitration (PCA ) verdict as given below:
those waters of the Western Rivers which dated 18 February 2013 on
India is under obligation to let flow under the Hydro power use in “India shall be under an obligation to let flow all the waters of
provisions of Paragraph (2). Kishanganga project dispute: the Western Rivers to the drainage basin thereof.”

Article III (2) The object and purpose of The above stipulation says that India shall let flow the
India shall be under an obligation to let flow all the Treaty remaining waters of Western Rivers [i.e. The Indus, The
the waters of the Western Rivers, and shall not 410. Turning to the object Jhelum and The Chenab taken together per Article I (6)] to its
permit any interference with these waters, and purpose of the Treaty, basin area after the permitted uses. Though Pakistan has
except for the following uses, restricted (except the Court notes that the right per Article III (1) to receive waters of Western Rivers
as provided in item (c) (11) of Paragraph 5 of Treaty establishes a regime from India, whereas India’s obligation is not to let flow waters
Annexure C) in the case of each of the rivers, of qualified rights and of Indian Western rivers in to Pakistan’s territory/rivers but
The Indus, The Jhelum and The Chenab, to priorities in respect of specific precisely to the drainage basin of Western Rivers. This
the drainage basin thereof uses, which governs the stipulation can be fulfilled by India in three ways.
interpretation of Paragraph 1) After the permitted uses, the remaining water of
a) Domestic Use; 15. The Treaty recognizes Western Rivers can be let flow by India in to Western
Pakistan’s right to Rivers basin located in J&K state of India which will
I. b) Non-Consumptive Use; “unrestricted” use of all the flow in to Western Rivers of Pakistan subsequently.
II. waters of the Western Rivers, 2) After the permitted uses, the remaining water of
III. c) Agricultural Use, as set out in Annexure including the Kishenganga Western Rivers from India can be let flow by India in to
C; and /Neelum. The deliberate the Eastern Rivers of India which will flow in to
IV. division and allocation of the Western Rivers basin located in Pakistan through the
V. d) Generation of hydro-electric power, as set six main watercourses of the Eastern Rivers of Pakistan.
out in Annexure D. Indus system of rivers 3) After using for hydro-electricity and other permitted
between the Parties is a uses, India can let the remaining waters of the
Article IV (2) defining characteristic of the Western Rivers directly to the Sea via Koree Creek or
Each Party agrees that any Non-Consumptive Treaty. The inevitable Hadakiya Creek located in India. Thus Pakistan is
Use made by it shall be so made as not to conclusion is that Pakistan is totally deprived of water use from Indian Western
materially change, on account of such use, the given priority in the use of the Rivers. Koree Creek and Hadakiya Creek are part of
flow in any channel to the prejudice of the uses waters of the Western Rivers, Indus River per Article I.
on that channel by the other Party under the just as India has priority in
provisions of this Treaty….. the use of the waters of the Per Article III (1), Pakistan has right to receive the remaining
Eastern Rivers. waters of the Western Rivers flowing from India after the
Annexure D (1): permitted water uses by India. The matching obligation
The provisions of this Annexure shall apply 411. Pakistan’s right to the specified to India in the treaty is not foolproof and at the

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with respect to the use by India of the waters of Western Rivers is not mercy of India to satisfy Pakistan’s water right on Western
the Western Rivers for the generation of hydro- absolute since it relates only Rivers water.
electric power under the provisions of Article III to those waters of the
(2) (d) and, subject to the provisions of this Western Rivers “which India “India shall not permit any interference with these waters,
Annexure, such use shall be unrestricted: is under an obligation to let except for the following uses
Provided that the design, construction and flow under the provisions of a) Domestic Use;
operation of new hydro-electric plants which [Article III(2) of the Treaty].”
are incorporated in a Storage Work (as defined The right is subject to VI. b) Non-Consumptive Use;
in Annexure E) shall be governed by the expressly enumerated Indian VII.
relevant provisions of Annexure E. uses on the Western Rivers, VIII. c) Agricultural Use, as set out in Annexure C; and
including the generation of IX.
hydro-electric power to the X. d) Generation of hydro-electric power, as set out in
extent permitted by the Annexure D.”
Treaty.
India shall not cause any interference [per Article I (15)] to
412. Article III(1) of the Western Rivers water other than the listed four water
Treaty states: uses/rights.
Pakistan shall receive for
unrestricted use all those Domestic use: It [per Article I (10)] is permitted in unlimited
waters of the Western Rivers quantity subject to Article IV (12) and (13) by returning the
which residual water to the same river or its tributary. The water use
India is under obligation to let is restricted to in basin use only for each of the Western
flow under the provisions of Rivers.
Paragraph (2).
Indus river water available in J&K state can be transferred to
In turn, Paragraph (2) the Gaghar, Luni, etc river basins for domestic use and the
provides: residual water can be left to flow to join sea through the
India shall be under an Koree Creek or Hadakiya Creek bypassing Pakistan.
obligation to let flow all the
waters of the Western Rivers, Non-Consumptive Use: it is permitted in unlimited quantity
and shall subject to Article I (11) by returning the water excluding
not permit any interference seepage and evaporation loses incidental to the control or
with these waters, except for use of the water to the same river or its tributary. The water
the following uses, restricted use is restricted to in basin use only for each of the western
... rivers.

