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Supplementary Material
Organic and Inorganic Contaminants Removal from
Water with Biochar, a Renewable, Low Cost and
Sustainable Adsorbent- a Critical Review
Dinesh Mohan*1, Ankur Sarswat1, Yong Sik Ok2, and
Charles U. Pittman Jr.3
1
School of Environmental Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Delhi 110067, India
Email: dm_1967@hotmail.com
Phone: 0091-11-26704616
FAX: 0091-11-26704616
2
Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment,
Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
3
Department of Chemistry
Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
2

Table SM1: Slow pyrolysis, fast Pyrolysis and gasification biochars produced around the world.
Pyrolysis conditions Surface Yield1
Type of Place of
Raw Material Biochar Designation Furnace/Reactor Atmosphere Temp. (C) Residence area Reference
Pyrolysis study
time (m2/g)
orange peel OP250 slow - - 250 6h 51.6 -
orange peel OP400 slow - - 400 6h 28.1 - (Chen et al.,
orange peel OP700 slow 700 6h 501 - China 2011a)
orange peel MOP250 slow - - 250 6h 41.2 -
orange peel MOP400 slow 400 6h 23.4 -
orange peel MOP700 slow - - 700 6h 19.4 -
oak wood oak wood char fast Inert 2.0 - (Mohan et al.,
pine wood pine wood char fast auger reactor atmosphere 48 sec 2.7 - 2007)
0ak bark oak bark char fast 400- 450 25.4 - USA
pine bark pine bark char fast 1.9 -
canola straw canola straw char slow muffle furnace - 350 4h - - China (Xu et al., 2011)
peanut straw peanut straw char slow muffle furnace - 350 4h - -
soybean straw soybean straw char slow muffle furnace - 350 4h -
rice hull rice hull char slow muffle furnace - 350 4h -
bamboo bamboo char slow muffle furnace nitrogen 900 2h 327 22.6 Hong (Mui et al., 2010)
Kong
sugarcane bagasse digested sugercane bagasse slow muffle furnace - 550 2h 17.7 - USA
biochar (Inyang et al.,
sugarcane bagasse undigested sugercane slow muffle furnace - 550 2h 14.1 - 2010)
bagasse biochar
rapeseed plant straw rapeseed plant straw and stalk slow tubular reactor nitrogen 400 - 16.0 39.4 (Filiz
and stalk biochars 500 - 15.7 35.6 Karaosmanolu,
600 - 17.6 32.2 Turkey 2000)
700 - 19.3 29.6
800 - 19.0 28.2
900 - 140.4 27.9
rice straw rice straw char slow vertical tubular nitrogen 20-700 2h - - Malaysia (Hameed & El-
reactor Khaiary, 2008)
corncobs CC-1.6 fast screw reactor nItrogen 500-550 1.6 s 138.9 - China (Liu et al., 2011)
rice-husks RH-0.6 0.6 s 44.7 -
rice-husks RH-1.0 1.0 s 79.1 -
rice-husks RH-1.3 1.3 s 119.8 -
rice-husks RH-1.6 1.6 s 139.7 -
rice-husks RH-2.0 2.0 s 78.0 -
hardwood HW450 fixed bed reactor Inert 450 <5 sec 0.4 - USA (Chen et al.,
from Dynamotive, atmosphere 2011b)
canada
corn straw CS600 slow rector from BEST 600 2h 13.1 -
Energies Inc., USA
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peanut straw peanut straw biochar - 28.2


