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675

VOL. ii NO. 4 (1988) 675-682

THEOREM OF OIFFERENTIAL FORMS

KAIREN CAI

Department of Mathematics and Statistics

Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville

Edwardsville, Illinois 62026-1653

ABSTRACT. The author applies the stress energy of differential forms to study the

vanishing theorems of the Liouville type. It is shown that f0or a large class of

underlying manifolds such as the Euclidean n-space, the complex n-space, and the

complex hyperbolic space form, if any vector bundle valued p-form with conservative

stress energy tensor is of finite norm or slowly divergent norm, then the p-form

#anishes. This generalizes the recent results due to Hu and Sealey.

KEYWORDS AND PHRASES. Conservation, stress energy tensor, complex hyperbolic space

form, vector bundle valued p-form.

1980 AMS SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION CODES. 58AI0.

I. INTRODUCTION.

The classical Liouville theorem states that any bounded harmonic function defined

on the entire plane is a constant function. Later many authors generalized the

theorem. Yau [I] generalized it to harmonic functions on complete Riemannian

manifolds with non-negative Ricci curvature. It was further extended to harmonic maps

between Riemannian manifolds by Fells and Sampson [2], Cheng [3], Garbar et al. [4],

Hu [5], Xin [6], Sealey [7] and others.

means of calculating the derivative of the action functional I, we can define a so

called stress energy tensor S such that S is conservative at the critical values of

I. In particular, the stress at a point of an elastic body is described by a tensor

3

(Sij) in the Euclidean space R The law of conservation of momentum about some

origin implies the stress energy tensor be and the be

Sij symmetric system in

equilibrium means that

Sij be divergence free. Recently, Baird and Fells [I] proved

that if the map between Riemannlan manifolds is harmonic, then its stress energy

tensor is conservative. This might make the harmonic map a new physical explanation.

676 K.

The purpose of the paper is to apply the stress energy tensor of p-form with

values in a vector bundle over some klnd of Rlemannlan manifolds to the vanishing

theorem of the Liouvllle type. The main result is the following.

n

THEOREM I.I. Let U be the complex hyperbollc space form and F a Hermltlan

vector bundle over U n. Let be a p-form with values in F, p < n. If is of

n

finite or slowly divergent norm over U and its stress energy tensor is

conservatlve, then 0.

It must be pointed out that this is a more general vanishing theorem of vector

bundle valued p-form. We all know that there are many important maps between

Riemannlan manifolds such as harmonic, relative harmonic [5], holomorphic [8] and

relative affine maps [9] whose differentials possess the free divergent stress energy

tensors. Sealey [7] proved that if the norm of a harmonic l-form with values In a

vector bundle over U n is integrable, then the l-form vanishes. Therefore, Theorem

means that under a weaker conditlon than Sealeys,a stronger conclusion still holds

of the stress energy tensor and some kind of radial variational formmla for p-forms by

using the Lie derivative. Besides being applied to the proof of Theorem I, these

formulas are of interest in its own right. In sectlon 3, we prove Theorem I.I. by

means of estimating the first variation of the norm of p-form motivated by the method

in [4]. Finally, we expand our result to the general case where the underlying

manifold can be the complex n-space or some klnd of conformal flat Riemannlan

ma ni fo Ids.

For simplicity, we only state some notations and fornmlas for the Remannian

vector bundle over real Riemannlan manifold, those of Hermtlan vector bundle over

Kaehler manifold can be written correspondently. Let F be a Riemannian vector bundle

over Rlemannian manifold M. We define an inner product in APTx *M- Fx by setting

(ell e

i

),

8(ell e

i >

P P

il<...<iP

where m, 8 s ^PT*M-F

X X

{e 1,..., e

n

is any orthonormal basis of T

x

M. Integrating

this polntwise inner product over M gives an inner product in AP(F), which denotes

the space of sections of APT*M-F. For a linear connection V on F we define the

covarlant derivative by

for Y,

(Vy)(X

X e A(TM).

Xp) rye(El,..., Xp)

The exterior differential

.

P

i=l

(X

d:AP(F) A

,VyX I

p+I

,Xp)

(F) is given by

(2.2)

d (X: Xp+l)

APPLICATION OF STRESS ENERGY TENSOR 677

,,

p+]

(-I) i+l V -:(X X Xp+l (2.3)

x i

i

i<j

where X

A(TM),, i,J p+I, X i means X i is deleted. The codlfferentlal

.

i

:AP(F) AP-I(F) p ) I, is given by

n

V

6(X Xp_I) i=l

e

i

(e i, X 1,---, Xp_ I). (2.4)

by A d6 + 6d. Any p-form 0 with values in F satisfying the equations dto 0,

6to 0 is called harmonic. If M is a manifold without boundary and to is of compact

support, then to is harmonic iff Vto 0.

by

to

" (X,Y) < i to

x

i

y

to > (2.5)

x

denotes the contraction with X. We call

Eto H e to *I (2.6)

to Ito[ 2/2" The stress energy tensor of to is given by

LEMMA 2.1. Suppose X be a vector field with compact support over M and to p-form

with values in a vector bundle, then

f<

M

L

x

to to > *I f

M

div S

to

(X) *I + ]

8M "m (x, a/an) *I (2 8)

in which div S0 is the divergence of S and 8/8n the unit outward normal to 8M.