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in the case of each of the
rivers, The Indus, The Indus river water available in J&K state can be transferred to
Jhelum and The Chenab, to the Gaghar, Luni, etc river basins for fish culture or aqua
the drainage culture which is a Non-Consumptive Use. The residual water
basin thereof: can be left to flow to join sea through the Koree Creek or
[. . .] Hadakiya Creek bypassing Pakistan area. Aqua culture
(d) Generation of hydro- consumes more water compared to irrigation water
electric power, as set out in consumption in the form of seepage and evaporation. Fresh
Annexure D. water aqua culture is also more profitable industry compared
to irrigated lands. Nearly 55 billion cubic meters water
Similarly, although the available in the Indus river of J&K state can be used for aqua
chapeau of Annexure D culture cultivation of vast barren lands (nearly 55,000 square
confirms India’s right to km area) In Rajasthan and Gujarat for economic prosperity.
generate hydroelectric power
on the Western Rivers in The stipulation given in Article IV (2) is applicable where a
language similar to that of channel or tributary of Western Rivers located both in India
Pakistan’s unrestricted “let and Pakistan. It is not applicable to main Western Rivers
flow” right, it is circumscribed located in India and the tributaries of Western Rivers which
by the terms of Annexure D are totally located in India
itself:
Agricultural Use: Additional water use is limited for irrigation
1. The provisions of this needs of specified area as given in Annexure C (1) and (5)
Annexure D shall apply with from each river of Western Rivers. Annexure C (1) repealed
respect to the use by India of the restriction stipulated in Article III (2) to use the water for in
the basin agriculture use only. But the relevant restriction is
waters of the Western Rivers reintroduced at Annexure C (5) which is to be complied by
for the generation of hydro- India.
electric power under the
provisions of Article III(2)(d) Generation of hydro-electric power: Water use for hydro
and, subject to the provisions power use is unlimited subject to stipulations of Annexure D
of this Annexure, such use and E of IWT. However the restriction imposed by this clause
shall be unrestricted: . . [Article III (2)], by restricting water use for in basin use only, is
repealed by Annexure D (1). The applicable provisions for
413. Thus, on the one hand, using western rivers water for hydro-electric power generation
the Treaty establishes that are exclusively given in Annexure D and E (i.e. No other

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Pakistan enjoys unrestricted stipulation applicable other than Annexure D and E)
use of those waters of the
Western Rivers which it is “The permitted uses are restricted (except as provided in item
entitled to receive. On the (c) (11) of Paragraph 5 of Annexure C) in the case of each of
other hand, the Treaty’s the rivers, The Indus, The Jhelum and The Chenab.”
specifications in respect of
India’s hydro-electric uses on The permitted water uses are confined to the in basin area of
the Western Rivers are a Western River. However, this restriction is repealed in
inconsistent with denying to Annexure D (1) for the hydro-electric power generation use.
India the capacity to generate
electricity from power plants
built in conformity with the
Treaty. Any interpretation of
Paragraph 15 (Annexure D)
the logical result of which
would be to allow Pakistan
unilaterally to curtail the
ability of such Indian Plants
to operate would subvert an
important element of the
object and purpose of the
Treaty.

References:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOUTHASIAEXT/Resources/223546-1171996340255/BagliharSummary.pdf Executive Summary, Neutral
Expert determination in the case of Baglihar project, 12 February, 2007.

https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1681 Permanent Court of Arbitration verdict dated 18 February, 2013 on Kishanganga project.

https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTs/Volume%20419/volume-419-I-6032-English.pdf Full document of Indus Waters Treaty.

3. Whether the new irrigation potential developed by using Gaghar, Luni, etc rivers water is exceeding maximum permitted
acreage and water storage in IWT for Indus basin? No
Annexure C (5): As explained earlier, vast area in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab,
In addition to such withdrawals as may be Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat states other than J&K area
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made in accordance with the provisions of is also part of Indus river basin. But the new area to be
Paragraphs 3 and 4, India may, subject to the brought under irrigation by the Indus water shall not exceed
provisions of Paragraphs 6, 7, 8 and 9, make 70,000 acres single cropped area in a year. However
further withdrawals from the Western Rivers to additional area can be irrigated by importing water from other
the extent India may consider necessary to river basins. The irrigated area developed and under
meet the irrigation needs of the areas specified development as on effective date of IWT is protected.
below Incidentally, most of the limited water resources available in
these desert/arid areas of the Indus basin were harnessed by
a) From Indus in its drainage basin  70,000 constructing major and medium water reservoirs before the
acres maximum cropped area. effective date. After the 1960, many minor irrigation reservoirs
…. / tanks were constructed mainly for drinking water purpose.
Provided that Due to inadequate water inflows in to the reservoirs as the
rains are erratic and unreliable, the developed irrigation
(i) in addition to the maximum Irrigated
potential is also not utilised fully for irrigation in every year.
Cropped Area specified above, India may Annexure C (5) restricts irrigation water use from the water
irrigate road side trees from any source available in its river basin to 70,000 acres annually.
whatever;
IWT is not restricting construction of irrigation infrastructure
(ii) the maximum Irrigated Cropped Area
such as irrigation canals, dug wells, bore wells, etc except the
shown against items (a), (b) and (c) W above creation of water storage in reservoirs to 0.25 maf (308
shall be deemed to include cropped areas, if million cubic meters) under general storage. Additionally 0.15
any, irrigated from an open well, a tube-well, a maf (185 million cubic meters) power storage is permitted
which can be used for domestic and non-consumptive uses.
spring, a lake (other than a Connecting Lake) The storage capacity developed in the Indus basin area is not
or a tank, in excess of the areas so irrigated as exceeding 0.40 maf for these uses after the effective date.
on the Effective Date; and
(iii) the Aggregate of the areas specified The irrigated area in a year using imported water from
outside the basin area such as Narmada, Eastern Rivers, etc
against items (a), (b) and (c) (i) above may be are not restricted by the provisions of Annexure C.
re-distributed among the three drainage basins
in such manner as in between the Even India is using waters of these tributaries of Indus river
violating provisions of IWT, Pakistan cannot make any valid
Commissioners.
compensation claim as these unutilised river waters will not
flow in to Pakistan and it has not suffered any loss out of
Annexure E (7):
India’s action. However before using Indus river water
The aggregate storage capacity of all Single-
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purpose and Multi-purpose Reservoirs which sourced from J&K state in these desert/arid areas of Indus
may be constructed by India after the Effective river basin, India has to readjust/ account the various water
Date on each of the River Systems specified in uses and available water storages (dead storage, general
….shall not exceed, for each of the storage, conservation storage, surcharge storage, RoR
categories… power plant pondage, etc) to comply with the IWT. These
(a) The Indus river system: modifications are permitted per Annexure E (15) and (23)

