ENGINEERING MECHANICS
AM 1 Equilibrium of Forces AM 3
AM 2 Structure AM 40
AM 3 Friction AM 81
AM 4 Virtual Work AM 117
AM 5 Kinematics of Particle AM 128
AM 6 Kinetics of Particles AM 157
AM 7 Plane Kinematics of Rigid body AM 190
AM 8 Plane Kinetics of Rigid body AM 206
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 3
SM 2 Axial Loading SM 41
SM 3 Torsion SM 86
SM 4 Shear Force and Bending Moment SM 118
SM 5 Transformation of Stress and Strain SM 179
SM 6 Design of Beams and Shafts SM 226
SM 7 Deflection of Beams and Shafts SM 270
SM 8 Column SM 315
SM 9 Energy Methods SM 354
THEORY OF MACHINES
TM 1 Analysis of Plane Mechanism TM 3
TM 2 Velocity and Acceleration TM 20
TM 3 Dynamic Analysis of Slider  Crank and Cam TM 38
TM 4 Gear  Trains TM 59
TM 5 Fly Wheel TM 91
TM 6 Vibration TM 109
MACHINES DESIGN
MD 1 Static and Dynamic Loading MD 3
MD 2 Joints MD 22
MD 3 Shaft and Shaft Components MD 54
MD 4 Spur Gears MD 71
MD 5 Bearings MD 88
MD 6 Clutch and Brakes MD 105
CONTENTS VOL 2
FLUID MECHANICS
FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 3
FM 2 Pressure and Fluid Statics FM 33
FM 3 Fluid Kinematics & Bernouli Equation FM 80
FM 4 Flow Analysis Using Control Volumes FM 124
FM 5 Flow Analysis Using Differential Method FM 172
FM 6 Internal Flow FM 211
FM 7 External Flow FM 253
FM 8 Open Channel Flow FM 289
FM 9 Turbo Machinery FM 328
HEAT TRANSFER
HT 1 Basic Concepts & Modes of HeatTransfer HT 3
HT 2 Fundamentals of Conduction HT 34
HT 3 Steady Heat Conduction HT 63
HT 4 Transient Heat Conduction HT 94
HT 5 Fundamentals of Convection HT 114
HT 6 Free and Force Convection HT 129
HT 7 Radiation Heat Transfer HT 155
HT 8 Heat Exchangers HT 181
THERMODYNAMICS
TD 1 Basic Concepts and Energy Analysis TD 3
TD 2 Properties of Pure Substances TD 28
TD 3 Energy Analysis of Closed System TD 52
TD 4 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volume TD 76
TD 5 Second Law of Thermodynamics TD 106
TD 6 Entropy TD 136
TD 7 Gas Power Cycles TD 166
TD 8 Vapor and Combined Power Cycles TD 199
TD 9 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning TD 226
***********
CONTENTS VOL 3
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
OPERATION RESEARCH
CONTENTS VOL 4
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
EM 1 Linear Algebra EM 1
EM 2 Differential Calculus EM 24
EM 3 Integral Calculus EM 46
EM 4 Directional Derivatives EM 67
EM 5 Differential Equation EM 79
EM 6 Complex Variable EM 103
EM 7 Probability and Statistics EM 123
EM 8 Numerical Methods EM 142
VERBAL ANALYSIS
VA 1 Synonyms VA 1
VA 2 Antonyms VA 16
VA 3 Agreement VA 26
VA 4 Sentence Structure VA 37
VA 5 Spellings VA 58
VA 6 Sentence Completion VA 87
VA 7 Word Analogy VA 111
VA 8 Reading Comprehension VA 135
VA 9 Verbal Classification VA 148
VA 10 Critical Reasoning VA 153
VA 11 Verbal Deduction VA 168
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
QA 1 Number System QA 1
QA 2 Surds, Indices and Logarithm QA 14
QA 3 Sequences and Series QA 28
QA 4 Average, Mixture and Alligation QA 44
QA 5 Ratio, Proportion and Variation QA 59
QA 6 Percentage QA 75
QA 7 Interest QA 89
QA 8 Time, Speed & Distance QA 99
QA 9 Time, Work & Wages QA 112
QA 10 Data Interpretation QA 126
QA 11 Number Series QA 145
SOLVED PAPER
SP 1 Engineering Mathematics SP 3
SP 2 Engineering Mechanics SP 65
SP 3 Strength of Materials SP 90
SP 4 Theory of Machines SP 138
SP 5 Machine Design SP 189
SP 6 Fluid Mechanics SP 218
SP 7 Heat Transfer SP 265
SP 8 Thermodynamics SP 303
SP 9 Refrigeration and AirConditioning SP 358
SP 10 Manufacturing Engineering SP 375
SP 11 Industrial Engineering SP 448
SP 12 General Aptitude SP 496
SM 1
STRESS AND STRAIN
SM 1.1 If the ultimate strength (or breaking strength) is 1500 MPa, the greatest length
that it can have without breaking, is
(A) 3950 m (B) 7900 m
(C) 1975 m (D) 790 m
SM 1.2 If the same wire hangs from a ship at sea ( gsea water = 10 kN/m3), the greatest
length is
(A) 8300 m (B) 2075 m
(C) 7500 m (D) 3750 m
SM 1.3 The resultant internal normal and shear forces in the member at section a  a ,
which passes through point A, is
(A) N = 0 , V = 0 (B) N = 50 N , V = 650 N
(C) N = 0 , V = 650 N (D) N = 650 N , V = 0
GATE Mechanical Engineering in 4 Volume NODIA Demo Ebook Page 4
SM 1.4 The resultant internal normal and shear forces in the member at section b  b ,
which passes through point A, is
(A) N = 325 N , V = 563 N (B) N = 650 N , V = 563 N
(C) N = 563 N , V = 325 N (D) N = 325 N , V = 1126 N
SM 1.5 In the figure shown, link BC of 6 mm thickness is made of a steel with a 450 MPa
ultimate strength in tension. If the structure is being designed to support a 20 kN
load P with a factor of safety of 3, its width w should be
SM 1.6 In figure shown, the twomember frame is subjected to the distributed loading.
