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g s h o u lc o [ g iv e o u t o b je c tio n , ,
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e u s a n
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is c o s tly a n d ca n e v e n c a r
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a re e a s co n v e n ie n t t() s to r e ,
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is k o f s l? o n ta n e o u s e x p lo s io n (3 ) T h e ir c o s t o p r o tc tio l? is lo tu (4 ) T {
d e y 7o s s e ss tto d e a te ig n tiu t iTllTe r n ttr s
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c o m b u s tio n In o th e r h
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e ic e n c y is o u (3 ) T h e y b u r n w ith c lin k e r fo r m a tio n (4 ) T h e y
b u s tio tio n s c a n n o t b e c o n tr o lle d e a s ily (5 ) T h e ir c o s t o f h a n d lin g is /ig : (6 ) T h e ir c a lo r ific v a lu e
c o m n o pe ra

is o z t) T a s c o m p a re d to th a t a f liq u id fu e ls (7 ) T h e y re q u ir e la r g e ex cess o a ir lo r co m p
e te co m b u s tio n (8 ) T h e y
tbe u se d a s in te r n a tco m b u s tio n en g in e fu e ls
ca n n o

(B ) L iq u id F u (1 ) T h e y p o s s e s s tig h e r c a o l W c u a ite p e r u n it M a s s th a n s o lic l fu e ls


e ls A dv a n ta g e s :

d s h c lin k e r s e tc (3 ) T h e ir fir in g is e a s ie r a n d a ls o fir e c a n


b e e x tin g u is h e c
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5 T h e y c a n b e s to r e d
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tn )// tt b y
h fla m e p r o d u c e d b y b u n in g liq u id fu e ls c a n e a s ily b e c o ll
in c le fin ite ly w ith o u t a n y lo s s (6 ) T e il
m a n c a ll e a s y
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,

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l 8 T h e y a r e c te a n in ls e a n d e c o n o m ic in a
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d te a r o f w a te b a r s
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c o m b t s tio n (1 1 ) T h e y r e q u i r e le s s m a
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g h p ip e lin e s to th e a c tu a l p la c e
th r o u
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t le e d
They c a n b e lig ,h te d a t n
& th e i b y e lim in a tin g tn a n u a l la b o u r in tr a n s p o r ta tio n (2 )
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th e r e b y a ffo r d in g e c o n o m y in h e a t (5 ) T i y lr[r o
e r c o m u s o n c a n r e a e c o d
th e h e a t o f h o t w a s te g a s e s ,

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m iM a tt ry s to t
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b du c e d by u s in g e v e n th e /To o r es t
c lea n in u se (8 ) T h e y q u ir e a n y s p e c ia l b u r n e r s (9 ) T h e y c a n e p r o
do ilo t r e
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t
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e s s o f a ir s u p p ly {1 2 ) T h e y a r e fr e e fr o m s o lid a n d liq u id im p u r itie s H e n c e th e y c lo n o t a ffe c t th e q u a lity

o f m e ta p r o d u c e d T h e n u s e d a s a m e ta llu r g ic a lfu e l (13 ) C o m p le te c o m b u s tio n


,
i h o u t p o llu io n is p o s ib lq
d u e to u r tifo r r r in ix in g o f a ir a n d fu e l (1 4 )T h e y h a v e tig c a o r ilc (c o a lu e s (1 5 ) T h e y c a n a ls o b e u s e c l a s in fe n a l
b ls io n
co n engineel !
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cha f fir e h a z a rd s a re h ig h ir t th e ir (3 ) T h e y a r e n o r e c o s tty a s c o m lic i a n c l liq u id fu e ls
n ce s o u se
p a r e d to sa

6 B O M B C A LO R
M ETE R
T h is p p a r a tu is d to fin d th e c a lo t c z)a l solid a n d iq tid
a s u se
Jte ls
C o n s tr u c p le s k e tc h o f b o m b c a lo r im e te r is s h o w n in F ig 1 l t c o n s is ts o f a s tr o n g
tio n A s im

c y lin ? ic a s ta in le s s s te e b o n rb in w h ic h th e c o m b u s tio n o f fu e l is m a d e to ta k
e p la c e The bom b
h a s a id w h ic h c a n b e s c r e w e d to th e b o d y o f b o m b s o a s to m a k e a e r fe c t a s ti h t
,
p g g s e a T h e h d
is p r o v id e d w ith tw o s ta in le s s s te e l e le c tr o d e s a n d aL oygen t e v a lv e T o o n e o f th e e le c tr o d e s a
i / t
,