General storage  0. 25 million acre When Pakistan raises any dispute in this regard, it needs to
feet submit facts on the actual irrigated area in a year from the
Power storage  0.15 million acre water generated in the Indus basin after deducting the
feet domestic and non consumptive water uses in the basin area
Flood storage  Nil but not on the area irrigated by imported water from other
river basins. The water available in these desert/arid areas is
Provided that not adequate even for the needs of drinking water of the
1) the general storage above may be used for population & live stock, industrial water consumption and
any purpose whatever, including the non-consumptive uses.
generation of electric energy;
2) the power storage may also be put to Non-
Consumptive Use (other than flood protection
or flood control) or to Domestic use;
….

Annexure C(2):
As used in this Annexure, the term "Irrigated
Cropped Area" means the total area under
irrigated crops in a year, the same area being
counted twice if it bears different crops in kharif
and rabi. The term shall be deemed to exclude
small blocks of ghair mumkin lands in an
irrigated field, lands on which cultivation is
dependent on rain or snow and to which no
irrigation water is applied, areas naturally
inundated by river flow and cultivated on sailab
thereafter, any area under floating gardens or
demb lands in and along any lakes, and any

39 of 57
area under water-plants growing within the
water-spread of any lake or in standing water
in a natural depression.

4. Whether storage works/reservoirs can be constructed outside the Western Rivers basin for storing western rivers water? Yes
and Annexure E stipulations not applicable.
5. Whether water reservoirs of Run of River power plants can be located outside the Western Rivers basin? Yes
6. Whether other rivers water can be stored in Western Rivers basin? Yes but Annexure E stipulations are applicable
7. Whether other rivers water can be used in Western Rivers basin for various water uses? Yes, There is no such restriction in
the IWT
We need to understand at the outset what is provided in
Article III (4) Annexure D and E.
Except as provided in Annexure D and E, India
shall not store any water of, or construct any Annexure D (1) states
storage works on, the Western Rivers.
“The provisions of this Annexure shall apply with respect to
Annexure E the use by India of the waters of the Western Rivers for the
1) The provisions of this Annexure shall apply generation of hydro-electric power under the provisions of
with respect to the storage of water on the Article III (2) (d) and, subject to the provisions of this
Western Rivers, and to the construction and Annexure, such use shall be unrestricted: Provided that the
operation of Storage Works thereon, by India design, construction and operation of new hydro-electric
under the provisions of Article III (4). plants which are incorporated in a Storage Work (as defined
in Annexure E) shall be governed by the relevant provisions
20) Subject to the provisions of Paragraph 8 of of Annexure E.”
Annexure C, India may make releases from
Conservation Storage in any manner it may Further, the content of Annexure D has not imposed any
determine. restriction for constructing new power plants outside the
Western Rivers basin area using Western Rivers water.
Article II (1):
All the waters of the Eastern Rivers shall be Annexure E (1) states
available for the unrestricted use of India, “The provisions of this Annexure shall apply with respect to
except as otherwise expressly provided in this the storage of water on the Western Rivers, and to the
Article. construction and operation of Storage Works thereon, by
India under the provisions of Article III (4).”

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Annexure E is applicable to the storage of water on the
Western Rivers. It also permits storage of other rivers
/imported water on the Western Rivers. Annexure E (7) is
stipulating the applicable maximum storages for all types of
permitted uses (power generation use, flood protection and
control, Domestic and Non-Consumptive Uses) on each
western river whether by water of Western Rivers or water of
other adjacent rivers which are not part of Western Rivers.

Annexure D permits use of Western Rivers water for the
generation of hydro-electric power (both RoR plant and
storage works with power plant) inside and outside the basin
area of Western Rivers. Annexure E (7) stipulated the
maximum permitted aggregate storage capacity applicable to
the Storage Works with power plant in each western river
basin as stated in Annexure D (1).

Annexure E has not stipulated any maximum permitted
aggregate storage capacity applicable to Storage Works with
power plant, located outside the basin area of each of the
Western Rivers, using Western Rivers water as stated in
Annexure D (1). So there is no storage restriction for such
storage works with power plant which is permitted by
Annexure D (1).

Annexure E (7) also stipulated the maximum storages
applicable for all types of permitted non-power uses (flood
protection and control, domestic and non-consumptive uses)
in each western river basin. It has not restricted the
construction of storage works for non-power use to store
Western Rivers water outside the Western Rivers basin area.

In Article III (4), two phrases/parts in a sentence are joined by
the ‘OR’ conjunctive. The word ‘OR’ is used to link
alternatives. The word ‘OR’ is also used to introduce a

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synonym or explanation of a preceding word or phrase in a
sentence.

With the usage of word “OR” in Article III (4), the following two
alternatives are given to India to opt.

1) Except as provided in Annexure D and E, India shall not
store any water of the Western Rivers.
OR
2) Except as provided in Annexure D and E, India shall not
construct any storage works on the Western Rivers.

India will opt for alternative 2 as it imposes lesser degree
restriction compared to alternative 1.