Member CB has a square cross section of 35 mm on each side and take w = 8 kN/m
. The average normal stress and average shear stress acting at section bb, are
(A) s = 4.41 MPa , t = 5.88 MPa (B) s = 11.76 MPa , t = 4.41 MPa
(C) s = 8.82 MPa , t = 5.88 MPa (D) s = 5.88 MPa , t = 4.41 MPa
SM 1.7 The formula for the allowable load Pallow that the bar can carrying in tension, is
(A) 0.27d 2 # sallow (B) 0.54d 2 # sallow
(C) 0.675d 2 # sallow (D) 0.54d # sallow
SM 1.8 If the bar is made of brass with diameter d = 40 mm and sallow = 80 MPa , the
value of Pallow is
(A) 86.5 kN (B) 70 kN
(C) 172 kN (D) 35 kN
SM 1.10 The column shown in figure, is subjected to an axial force of 8 kN at its top.
What is the average normal stress acting at section a a ?
SM 1.12 A steel bar of length 2.5 m with a square cross section 100 mm on each side is
subjected to an axial tensile force of 1300 kN as shown in figure. The increase in
SM 1.13 If the load P = 50 kN , the largest bearing stress acting on the rivets is
(A) 39 MPa
(B) 156 MPa
(C) 78 MPa
(D) 117 MPa
SM 1.14 If the ultimate shear stress for the rivets is 180 MPa, what force Pu is required to
cause the rivets to fail in shear ? (Disregard friction between the plates.)
(A) 170 kN (B) 57 kN
(C) 226 kN (D) 113 kN
SM 1.15 The small block of 5 mm thickness is shown in figure. If the stress distribution
at the support developed by the load varies as shown, the force F applied to the
block and the distance d to where it is applied, respectively, are
0 < x # 0.5 m , is
SM 1.17 If load P is equal to 10 kN, the average shear stress in the pin is
(A) 15.9 MPa (B) 31.8 MPa
(C) 63.6 MPa (D) 7.95 MPa
SM 1.18 If the wall thickness of the beam is equal to 12 mm, the average bearing stress
between the pin and the box beam will be
(A) 41.7 MPa (B) 125.1 MPa
(C) 83.4 MPa (D) 20.85 MPa
SM 1.19 Rods AB and BC shown in figure, have diameters of 4 mm and 6 mm, respectively.
The vertical load of 8 kN is applied to the ring at B . If the average normal stress
in each rod is equivalent then this stress will be
SM 1.20 For above conditions, the average shear stress taver in the pins will be
(A) 8.9 MPa (B) 6.7 MPa
(C) 13.4 MPa (D) 26.8 MPa
SM 1.21 The average bearing stress sb between the steel plate and the pins is
(A) 22.7 MPa (B) 15.2 MPa
(C) 7.57 MPa (D) 30.3 MPa
SM 1.22 Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as
shown in figure. If the average normal stress must not exceed 150 MPa in either
rod, the smallest allowable values of the diameters d1 and d2 are
SM 1.23 Members AB and AC of the truss as shown, consist of bars of square cross
section made of the same alloy. It is known that a 20 mm square bar of the same
alloy was tested to failure and that an ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If a
factor of safety of 3.2 is to be achieved for both bars, the required dimension of
the cross section of the bar AB is
(A) a = 27 mm (B) a = 12 mm
(C) a = 13.5 mm (D) a = 6 mm
SM 1.24 The two steel members are joined together using a 60c scarf weld as shown in
figure. The average normal and average shear stress resisted in the plane of the
weld are
(A) savg = 8 MPa , tavg = 4.62 MPa (B) savg = 4.62 MPa , tavg = 8 MPa
(C) savg = 4.62 MPa , tavg = 16 MPa (D) savg = 16 MPa , tavg = 4.62 MPa
SM 1.25 A steel pipe of 300 mm outer diameter is fabricated from 6 mm thick plate by
welding along a helix which forms an angle of 25c with a plane perpendicular to
the axis of the pipe. If a 250 kN axial force P is applied to the pipe, the normal
and shearing stresses in directions respectively normal and tangential to the weld
are
(A)  18.5 MPa , 17.28 MPa (B)  37.1 MPa , 34.56 MPa
(C)  18.5 MPa , 34.56 MPa (D)  37.1 MPa , 17.28 MPa
(A) 565 kPa, 206 kPa (B) 282 kPa, 206 kPa
(C) 565 kPa, 103 kPa (D) 282 kPa, 103 kPa
SM 1.27 In the figure shown, the wooden members A and B are to be joined by plywood
splice plates which will be fully glued on the surface in contact. If the clearance
between the ends of the members is to be 8 mm and the average shearing stress
in the glue is not to exceed 800 kPa, the smallest allowable length L will be
SM 1.28 In the figure shown, the frame is subjected to the distributed loading of 2 kN/m.