soybean straw soybean straw biochar slow muffle furnace limited oxygen 400 3.45 h - 24.7 China (Tong et al., 2011)
canola straw canola straw biochar - 27.4
rice husk R-H High pressure 300 0.5 h - -
slow -
reactor
rice husk RP-300 slow furnace limited oxygen 300 6h - 32.8
rice husk RP-600 slow furnace limited oxygen 600 6h - 31.9
Olive Pomace P-H High pressure 300 0.5 h - -
slow -
reactor
Olive Pomace PP-300 slow furnace limited oxygen 300 6h - 39.3
Olive Pomace PP-600 slow furnace limited oxygen 600 6h - 26.7 (Pellera et al.,
Greece
Orange waste O-H High pressure 300 0.5 h - - 2012)
slow -
reactor
Orange waste OP-300 slow furnace limited oxygen 300 6h - 39.6
Orange waste OP-600 slow furnace limited oxygen 600 6h - 32.8
Compost C-P High pressure 300 0.5 h - -
slow
reactor
Compost CP-300 slow furnace limited oxygen 300 6h - 78.7
Compost CP-600 slow furnace limited oxygen 600 6h - 46.0
sugar beet tailing SBT biochar slow muffle furnace Nitrogen 300 2h 0.2 - USA (Dong et al., 2011)
pinewood P300 slow hydrothermal nitrogen 300 20 min - - China (Liu & Zhang,
rice husk R300 treatment in 2009)
autoclave
wheat residue WC-300 slow - limited oxygen 300 6h 116 10-27 USA
WC-400 400 189 (Chun et al., 2004)
WC-500 500 309
WC-600 600 438
WC-700 700 363
swine solids H-SS slow 250 4.0 -
20 h
poultry litter H-PL limited oxygen 250 8.8 - (Sun et al., 2011b)
furnace USA
poultry litter T-PL 400 2-7 h 6.7 -
wheat straw T-WS 400 2.1 -
buffalo weed plants BWBC300 300 1.4 50.1
(Yakkala et al.,
buffalo weed plants BWBC500 slow heating furnace nitrogen 500 4h 4.8 35.3 Korea
2013)
buffalo weed plants BWBC700 700 279.8 31.4
bamboo bamboo char slow - limited oxygen 1000 - 517.3 - China (Yang et al., 2013)
swine manure T0-400 400 3.7 57.9
swine manure T0-700 700 98.1 48.9
swine manure T1-400 400 4.3 61.4 (Meng et al.,
slow - limited oxygen 2h China
swine manure T1-700 700 116.9 49.3 2013)
swine manure T2-400 400 7.4 70.7
swine manure T2-700 700 73.5 61.6
sugarcane bagasse BC slow muffle furnace Nitrogen 600 1.5 h 14.1 - USA
(Inyang et al.,
digested sugarcane DBC 600 17.1 -
2011)
bagasse
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dairy waste DAWC 600 161.2 - (Inyang et al.,


sugar beet DWSBC slow muffle Furnace nitrogen 600 2h 48.6 - USA 2012)

soybean stover S-BC300 300 5.6 37.06 (Ahmad et al.,


soybean stover S-BC700 700 420.3 36.91 2012)
slow muffle furnace limited oxygen 3h Korea
peanut shells P-BC300 300 3.1 21.59
peanut shells P-BC700 700 448.2 21.89
pig manure SA4 400 15.6 -
pig manure SA6 600 15.9 -
cow manure SB4 400 2.5 - (Koodyska et al.,
slow tubular reactor nitrogen 10 min Poland
cow manure SB6 600 8.0 - 2012)
cow manure SC4 400 8.7 -
cow manure SC6 600 11.8 -
empty fruit branch magnetic biochar slow microwave muffle nitrogen - 0.5 h 765 - Malaysia (Mubarak et al.,
system 2013)
dairy manure DM200 slow muffle furnace limited oxygen 200 4h 1.9 -
(Xu et al., 2013)
dairy manure DM350 350 5.6 - China
switchgrass SG500 slow biochars 500 1h 3.6 -
switchgrass SG500. Act slow experimenters Kit, 500 1h 167.8 - (Han et al., 2013b)
switchgrass SG700 slow All Power Labs, USA 700 0.5 h 73.2 -
switchgrass SGFP fast Fluidized bed reactor 500 - 3.1 -
hardwood HW500 slow Biochars 500 1h 119 -
Hardwood HW500.Act slow Experimenters Kit, 500 1h 343.9 -
hardwood HW700 slow All Power Labs, USA Nitrogen 700 0.5 h 372.8 - USA
hardwood HWFP fast Fluidized bed reactor 500 - 5.50 -
softwood SW500 slow Biochars 500 1h 94.7 -
softwood SW500.Act slow Experimenters Kit, 500 1h 383.7 -
softwood SW700 All Power Labs, LLC, 700 0.5 h 362.3 -
slow California, USA
softwood SWFP fast Fluidized bed reactor 500 - 6.7 -
orange peel OPB400 slow 400 428.0 -
orange peel OPB600 slow 600 137.1 - (Oh et al., 2012)
orange peel OPB700 slow limited oxygen 700 110.2 -
muffle furnace 2h Japan
water treatment sludge WS400 slow 400 126.4 -
water treatment sludge WS600 slow 600 114.4 -
water treatment sludge WS700 slow 700 135.2 -
sugar beet tailings SBT slow 600 70.0 -
sugarcane bagasse SB slow 600 122.5 - (Zhang et al.,
cottonwood CW Slow - Nitrogen 600 1h 50.1 - USA 2012)
pinewood PW slow 600 2.8 -
peanut shell PS slow 600 18.9 -
Pine needle P100 100 0.65 91.2
Pine needle P200 200 6.22 75.3
- limited oxygen 6h China (Chen et al., 2008)
Pine needle P250 250 9.52 56.1
Pine needle P300 slow 300 19.92 48.6
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Pine needle P400 400 112.4 30.0