As per other use of word ‘OR’, the second part “India shall
not construct any storage works on the Western Rivers” is
nothing but the explanation of the first part “India shall not
store any water of the Western Rivers”. So the intent of
Article III (4) is the implementation of alternative 2 as given
above. In Article III (4), the conjunctive ‘AND’ should have
been used in place of ‘OR’ conjunctive when the intention of
the IWT was to bar the construction of storage works and
storing of a western river water subsequently in such
constructed storage works located both inside and outside
the basin area with the exemptions as provided in Annexure
D and E

When first part of Article III (4) is applicable, India shall not
store water of a western river outside its basin area except for
power generation (both RoR and storage works with power
plant) since it is permitted by Annexure D. Whereas the
relevant provisions of Annexure E applicable to the design,
construction and operation of new storage works with power
plants are applicable only to such works located on the

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Western Rivers. Since no applicable guide lines to the
storage works with power plant located outside a western
river basin is stated in Annexure E, India is at liberty to
design, construct and operate such storage works with power
plant permitted in Annexure D.

Also first part of Article III (4) permits to construct storage
works on a western river to store river water imported from
outside the Western Rivers. Since India is also permitted
unrestricted use of Eastern Rivers water per Article II (1).
India is at liberty to design, construct and operate storage
works on Western Rivers which can be used for storing water
of Eastern Rivers/other rivers in the absence of any such
restriction.

When second part of Article III (4) is applicable, India shall
not construct storage works on the Western Rivers except as
provided in Annexure D and E. Since second part of Article III
(4) is applicable only to the construction of storage works
inside the Western Rivers basin, India is free to construct
such storage works for all permitted uses outside the Western
Rivers basin using water of Western Rivers.

Eastern Rivers water can be used in Western Rivers basin
area without any restriction per Article II (1). Also Eastern
Rivers water can be stored on Western Rivers by
constructing storage works without any storage restriction
when second part of Article III (4) is not applicable

Also the scope of IWT is limited to Indus system of rivers only
and it cannot impose any restriction in design, construction
and operation of storage works located outside the Indus
system of rivers.

As per Annexure E (1), it is stated that Annexure E

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stipulations are given as necessitated by the provisions in
second part of Article III (4). So the purpose of Article III (4) is
to enforce prior compliance of Annexure E provisions at the
time of design and construction of storage works on Western
Rivers. The first part of Article III (4) only cannot ensure its
implementation to prevent construction of the excessive
storage of western rivers water. So, the second part is added
as explanatory part with conjunctive ‘OR’ in the sentence.

So compliance of Annexure D and E stipulations fully by
India, would meet all requirements of Article III (4). Article III
(4) is not barring storage of western rivers water outside the
Western Rivers basin area. It also permits to store other
rivers water in the permitted storage on Western Rivers.

Annexure E (20) permits water drawl in any manner India
may determine from conservation storage on western rivers
which enables water transfer outside the basin area and use
such storage for permitted uses later after bringing back the
water in to the basin area. Pumped storage power plants can
be established by drawing water from the conservation
storage. As the water is pumped outside the basin from the
conservation storage, it does not amount to power generation
but power consumption. When power is generated from the
stored water from the storage located outside the basin area,
the power generation plant is deemed to be part of upper
reservoir and not the lower reservoir of the western river and
the requirements of Annexure E are not applicable.
8. Whether water can be pumped from the flowing Western River for various uses? Yes
Article IV (3): IWT permits construction of nominal storages behind weirs
Nothing in this Treaty shall be construed as and barrages on the Western Rivers, tributaries, streams, etc
having the effect of preventing either Party per Annexure E (8). If the storage is not exempted, the
from undertaking schemes of drainage, river required marginal storage is accounted under the permitted
training, conservation of soil against erosion aggregate conservation storage of each Western River per
and dredging, or from removal of stones, Annexure E (7). So there is no restriction to establish pump

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gravel or sand from the beds of the Rivers : houses for lifting water from the river. This can also be used
Provided that for establishing pumped storage power plants on daily and
a) ……. weekly basis using the perennial water flows released from
b) any such scheme carried out by India on upstream RoR power plant or storage works.
the Western Rivers shall not involve any use of
water or any storage in addition to that
provided under Article III;

Annexure D (8):
The figures specified in Paragraph 7 shall be
exclusive of the following :

a) Storage in any Small Tank.


h) Storage incidental to a barrage on the
Jhelum Main or on the Chenab Main not
exceeding 10,000 acre-feet

Annexure D (2):
n) "Small Tank" means a tank having a Live
Storage of less than 700 acre-feet and fed only
from a non-perennial small stream: Provided
that the Dead Storage does not exceed 50
acre-feet.

9. Maintenance of natural channels per Article IV (6)
Article IV (6) PCA arbitration on The PCA clarification says that this clause is related to the
Each Party will use its best endeavors to Kishanganga project dispute avoidance of any obstruction likely to cause material damage
maintain the natural channels of the Rivers, as dated 18 February 2013: to the other Party on the channels/bed of the river and not
on the Effective Date, in such condition as will concerned about variation in water flow in the channel by
avoid, as far as practicable, any obstruction to 373 ….. On the plain constructing a dam across the channel/river for the purpose
the flow in these channels likely to cause meaning of its terms, Article of water diversion.
material damage to the other Party. IV(6) concerns the
maintenance of the physical

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condition of the channels of
the rivers, and not the
maintenance of the volume
and timing of the flow of
water in these channels. The
Court understands the term
“channel” in Article IV(6) in its
common usage, i.e., to
denote the bed of the river,
which may or may not be
filled with water. Accordingly,
the Court sees this provision
as mandating the
preservation of the natural
paths of the rivers (what India
calls the “geometry of the
channels”) in an effort to
conserve the rivers’ capacity
to carry water, thereby
protecting the Parties from
dry spells and floods. This
interpretation is confirmed by
the Treaty’s travaux
préparatoires5