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e s u p p o r be d
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p la c e d in a c o p p e r catorimete w h ic h is s u r r o u n d e d b y a n a ir a c k e t a n d z u a te r lt7 c k e t to p r e v e n t h e a t
lo s s e s d u e to r a d ia t io n T h e c a lo r im e te r is p r o v id e d w ith a n e le c tr ic a ll o e r a te d
y p s tir r e r a n d
B e c k m a i7 J s therntomete w h ic h c a n r e a d accuraely te m p e r a tu r e d iffe r e n c e u to 1 / 1 o o th o f a l
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th t t
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e n c o n n e c te d to
n p le te d T h e s a m
C ( v r lt b a tte r n n d c if c u it

p e b u r n s a n d h e a t is lib e r a te d U n ifn n n s tir r in o f w a te r is o y
te m p e r n tu r e a tta in e d is g c n tin t e c l a n d th e m a x i
re c o rd e d m u m

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o e
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a n d he a t a b so r b e d b y w a te r a n d a
p p a r a tu s e tc ,
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x L =
tw + t u ) (l t)
2

o r

N o te T he rm tr r t u iu a l t o f tle c a /o r in
e te l is d e te r m in d b y b u r n in g a fu e l o f k n o zu c n o r ,c u rrlu e a n d u s in
th e a b o v
e
g
e e q u a tio n Th e fu e ls u se d fo r th is b e rrz o ic n c itl (H C V = 6 , 3 2 5 k c a l/ k ) a n d
p u rp o se a re
g //it/t/u re (H C V
i
- 9 , 6 k c a l/ k g )

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pe rc e n ta g e o f h y d r o g e n in fu e l, th e n
9H
g M fH 0 fr o 1 g f fu l= 0 09 H g
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-
(L 0 09 H 5 8 7 ) c a l/ g (o r k c a ll k g ) (3 )
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b y ig n itio n o f th e fu se w ir e u se d

(ii) A c id c u tT e c tio n : Fu e ls c o n ta in in g S a n d N a re o x id is e d , u n d e r h ig h p r e s s u u d
re te m per
f ig n itio to H 50 d H N O r e sp e c tiv e ly
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2 H N O a
+ H ea t

lie n t a ls o in c lu d e s th e }ie tt g iu e
tio o f th e s e a pid s a ye ex o th e r m ic r e a c tio n s S o , tlie m ea s u red
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o f
l e is d e te r m in e d b y p r e c ip ita tio n a s B a s 0 4 T h e c o r r e c tio n fo r m g
1
titr a tio n w h ile H 2 5 0 4 a o
f d is 1 4 3 c a l
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t / m in u te ) a n d th e a c tu a l tim e ta K e n
y t / u L "

o fc o lin g (t
o

t is a d d e d to th e I is e in te n i p e r a tu r
e
t t x

tl l n ) [A c id + fu s e c o r re c tio n s ] (4 )
(W + ?u ) (2 + co o

L =
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7 C V A LU E O F G A S EO U S FU E L
C A L O R IC F
e tTs llr i tiTe c tT lo r f}c
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B o u se r

o f g t rs e u t s a n d lirid ft ie ls L u h ic h g e t t tcp o r iz e d e a s ily )


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T he p p a r a tu s c o n s is ts o f a
a su

r a te o f 3 4 litr e s p e r m
in u te A r o u n d th e b mer,
g a s a t a k n o w n p re ss u re u b e b u r n t a t a u n ifo r m
c

th e r e is a c h im n e y o r c o ln b u s tio n c h a m b e r , w h ic h h a s a c o p p e r tttb ittg c o ile d in s id e a s w e ll a s o u ts id e

f h
it W a te r a t a c o n s ta n t r a te is p a s s e d th r o u g h th e c o il W a te r e n te r s fr o m th e to p o t e o u te r c q l ,

m o v e s to th e b o tto m o f d e c h i tu e y a n d th e n g o e s u p th r o u g h d e ir u e r c o
il to th e e x it a t to p T he
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1 z g g g p f
p r o c e s s o f d o w L a n d u p m o v e Ln e n t th r o u g h c o il th e flo w in g w a te r ta k e s a w ,
a y p r a c tic a lly w h o le
o f th e h e a t o f b u r n e r a n d a n de n s e d a s w a te r h ic h
y s te a m fo r m e d d u r in g c o m b u s tio n g e ts c o L ,
w

c a Ll b e c o lle c te d T h e w h o e a s s e m b ly is e n c o s e d in a n in s u la te d c o n ta in e r

C
F ig 2 B o y s ga s c a lo r im e te r
U

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a tic in fw
cu o a te r an d burning o f g a s e o u s fu e la re c o n tin u e d a t c o s t
an t ra
a bo u t 15 m in u t e s fo r in itia w in g i d The
a rm u p p e r o r a te s o f fu e lbu rn in g a n d w a te r
tr o lle d th a t th e c ir c =
a re c o n so e x it w a te r le a v e s th t u s n e a r l a t a tm
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p re ss u re It
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m a in ta in in
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u s th e o u te r a c k e t
a c ts a n in s u a t o r T h e a n n u la r s a c e fo r w a t
j ,

p e r h e a r g is c o n n e c te d a t its lo w e r
e n d to in te m a
s u p y o f w a te r T \ L T o th e r m o m e te
r a r e u s e d to e c o r d d e te m
p e r a tu r e s o f in le t w a te r iu d o u tle t
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T he rm o m e te r (T2 )

se c tio n xx
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F ig 3 J u n ke r s s ca
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ga