Pine needle P500 500 236.4 26.1
Pine needle P600 600 206.7 20.4
Pine needle P700 700 490.8 14.0
pine needle BC300 slow limited oxygen 300 3h 4.1 57.57
(Ahmad et al.,
pine needle BC500 slow muffle furnace 500 13.1 31.82 Korea
2013)
pine needle BC700 slow 700 390.5 24.95
rice straw D150 limited oxygen 150 1.3 -
rice straw D250 - - 250 - 3.6 - China (Han et al., 2013a)
rice straw D425 425 0.3 -
pinewood H300 slow autoclave limited oxygen 300 20 min 21.0 -
China (Liu et al., 2010)
pinewood P700 slow tubular reactor nitrogen 700 2h 29.0 -
1
Yields depend usually on the process used, reactor etc. Therefore, in some cases yields may be expressed as ranges.
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Table SM2. Adsorption capacities of different biochars for organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water and
wastewater
Designated Adsorption study parameters Langmuir
Surface
biochar adsorption
Type of Biochars area Targeted Specie Temp. Conc. range Reference
Type of water pH capacity
(m2/g) (0C) (mg/L) (mg/g)
[A] Inorganics
Metal Ions
Pine wood char - 2.73 Pb2+ 5.0 25 2-1036 4.13
Pine wood char - 2.73 Cd2+ 5.0 25 1 -562 -
Pine wood char - 2.73 As3+ 3.5 25 0.7-375 1.20
Oak wood char - 2.04 Pb2+ 5.0 25 2.0-1036 2.62
Oak wood char - 2.04 Cd2+ 5.0 25 1-563 0.37
Oak wood char - 2.04 As3+ 3.5 25 0.7-375 5.85
Synthetic (Mohan et al., 2007)
Pine bark char - 1.88 Pb2+ 5.0 25 2-1036 3.00
Pine bark char - 1.88 Cd2+ 5.0 25 1-562 0.34
Pine bark char - 1.88 As3+ 3.5 25 0.7-375 12.15
Oak bark char - 25.4 Pb2+ 5.0 25 2-1036 13.10
Oak bark char - 25.4 Cd2+ 5.0 25 1-563 5.40
Oak bark char - 25.4 As3+ 3.5 25 0.7-375 7.40
Hard wood char HW450 0.43 Cu2+ 5.0 22 6-318 6.79
Hard wood char HW450 0.43 Zn2+ Aqueous 5.0 22 6-327 4.54 (Chen et al., 2011b)
Corn straw char CS600 13.08 Cu2+ solution 5.0 22 6-318 12.52
Corn straw char CS600 13.08 Zn2+ 5.0 22 6-327 11.00
Peanut straw char - - Cu2+ 5.0 25 158-954 89.0
Peanut straw char - - Cu2+ 4.5 25 158-954 50.0
Soybean straw char - - Cu2+ Aqueous 5.0 25 158-954 53.0
(Tong et al., 2011)
Soybean straw char - - Cu2+ solution 4.5 25 158-954 33.0
Canola straw char - - Cu2+ 5.0 25 158-954 37.0
Canola straw char - - Cu2+ 4.5 25 158-954 31.0
R-R - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 6.26
Rice husks R-H - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 3.49
R-P300 - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 4.57
R-P600 - Cu2+ Aqueous 5.0 24 1 20 0.27
P-R - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 7.07 (Pellera et al., 2012)
solution
P-H - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 1.44
Dried olive pomace
P-P300 - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 5.12
P-P600 - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 0.66
Orange waste O-R - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 10.26
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O-H - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 5.81