What is the required diameter of the pins at A and B if the allowable shear stress
for the material is tallow = 100 MPa ? Both pins are subjected to double shear.
SM 1.29 A specially designed wrench is used to twist a circular shaft by means of a square
key that fits into slots (or keyways) in the shaft and wrench as shown in the
figure. The shaft has diameter d, the key has a square cross section of dimensions
b # b and the length of the key is c . The key fits half into the wrench and half
into the shaft (i.e., the keyways have a depth equal to b/2). When a load P is
applied at distance L from the center of the shaft, the formula for the average
shear stress taver in the key is
( Hints : Disregard the effects of friction, assume that the bearing pressure between
the key and the wrench is uniformly distributed)
SM 1.32 The cross section of an aluminium tube serving as a compression brace in the
fuselage of a small airplane is shown in the figure. The outer diameter of the tube
is d = 25 mm and the wall thickness is t = 2.5 mm . If the factors of safety with
respect to the yield stress and the ultimate stress are 4 and 5 respectively, the
allowable compressive force Pallow is
(Take sY = 270 MPa , su = 310 MPa )
SM 1.33 In the figure shown, a long steel wire ( g = 77.0 kN/m3 ) hanging from a balloon
carries a weight W at its lower end. The 4 mm diameter wire is 25 m long. The
tensile yield stress for the wire is sY = 350 MPa and a margin of safety against
yielding of 1.5 is desired. The maximum weight Wmax that can safety be carried is
(Include the weight of the wire in the calculations.)
SM 1.34 What is the smallest dimensions of the circular shaft and circular end cap if
the load it is required to support is P = 150 kN ? The allowable tensile stress,
bearing stress and shear stress is (st) allow = 175 MPa , (sb) allow = 275 MPa and
tallow = 115 MPa .
SM 1.35 The assembly shown in figure, consists of three disks A, B and C are used to
support the load of 140 kN. The allowable bearing stress for the material is
(sb) allow = 350 MPa and allowable shear stress is tallow = 125 MPa . The smallest
diameter d1 of the top disk, the diameter d2 within the support space and the
diameter d 3 of the hole in the bottom disk are
SM 1.37 The bar shown in figure, is held in equilibrium by the pin supports at A and B
. The support at A has a single leaf and therefore it involves single shear in the
pin and the support at B has a double leaf and therefore it involves double shear.
The allowable shear stress for both the pins is tallow = 125 MPa . If x = 1 m and
w = 12 kN/m , the smallest required diameter of pins A and B are (Neglect any
axial force in the bar.)
SM 1.38 Two plates, each 3 mm thick, are used to splice a plastic strip as shown below. If
the ultimate shearing stress of the bonding between the surface is 900 kPa and
P = 1500 N , the factor of safety with respect to shear will be
SM 1.39 The cable shown in figure has a specific weight g (weight/volume) and cross
sectional area A. If the sag s is small, so that its length is approximately L and
its weight can be distributed uniformly along the horizontal axis, the average
normal stress in the cable at its lowest point C is
gL2 gL
(A) s = (B) s =
2s 8s
gL2 gL2
(C) s = (D) s =
8s 4s
SM 1.40 An elastomeric bearing pad consisting of two steel plates bonded to a chloroprene
elastomer, is subjected to a shear force V during a static loading test as shown in
figure. The pad has dimensions a = 150 mm , b = 250 mm and the elastomer has
thickness t = 50 mm . When the force V equals 12 kN, the top plate is found to
have displaced laterally 8.0 mm with respect to the bottom plate.
SM 1.42 If q = 0c, the maximum value of the average normal stress in link BD is
(A) zero (B) 72 MPa
(C) 24 MPa (D) 48 MPa
SM 1.43 If q = 90c, the maximum value of the average normal stress in link BD is
(A) 83 MPa (B) 125 MPa
(C) 42 MPa (D) 44.5 MPa
SM 1.44 The rigid beam AC shown in figure, is supported by a pin at A and wires BD
and CE . If the load P on the beam causes the end C to be displaced 10 mm
downward, the normal strain developed in wires CE and BD are
(A) eCE = 0.00025 , eBD = 0.0107 (B) eCE = 0.0025 , eBD = 0.00107
(C) eCE = 0.025 , eBD = 0.0107 (D) eCE = 0.00107 , eBD = 0.0025
SM 1.45 The rigid beam shown in figure, is supported by a pin at A and wires BD and
CE . If the load P on the beam is displaced 10 mm downward, the normal strain
developed in wires CE and BD are
SM 1.46 A steel pipe is to carry an axial compressive load P = 1200 kN as shown in figure.
A factor of safety of 1.8 against yielding is to be used. If the thickness t of the pipe
is to be oneeighth of its outer diameter, the minimum required outer diameter
d min is (Take sY = 270 MPa )
SM 1.47 If the measured strain is e = 550 # 106 , the shortening d of the bar is
(A) 0.220 mm (B) 2.20 mm
(C) 0.022 mm (D) 1.10 mm
SM 1.48 If the compressive stress in the bar is intended to be 40 MPa, the load P should be
(A) 17.35 kN (B) 34.6 kN
(C) 69.4 kN (D) 52.0 kN
SM 1.51 An elastomeric bearing pad consisting of two steel plates bonded to a chloroprene
elastomer, is subjected to a shear force V during a static loading test as shown in
figure. The pad has dimensions a = 150 mm , b = 250 mm and the elastomer has
thickness t = 50 mm . When the force V equals 12 kN, the top plate is found to
have displaced laterally 8.0 mm with respect to the bottom plate.