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tt w a b o u t 1 5 2 0 rn im t te s fo r in itia l w a r m in g u p p e r io d T h e n th e r a te s o f g a s e o L ts fu e l b L tr n in g
n n Lw a te r c ir c u a tio n a r e c o n tr o lle d 5 o th a t p r o d u c ts o f c o m b u s tio n le a v e s th e a
p p a r a tL ts ?e t r y a t
6 0 H g) W h th t d iv li!i b li h
s ed th e n r ttlig s
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p h e r ic p r e s s t r e ( 7 t
m m e n e s e a c o tu o
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a r t[ k e
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(i) tite o o lu n te o f g a s t d lls Ju e l b u Tt


r (V ) a t g iv en a tu re a n d p re s su re in a c e r ta in

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s : ,

a ss o f co o l
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LC V (o r N C V )

8 TH EO R ET c A L C A LC U LA T o N O F C A L O R IF IC V A L U E O F
A FU EL
T h e c a lo r ific v a lu e o f fu e l
can be a
pp o x in ia te
y c o m p u te d b y n o tin g d e a m
c o n s titu e n ts o f th e fu e l T h o t n ts o f th e
e h ig h e r c a lo r ific v a l
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fu e l a r e ta b u la te d b e lo w e e o m b u s u b le c o titt e f
n s n ts o

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u s n
yd ro ge n
T o ta l m a ss o f h yd ro ge n in fh e l (1 / 8 M
) a s s o f o x y g e n in th e 6 1e l
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L o
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T
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p n t in
w a te r , a n d c o m b in a t io n w ith h yd ro ge n a s

LC V H

H 58 k c a ll k
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F U E L S A N D C O M B U S T IO N
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9 W O O D
W o o cl is
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o
y o n ta in s 25 to 5 0 '%
m o is tu r e w h ic h is
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is : C 5 5 'X , : H = 6 {X , : 0 = 4 3 tx t ; a s h - 1 t}f, T h c c a lo r ific v a l s
u e o f a ir d r ie d w o d i
o s a b o u t 3 5 0 0 to
4 5 0 0 k a lIk
g W o o d b tir n s r e a rli
!l p r o d u c in g n o
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1

its u s e a s a n e n in e e r in
r e s tr ic te d
g g fu e l is

10 C O A L
C o a l is a lig h !c a b o lm ceo s
ite r th a t u s b e e n ln r ll e d lt o fa lte r a tio n
m a s a re s u o fu e g e ta b
t n a tte r
( g , p lt n ts ) u n de r c r ltt in Jh zlo n T bl con d itio n s It is c h ie fly co m p o se d o fC H N an d O b e s id e s
, , , ,
Li o n co m bu s tib le in o r g a n ic m a tte r

O r ig in o f co a l G eo lo g is t h a v T fo r w a r d tu o th e o r ie s o f c o a l fo
e pu r rr
a tjo n

(1 ) h : s it f l e o r y
c c o r d in g to it c o a l fo r m a tio n to o k
A
p la c e a t ilte p in c e o u e g e ttT tio n its t )f T h e g r e a t
,

p u ity o f m a n y c o a l s e a m s c a n b e b e tte r e x p la in e d b y th is th e o r y
(2 ) D f lp (o r tr a n s p o r ta tio n ) tle o r y : A c c o r c lin g to it th e tr e e s , e tc Qv e r e u p m o o te d a n e l t n ts p o r te d b y ,

r iv e r s to b ig a k e s a n d o th e r d e e
p d e p r e s s io n s , w h ic h g o t fille d a n d b lo c k e d T h e s e h u g e p ile s o f w o o d th e n
g o t b u ie c l tn d e g r o u n c l U n d e h ig h te m p e r a tu r e e x c e s s iv e p r e s s u r e , a b s e n c e o f o x y g e n p r e s e n c e o f b a c te
, ,

r ia s a n d tim e th e c e llu lo s ic m a te r ia l o f w o o d u n d e r w e n t r a d u a l d e c o m
, ,
g p o s itio n w ith th e s im u lta n e o u s
ib e r a tio n o f g a s e s (s u c h a s C 0 2 a n d m e th a n e ) G r e a t th ic k n e s s o f c o a l s e a m s a
p p e a r m o r e r e a s o n a b le o n th e
b a s is o f th is th e o ry

11 C LA S S
F IC A T
O N O F C O A L B Y R A N K
V a r io u s ty p e s o f co a lco m LT to n ly re co g n iz e d o L th e b a s is o f r a tk o r degree o F a tte m a tio n or

co a l c n tio n fr o m th e p a ren t m a te r ia l, w o o d, a re

= -

tr a n s fo r m a tio n fw d to th ite lts in (i) tle c r e a s it le m o is tu r e