374 Further, Article IV(6)
does not require the
maintenance of the condition
of the channels so as to
avoid any type of riverbed
degradation, but bears more
precisely on the avoidance of
“any obstruction to the flow in
these channels likely to
cause material damage to

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the other Party.” ……

10. Whether Pakistan’s existing water uses from western rivers of India are protected under prior use criteria? No
Article III (1): Article IV (14) clearly says that any water use developed by a
Pakistan shall receive for unrestricted use all party, out of the unutilised water of other party, has no right
those waters of the Western Rivers which India for continuance of such use by prescription or otherwise.
is under obligation to let flow under the Pakistan being the lower riparian state has access to the
provisions of Paragraph (2). unutilised waters of India from the eastern and western rivers
located in India. Once India starts using its share of water
Article IV (14): identified in IWT both from Eastern and Western Rivers,
In the event that either Party should develop a Pakistan has no claim to the loss of water on prior use
use of the waters of the Rivers which is not in convention.
accordance with the provisions of this Treaty,
that Party shall not acquire by reason of such Annexure G (29) of IWT clearly says that the law to be
use any right, by prescription or otherwise, to a applied first is the IWT in the arbitration of the disputes
continuance of such use. between both parties.

Article XII (4): IWT is a perpetual treaty between India and Pakistan with
The provisions of this Treaty, or, the provisions World Bank, a United Nations organisation, responsible for
of this Treaty as modified under the provisions implementation of the treaty. The treaty can be annulled or
of Paragraph (3), shall continue in force until amended with the consent of both parties only.
terminated by a duly ratified treaty concluded
for that purpose between the two Under IWT, Pakistan has secured the right to receive the
Governments. remaining waters of the Western Rivers flowing from India
after the permitted water uses by India from these rivers. The
Annexure G (29) matching obligation specified to India in the treaty is not
Except as the Parties may otherwise agree, foolproof and Pakistan is at the mercy of India to satisfy water
the law to be applied by the Court shall be this right of Pakistan on Western Rivers water.
Treaty and, whenever necessary for its
interpretation or application, but only to the
extent necessary for that purpose, the
following in the order in which they are listed
(a) International conventions establishing rules
which are expressly recognized by the Parties.

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(b) Customary international law.

11. Surcharge storage and secondary power generation in RoR power plants: IWT permits India to use available surcharge
storage for optimum power generation and to maintain nominal dead storage for flushing the sediment deposited in the
reservoir. The dead storage can be reduced by 9 times for the same capacity reservoir without affecting the head available to
the power plant.
Clause 2a, Annexure D Determination D4 The sole objective of Run of River (RoR) power plant is
"Dead Storage" means that portion of the The only way to limit the power generation whether it is firm power or secondary
storage which is not used for operational technical possibility of raising power. Per clause 8b of Annexure D, designing the works
purposes and "Dead Storage Level" means the the full pondage level is to with optimum secondary power generation from the
level corresponding to Dead Storage. limit the free board to the surcharge storage, is a major design criterion which is also in
minimum required…. accordance with the treaty’s objective of attaining the most
Clause 2b, Annexure D Free board is the difference complete and satisfactory utilization of the waters of the Indus
"Live Storage" means all storage above Dead in vertical elevation provided System of Rivers.
Storage. between the maximum
reservoir level during a The design basis for a RoR plant are:
Clause 2e, Annexure D routing of the design flood  The RoR plant should be able to generate power at
"Surcharge Storage" means uncontrollable and the dam crest level. reasonable cost over a long period and economically
storage occupying space above the Full Thus the elevation of the viable to generate profit from the incurred investment.
Pondage Level. dam crest is determined by;  The plant should continue to generate power for long
duration with satisfactory operation without much
Clause 2g, Annexure D  The full pondage level deterioration in water use efficiency.
"Firm Power" means the hydro-electric power  RoR plant shall comply with all the stipulated
corresponding to the minimum mean discharge  The raising of restrictions in Annexure D in its design and operation.
at the site of a plant, the minimum mean reservoir level
discharge being calculated as follows: …… required to allow for The maximum reservoir water level of the RoR plant shall be
the release of extreme fixed first on social factors and techno-economics basis
Clause 2i, Annexure D floods. The outflow considering flooding of populated areas, existing valuable
"Run-of-River Plant" means a hydro-electric discharge depends on infrastructure, etc. by the backwaters of the reservoir when a
plant that develops power without Live Storage extreme flood dam is proposed at a location.
as an integral part of the plant, except for hydrograph, the
Pondage and Surcharge Storage. arrangement of Then the dead storage level should be fixed by considering
spillway weirs and sediment flushing needs in the reservoir area. Clause 8d of
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Clause 2j, Annexure D outlets, the operating Annexure D permits provision of outlets for sediment control
"Secondary Power" means the power, other rules of spillways and provided such outlet shall be of the minimum size, and
than Firm Power, available only during certain the geometrical located at the highest level, consistent with sound and
periods of the year. characteristics of the economical design and with satisfactory operation of the
reservoir; and works. Providing sediment outlet in a RoR plant is inevitable
Clause 8, Annexure D since the western rivers of India carry very high sediment
8. Except as provided in Paragraph 18, the  Safety criteria which load which would settle in the live and dead storage of the
design of any new Run-of-River Plant depends on: the dam reservoir causing reduction in the reservoir’s life drastically.
(hereinafter in this Part referred to as a Plant) type (concrete,
shall conform to the following criteria masonry or The sediment control outlet size, below the dead storage
embankment), the level, depends on the mean annual peak flood flows of the
(a) The works themselves shall not be capable spillway type (gated or river and head available from dead storage. The outlet should
of raising artificially the water level in the ungated), and local be able to pass at least the mean annual peak flood when the
Operating Pool above the Full Pondage Level conditions, such as water level in the river is at its high flood level. Broadly, the
specified in the design. wind conditions. local high flood level of the river can be fixed as dead storage
level of the reservoir and the mean annual peak flood
(b) The design of the works shall take due The analysis carried out by becomes the design flow (cubic meters per second) capacity
account of the requirements of Surcharge the NE allowed him to define of orifice spill way to effectively transport the sediment to the
Storage and of Secondary Power. objective criteria, based on downstream of the plant. There is no stipulation in Annexure
ICOLD guidelines and sound D to fix the dead storage level and India is at liberty to fix it
(c) The maximum Pondage in the Operating engineering. The free board arbitrarily also (from nil to nearly 100%).
Pool shall not exceed twice the Pondage is an essential safety element
required for Firm Power. to protect the dam against The firm power pondage is accounted just above the dead
the overtopping. The criteria storage level to fix the full pondage level. The storage
(d) There shall be no outlets below the Dead applied took in to account the between the maximum reservoir water level and the full
Storage Level, unless necessary for sediment residual risk of pondage level is the surcharge storage.
control or any other technical purpose; any malfunctioning of a gate.
such outlet shall be of the minimum size, and …… The orifice spillway envisaged below the dead storage level
located at the highest level, consistent with Determination D2 will perform dual function of flood discharge and sediment
sound and economical design and with … The decision (selecting removal without resorting to drawdown flushing. The rated
satisfactory operation of the works. gated chute spill ways) is capacity of orifice spillway located below the dead storage
consistent with IWT level, is computed when the water is at maximum reservoir
(e) If the conditions at the site of a Plant make provisions, requiring sound water level and compared with the probable maximum flood
a gated spillway necessary, the bottom level of and economical design, and (PMF) which is the design criteria to be passed downstream
the gates in normal closed position shall be satisfactory construction and from the reservoir. Additional gated chute spill way to meet