SM 1.52 Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists of a rigid member CBD and a
SM 1.53 The average normal strains ex , ey and the shear strain gxy at A are
(A) ex = ey = 0 , gxy = 0.0798 rad
(B) ex = 0 , ey = 0.00319 , gxy = 0.0798 rad
(C) ex = 0.00319 , ey = 0 , gxy = 0.0798 rad
(D) ex = ey = 0.00319 , gxy = 0.0798 rad
SM 1.55 In the figure shown, the bar is originally 300 mm long when it is flat. It is
subjected to a shear strain defined by gxy = 0.02x , where x is in millimeters. It
is distorted into the shape shown, where no elongation of the bar occurs in the x
direction. The displacement Dy at the end of its bottom edge will be
SM 1.57 What is the new length of wire AB after the load is applied ?
(A) 749.51 mm (B) 750.49 mm
(C) 751 mm (D) 749.00 mm
SM 1.58 The plug shown in figure has a diameter of 30 mm and fits within a rigid sleeve
having an inner diameter of 32 mm. Both the plug and the sleeve are 50 mm long.
What is the axial pressure p, that must be applied to the top of the plug to cause
it to contact the sides of the sleeve ? (Take E = 5 MPa , n = 0.45 )
***********
Copyright By Publishers
ISBN 9788192276298
Information contained in this book has been obtained by authors, from sources believes to be
reliable. However, neither Nodia nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any
information herein, and Nodia nor its authors shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or
damages arising out of use of this information. This book is published with the understanding
that Nodia and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render
engineering or other professional services.
MRP 535.00
Authors
SYLLABUS
ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value
theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative,
Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives,
Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchys and Eulers equations, Initial and
boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave
equations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional
probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,Normal
and Binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations Integration
by trapezoidal and Simpsons rule, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
GENERAL APTITUDE
Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,
instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and
data interpretation.
CONTENTS
FLUID MECHANICS
FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 3
FM 2 Pressure and Fluid Statics FM 33
FM 3 Fluid Kinematics & Bernouli Equation FM 80
FM 4 Flow Analysis Using Control Volumes FM 124
FM 5 Flow Analysis Using Differential Method FM 172
FM 6 Internal Flow FM 211
FM 7 External Flow FM 253
FM 8 Open Channel Flow FM 289
FM 9 Turbo Machinery FM 328
HEAT TRANSFER
HT 1 Basic Concepts & Modes of HeatTransfer HT 3
HT 2 Fundamentals of Conduction HT 34
HT 3 Steady Heat Conduction HT 63
HT 4 Transient Heat Conduction HT 94
HT 5 Fundamentals of Convection HT 114
HT 6 Free and Force Convection HT 129
HT 7 Radiation Heat Transfer HT 155
HT 8 Heat Exchangers HT 181
THERMODYNAMICS
TD 1 Basic Concepts and Energy Analysis TD 3
TD 2 Properties of Pure Substances TD 28
TD 3 Energy Analysis of Closed System TD 52
TD 4 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volume TD 76
TD 5 Second Law of Thermodynamics TD 106
TD 6 Entropy TD 136
TD 7 Gas Power Cycles TD 166
TD 8 Vapor and Combined Power Cycles TD 199
TD 9 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning TD 226
***********
FM 1
BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
FM 1.2 What amount of air should be come out to obtain pressure to its original value
at same temperature ?
(A) 0.1812 kg (B) 0.1672 kg
(C) 0.0140 kg (D) 0.3484 kg
FM 1.3 Consider Carbon dioxide at 12 atm and 400cC . What will be the density of
Carbon dioxide and c p at this state and the new pressure when the gas is cooled
isentropically to 150cC ? (For Carbon dioxide k = . and R = m2 s2 )
(A) = 0.797 kg/m3 , c p = 4 . , p2 = kPa
kg
(B) = 1.3 # 104 kg/m3 , c p = , p2 = 5.5 kPa
kg
(C) = 7.97 kg/m3 , c p = , p2 = 5.5 kPa
kg
(D) = 7.97 kg/m3 , c p = , p2 = 5.5 Pa
kg
FM 1.4 A Cane of beverage contains 455 ml of liquid. The mass of cane with liquid is
0.369 kg while an empty cane weighs 0.193 N . What will be the specific weight,
density and specific gravity of liquid respectively ?
(A) 0.977 kN/m3 , 99.6 kg/m3 , 0.0996
(B) 9.77 kN/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 0.996
(C) 9.77 N/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 9.96
(D) 97.7 kN/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 0.996
FM 1.5 The specific gravity of a gas contained in a tank at the temperature of 25cC is
2 # 103 . If the atmospheric pressure is 10.1 kPa, the gage pressure is
(A) 70 kPa (B) 7 kPa
(C) 0.7 kPa (D) 70 kPa
FM 1.6 Consider steam at state near the saturation line : (p1, T1)= (1.31 MPa, 250cC),
Rsteam = 4 m2 s2 and k = . ). If the steam expands isentropically to a new
pressure of 414 kPa, what will be the density 1 and the density 2 ?