T h is p ro g re s s iv e o o o an ra c re su :

i
con te n t ; \ , p h u r c o n te n ts , w ith ( c u T 1 e s p tt tlitg 1 s e n
d e c r e t e in h y d y o g e n o x y g e n , n itr o g e y (n t d s u
i T e a s e in
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14 P U L V E R IZ E D C O A L
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15 M ETA LLU R G c A L CO KE
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14 1 S i z e T he s iz e o fm e ta u r g ic a l c o k e
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16 O N O F C O A L
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24 D IE S E L E N G N E FU E LS
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25 K E R O S E N E A S A FU E L
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27 N O N P ETR LEU
P M F U E LS

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e n e th l a c o h o t is ts e a s
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p o z u e r a lc o fo l E th y l a lc o h o l is n o t u s e d ca
ll
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p r a n ti k n o c k
p r o p e r tie s (2 ) A lc o h o l p e tr o l b le n d s h a v e le s s e
,

(3 ) T h e g r e a t a d v a n ta g e s o a d d in a lc o h o l to r s ttr tin g d icultik


g p e tr o l is th a t a lc o h o l is c a p a b le o f a bs o r b in a n r a
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g a lc o h o l p e tr o l b le n d s id
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lTe ?tle e n 4 tl 5 Th
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is m a in ta in e d a t bo t 3 0 C T h e in z te r ta s e o f th e
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ra t in g ) R e s p o n s e t o t h e a d d itio n o f r a is in g o c ta n e r a tin g o f lo w
T E L is p o o r d u e t o t h e , q u a lity g a s o lin e T h e y h e p
p r e s e n c e o f s u lp h lr c o n in c o ld s ta r tin a d u e to h ig h

p tm d s v o la t ility

S ta b ility G oo d sbility s n ,
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fa ir o f a lk e n e s d ie d be e n h a n c e d by m ild
a re y s ta b le ,
n e s a n

n a p h t h a le n e s c a u s e g m h y d r o g e n a t io n
Jb r m a tHo n

28 N A T U R A L G A S
N in lg a s (g e n e ra ith p e tr o le u m d e p o s it s ) h o b ta in e d ir o n t Tu e lls d tg in tile
ly a s s o c ia te d w
a r a
ith p e h o le tm in o it e e w e t ga s T h e
1s , it is c a l
' '

n a tu r a t g a s o c c u r s a lo n g w
o i b e a r in g r e g io ? s W
b u te n e a n d b u t a n e w h ic h a r e u s e a s L P G O n th e
d
w e t g a s is tr e a t e
d to r e m o v e p r o p a n e , p r o p e n e ,
,

ia te d z u itlt c r u d e o it, it is c a lle d d r y g a s B e fo r e u s e th e n a h r a l g a s


' '

tze n tze g a s is a s s o c
,

o th e r h a n d , z
d u s t g r it H 2 S C 0 2 N 2 a n d h e a v ie r
tio n a b le i?g r e d im ts s u c h a s w a e r
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e tc )
a n e , b u ta n e , b u te n e ,
liq u e fia b le h y d r o c a r b o n s (p p
ro

n a tu r a l is C H 4 - 7 0 9 0 % C 2 G
o s i o n o f ga s
T he a p p ro x im a te c o m p
l ili v a lu e v a r ie s fr o m
2 0 0 0 to 14 0 0 0 k c a lTn t
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H )
(N H 2 C H 2 C H 2 O J1 5
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2 H O C H z 2 2

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c HE
C H
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p re s s e n a tu ra l ga s (C N G ) is l la
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p h e r ic p r e s s u re C N G is b e in o f rla t
n o w u se d a s a su b s titu te fo r

P t tr o l d ie s e l fo r iu to m o b ile s H o w e v e r in itia l
'

c o s t o f e n
g in e d e s ig n e d to u s e C N G
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p l a tiv e l!' h ig h e r th a n U a t o f e LT in e d e s i n e d to u s e e t o l/ d ie l I

as a fu e l
g g p r se n D e lh i it i
s , m an d a tq
W h y is C N G
p r e fe r r e d o v e r L P G ? (i) C N G is a rm c h s tle r fLi e l s in c e it i n ite
g & a a hi
tc n p c r a tu r e th a n
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m o b ile s
C N G o p e r a te d v e h ic le is v e r
y a s y (iii) T h e o p e r a tin g c o s t o f C N G fu e l is m u c h lo w e r c o
m pa
to g a s o lin e o e r a tio n
p (izJ) C o m b u s tio n o f C N G le a d s to le s s e r C O e m is s io 1 s th a n g a s o lin e
m ix e s b e tte r w ith a ir th a i\ li u id f
(u )C N
q u e ls (o i) E L is s io n fr o m C N G o p e r a te d v e h ic le c o n ta in
m r e g L tla te d
p o llu ta n ts (e g s Jn o k e 5 0 2 5 0 3 C 6 H 6 H C H O ), , / , /