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located at the highest level consistent with operation of the works. It is the shortfall would be envisaged above the dead storage
sound and economical design and satisfactory also in accordance with level complying with clause 8e requirement. Chute spill way is
construction and operation of the works. preamble of the treaty which techno economically preferred as its cost is less than over
provides that both countries flow type gated spillway or ungated spillway. The free board
(f) The intakes for the turbines shall be located being equally desirous of above the maximum reservoir water level should be fixed as
at the highest level consistent with satisfactory attaining the most complete per NE’s Determination D4 for Baglihar project to arrive at the
and economical construction and operation of satisfactory utilization of the crest level of the dam. Similarly, the sill level of the penstocks
the Plant as a Run-of-River Plant accepted waters of the Indus System of the power plant can be fixed close to dead storage level to
practice of design for the designated range of of Rivers. … comply clause 8f requirement. Thus all the stipulations of
the Plant's operation. clause 8 of Annexure D are met including the dead storage
shall not be depleted except in an unforeseen emergency. As
Article VII (1) of IWT the dead storage provided is nominal (10% of earlier design)
The two Parties recognize that they have a and the power plant is able to draw most of the stored water
common interest in the optimum development (live storage 90% of reservoir capacity) from the reservoir to
of the Rivers, and, to that end, they declare generate optimum secondary power and firm power.
their intention to co-operate, by mutual
agreement, to the fullest possible extent There is no restriction that the available surcharge storage
shall not be used for operational/power generation purpose.
Clause 8 (b) also clearly states surcharge storage
requirement (the required uncontrollable storage occupying
space above the Full Pondage Level per clause 2e of
Annexure D) to release the design flood and its use for
secondary power generation.

Secondary power generation from the surcharge storage is
also design criteria of a RoR hydroelectric power plant as per
clauses 2i and j of Annexure D.

From the intent of above clauses and the interpretation of
clause 8a by NE in Baglihar project case, the dam shall be
designed to accommodate the adequate surcharge storage
above the full pondage level. It is no where stipulated that the
full pondage level for the purpose of firm power generation
shall be fixed at maximum surcharge storage level or
maximum level of the reservoir and the remaining reservoir

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storage shall be considered as dead storage which shall not
be depleted for power generation and for sediment transport
by drawdown flushing as per the verdict (pages 194 and 195)
of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in the case of
Kishanganga project.

Clause 8a of Annexure D which deals only design and
construction aspects of the RoR plants does not permit any
artificial rising of water level above the Full Pondage Level
specified in the design. But increase in the level up to the
maximum reservoir level above the Full Pondage Level
during PMF is uncontrollable water storage/level (not by an
artificial means) rise for which dam is supposed to be
designed.

Once the dam/reservoir is designed and constructed as per
Clause 8, there is no stipulation in Annexure D that the
reservoir should not be filled up to the designed maximum
water level for power generation on regular basis. Not
permitting to use the available surcharge storage on regular
basis is against the treaty’s objective of attaining the most
complete and satisfactory utilization of the waters of the Indus
System of Rivers given in the Preamble of IWT. As per
Clause 1 of Annexure D, India is permitted for unrestricted
use of western rivers water for power generation subject to
provisions of Annexure D. Without any potential loss to
Pakistan, raising differences or disputes against the optimum
use of the reservoir’s total live storage capacity (including
surcharge storage) is against the letter and spirit of the IWT
as it is mutually agreed by both parties to cooperate in
optimum development of the Rivers per Article VII (1).