O-P300 - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 4.92
O-P600 - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 0.42
C-R - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 10.14
C-P - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 7.72
Compost
C-P300 - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 7.94
C-P600 - Cu2+ 5.0 24 1 20 3.38
BC25 1.21 Pb2+ - - 0 - 1036 109.40
Aqueous
Dairy manure biochar BC200 2.62 Pb2+ - - 0 - 1036 132.81 (Cao et al., 2009)
solution
BC350 6.84 Pb2+ - - 0 - 1036 93.65
Pine wood biochar P300 - Pb2+ 5.0 25 5 40 3.89
Pine wood biochar P300 - Pb2+ 5.0 35 5 40 4.03
Pine wood biochar P300 - Pb2+ 5.0 45 5 40 4.25
Synthetic (Liu & Zhang, 2009)
Rice husk biochar R300 - Pb2+ 5.0 25 5 40 1.84
Rice husk biochar R300 - Pb2+ 5.0 35 5 40 2.25
Rice husk biochar R300 - Pb2+ 5.0 45 5 40 2.40
Anaerobically digested sugarcane DBC
17.7 Pb2+ Synthetic - 22 5-200 135.40
bagasse biochar (Inyang et al., 2011)
Raw sugarcane bagasse biochar BC 14.1 Pb2+ Synthetic - 22 5-200 81.90
Digested dairy waste biochar DAWC 161.2 Pb2+ Synthetic 4.0-6.0 22 5-600 51.38
(Inyang et al., 2012)
Digested whole sugar beet biochar DWSBC 48.6 Pb2+ Synthetic 4.0-6.0 22 5-600 40.81
BWBC700 280 Pb2+ Synthetic 5.0 - 1-50 333.33
Buffalo weed biochar (Yakkala et al., 2013)
BWBC700 280 Cd2+ Synthetic 5.0 - 1-50 11.63
Cu2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 78.36
SA4 Zn2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 62.13
15.56
Cd2+ 5.0 20 0.1-0.4 107.08
Pb2+ 5.0 20 0.2-0.7 175.44
Pig manure biochar
Cu2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 88.23
SA6 Zn2+ 5.0 20 0.065-0.2 79.62
15.89
Cd2+ 5.0 20 0.1-0.4 117.01
Pb2+ 5.0 20 0.2-0.7 230.70
Cu2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 76.12
SB4 Zn2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 58.11
2.46
Cd2+ 5.0 20 0.1-0.4 114.75
Synthetic (Koodyska et al., 2012)
Pb2+ 5.0 20 0.2-0.7 212.77
Cu2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 88.50
SB6 Zn2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 61.91
8.01
Cd2+ 5.0 20 0.1-0.4 118.40
Cow manure biochar
Pb2+ 5.0 20 0.2-0.7 219.34
Cu2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 81.50
SC4 Zn2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 49.06
8.65
Cd2+ 5.0 20 0.1-0.4 78.19
Pb2+ 5.0 20 0.2-0.7 151.52
Cu2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 83.97
11.77
SC6 Zn2+ 5.0 20 0.06-0.2 51.28
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Cd2+ 5.0 20 0.1-0.4 82.30