29 C O A L G A S
C o a l ga is
b ta i e t o n e n c o a l is c a r b o n iz e d o T h e a te d in t th e a b s e n c e o a iy
s o , f (t a b o tit 3 00 c
e itn r c o k e o u e s o r
,

g n s rttT k in g r e to r ts C o a l is fe d in c lo s e d s ilic a r e to r ts w h ic h , a re th e n h e a te d
L t 1 , 3 0 0 C (b y b u r n in g p r o d u c e r

g a s a n d a ir m ix tu r e )
1 , 3 0 0 C
C O A L > C O K E + C O A L G A S
(h d e a b se n ce (R e s id u e in
o f a ir ) r e to r t )

Th e ga s (C O g o u t fr o m th e re to r t) is fir s t sc ru b b e d b y p a s s in g th r o u g h a h y d r a u lic n
m u c h o f th e ta r is th e n
d b y c o o lin g th e g a s in
re m o v e a h u g e w a te r c o o le d h e a t e x c h a n g e r c a .

c o r td c s r A n y r e m a h - in g ta r a n d a m m o n ia , p r e s e n t in th e g a s , a r e re m o v e d b y s c r u b b in g \

w a te r in a s c r u b be r T h e c o o le d g a s is th e n s c r u b b e d w ith c r e o s o te o il ,
w h ic h D is s o lv e s b e n
n a p h th a le L e ,
e tc T h e g a s is th e n fr e e d fr o m h y d r o g e n s u lp h id e b y p a s s in g it o v e r n zo is tje r r zc o x

c o n ta in e d in a p Ll lq ic r A n y h y d r o g e n s u lp h id e g a s if p r e s e n t is r O V e d h e r e (s e e F ig 1 5 )
, ,

2 F e (O H )3 (s ) + 3 H 2 S \ F e S (s ) + 6 H 2 0 ( )

Pow e re d

F ig 15 M a n u fa c tu r e o fco a lg a s

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U E L S A N D C O M B U S T IO N 87

W h e n th e ir o n o x id e o f th e p u r ifie r is e x lta ts te d , it is ta k e n o u t fr o n th e p u r ifie r an d eJposed


a ir w h e n it g e ts o x i& z e d to fe r r i o x id e
,

2 F e zs 3 (s ) + 0 2 (g ) 2 F e 20 3 (S ) + 6 H 2 S (S )
th e p u r ifie d co a l g a s is fin a lly s to r e d o z)e r t u a te r in g a s h o ld e r s
C o a t g a s i a c o lo
r le s s ga s h a v in g a c la r a c te r is tic o d o u r It is lighter th a n a ir a n d b u m s w ith

?g s n o w a m e Ifs a v e ra c o m p o s itio n is H 2 - 40% C H 4 32% C O = 7% C 2H - - 2%


u ge 2
3
F 2H - 3 % ,; N 2
- 4 % ,; C 0 - 1% an d re s t = 4 6 Its c a lo r ific v a lu e is a bo u t 4 , 9 0 0 k c a l
4 2 ,

U se s t is u se d a s : (i) illu m in an t in c itie s an d to w n s el, a n d (iii) in


(ii) a T m e ta llu rg ic a
p p e r tio n s fo r pro v id in g r e d u c in
g a tn t o s p e r e

Bo L G A S
o

O il g a s is o b ta in e d b y c r a c kin g o Fk e r o s e ?e o it T H la n t u s e d c o n s is ts o f a s tr o n g c a s t ir o n r e to r t,
p
e n c lo s e d in a c o a lr e d Tu r n a c e A b o n n e t is fitte d a t th e m o u th o f r e to r th r o u g h a m o lte n le a d s e a
T h e o th e r e n d o f th e b o n n e t is c o n n e c te d to a h y d r a u lic m a it th r o u g h a w a te r s e a l A p ip e fr o m th e ,

ry d r a u lic m a in le a d s tc i th e g as o ld e r T in e re to r t is h ea te d to yed e a t an d a ttit s te a m o f il is


co n tin u o u s ly a llo w e d to fa ll o n th e re d h o t b o tt o m o f th e re to r t Th e o il o n c o m in g in co n ta c t w th
e d h o tb o tto m ,
im m e d ia te ly g e ts c r a c ke d (o r b r o k e n )im o a n u m ber o f lo w er ga se o u s h ydrm a rb o m

C ra c k in g
C 12
H 26
C H 4
+ C 2H 6
+ C 2H 4
+ C 2H 2
+ C 3H 8
+ C 3H 6
+ C
T
(K e ro sen e o il) (L o w e r h yd ro ca rbo n s m ix tu re ) a r