There is severe restriction in building storage works for power
generation and other uses on Western Rivers. Also, storage
works are not permitted on the main stems of Chenab and

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Jhelum rivers as per Annexure E(7) and Article I(4). This
disadvantage can be mitigated by identifying substantial live
storage in RoR power projects in the form of surcharge
storage. Once the water is released to the downstream of a
RoR power plant, continuously available water in the rivers
can be picked up/used for non power permitted uses by India.

12. Operational aspects of reservoirs of RoR power plants and storage works with power plants
Annexure D Permanent Court of Filling of the dead storage of the reservoir shall be as per
14. The filling of Dead Storage shall be Arbitration verdict on clauses 18 or 19 of Annexure E.
carried out in accordance with the provisions Kishanganga case (Pages
of Paragraph 18 or 19 of Annexure E. 194, 195 and 201 of the The operating procedure for filling and depleting the live
verdict dated 18 February storage is clearly spelt out in the clause 15 of Annexure D.
15. Subject to the provisions of Paragraph 17, 2013) stated that the The plant shall be operated on weekly basis (on daily basis
the works accumulation of sediment in per 15(i) of Annexure D if the RoR plant is located below
connected with a Plant shall be so operated the reservoir of a Run-of-River Ramban on Chenab Main) to release all the inflows to the
that (a) the volume of water received in the Plant on the Western Rivers downstream of the plant with 10% tolerance to accommodate
river upstream of the Plant, during any period does not constitute an the buildup / depletion of firm power pondage or surcharge
of seven consecutive days, shall be delivered unforeseen emergency as storage per clause 17a of Annexure D. The surcharge
into the river below the Plant during the same stated in clause 19 of storage is to be ignored in the mass balance per clause 17b
seven-day period, and (b) in any one period of Annexure E and clause 14 of of Annexure D. Thus the total live storage of the reservoir
24 hours within that seven-day period, the Annexure D to permit the can be gradually built or depleted within permitted 10%
volume delivered into the river below the Plant depletion of the reservoir tolerance in volume.
shall be not less than 30%, and not more than below Dead Storage Level for
130%, of the volume received in the river drawdown flushing purpose. Similarly, the operating procedure for filling and depleting live
above the Plant during the same 24-hour storage (other than initial annual filling of conservation
period: … storage per 18 of Annexure E) in the reservoir of a storage
…. works with power plant is clearly spelt out in the clause 21b of
Annexure E. The volume of water delivered into the river
16. For the purpose of Paragraph 15, the below the works shall not be less than the volume of water
period of 24 hours shall commence at 8 A.M. received in the river upstream of the works on weekly basis.
daily and the period of 7 consecutive days Also 10% tolerance in volume is allowed in the mass balance
shall commence at 8 A.M. on every per clauses 22b & c of Annexure E to facilitate building up in
Saturday. The time shall be Indian Standard the live storage including surcharge storage above the dead
Time. storage level. Clause 21b of Annexure E also allows

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depletion of the stored water including surcharge storage in
17. The provisions of Paragraph 15 shall not the reservoir as it amounts to more water release to the
apply during the period when the Dead downstream of the plant than the water received in the
Storage at a Plant is being filled in upstream of the river on weekly basis.
accordance with the provisions of Paragraph
14. With the help of substantial surcharge storage (nearly 80% of
In applying the provisions of Paragraph 15 : total reservoir storage), the flood water inflows in excess of
(a) a tolerance of 10% in volume shall be water use capacity (cubic meters per second) of the power
permissible; and plant, can be stored in the surcharge storage for making
(b) Surcharge Storage shall be ignored. available in the subsequent lean flow duration in which the
river inflows are falling below the water use capacity of the
Annexure E power plant. Thus power plants can be run continuously for
18. The annual filling of Conservation Storage 10 months duration in a year using the surcharge storage.
and the initial filling below the Dead Storage
Level, at any site, shall be carried out at such Pakistan’s concern of receiving the western rivers water
times and in accordance with such rules as without much interference is unaffected as 90 to 110% of
may be agreed upon between the river inflows are released on weekly basis and 70 to 130% of
Commissioners. In case the Commissioners river inflows on daily basis by India.
are unable to reach agreement, India may
carry out the filling as follows: India also has flexibility to run the power plant as earlier by
…… keeping the reservoir level above the 90% storage capacity
most of the time (i.e. so called dead storage) without
19. The Dead Storage shall not be depleted foregoing drawdown flushing facility.
except in an unforeseen emergency. If so
depleted, it will be refilled in accordance with Generally, the gross storage capacity of a reservoir is of the
the conditions of its initial filling. order of 0.35 bcm when compared to the river water inflows
of the order of 25 to 60 bcm/year on main stem of western
21. If a hydro-electric power plant is rivers. 10% retention of inflows is 2.5 bcm (minimum) in a
incorporated in a Storage Work (other than a year which is adequate to fill and drain the reservoir for eight
Storage Work falling under Paragraph 3), the times in a year to even out the fluctuating water inflows and
plant shall be so operated that: make available for power generation from most of the inflows.

(a) the maximum Pondage (as defined in
Annexure D) shall not exceed the Pondage
required for the firm power of the plant, and

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the water level in the reservoir corresponding
to maximum Pondage shall not, on account of
this Pondage, exceed the Full Reservoir Level
at any time; and

(b) except during the period in which a filling is
being, carried out in accordance with the
provisions of Paragraph 18 or 19, the volume
of water delivered into the river below the
work during any period of seven consecutive
days shall not be less than the volume of
water received in the river upstream of the
work in that seven-day period.