(A) 1 = 5.44 kg/m3, 2 = 5.04 kg/m3 (B) 1 = 2.28 kg/m3, 2 = 5.44 kg/m3
(C) 1 = 5.44 kg/m3, 2 = 2.28 kg/m3 (D) 1 = 5.04 kg/m3, 2 = 5.44 kg/m3
FM 1.7 A 30 m3 cylinder contains Hydrogen at 25cC and 200 kPa What amount of
GATE Mechanical Engineering in 4 Volume NODIA Demo Ebook Page 4
Hydrogen must be bled off to maintain the Hydrogen in cylinder at 20cC and
600 kPa ? (R = 0.2968 kPa.m3 /kg.K)
(A) 271.35 kg (B) 206.99 kg
(C) 478.34 kg (D) 64.36 kg
FM 1.8 Wet air with 100% relative humidity, is at 30cC and 1 atm. If Rair = m s
, Rwater = 461 m /s K and vapor pressure of saturated water at 30cC is 4242 Pa,
2 2
what will be the density of this wet air using Daltons law of partial Pressures ?
(A) 1.12 kg/m3 (B) 1.09 kg/m3
(C) 0.03 kg/m3 (D) 1.147 kg/m3
FM 1.9 In a formula one race, at the start of the race the absolute pressure of a car tire is
362.5 kPa and at the end of the race the absolute pressure of car tire is measured
to be 387.5 kPa. If the volume of the tire remains constant at 0.022 m3 then
percentage increase in the absolute temperature of the air in the tire is
(A) 6.9% (B) 69%
(C) 0.69% (D) Not increased
FM 1.11 A small submersible moves in 30cC water ( pv = 4.242 kPa ) at 2m depth, where
ambient pressure is 133 kPa. Its critical cavitation number is Ca . 0.2 . At what
velocity will cavitation bubbles form ?
(A) 22.72 m/s (B) 32.66 m/s
(C) Zero (D) 32.13 m/s
FM 1.12 What will be the speed of sound of steam at 150cC and 400 kpa? (k = 1.33, R =
461 m2 /s2K )
(A) 50.9 m/s (B) 509 m/s
(C) 30.3 m/s (D) 303 m/s
FM 1.13 A liquid has a weight density of 9268 N/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 131.5 N s/m2
FM 1.15 The oil having viscosity of 4.56 # 102 N s/m2 , is contained between two parallel
plates. The bottom plate is fixed and upper plate moves when a force F is
applied. If the distance between the stationary and moving plates is 2.54 mm and
the area of the upper plate is 0.129 m2 , what value of F is required to translate
m2 m
(B) F = :
h2 h D
(A) F = ; h + h2 E VA VA
m m2
m m
(C) F = ; h2 h E VA (D) F = : + 2 D VA
m2 m h h2
FM 1.17 A large movable plate is located between two large fixed plates. Two fluids having
the different viscosities are contained between the plates. If the moving plate has
a velocity of 6 m/sec , what will be the magnitude of the shearing stresses on plate
1 and plate 2 respectively, that act on the fixed plates ?
FM 1.18 A thin flat plate of area A is moved horizontally between two plates, one stationary
and one moving with a constant velocity Vm as shown in figure below. If velocity
of flat plate is Vp and dynamic viscosity of oil is , the force must be applied on
the plate to manage this motion is
V V  Vm
(A) A ; p + p
h2 E
(B) A (Vp  Vm) h2
h1
AVp (V  Vm)
(D) A ; p  p E
V
(C)
h1 h1 h2
FM 1.19 A Newtonian fluid having the specific gravity of 0.91 and Kinematic viscosity of
4 # 104 m2 / sec , flows over a fixed surface. The velocity profile near the surface
FM 1.21 A closed rectangular container is half filled with water at 45cC . If the air in
remaining half section of container is completely escaped. The absolute pressure
in the escaped space at same temperature (saturation pressure of water at 45cC
is9.593 kPa) is
(A) P > Psaturation (B) P < Psaturation
(C) P = Psaturation (D) Not determined
FM 1.22 Consider two parallel plates as shown in figure below. If the fluid is glycerin (
= 1264 kg/m3 , = 1.5 Ns/m2 ) and the distance between plates is 9 mm. What
will be the shear stress required to move the upper plate at V = m s and the
Reynolds number respectively ?
