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My value for the round is Morality defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as the

code of conduct put forth by society. In accordance with my value, my standard for the round is
mitigating deontological oppression. According to Kant, treating humans as means to an ends is
immoral which is essentially deontological oppression. Thus, in order to achieve Morality, we
have to reduce this type of oppression.

Link: The plan promotes preservation of jury nullification in the U.S. Criminal Justice System in
order to achieve <<VALUE>> Although, this may sound like the best way to go, whether you
promote or counter jury nullification, the result will still be marginal because the root problem is
the capitalistic motivation behind the Criminal Justice System. Thus, you can never fully achieve
<<VALUE>> unless you reform the CJS which is what Im advocating for.

Impact: Capitalism in the CJS causes decision-makers to make unjust decisions with immoral
ramifications.

C1: PROLIFERATION OF PRIVATIZED PRISONS

Vicky Pelaez. The Prison Industry in the United States: Big Business or a New Form of
Slavery?. Global Research, March 31, 2014. El Diario-La Prensa, New York and Global
Research 10 March 2008. http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-prison-industry-in-the-united-
states-big-business-or-a-new-form-of-slavery/8289

Private Prisons are a Prevalent Issue


The figures show that the United States has locked up more people than any other country:
a half million more than China, which has a population five times greater than the U.S. Statistics reveal that the United States
holds 25% of the worlds prison population, but only 5% of the worlds people. From less than 300,000 inmates in 1972, the
jail population grew to 2 million by the year 2000. In 1990 it was one million. Ten years ago there were only five private prisons
in the country, with a population of 2,000 inmates; now, there are 100, with 62,000 inmates. It is expected that by the coming
decade, the number will hit 360,000, according to reports.

What has happened over the last 10 years? Why are there so many prisoners?

[Answer:] The private contracting of prisoners for work fosters incentives to lock people
up. Prisons depend on this income. Corporate stockholders who make money off
prisoners work lobby for longer sentences, in order to expand their workforce. The system
feeds itself, says a study by the Progressive Labor Party, which accuses the prison
industry of being an imitation of Nazi Germany with respect to forced slave labor and
concentration camps.

The prison industry complex is one of the fastest-growing industries in the United States
and its investors are on Wall Street. This multimillion-dollar industry has its own trade exhibitions, conventions, websites,
and mail-order/Internet catalogs. It also has direct advertising campaigns, architecture companies, construction companies,
investment houses on Wall Street, plumbing supply companies, food supply companies, armed security, and padded cells in a
large variety of colors.
In addition,

Banking on Bondage: Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration. American Civil Liberties
Union (ACLU). May 10 2012. https://www.aclu.org/banking-bondage-private-prisons-and-
mass-incarceration

Today, private prisons are responsible for approximately 6% of state prisoners, 16% of
federal prisoners, and nearly 50% of all immigrants detained by the federal government.
In 2010, the two largest private prison companies alone received nearly $3 billion dollars
in revenue.

Furthermore,

Meteor Blades. Report: Private prison companies boost incarceration rates for profit. Daily
Kos. June 25 2011. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/6/25/988397/-

Private Prisons increase incarceration rates


In order to ensure that they have a stable or increasing market share of incarceration
(and therefore increasing revenue), private prison companies engage in a political game
to influence policy and incarceration. Over the last two decades private prison companies
have developed a three-pronged approach to influence incarceration policy and secure
government contracts. Through campaign contributions, lobbying and building
relationships and associations, private prison companies engage in an aggressive political
strategy to influence criminal justice policies in ways that lead to more people in prison,
and more money in their pockets. ...

One way to do that is to make direct, monetary contributions to political campaigns for
elected officials and specific policies.

How much? In the past couple years, the three biggest companies in the private prison
industry have contributed [$7 million to politicians] ($835,514 to federal candidates and $6,092,331 to
state politicians)

One of the premises of Morality as stated in Kants Categorical Imperative is that humans cannot
whatsoever be treated as a means to an end; in other words, they cant be objectified. However,
the current system condones and facilitates this through opportunist intentions and capitalistic
motivations in which prisoners are subjugated to inhumane conditions so that corporations can
profit through payments by government and penal work. Prisoners essentially become slaves
which is outright immoral. In addition, its unjust because lobbying causes unjust implication of
the law in order to increase profits.
C2: CONDITIONS THAT THESE PRISONERS ARE SUBJUGATED TO ARE
INHUMANE

Alice Ollstein. This is How Bad the Health Care is in Private Prisons. Think Progress. April 8
2015. http://thinkprogress.org/health/2015/04/08/3643636/prison-nurses-california-threaten-
strike/