22. In applying the provisions of Paragraph
21(b):

(a) the period of seven consecutive days shall
commence at 8 A.M. on every Saturday and
the time shall be Indian Standard Time ;

(b) a tolerance of 10% in volume shall be
permissible and adjusted as soon as possible;
and

(c) any temporary uncontrollable retention of
water due to variation in river supply will be
accounted for.

13. Renovation of existing RoR power plants to convert the dead storage in to useful surcharge storage
Clause 12 of Annexure D Until now, not interpreted by These clauses clearly permit to modify the existing RoR
(a) If any alteration proposed in the design of Neutral Expert or Permanent plants (ex: Salal project) and storage works with power plant
a Plant before it comes into operation would Court of Arbitration as dispute which are operational or under construction by
result in a material change in the information is not raised by any party. altering/reducing the dead storage and the maximum
furnished to Pakistan under the provisions of pondage levels within the gross storage of the reservoir.

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Paragraph 9, India shall immediately
communicate particulars of the change to These changes will enhance the power generation
Pakistan in writing … substantially and flush the deposited sediment from the
reservoir fully/partially as the dead storage level can be
(b) If any alteration proposed in the design of lowered up to top of the bottom most sluice gates. Additional
a Plant after it comes into operation would power generating units can also be added at low cost for
result in a material change in the information generating peaking or base load power. Flushing of already
furnished to Pakistan under the provisions of deposited sediment to the downstream from the reservoir
Paragraph 9, India shall, at least four months would restore the full/partial capacity of the reservoir and
in advance of making the alteration, future sediment problem is also permanently solved.
communicate particulars of the change to
Pakistan in writing….. If the existing sluice gates are not at the required lower level
for effective flushing of sediment, additional tunnel spillway
Clause 25 of Annexure D can be made to flush the sediment fully by fixing the dead
If the change referred to in Paragraphs 6(a) storage at high flood level of the river prior to the dam
and 12 is not material, India shall construction.
communicate particulars of the change to
Pakistan, in writing, as soon as the alteration Similarly, additional penstock tunnel can be constructed to
has been made or the repairs have been draw water by the power plant from the bottom of
undertaken. The provisions of Paragraph 7 or substantially enhanced live storage.
Paragraph 23, as the case may be, shall then
apply. For Salal project, the additional agreement between India and
Pakistan dated 14 April 1978 is not an impediment in
Annexure E executing modernization works or lowering the dead storage
23. When the Live Storage Capacity of a level by 235 feet up to EL 1365 feet from EL 1600 feet. Refer
Storage Work is reduced by sedimentation, http://www.commonlii.org/in/other/treaties/INTSer/1978/18.pdf
India may, in accordance with the relevant The agreement prohibits any openings in the dam below the
provisions of this Annexure, construct new dead storage level. The agreement permits India to lower the
Storage Works or modify existing Storage dead storage up to EL 1365 feet and tunnel spillway provision
Works so as to make up the storage capacity can be made above EL 1365 feet for draw down flushing of
lost by sedimentation. sediment.

Thus the operating life of the reservoir/power plant is
25. If the change referred to in Paragraph 5(a) extended substantially by flushing existing sediment from the
or 15 is not material, India shall communicate reservoir and additional peaking or base load power

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particulars of the change to Pakistan, in generation is achieved from the substantially enhanced live
writing, as soon as the alteration has been storage. When three dams are located in series (ex: Dul
made or the repairs have been undertaken. Hasti, Baglihar and Salal on Chenab river), the downstream
The provisions of Paragraph 6 or Paragraphs dam will benefit by the aggregate of surcharge storages in all
13 and 14, as the case may be, shall then three dams for enhanced power generation during lean
apply. inflows in the river.

References:
Full text of Indus Water Treaty http://mowr.gov.in/sites/default/files/INDUS%20WATERS%20TREATY.pdf

Water Resources Information System of India (WRIS), Geo-Visualization map

http://india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/GeoVisualization.html?UType=R2VuZXJhbA==?UName=

Executive Summary, Neutral Expert determination in the case of Baglihar project, 12 February, 2007.

http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOUTHASIAEXT/Resources/223546-1171996340255/BagliharSummary.pdf

Permanent Court of Arbitration verdict dated 18 February, 2013 on Kishanganga project. https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1681

Agreement for the Salal project between India and Pakistan dated 14 April 1978 http://www.commonlii.org/in/other/treaties/INTSer/1978/18.pdf

Indus basin http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/basins/indus/index.stm

Indus water from Sindh, Pakistan entered Nal Sarovar located in Ahmadabad district, Gujarat, India

http://www.academia.edu/7017843/INDUS_WATER_FROM_SINDH_PAKISTAN_ENTERED_THE_NAL_SAROVAR_LOCATED_IN_AHMEDA

BAD_DISTRICT_GUJARAT_INDIA

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Water Resources and Operational Management of Tarbela Dam in Pakistan (Chapter 3.4)
http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.dams.org/ContentPages/1311315.pdf

Rajasthan rivers profile https://sandrp.in/2017/03/27/rajasthan-rivers-profile/

Ghaggar river basin https://sandrp.files.wordpress.com/2018/03/ghaggar-dams150411.jpg

Luni river basin https://sandrp.files.wordpress.com/2018/03/map_of_luni_river_basin.pdf

Hydropower projects in Indus basin https://sandrp.files.wordpress.com/2018/03/hydropower_projects_in_indus_basin.pdf

Dams Made of Steel !! https://www.scribd.com/document/58789323/Fixed-Steel-Dams

Unlined pressure conduits - used in hydropower plants http://www.rockmass.net/files/unlined_pressure_conduits.pdf

Spatial Variation in Water Supply and Demand across River Basins of India.

http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/IWMI_Research_Reports/PDF/pub083/RR83.pdf

This paper was first written in November, 2017 and updated later

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