FM 1.23 The velocity profile in a pipe flow is given by u = u ( rn Rn), where r is the
radial distance from the centre. If the viscosity of the fluid is then the drag
force applied by the fluid on the pipe wall in the direction of flow across length L
(A) nu L (B) nu R
(C) 2nu 0 L (D) 2nu 0
FM 1.24 Consider air at 20cC with = 1.8 # 105 Pa  s . Its viscosity at 400C by (a) The
Powerlaw (n=0.7) (b) the sutherland law (S = 110 K) respectively, are
(A) p = . 1 # 10  s, s = 1. # 10

s
(B) p = . 1 # 10  s, s = . # 10

s
 
(C) p = . # 10  s, s = . 1 # 10 s
FM 1.25 Consider a block of mass m slides down on an inclined plane of a thin oil film
as shown in figure below. The film contact area is A and its thickness is h . The
terminal velocity V of the block is
gh
(A) U = h sin a (B) U =
gm m sin a
gh sin a gh
(C) U = (D)U =
m m sin a
FM 1.28 Match List I (Properties of fluids) with List II (Definition/ Result) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below :
ListI ListII
a. Ideal fluid 1. Viscosity does not vary with rate of deformation
b. Newtonian fluid 2. Fluid of zero viscosity
c. / 3. Dynamic viscosity
d. Mercury in glass 4. Capillary depression
5. Kinematic viscosity
6. Capillary rise
Codes
a b c d
(A) 1 2 4 6
(B) 1 2 3 4
(C) 2 1 3 6
(D) 2 1 5 4
FM 1.29 Match List I (Fluid properties) with List II (Related terms) and select the correct
answer using the codes given below :
ListI ListII
a. Capillarity 1. Cavitation
b. Vapour pressure 2. Density of water
c. Viscosity 3. Shear forces
d. Specific gravity 4. Surfaces Tension
Codes
a b c d
(A) 1 4 2 3
(B) 1 4 3 2
(C) 4 1 2 3
(D) 4 1 3 2
FM 1.30 The hydrogen bubbles have diameter D  . 1 mm . Assume an airwater
interface at 30cC and surface tension = 0.0712 N/m . What will be the excess
pressure within the bubble ?
(A) 1.42 kPa (B) 2.85 kPa
(C) 28.5 kPa (D) 14.2 kPa
FM 1.31 The surface tension in a rain drop of 3 mm diameter is 7.3 # 102 N/m . The
FM 1.32 A shower head emits a cylindrical water jet of diameter 0.73 mm into air. The
pressure inside the jet is approximately 300 Pa greater than the air pressure.
What will be the surface tension of water ?
(A) 0.0365 N/m (B) 0.73 N/m
(C) 0.365 N/m (D) 0.073 N/m
FM 1.33 A thin wire ring of 6 cm diameter is lifted from a 20cC water surface. How much
lift force is required if = 0.0728 N/m ?
(A) 0.274 N (B) 0.0274 N
(C) 0.137 N (D) 0.0137 N
FM 1.34 A 4 mm diameter glass tube is immersed in water and mercury. The temperature
of the liquid is 20cC and the values of the surface tension of water and mercury
at 20cC in contact with air are 0.0734 N/m and 0.51 N/m, respectively. The
angle of contact for water is zero and that for mercury is 128c. What will be the
capillary effect for water and mercury in millimeters, respectively ?
(A) 4.60, 3.82 (B) 2.35, 7.48
(C) 3.82, 4.60 (D) 7.48, 2.35
FM 1.35 The system shown in figure below is used to estimate the pressure inside the
tank by measuring the height of liquid in the 1 mm diameter tube. The fluid is
at 60cC . What will be the capillary rise if the fluid is (a) water ( = 0.0662 N/m
, = 983 kg/m2 , , 0c) and (b) Mercury ( = 0.47 N/m , = 13500 kg/m3 ,
, 130c) ?
FM 1.36 A glass tube of 4.6 mm diameter is inserted into milk and milk rises upto 3.5
mm in the tube. If the density of milk is 960 kg/m3 and contact angle is 15c, the
surface tension of milk is
(A) 0.2315 N/m (B) 0.025 N/m
(C) 0.0236 N/m (D) 0.02315 N/m
FM 1.37 A liquid film suspended on a rectangle wire frame of one movable side of 12 cm.
What amount of surface tension is required if the movable side of frame is to be
moved with 0.018 N ?
(A) 0.075 N/m (B) 0.00432 N/m
(C) 0.055 N/m (D) 0.75 N/m
FM 1.38 In figure shown, a vertical concentric annulus with outer radius ro and inner
radius ri is lowered into the fluid of surface tension and contact angle < 45c
. If the gap is very narrow, what will be the expression for the capillary rise h in
the annulus gap ?
FM 1.40 The power required at the top surface to maintain this motion is
2 D3 2 D 4
(A) (B)
24h 32h
2 D 4 2 D 2
(C) (D)
4h 16h
FM 1.41 The reduction in power required at the top surface when oil viscosity is 0.0078 Pa s
at 80cC , will be
(A) 5.29 W (B) 67.824 W
(C) 62.533 W (D) No reduction
FM 1.42 A fluid of surface tension = 0.0728 N/m and contact angle = 0c is filled
between 0.75 mm apart two parallel plates as shown in figure. If the density of
fluid is = 998 kg/m3 , the capillary height h will be
(A) 2 mm (B) 10 mm
(C) 20 mm (D) 1 mm
FM 1.43 A 56 kg block slides down on a smooth inclined plate. A gap of 0.1 mm between
the block and plate contains oil having viscosity 0.4 N s/m2 . If the velocity
distribution in the gap is linear and the area of the block in contact with the oil
is 0.4 m2 , the terminal velocity of the block is
(A) 0.03125 m/s (B) 0.3125 m/s
(C) 3.125 m/s (D) 0.03125 mm/s
FM 1.44 Two 50 cm long concentric cylinders are mounted on a shaft. The inner cylinder is
completely submerged in fluid and is rotating at 200 rpm and the outer cylinder
is fixed. The fluid film thickness between two cylinders is 0.12 cm and outer
diameter of the inner cylinder is 20 cm. If the torque transmitted by the shaft to
rotate inner cylinder is 0.8 N, the viscosity of the fluid is
FM 1.45 A layer of water having the viscosity of 1.2 # 103 N s/m2 flows down on inclined
fixed surface with the velocity distribution as given by:
u = y y
U h h
If the velocity of water U = m sec and h = m , what will be the magnitude
of the shearing stress that the water exerts on the fixed surface in N/m2 ?