Pb2+ 5.0 20 0.2-0.7 154.60
Cu2+ Aqueous - - 0-318 48.41
1.90 Zn2+ solution - - 0-327 32.95
DM200 Cd2+ - - 0-6575 32.03
Dairy manure biochar (Xu et al., 2013)
Cu2+ - - 0-318 51.46
DM350 5.61 Zn2+ - - 0-327 31.84
Cd2+ - - 0-675 54.63
SG500 Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 5.21
3.62
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 4.83
SG500. Act Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 17.60
167.83
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 4.44
Switchgrass biochar
SG700 Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 3.04
73.24
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 0.32
SGFP Cu2+ 4.8 20 -- 12.45
3.07
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 2.54
HW500 Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 0.38
118.98
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 0.06
HW500.Act Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 19.50
343.91
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 0.19
Hardwood biochar Synthetic (Han et al., 2013b)
HW700 Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 7.05
372.75
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 61.06
HWFP Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 1.08
5.50
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 4.70
SW500 Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 6.35
94.74
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 5.94
SW500.Act Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 30.24
383.66
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 4.44
Softwood biochar
SW700 Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 11.05
362.33
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 256.42
SWFP Cu2+ 4.8 20 - 8.13
6.72
Zn2+ 4.8 20 - 1.56
Rice straw biochar D250 3.58 Cd2+ Synthetic 6.0 25 5-100 34.13 (Han et al., 2013a)
H300 21.0 Cu2+ Synthetic 6.2 25 - 4.46
Pinewood biochar
P700 29.0 Cu2+ Synthetic 6.2 25 - 2.73 (Liu et al., 2010)
2.73 Cr6+ 2.0 25 1-100 3.03
Oak Wood char 2.73 Cr6+ 2.0 35 1-100 4.08
2.73 Cr6+ Aqueous 2.0 45 1-100 4.93
(Mohan et al., 2011)
1.88 Cr6+ solution 2.0 25 1-100 4.61
Oak Bark char 1.88 Cr6+ 2.0 35 1-100 7.43
1.88 Cr6+ 2.0 45 1-100 7.51
(Dong et al., 2011)
SBT Aqueous
Sugar beet tailing biochar 137.0 Cr6+ 2.0 22 50 800 123
solution
9