Inhumane Health Conditions


Hundreds of nurses who work for the for-profit prison health care company Corizon in Alameda County, California are
threatening to go on strike if compan[ies] refuse to put enough nurses on duty and give them
enough resources to adequately care for the thousands of men incarcerated there, especially
after inmates have died on the companys watch.
ThinkProgress spoke this week to one of the jail nurses, who we will identify by the pseudonym Clara because she fears
losing her job. Clara, who works as a Registered Nurse at the jail, described abysmal conditions include[e]
broken or dirty equipment, rushed procedures and severe understaffing.
For example, when inmates are first booked, nurses examine them and ask them about their full medical history. Clara said
Corizons procedures in this phase, designed to save time and money, puts everyone at risk.
The patients come in right off the street. Theyre often under the influence of drugs. You dont know what their mental state
is, she said. Theyve got three nurses seeing three inmates at once in one little cramped room, maybe 15 by 15 feet. So
theres no confidentiality. One inmate is sitting so close he could touch the next one, and were asking them very personal
questions, like if theyre HIV positive. HIPAA [privacy] laws are totally violated there.
In a statement to ThinkProgress, Corizon asserted they meet [their] staffing obligations in Alameda and are very proud of
the skilled and compassionate staff who work in these facilities. While we are not at liberty to discuss ongoing negotiations,
we can assure you we are working closely with our union partners, and share a common goal of providing quality healthcare
to patients, the Corizon Health statement said.
Clara explained that [for example]: Corizon keeps the medical team constantly short-staffed, so
that a single nurse is in charge of more than 20 acute patients at once, all of whom
need to be monitored very closely.
At any other hospital, wed be caring for five at the most, but here its sometimes 23 patients and one nurse. Its unsafe, she
said. Our inmate population is getting older and older and we have a lot of people with hypertension and diabetes, a lot of
dental issues, seizure disorders. And, of course, the drug and alcohol issues that people come in with. Right now were so
severely short-staffed that normally we have a pool of people to call if someone calls off sick, but were now using those
people as full staff. When someone calls off sick, we have no pool to call from.
Clara said one consequence of not having enough nurses on the cell block floor comes every morning with the distribution of
medication.
[One of Corizons nurses says:] Were supposed to give medication to the inmates by 8
a.m., but sometimes they get them as late as 11 a.m., and inmates arent getting seen in a
timely manner.
In addition,

Emily Le Coz. Private Prisons Allegedly Put Inmates in Barbaric Conditions. Huffington
Post. July 31 2013. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/31/private-prison-mississippi-
barbaric-conditions-_n_3362596.html

Inhumane Living Conditions


Inmates in private prisons live under "barbaric" conditions, in filthy quarters without
working lights or toilets, sometimes forced to defecate on Styrofoam trays or into trash
bags, the American Civil Liberties Union and the Southern Poverty Law Center claimed
in a lawsuit.

Beatings, rape, robbery and riots are commonplace, and inmates are denied access to
medication and psychiatric care, the 83-page complaint stated. The privately run prison "is an
extremely dangerous facility operating in a perpetual state of crisis" and inmates' human
rights are violated daily, according to the groups. Some prisoners set fires in desperate
attempts to get medical attention in emergencies, the lawsuit said.

Forcing any person to live in squalid conditions is inhumane and tortuous and consequently
immoral. In fact, Americas CJS is actually a worse form of slavery because prisons have a
proliferating stream of free labor and payment while only having to provide putrid conditions.
Alt: As previously stated, the core issue of the CJS is the capitalism. Thus in order to rectify the
CJS, we have to eliminate this capitalistic motivation from the justice system: All prisons should
thus be government controlled rather than private controlled.

C3: PUBLIC FACILITIES ARE BETTER THAN PRIVATE FACILITIES

Adrian Smith. Private vs. Public Facilities, Is it Cost Effective and Safe? Corrections. June 11
2012. http://www.corrections.com/news/article/30903-private-vs-public-facilities-is-it-cost-
effective-and-safe-

Public Facilities are better than Private Facilities


Evidence suggests that lower staff levels and training at private facilities leads to
increases in incidences of violence and escapes. A nationwide study found that assaults
on guards by inmates were 49 percent more frequent in private prisons than in
government-run prisons. The same study revealed that assaults on fellow inmates were
65 percent more frequent in private prison (Austin, Conventry, 2001). After a complete
analysis on private vs. public run correctional facilities, it was concluded that private run
facilities are no more cost saving effective or safer than a state run facility. A study by
the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics found that the cost-savings promised by private
prisons have simply not materialized. Some research has concluded that for-profit
prisons cost more than public prisons. Furthermore, cost estimates from privatization
advocates may be misleading, because private facilities often refuse to accept inmates
that cost the most to house.

In addition,

Who Benefits When a Private Prison Comes to Town? NPR. November 5 2011.
http://www.npr.org/2011/11/05/142058047/who-benefits-when-a-private-prison-comes-to-
town

Private Prisons have no economic benefit


David Shapiro says its possible a town could reap some small economic benefits from a
private prison, but it may not bring the larger economic boost the county is hoping for.
Thats what the empirical evidence has shown. . .and there are various theories for why
that may be the case, Shapiro tells weekends on All Things Considered guest host Laura Sullivan. The
presence of a prison squeezes out other businesses that could bring greater benefits than
the prison itself, he says. Also, many of the jobs created by a private prison dont actually
go to people in the community. The bigger problem, he says, is that the state and federal
taxpayerswho in the end are paying for these prisonsarent getting the most value
for their money.
Public facilities are clearly better than than private facilities in terms of morality, and
economically and consequently feasibility. Considering the negative magnitude of private
facilities, we ought to to revert all prisons to government controlled. In doing so, we solve for the
inherent injustice and immorality in the status quo.
MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE: The Aff World and the Neg World are mutually exclusive
because jury nullification is the status quo which is what the Aff World promotes. Consequently,
the Aff World promotes the current system which in extent includes the CJS. The Neg on the
other hand completely reforms the system starting with the CJS. Consequently, the two worlds
are mutually exclusive.

To help you contextualize this situation, I offer the following analogy:


Imagine youre building a skyscraper. In order to do so, you first start with the base and build up.
The base is what the Neg World addressesthe Criminal Justice System. The top is what the Aff
World addresseswhether or not jury nullification should be used. If the base is bad, then no
matter what, the skyscraper is bad. Thus reforming the CJS takes priority over jury nullification.
In addition, you cant build the top and the base at the same time. Consequently, Aff and Neg are
mutually exclusive.