FM 1.46 A 2.5 mm diameter aluminum sphere ( = 2700 kg/m3 ) falls into an oil of density
875 kg/m3 . If the time to fall 75 cm is 48 s then the oil viscosity is
(A) 0.0589 kg/m s
(B) 0.589 kg/m s
(C) 0.397 kg/m s
(D) 0.0397 kg/m s
FM 1.47 Consider a concentric shaft fixed axially and rotates inside the sleeve. If the shaft
of radius ri rotates at rad/s inside the sleeve of radius r0 and length L and
the applied Torque is T, what will be the relation for the viscosity of the fluid
between shaft and sleeve ?
2T (ri  r0) T( 0  )
(A) = (B) =
r i L 2 03
T( 0  ) T( 0 + )
(C) = (D) =
2 3 2 3
FM 1.48 The velocity profile for laminar onedimensional flow through a circular pipe is
given as u (r) = u max ( r2 R2), where R is the radius of the pipe and r is the
radial distance from the centre of the pipe. If an oil at 40cC flows through a 15 m
long pipe with R = 0.0 m and maximum velocity of u max = m s , what will
be the friction drag force applied by the fluid on inner surface of the pipe when
= 0.0010 kg/m  s ?
FM 1.49 A 1 m diameter cylindrical tank has a length of 5 m long and weight 125 N. If it
is filled with a liquid having a specific weight of 10.9 kN/m3 , the vertical force
required to give the tank an upward acceleration of 2.75 m/ sec2 is
(A) 550 kN (B) 55 N
(C) 5.5 N (D) 55 kN
FM 1.50 A cylindrical rod of diameter D , length L and density s falls due to gravity
inside a tube of diameter Do . The clearance, (Do D) << D is filled with a film
of viscous fluid (, ).The expression for terminal fall velocity would be
D (Do D) rs gD (Do + D)
(A) V = rs g (B) V =
m m
r g (Do D) r gD (D Do)
(C) V = s (D) V = s
m m
FM 1.51 The belt as shown in figure below moves at steady velocity of 2.5 m/s and skims
the top of a tank of oil SAE 30 W ( = 0.29 kg/m s) at 20cC with L = m ,
b = 0 cm and h = cm . What power P in watts is required to remain belt in
motion ?
FM 1.52 Two balls of Steel and Aluminum can float on water due to surface tension effect.
The density of steel and aluminium balls are to be 7800 kg/m3 and 2700 kg/m3 ,
respectively. Which metal ball would have maximum diameter to float on water
at 20cC and what will be the diameter of that ball when surface tension of water
at 20cC is 0.073 N/m ?
(A) steel, 4.1 mm (B) Aluminium, 2.4 mm
(C) Aluminium, 4.1 mm (D) Steel, 2.4 mm
FM 1.53 For a coneplate viscometer of radius R = cm , the angle = 3c and the gap is
filled with liquid as shown in figure. If the viscous torque T = . and rotation
rate is 94.2 rad/s, the liquid viscosity will be
FM 1.54 A solid cone of base r0 and initial angular velocity 0 is rotating inside a conical
seat as shown in figure below. If there is no applied torque and air drag is
5r 03 t
(A) = 0 exp ; 3mh sin (B) = 0 exp ;
5r 0 t E
3
3mh sin E
5r 04 t 5r 02 t
(C) = 0 exp ;
3mh sin E
(D) = 0 exp ;
3mh sin E
FM 1.55 The rotatingcylinder viscometer as shown in figure below shears the fluid in a
narrow clearance R = (r  R) with a linear velocity distribution in the gap. If
the driving torque measured is T and the bottom friction is included then the
expression for is
T (r  R) (  )
(A) = (B) =
R (L + R ) 2 3 ( + /4)
(  ) (  )
(C) = (D) =
2 ( + /4)
2
2 3 (  /4)
FM 1.56 For a 300 mm long sliding lubricated bearing, the viscosity of oil is 0.008 kg/m s
during steady operation at 80cC . The average oil film thickness between the shaft
and journal is 1.2 mm. If shaft of 80 mm diameter is rotated at 750 rpm, the
amount of torque needed to overcome bearing friction would be
(A) 0.0063 N m (B) 0.063 Nm
(C) 0.63 N m (D) 6.3 N m
FM 1.59 A skater of mass m moving at constant speed Vo , suddenly stands stiff with skates
pointed directly forward and allows herself to coast to a stop. If blade length is L
, water film thickness h , water viscosity and blade width is b then how far will
she travel (on two blades) before she stops ?
mLb
(A) x = Vo mh (B) x =
mLb Vo mh
mLb
(C) x = Vo mh (D)x =
mLb Vo mh
FM 1.60 Two thin flat plates are tilted at an angle and placed in a tank of surface
tension and contact angle as shown in figure below. At the free surface of the
liquid in the tank, the distance between two plates are L and width is b into the
paper. What will be the expression for in terms of other variables ?
***********
SOLUTIONS
r
Specific gravity S.G = = =
rwater
FM 1.5 Option (D) is correct.