Coconut coir derived char CC 0.8 Cr6+ Synthetic 3.0 25 10 500 -


Coconut coir derived char CC250 1.7 Cr6+ Synthetic 3.0 25 10 500 -
Coconut coir derived char CC350 5.4 Cr6+ Synthetic 3.0 25 10 500 - (Shen et al., 2012)
Coconut coir derived char CC500 153 Cr6+ Synthetic 3.0 25 10 500 -
Coconut coir derived char CC600 299 Cr6+ Synthetic 3.0 25 10 500 -
Soybean Stalk-Based Biochar - Aqueous
- Hg2+ 7.0 25 0.002-0.5 0.67 (Kong et al., 2011)
solution
Empty fruit branch magnetic Magnetic Aqueous
765.0 Zn2+ 10.0 50 1.1 1.18 (Mubarak et al., 2013)
biochar biochar solution
Synthetic and
Pine needle biochar - U6+ 6.0 25 1-100 62.70 (Zhang et al., 2013)
HTC wastewater
Switchgrass biochar - 2.9 U6+ groundwater 3.9 - 5 - 30 2.12 (Kumar et al., 2011)
Anions
Pine wood biochar - 2.73 F- 2.0 25 1-100 7.66
Pine wood biochar - 2.73 F- 2.0 35 1-100 6.34
Pine wood biochar - 2.73 F- Aqueous 2.0 45 1-100 4.46
(Mohan et al., 2012)
Pine bark biochar - 1.88 F- solution 2.0 25 1-100 9.77
Pine bark biochar - 1.88 F- 2.0 35 1-100 10.53
Pine bark biochar - 1.88 F- 2.0 45 1-100 8.40
anaerobically digested sugar beet DSTC - PO43- Synthetic 7.0 22 61.5 -
tailings (Yao et al., 2011a)
undigested sugar beet tailings STC - PO43- Synthetic 7.0 22 61.5 -
Aqueous
Digested sugar beet tailing biochar - PO43- 7.0 22 15 640 133.085 (Yao et al., 2011b)
solution
Orange peel biochar
OP400 28.1 PO43- Synthetic - 25 0 - 12 0.007
Orange peel biochar 25 (Chen et al., 2011a)
OP700 501 PO43- Synthetic - 0 - 12 0.48
Magnetic orange peel biochar MOP250 41.2 PO43- Synthetic - 25 0 - 12 0.51
Magnetic orange peel biochar MOP400 23.4 PO43- Synthetic - 25 0 - 12 0.22
Magnetic orange peel biochar MOP700 19.4 PO43- Synthetic - 25 0 - 12 1.24
[B] Organics
Phenols and Acids
p(acrylamide)-chicken biochar P(AAm)-CB - Aqueous - 21.83
p(acrylamide)-wood biochar P(AAm)-WB - Phenol solution - 25 5-50 23.14
(Karakoyun et al., 2011)
p(acrylamide)-tire biochar P(AAm)-TB - - 14.04
Rice husk biochar RH-0.6 44.7 - 409.8
Rice husk biochar RH-1.0 79.1 - 613.5
Rice husk biochar RH-1.3 119.8 Aqueous - 625.0
Phenol 40 100 15000 (Liu et al., 2011)
Rice husk biochar RH-1.6 139.7 solution - 806.5
Rice husk biochar RH-2.0 78.0 - 384.6
Corncob biochar CC-1.6 138.9 - 359.7
Hard wood (Laurel oak, Quercus Oak-250cs 1.0 Aqueous - 10
Catechol 5.5 - 7.5 150 (Kasozi et al., 2010)
laurifolia: Oak) Oak-400cs 2.0 solution - 25
10

Oak-650cs 225.0 - 50
Pine-250cs - - 12
Pine( Softwood Loblolly pine, Pinus
Pine-400cs 3.0 - 14
taeda:)
Pine-650cs 285.0 - 14
Grass-250cs 3.0 - 12
Grass( Eastern gamma-grass,
Grass-400cs 6.0 - 40
Tripsacum dacttyloides)
Grass-650cs 77.0 - 83
Oak-250a - - 17
Hard wood (Laurel oak, Quercus
Oak-400a - - 25
laurifolia: Oak)
Oak-650a - - 36
Pine-250a - - 25
Pine( Softwood Loblolly pine, Pinus
Pine-400a - - 14
taeda:)
Pine-650a - - 20
Grass-250a - - 16
Grass( Eastern gamma-grass,
Grass-400a - - 33
Tripsacum dacttyloides)
Grass-650a - - 50
Oak-250fn - - 25
Hard wood (Laurel oak, Quercus
Oak-400 fn - - 33
laurifolia: Oak)
Oak-650 fn - - 10
Pine-250 fn - - 14
Pine( Softwood Loblolly pine, Pinus
Pine-400 fn - - 20
taeda:)
Pine-650 fn - - 25
Hard wood (Laurel oak, Quercus Oak-400a 3.0 Humic acid - 0 13 -
laurifolia: Oak) Oak-650a 166.0 Humic acid - 0 13 -
Grass( Eastern gamma-grass, Grass-400a 2.0 Humic acid - 0 13 -
Tripsacum dacttyloides) Grass-650a 261.0 Humic acid - 0 13 -
Agrichar - 427.0 24.7
Agrichar - 427.0 Aqueous 21.4
Cinnamic acid ~7.0 20 0-14 (Ni et al., 2011)
Soil Reef - 338.0 solution 6.89
Soil Reef - 338.0 5.65
Pesticides and PAH
Orange peel biochar
OP250 51.6 naphthalene Synthetic - 25 18 -
Orange peel biochar (Chen et al., 2011a)
OP400 28.1 naphthalene Synthetic - 25 18 -
Magnetic orange peel biochar MOP250 41.2 naphthalene Synthetic - 25 18 -
Magnetic orange peel biochar MOP400 23.4 naphthalene Synthetic - 25 18 -
Grass biochar G200 3.3 norflurazon Aqueous 7.0 25 0.4-18 -
G300 4.5 norflurazon solution 7.0 25 0.4-18 -
G400 8.7 norflurazon 7.0 25 0.4-18 -
G500 50.0 Norflurazon 7.0 25 0.4-18 -
(Sun et al., 2011a)
G600 75.0 Norflurazon 7.0 25 0.4-18 -
Wood biochar W200 2.3 fluridone 7.0 25 - -
W300 3.0 fluridone 7.0 25 - -
W400 28.70 fluridone 7.0 25 - -
11