PROOF. Since [6

x

dto, u > + < 6to, i xm >, (2.9)

we get

< L

x

to, to > < i

x x

x

m, m > < to, i to

x > (2.10)

678 K. CAI

Let us consider a special case of the above formula. Assume M / N be a smooth map :

from a Rlemannlan manifold M without boundary to Riemannlan manifold N. According to

Lemma I, we know that

f< L

x

d#, d# > "I f <d#(X), 6d# > *l (2.1 l)

M M

so

slv

S# < z@, d@ > (2.12)

where

#.

S@ is the stress energy

Thus, we easily prove

tensor of @ and

z d@ is the torsion field of

COROLLARY (Baird and Eells [i0]). The stress energy tensor of a harmonic map from

M to N must be conservative. Conversely, if is a differential submersion and its

differential d@ is of conservative stress energy tensor, then is harmonic.

LEMMA 2.2. Let un(p) be an open disc with radius p in the complex n-space

n un(p).

C and be an F-valued p-form over Suppose t be an l-parameter family of

p-forms such that

,

m (Z

t

Z

p

tP(#t tz (ZI" Zp) (2.13)

n

where z U

, (p), 0 < t [zl<O, {ZI, Z

P

are the constant vector fields over

un(p), and

t

is induced from parallel transport in F along the straight llne from tz

to z. Then we have

d (2 14)

dt t tffil

Lr8/r"

PROOF. This depends largely on a direct computation. One can easily see that at

t=

d * (2.15)

d-- (@t tz (ZI Zp) Vrs/ r o(ZI,..., Zp)

Therefore at t=l

ddt mt (ZI Zp) Vrs/ rm(z Zp) + pm(Z .... Zp) (2.16)

[r/r,Z i] =-Z It follows that

i.

dirS/ar ) (Z Zp)

.

ra/ar

P

i+l

+ (2.17)

=d(ra/Or,Zl,..., Zp) (-i)

Vzlw(ra/ar,Zl,..., Z i Zp)

=Vra/ar (Z Z + p (Z I Zp).

p

APPLICATION OF STRESS ENERGY TENSOR 679

From lemmas 2.1, 2.2 we Immedlately obtain

LEMMA 2.3. If is an F-valued p-form with conservative stress energy tensor,

then 2..

dlltil

/dt 0 at t 1o

Finally, we give the following.

DEFINITION. Let F be a Hermltlan vector bundle over U n and m be a p-form with

values in F. The norm of m over U n called slowly divergent if

f(r)

U n e *I and

0

dr

hold for any positive continuous function f(r) in (0,I) (for example

f(r) / log (l-r) ), we have

f(r)e *I < -.

We represent the complex hyperbolic space form by the open unit disc

n

in C with the complete Kaehler metric [II]

g=4 (3 .1)

(I r-za a) 2

Z Z

bases

2

r B /l-r B I"- r B

2 z 2 z2 2 zn

and

2

r 8

_-X-,

41 r2 ) /I z2

2 2 2

Zl z2 n

For convienence, we may asse that is of degree (k,h), k+h p. Then m can be

expressed as

a (3.2)

fll "IkJl ...JhdZ

A

.Adz^dZjlA...AdZjh.

680 K.

that time, the Kaehler metric is reduced to

n

4

g 2

(dz d + (I z2 Z dzadz a) (3.3)

2) 2

(I r

We can decompose t

to

t t

+ t + t ml 2 3 among which alt consists of such p-forms

that do not contain the factors dz and d those of 2t contain factor

3

dz or dz and

t are the remains. Using (2.13), (3.3), we can compute that

(I r2) p

t

(I t2r2) p+I

(I r 2)p+2 (3.4)

n

Then, since U is a homogeneous space, the restriction on z can be removed and these

expressions hold for all

n

z e U

n

Denote dV and dS be the volume elements of

2

n.

