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12 .

Television - Reading

* Television

Nowadays television plays a significant role not only in social and political life, acting as a
tool for spreading information and forming peoples opinions, but also in the everyday life
of individuals as a source of entertainment. However, it is argued that this may be harmful
as television shows more and more sex and violence, sacrifices the quality of the programs
for the sake of commercial benefit and takes away the biggest part of our free time.
Key Ideas
* TV harmful
- sex & violence
- commercial benefits
- take away free time

Violence shown on television results in higher rate of crimes and encourages antisocial
behavior. This is especially evident in the U.S.A and other western countries. Many
criminals confess that their violent actions or attitudes to women were encouraged by TV.
The rate of such crimes is constantly growing and more and more often they are committed
by teenagers. This is becoming a great problem of modern society.
Main Point 1
* Violence rate of crime ^ / antisocial behavior
- US / Western countries
- criminals influenced by tv
- teenagers affected

Nowadays television is greatly abused for commercial purposes. Advertisers try to convince
the audience that the solution to a problem or the fulfillment of a desire can only be
achieved through the purchase of a product. It is designed towards blind acceptance by
the viewer. In this way TV negatively affects the human mind, by limiting the possibilities of
conscious choice, and promotes a consumer society.
Main Point 2
* TV abused by commercials
- purchase / solution to problem / fulfilment of desire
- designed blind acceptance
- affect human mind consumer soc.

Depression is a well-known psychological problem of modern society. The popularity of TV
watching is among the reasons of this phenomenon. Violence, aggression, crimes and wars
are broadcast through the daily news as well as in movies, showing dark pictures that
encourage psychological tension, pessimism and negative emotions.
Main Point 3
* Depression
- tv cause

- violence, aggression, crimes, wars in news / movies dark picture causing tension / pessimism /
neg. emo.

12 . Television - Listening

* Television Lecture(Listening) ETS

No one would really doubt how much TV influences the way we behave and think these
days. Yes, we are exposed to TV on everyday living and it is natural that our thoughts and
behaviors are heavily affected by it consciously and unconsciously. As all of you are aware
by now that there are some skeptics about the negative effects of TV. However, we need to
have a close look at what they insist on.
Key Ideas
* TVs negative effects close look

Some people actually believe that TV induces antisocial behavior. However, there is no
direct link between mass media and antisocial behavior, which is usually determined by
social environment, family, peer pressure, or other factors. Many antisocial people do not
even watch TV, while others may claim it is responsible for their actions simply to avoid
taking responsibility for themselves. Psychologists claim that television does not have a
simple, direct stimulus-response effect on its audiences. This can be illustrated by the
example of Japan, where TV movies are famous for extreme violence, but the crime rate is
low much lower than in many societies where TV viewing is relatively rare.
Main Point 1
* No link between media & antisocial
- other factors: social / family environ. / pressure
- antisocial do not watch tv
- mere excuse
- tv no direct effect
eg> Japan: movie extreme violent / crime rate low

Secondly, although some skeptics make it sound as if TV is just for advertising, uh.full of
commercialism only, as far as I am concerned, television is obviously not the only tool for
advertising. The influence of commercials reaches our society through newspapers, radio
and other sources of information. On the other hand, advertisements are just a source of
information for consumers, which enables them to choose between different products.
Indeed television broadcasting can be run without advertising at all; the UKs BBC runs no
commercials but is paid for through a licensing fee, while commercial broadcasters are
increasingly promoting pay-per-view options.
Main Point 2
* Commercials other media
- Newspapers, radio
- provide necessary info.: whats going on / choice
- no commercial tv: BBC UK

Finally, people think that the dark and negative contents of TV influence people to be more
depressed but dont you think people have the right to be informed about the World they
live in and its problems? As a matter of fact, this kind of information is the first step
towards solving them. Besides, TV shows, comedies, musical channels perfectly serve as a
source of entertainment and positive emotions, helping people to take their mind off their

Main Point 3
* Knowing problems necessary
-1st step to solution
- positive shows / comedy / music channels help people take mind off problems

12 . Television Summary Writing

[Note-taking Point]
Reading Lecture
* TV harmful * TVs negative effects close look
- sex & violence
Key Ideas - commercial benefits
- take away free time

* Violence rate of crime ^ / * No link between media & antisocial

antisocial behavior - other factors: social / family
- US / Western countries environ. / pressure
- criminals influenced by tv - antisocial do not watch tv
Main Point 1
- teenagers affected - mere excuse
- tv no direct effect
eg> Japan: movie extreme violent
/ crime rate low
* TV abused by commercials * Commercials other media
- purchase / solution to problem / - Newspapers, radio
Main Point 2 fulfilment of desire - provide necessary info.: whats
- designed blind acceptance going on/ choice
- affect human mind consumer soc. - no commercial tv: BBC UK
* Depression * Knowing problems necessary
- tv cause -1st step to solution
Main Point 3 - violence, aggression, crimes, wars in - positive shows / comedy / music
news/ movies dark picture causing channels help people take mind off
tension / pessimism / neg. emo. problems

[Model Writing]
* iBT TOEFL Integrated Writing . .

The speaker contradicts the point made in the reading that television exerts negative
influences on individuals and society.

First of all, the speaker refutes the viewpoint proposed in the reading that violence
displayed in television instigates not only a higher crime rate but also antisocial behavior.
According to the lecture, television does not have a direct impact on its audience and there
is no connection between antisocial behavior and the contents of television programs. The
speaker emphasizes that antisocial behavior are more likely to be formed by other factors
such as social and family environments.

Secondly, the reading passages skeptical portrayal of advertising on television is

challenged in the lecture. In the lecture, the claim is made that advertisements on television
act not as a barrier that limits viewers choices but as a useful source to provide
information. Furthermore, the speaker points out that television cannot be blamed entirely
for bringing about commercialism since advertising reaches us through other media
sources. An example of a commercial free channel is also presented to support the
speakers point of view.

Finally, the speaker opposes the assertion made by the author that television viewers often
experience negative emotions such as depression as well as become pessimistic, heavily
influenced by the unhealthy contents of television. It is highlighted in the lecture that
knowing problems is the first step towards possible solutions. Moreover, television provides
various programs that not only entertain viewers but also create positive emotions.

[Reading /]





. , ,
. ,

significant <adj>
spread <v> ,
individual <adj>
quality <n> ,
commercial <n>
encourage <v> .
antisocial <adj> .
evident <adj> .
convince <v> .
audience <n>
fulfillment <n> . ,
acceptance <n>
possibility <n> .
promote <v>
popularity <n> .
phenomenon <n>
broadcast <v> .
psychological <adj> ,

[Lecture /]



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. .

... .
, .
, BBC .

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, ,

Influence <n>
consciously <adv>
depressed <adj> ,

[Summary Writing /]

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, .




exert <v>
instigate <v> ,
emphasize <v>
environment <n>
commercialism <n>