W500 196.0 fluridone 7.0 25 - -


W600 392.0 fluridone - 25 - -
Wood char - - Pyrene 6.0 25 0.002-0.12 -
Synthetic (Wang et al., 2006)
Treated wood char - - Pyrene 6.0 25 0.002-0.12 -
Soybean stalk-based biochar Aqueous
- Phenanthrene 7.0 25 1 10 - (Kong et al., 2011)
solution
700 ABL 335 - -
350ABL 335 - 0-200 -
Broiler litter biochar Deisopropylatrazine Synthetic 5.5 (Uchimiya et al., 2010)
700BL 94 - -
350BL 60 - -
CS100 2.140 -
CS200 2.149 -
CS300 6.144 -
Corn straw biochar Simazine Synthetic 6.0 25 0.01 3.3 (Zhang et al., 2011)
CS400 32.38 -
CS500 245.3 -
CS600 329.0 -
Maple, elm, and oak woodchips -
7.57 Atrazine Synthetic - 22 0.05 30 -
and barks biochar
(Zheng et al., 2010)
Maple, elm, and oak woodchips -
7.57 Simazine Synthetic - 22 0.05 5 -
and barks biochar
hardwood litter (Eucalyptus spp.) -
427 Sulfamethazine Synthetic 5.0 5.2 20 - - (Teixid et al., 2011)
biochar
P100 0.65 Naphthalene - - 0.03-1.0 -
P100 0.65 Nitrobenzene - - 0.01-1.0 -
P100 0.65 m-dinitrobenzene - - 0.02-1.0 -
P200 6.22 Naphthalene - - 0.03-1.0 -
P200 6.22 Nitrobenzene - - 0.01-1.0 -
P200 6.22 m-dinitrobenzene - - 0.02-1.0 -
P250 9.52 Naphthalene - - 0.03-1.0 -
P250 9.52 Nitrobenzene - - 0.01-1.0 -
P250 9.52 m-dinitrobenzene - - 0.02-1.0 -
P300 19.92 Naphthalene - - 0.03-1.0 -
P300 19.92 Nitrobenzene - - 0.01-1.0 -
(Chen et al., 2008)
Pine needle biochar P300 19.92 m-dinitrobenzene Synthetic - - 0.02-1.0 -
P400 112.4 Naphthalene - - 0.03-1.0 -
P400 112.4 Nitrobenzene - - 0.01-1.0 -
P400 112.4 m-dinitrobenzene - - 0.02-1.0 -
P500 236.4 Naphthalene - - 0.03-1.0 -
P500 236.4 Nitrobenzene - - 0.01-1.0 -
P500 236.4 m-dinitrobenzene - - 0.02-1.0 -
P600 206.7 Naphthalene - - 0.03-1.0 -
P600 206.7 Nitrobenzene - - 0.01-1.0 -
P600 206.7 m-dinitrobenzene - - 0.02-1.0 -
P700 490.8 Naphthalene - - 0.03-1.0 -
P700 490.8 Nitrobenzene - - 0.01-1.0 -
12