U and the hypersphere S in U respectively. We have dV 2drdS / (l-r). Now

r

assuming

2

A(r,t)

r

2

r

Imtl2ds (3.5)

we get p

2

ilatl 0

2

dr f la tl2ds 0f

S

A(r,t)dr (3.6)

-r

r

and

( r2/t2)P

dd_ I[mtll2 -d t2p-2n f l=lp [ll- ( r2) p

(3.7)

+

Ico212 (I

(1 r2) p+I

+ 1312 (x(1 r2) p+2 Gz/tdzdz

where

2 2

4

Gz/t i

n

det(

(1 r 2) 2

(I 2 2

r /t )

aS+ azBlt2]) i

n

4n/(l r2/t2)n+l (3 .S)

Then at t--I

2 2

d Iic ll PA<P, 1) + 2(p n)11l12p f

(3.9)

APPLICATION OF STRESS ENERGY TENSOR 681

Here we assne p < n-I because the case of p n-I is simpler than the former and can

be treated by the same way. It follows from Lemma 3.1 that

2

(n-p- !)r

pA(p,I) 2(n- p) Ii 2 (I + )dV. (3.10)

I=l,p (n p) (l r 2)

Suppose that e AP(F)do not equal zero identically on U n. Thus there exists

O

0

such that 0 < 0

0 < and

2

( p- 1)r

K

0

--2(n- p) i,12( +. dv > 0 (3.11)

zI(P0 (n p) (I r 2)

Therefore

P 2

(n p l)r

pA(p,I) K 0 + 2(n- p) (I + A(r,l) dr. (3.12)

P0 (n p) (I r 2)

.According to the method in [7], one can prove that

2) n-p-I (3.13)

A(p,I) K l/ (1-r

P0 < p < I. Then for any positive continuous function f(r)

with

f(r)

f dr

01-r

we have

f(r)

f f(r)emdV f rf(r)A(r l)dr K f 2dr

n r

U PO PO

This ends the proof.

Finally, instead of considering the complex hyperbolic space form functioning as

the underlying manifolds, we can consider the other kind of underlying manifolds such

as the Euclidean n-space R the complex n-space

nn,

C and some conformal flat

Riemannian manifolds. Since the corresponding lemmas still exist, one may derive the

corresponding estimations over these manifolds. For sake of simplicity, we only state

the following.

n

THEOREM 3. I. be a p-form with values in F over C

Let If the stress energy

n

tensor of m is conservative and the norm of m over C is finite or slowly divergent,

then vanishes.

682 K. CAI

n

DEFINITION 3.1. A conformal flat Riemannlan metric g on R is called to be of

type A if

(A) g2 f2(x) En 2

x. and the mean curvature normal H of S

r

never

pointing away from zero. g is called to be of type B if the underlying space is the

n

open unit disc in R and

(B) g f2(r) dx

i

where f satisfying f0 n-2Pdr and the mean

r

m be a Riemannian vector bundle valued p-form over M, p > n/2, with conservative

stress energy tensor. If the norm of over M is finite or slowly divergent. Then

vanishes.

A(XNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author would like to thank Professor C.W. Ho and Professor T.

Wu for their encouragement and help. He is grateful to the Southern lllinois

University at Edwardsville for its hospitality.

RE FERENCE S

I. YAU, S.T. Harmonic functions on comlete Riemannian manifolds, comm. Pure Appl.

Math., 28 (1975), 201-228.

2. EELLS, J. and SASON, J.H. Harmonic mappings of Riemannian manifolds, Amer.

J. Math. 86 (1964), 109-160.

3. CHENG, S.Y. Liouville theorem for harmonic maps, Proc. Sm. in Pure Math. 36

(1980), 147-151.

4. GARBER, W.D. RUIJSENAAS, S.H.H., SELLER, E. and BURNS, D. On finite action

solutions of the non-linear o-model, An.n. of Physic s 119 (1979), 305-325.

5. HU, H. An nonexistence theorem for harmonic maps with slowly divergent energy,

Chin. Ann. of Math., 5B(4) (1984), 737-740.

6. XIN, Y.L. Differential form, conservative law and monolonic formula, Scientia

Sinica A 9 (1985).

7. SEALEY, H.C.J. Some conditions ensuring the vanishing of harmonic

differential forms with applications to harmonic maps and Yang-Mills theory,

Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 91 (1982), 441-452.

8. EELLS, J. and LEMAIRE, L. A report on harmonic maps, Bull.London Math. Soc. 10

(1978), 1-68.

9. YANO, K. and ISHIHARA, S. Hacmonic and relative affine mappings, J. Diff.

Geom. I0 (197 5), 501-509.

I0. BAIRD, P. and EELLS, J. A conservative law for harmonic maps, Lecture Notes in

Math., 894 Springer Berlin-New York, (1981) 1-25.

I. KOBAYASHI, S. and NOMIZU, K. Foundations of differenti.al geometry I., If.

Interscience, New York, 1963, 1969.

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