Th e re su ltin g g a se o u s m ix tu re paes
g h th e b o n n e t c o v e r to a y d r a u h c n a in (a o u t th ro u
,

ta n k c o n t a in in g w a te r ) H e r e t a r g e ts c o n d e n s e d T h e n a t th e te s tin g c a p , th e p r o p e r c r a c k in g o f th e
o il is e s tim a te d fr o m th e c o lo u r o f th e g a s p r o d u c e d A g o o d o il g a s s h o u ld h a v e a g o ld m c o lo u r

d i h
B y p r o p e r a ju s t n g t e s u p p y o a r l f i th e ga s o f i
re qu re d l
co o u r c an b e o b t i
a n e d T,
h e g a s is n a lly

t
s o ye d o t g T u a te r in g a s h o ld e r s (s e e F ig 1 6 ) T h e y ie ld o f g a s is a b o u t 4 0 t o 5 0 %

F ig 1 6 L a b o ra to r y p r e p a ra tio n
o f o ig a s

F u rn a c e H y d ra u lic
m a in

The f il g a s is C H 2 5 30 % H 50 55% C O 1 0 12 %
a v e ra ge c o m p o s itio n o o 4
-
2
- =

C0 = 3 Its c a lo r ific v a lu e is bo t 4 , 5 0 0 5 , 4 0 0 k c a l/
3
It is d a b to ry
2 a u n u se a s o ra ga s

31 PR O D U C ER G A S
Pro du cer ga s is essm tia lly a m ix tu r e o f c o m b 1s tib e ga s es ,
ca rbo n d }ty d r o g m
m on ox id e an ,

(ts s o c ia te c t o itt
a rg e p e r c en t o f n o t c o m b u s tib le g a s e s , N z C O z I
e tc It is p r e p a r e d b y p a s s in g a r m ix e d

U Jith a little (a b o u f c o a l) o e r a in ta in e d a t a b o u t 1 , 1 0 0 C in

s te a m t 0 3 5 ky kg o a red hot coa lor c o k e b e d t r

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ti p t e in
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D i o n @

R e d u tio n m F ig I T G as p o& w
n L

C o m bu s
lo rz o n e _

;\ L .

a ) A s h z o n e is lh l{ :o u s t u m e (a b o u tOB m U n ie k ) c o n is tin g m a in ly o fa s h T h e z h 1 e tec


W a tc (o f th c p r o d t c c r p la n t) r o m th e in te n $ e h e a t o f c o m b u s tim M o r e o v e r th e te m p e r a tu
su p p lic d a ir a n e l s te a m is in c r e a s e d a 8 th e y p a s s th r o u g h th is z o f le


b) C o m b t ts lin tl z o n e i9 th e z n e n ex t to th e a sh z o n e H is k n o w n as ox id a tio n zone T in e
c a rb o n bu rn s a n d fofm C O an d C0 2 The perature o f th is z o n e is abo u t 1 , 10 0 C

C + 0 2 p C0 2 +
97 kca t

C + 0 2
. CO + 29 5 kc a l
2

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lib e r a te s ff e e hy d ro ge n a n d c a rbo n r n o Jo x id e
C0 2 + C 2 C0 36 kc a l
C + }1 2 ? CO + H 29 kc a l
2

C + 2 H 20 C 0 2 H 19 kc a l
2 + 2
1 1 th e s e re d u c tio n re a c tio n s a re en d o tl e r m ic ,
so th e te m p e r a in tr e in th e re d u c tio n z o LI

bo
p p lie c th e te m p e y a tu r e o f the p r o d u c e r fu r th e r r is e s a n d th is m a y W
a u t L ,0 0 C f n o s te a y ris s u
,

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w ith a ir is ts e d In a c tu a l r a ti k so
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e o tto m , th e u i i s h e a t it u
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p to a b o u t 1 , o 0 o c A m ix tu r e
y o f c o (g ) a n d H ) is in itia ll d
2 y p r o u c e d u n d e r h ig h
C 0 2 a n d H 2 r e a c t to p r e s s u r e c o n d itio n s , s o m e o f th e c o ,
y ie ld C H 4 (S ) T h u s

CO (g ) + 3 H 2 (g ) CH 4 (g ) + H 2 0 (g )
C0 \ + 4 H ) CH
2 2 4 (g ) + 2 H 2 0f)
T h e ga s co n ta in s v er little N
y 2 (R ) a n d c o n s is ts m a in ly o fC O ( ) H 2 (g ) a n d C H 4 (R ) b e s id e s so m e C 0 2 (g ) T h is
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ga s o n n has a c a lo r ific v a lu e o f a b o u t 4 o 5 o kc a lln s in th e g a s is
th r o
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32 W A TER G A S (O R B LU E G A S )
W a t e r g a s is
y a n ix tu r e o f c o n t b t ts t ib
t
e s se ia e g a s e s C O a t td H
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b y p a s s ht g a t e r n a tiu e itte a ir th y o u g l a b e d o f y e d }to t
e
y s ie a n a n
2,

c o a l o r c o k e M a in ta in e (t a b o u t 9 0 0 to 1 0 0 0 c in a r e a c t o r w h i h

c c o n ss ts o f a s te e l v e s s e a b o u t 3
, , ,
m w id e a n d 4 m h ig h It is h n e d in s id e w ith r e fm c to r b r ic k s It h
y a s a c u p a n d c o n e je e d e r a t th e to
p
a n d a n o p e i? t n e a r th e t o f h i f
g p o r t e e x s t o w a t e r g a s A t th e b a s e it is
p r o v id e d w ith i l t f
n e p p
e s o r ,

p a s s in g a ir a n d s te a m M o r e o v e r a t th e b o tto m it is p r o v id e d w ith a n a r r a n e m e n t fo r ta k in
,
g ,
g ou t
a s fo r m e d (s e e F i 1 8 )
g