P700 490.8 m-dinitrobenzene - - 0.02-1.0 -


Rice straw biochar D250 3.58 Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) Synthetic 6.0 25 5-200 1.83 (Han et al., 2013a)
Endocrine disruptor
H-SS
Swine solids biochar 4.03 17-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) - 23 0.1-4 -
Swine solids biochar H-SS 4.03 bisphenol A (BPA) - 23 0.01-1.12 -
Swine solids biochar H-SS 4.03 Phenanthrene (Phen) - 23 0.02-12 -
Poultry litter biochar H-PL 8.77 17-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) - 23 0.1-4 -
Poultry litter biochar H-PL 8.77 bisphenol A (BPA) - 23 0.01-1.12 -
Aqueous
Poultry litter biochar H-PL 8.77 Phenanthrene (Phen) - 23 0.02-12 - (Sun et al., 2011b)
solution
Poultry litter biochar T-PL 6.71 17-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) - 23 0.1-4 -
Poultry litter biochar T-PL 6.71 bisphenol A (BPA) - 23 0.01-1.12 -
Poultry litter biochar T-PL 6.71 Phenanthrene (Phen) - 23 0.02-12 -
Wheat straw biochar T-WS 2.08 17-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) - 23 0.1-4 -
Wheat straw biochar T-WS 2.08 bisphenol A (BPA) - 23 0.01-1.12 -
Wheat straw biochar T-WS 2.08 Phenanthrene (Phen) - 23 0.02-12 -
Dyes
Peanut straw char - methyl violet 5.0 9.0 25 40-816 104.61
Aqueous
Soybean straw char - methyl violet 6.4 9.0 25 40-816 72.87 (Xu et al., 2011)
solution
Rice hull char - methyl violet 6.4 9.0 25 40-816 50.39
kenaf fibre char - methylene blue 8.5 30 50 - 200 18.18
kenaf fibre char - methylene blue Synthetic 8.5 40 50 - 200 21.74 (Mahmoud et al., 2012)
kenaf fibre char - methylene blue 8.5 50 50 - 200 22.73
Chars from bamboo - acid Blue 25 - - 50 - 1200 16.91
Chars from bamboo - acid Yellow 117 Synthetic - - 50 - 1200 35.31 (Mui et al., 2010)
Chars from bamboo - methylene Blue - - 50 - 1200 31.89
Straw char - brilliant blue 3.0 25 85-684 -
Synthetic (Qiu et al., 2009)
Straw char - rhodamine B 6.5 25 23-240 -
Aqueous
Rice straw-derived char - Malachite green 5.0 30 25 - 300 148.74 (Hameed & El-Khaiary, 2008)
solution
- - 1.0 20 50-500 384.62
Bamboo biochar - - Acid black 172 Synthetic 1.0 30 50-500 416.67 (Yang et al., 2013)
- - 1.0 40 50-500 434.38
Miscellaneous
PC-300 5.5 - 24 150-1200 39.7
PC-400 64 - 24 150-1200 52.5
PC-500-10m 10 - 24 150-1200 38.9
Pine wood char PC-500-30m - Benzene Synthetic - 24 150-1200 51.0 (Zhou et al., 2010)
PC-500-60m - - 24 150-1200 63.4
PC-500-120m - - 24 150-1200 74.2
PC-500-300m 333 - 24 150-1200 91.1
Buffalo weed biochar BC300 3.98 1-20 -
(Ahmad et al., 2014)
BC700 9.25 trichloroethylene Synthetic 7.0 25 1-20 -
Soybean stover biochar SBC300 5.61 2-20 12.48 (Ahmad et al., 2012)
13

SBC700 420.3 2-20 31.74


PBC300 3.14 2-20 12.12
Peanut shell biochar
PBC700 448.2 2-20 32.02
BC300 4.09 5-50 205.42
Pine needle biochar BC500 13.06 5-50 320.25 (Ahmad et al., 2013)
BC700 390.5 5-50 211.29
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) char - - Benzene Synthetic - 24 - -
(Chun et al., 2004)
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) char - - Nitrobenzene Synthetic - 24 - -
Orange peel biochar
OP250 51.6 - -
Orange peel biochar (Chen et al., 2011a)
OP400 28.1 p-nitrotoluene Synthetic - 25 318 -
Magnetic orange peel biochar MOP250 41.2 - -
Magnetic orange peel biochar MOP400 23.4 - -
14

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