F ig 1 8 W a te r g a s p ro d u c tio n

R e a c t io t s (i) S u p p lie d s te a m r e a c ts w ith re d ho t co ke (o r co a 1) a t 9 0 0 l , 0 0 0 C to fo rm

c a rb o n id d h yd The tio is m d o tlte r m ic so th e te t?tp e a tz tr e o f b e t


Tia ls
m o n o x e an ro gen re a c n ,

C + H 2
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iii) ln o rd e r t o r a s te th e k e b e L to 1 0 0 C , t s te a m s tp p is te n p o r a r i
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t 1 , 0 0 0 C The c y c le s o f s te a m r z17z a n d a ir b e lo zu
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n e se re a c tio n s a g a in ra is e s th e b e d to a bo u

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g m in a tin g g a s, a n d (ii) a fu e l
lts fla m e is s h o r t, bu t v e ry ho t ga
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c a lo r ific v a lu e o f w a e tle d b y a d d in
te r g a s , it is c a r b
(trb ta in e d b y c r a c k in
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a te r g a s c o n ta in s a b o u t 3 5 % H 25 % , C 0 3 5%
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th r o tg h (b e d o f r e d h o t c o k e s o th a t th
e en d o th e r m ic re a c tio t jtts t b a la n c e s tite ex o th e r n ic r e a c tio n s it
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in th e m an u fa c tu re o f
N H

33 N o lq C O N V E N T Io N A L S O U R C E s O F E N E R G Y
N o n c u n v e n iio n a i s o u r c e s o f e n e r
g y a r e th o s e w h ic h (r e b e in g con tin u o u s ly p r o d tc e d in n a tu re
a d n o ll e x l t s tib le F o r e x a m l l g y tid a l e n e r g y , g e o th e r m
a
p e so a r en e r , , a le n e r gy ,
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y U e a t, a n d li tt) o b ta in e d T o n t tlze s TT is c a l/e d s o la r e n e r8 y S u n is
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,

s o u r c e o f a ll e T? e r g !/ S u n lig h t c o n ta in s in fr a r e d r a d ia tio n s in la r e
g p r o p o r tio n , a n d th e s e i/>a r e d
r a y s h e tts a / o b je c ts o n th ic t tl e y jin T h e s u n lig h t fa llin g o n th e e a r th d u r in d a tt tim e d e liv e r s
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e n e r g y , w h ic h is 5 0 , 0 0 0 tim e s th e to ta l e n e r g y u s e d a ll o v e r th e w o r ld in y e t r H o w e v e r th is e n e r
gy ,

re a c h e s th e s u r fa c e o fe a r th in a u e ry d t? ts e d j o rm Ev e ry s q u a re m e tr e o fe a r th s u
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e s e v e r, o f th is o n ly 4 7 '). i e , ,
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e v e r y s q u a r e m e t r e o f e a r th s s u r fa c e p e r
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seco n d.

T ra d it io n a t u ses o f s o la r en e rg y D r y in g c
o th e s , d r y in g fr u its an d v e g e ta b le s ,
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m o is t u re c o n te n t in g r a in s, a n d m a k in g sa lt fr o m se a w a te r

H a rn e s s ig s o la r en e rg y The so la r e n e rgy fa llin g o n th e e a r th is s e r v n u c / tti m ,s e d . iTn d


h av to lle c t d tr a te it
la r fo p r a c tic a p u r p s e s w
SCatteret In co an c o lc e n
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la r is ith e r d ir e c tly lle c te d as h e tt (in s o la r


(1 ) D ir e c t tl s e o f IaF
tessing The so e n e rgy e co

coo ke r s ,
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h ic a l e n e r g y
(2 ) I t d ir e c t h a iT t e s s in g is c a r r ie d o L IT by : (i) c o n g s o la r e n e r g y h i to c e m
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in d ; (iii) u tiliz in g th e e n e r g y o f s e a w a v e
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S o la r p o w e r p la n t is a d e u ic e i p r o tlu c e s e le c tr ic ity by
z o h c z u s in g so

n fr a r e d r a y s
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N o te A 50 kw so la p la n t is b e in g in s ta lle d a t G u rg a o n (H a r y a r a )
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S o la r c e ll is a d e o ic e u h ic h c o 91
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a r en er
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a s o la r ce ll tw ty p
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g n a ho u se o r o te d io d T V , e tc F i 1 9
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F ig 1 9 A s o a r c e ll p a n e l fo r
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U s e s o f s o la r ce lls (1 ) F o r p ro du c in g e le c tr ic ity o n a r tific ia l s a te llite s , s p a c e p ro b e s ,


e tc

(2 ) F o r p r o v id in g elecicity fo r s tr e e t lig h tin g w a te r p u m p o p e r a tio n s a n n n n ,


d in g r a d io ,
an d
,

T V s e ts in r e n zo ie a r e a s (3 ) F o r o p e r a tin g e le c tr o n ic / q u a r tz w a tc h e s c a lc u la to r s a n d , ,
o th e r sm a ll

t zo u s e s a n d o ff s h o r e o i d r illin g r ig p la tfo r m
p r o v id e e le c tr ic p o w e r to tg
s
in s tr u m e n t s (4 ) T o ,

34 B IO M A S S
d im a ls ) t o h ic h u s e d e ith e r
B
o n is th e t u a s te o r g a n ic m a tte r (m o s t
y fr o m th e d e a d p
a n ts an a ?
as s
i d s lo c k F o r e x ia n p \e w o o d
b io g a s p y o d u c tio y L ) a n d /o r a s a c h e m c a je e
, ,
a s (t s o ltT c e o
fe n e rg y (b y b
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c a ttle d u n i i a r t o f s u g a r c a n e )p o u
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g b a g a s s e (r e m a n n g p
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l a s te s , d rr
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,

Is d d ir e c tly in c h u
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d le a v e s a sh a s re s
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g a s e ( )u s (( g p t o c lu c e r g a s ) liq u id (e g g a s o lin e d ie s e l k e r o s e n e e tc ) o r s o lid (e g c o k e ) m a te r ia ls fo r u s e
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ttni

A d v a n ta g e s o f co n v e r tin g b io m in to b io g a s
a ss (i) B io g a s p r o d u c tio n is u e r y e c o n o m ic a l It h a s
fo u nd th a t 1 k g L f c ll y c a ttle d u n g g iv e s a b o u t 1 6 0 litr e s o f g o b a r g a s , w h ic h c a n s u p p ly 8 0 0 k J o f h e a t Q
o th e r h a n d 1 k g o f d r y d u n g o n
,
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(ii) T h e g a s h a s a la d v a n ta ges o f ga seo u s fu e l lik e c le a n tin e s s tb s e n c e o f s n o k e e x ib ility


, ,
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(iu ) It p r o v ic le s s im u lta n eo u s ly ex ce lle n t y ie ld o f g o o tl tTta n lr e

35 B IO G A S
B io g a s is p r o d tc e d b 11 th e t e g r a d a tio n o f b io lo g ic a t m a tte r by tite b tc te r ia l ac tio n (o F a n a
r ia ) in th e a b s e n c e o ffr e e o x y g e n
Ex a m p le s (i) N a ttr a l g a s is b io g a s , w h ic h
a re s u lts a fte r ag p e r io d d e c a y o f a n im a l a n d v e g
lo n

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36 PO LLUT o N D U E T O B U R N IN G O F F O S S IL F U E L S
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b u s tio n o n ig n itio n o n ly if its v o lu m e c o n c e n tr a tio n in th e fu e l a ir
es co m

m i x h e is n b e tw pp
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th e lo w e r a n d u e r co m ,

as ex p o s iv e r a n g e o f th e f u e l H fu e l a ir c o m p o s itio n is o u ts id e th e e x p lo s iv e r a n g e , th e n th e fu e l d o e s n o t b u r n o n

c o m b u s tio n F o r e x a m p le , e x p lo s iv e r a n g e o f h y d r o g e n - 6 to 7 1 . M e th a n e = 6 to 13 , p e tr o l v a p o u r - 2 to 4 5 T h e .

e x p lo s iv e r a n e th u s lim its th e c o m p o s ifio n o f th e g a s e o u s fu e l a ir m ix tu r e to b e u s e d fo r c o m b u s tio n p u r p o s e


g
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C lc u la t io f ir q u a litie s T o fin d th e am o u n t o f o x y ge n an d hen ce th e am o u n t o f a ir


a n o a ,

re q u ir e d fo r th e c bm b u s tio n o f a u n it q u an tity o f a fu e l, it is n e ce ssa ry to a p p ly th e fo llo w in g

e e i e t a

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C (s ) + 0 2 (g ) c o 2 (g ) .

32 44
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M a ss p r o p o r tio n s
d 12 32 44
d c a rb o n d io x id e fo rm e a re : :
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p x p e l th e (
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T h e u n a b s o r b e d g a s is fin a lly ta k e n b a c k to th e b u r e tte till th e le v e l o f s o lu tio n in th ,

a b s o r p tio n b u lb s ta n d s a t th e c o n s ta n t m a r k a n d th e n its s to p c o c k is c lo s e d T h e le v e ls o f \ ,

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