We have S .G . = # , T = c = ( + )= , patm. = a
Density of gas = S.G. # Density of ater
= 2 # 103 # 1000 = 2 kg/m3
From gas equation p = rRT
= 2 # 287 # 298 = 171 kPa (absolute pressure)
Also pabsolute = patmospheric + pgage
pgage = 171 101 = 70 kPa
(a) He =
pHe
= #( )
=
RHe T #
pair
(b) air = = =
Rair # T #
Then the respective gas weights are
WHe = rHe gv = # # =
Wair = rair gv = # # =
Weight W = m#g = # = N
and Fshear = ts As
= mA s V = ( . ) # ( . # . ) # .
y
#
Fshear = 0.9 N
(F sin 20c + W)
Equation (ii) gives FN = shear
cos 20c
= 0.9 # sin 20c + 150 = 159.95 N
cos 20c
By substituting the value of Fshear and FN in equation (i),we get
F = Fshear cos c + FN sin c
= 0.9 # cos 20c + 159.95 # sin 20c = 55.55 N
T0 293
(b) From the sutherland law
In equilibrium condition
Fx = W sin = t#l# b=
mg sin = t#l
vg sin = t#l m = rV
vg sin = t#l =
g g
# l # h # sin = t # l
= gh sin a ...(i)
From the Newtons law of viscosity, shear stress at the plate ( = 0)
Uy mU
= m c du m = m; U E = ...(ii)
dy y = h h y= h
From equation (i) and (ii), we get
U
= gh sin a
h
g 2 sin a
U =
2m
FM 1.27 Option (A) is correct.
Assuming a linear velocity distribution in the clearance, the force is balanced by
resisting shear stress in the oil.
F = tAwall = b m V l # (pDi L)
DR
mVpDi L
F = ...(i)
R Ri
For the given oil
= rn = ( #r )#n
h = 4 # 0.0734 cos 0c
1000 # 9.81 # 4 # 103
= 7.48 # 103 m = 7.48 mm
Capillary effect for mercury
We have = 960 kg/m3, D = . mm = . # m
3
R = D = 3.8 # 10 = 1.9 # 103 m
2
h = . mm = 0.0025 m, contact angle = 15c
The surface tension of milk
rgRh 3 3
milk = = 960 # 9.81 # 1.9 # 10 # 2.5 # 10
2 cos f 2 # cos 15c
= 0.02315 N/m
We have b = cm , = 0.12 m, F = .
From the surface tension force relation,
s = F = 0.018 = 0.075 N/m
2b 2 # (0.12)
The needle dents the surface downward and the surface tension forces are
upward as shown in figure. Then a vertical force balance gives:
Vertical forces = Weight of needle
2 cos # L = rg p D # L
2 cos = rg pD
2 = rg pD = 0c " cos 0c = 1
Torque dT = rdF = m wr dA
h
mw
T =
h
r dA #
A
The shaft power required at top surface is
mw
Pshaft, top = wT = w #
h A
r dA #
mw
=
h #r
A
dA ...(i)
pmw D
pmw r D = pmw D
2 4
=
h # r dr =
h # : D 32h
r= r=
FM 1.41 Option (C) is correct.
By putting the value in expression of shaft power at top (20cC),
pmw 2 D 4 3.14 # (0.1) # (200) 2 # (0.12) 4
Pshaft, top = =
32h 32 # (0.0012)
= 67.824 W
The power is proportional to viscosity. Thus the power required at 80cC is
m
Pshaft, top, cC = 80cC # Pshaft, top, 20cC
m20cC
= 0.0078 # 67.824 = 5.29 W
0.1
Therefore, the reduction in the required power input at 80cC is
Pshaft, top, cC Pshaft, top, cC = 67.824 5.29
= 62.533 W
FM 1.42 Option (C) is correct
With b the width of the plates into the paper, the capillary forces on each wall
together balance the weight of fluid held above the free surface.
Weight of fluid = Surface tension force
g # ( . ) # h # b = 2 # (sb cos q)
or h = s cos q
rg # ( . )
= 2 # 0.0728 # cos 0c , 0.020 m = 20 mm
998 # 9.81 # (0.00075)
In equilibrium condition
Fx = 0 W sin c = tA
mg sin c = m #V A y = film thickness
y
mgy sin c
V = W = mg
m#A
4
= 10 # 10 # 10 # 0.5 = 0.03125 m/ sec
0.4 # 0.4
FM 1.44 Option (A) is correct.
We have L= cm = m, N = rpm, h = . cm = . m
D = cm, R = = . cm = . m, T = .
Torque transmitted by the shaft
mw pmwR L
T = # R # pRL = ...(i)
h h
and = 2pN = 2 # p # 200 = 20.94 rad/s
60 60
From equation (i),we get
= T # 3h =
0.8 # (0.0012)
2pwR L 2 # 3.14 # 20.94 # (0.075) 3 # 1
= 0.0173 N s/m2
6
= (2700 875) # 9.81 # p # (0.0025) 3 = 1.46 # 104 N
6
Then from equation (i),we get
^1.46 # 104h # 48
= = 0.397 kg/m s
3 # p # (0.0025) # (0.75)
s g # v = ;m V
(Do D) /2 E #
pDL
mVpDL
s g # D # L =
(Do D) /2
r gD (Do D)
V = s
8m
GATE MCQ Mechanical Engineering (4volumes)
by NODIA and COMPANY
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GATE Mechanical Engineering in 4 Volume NODIA Demo Ebook Page 29
D = ss
rg
#
=
3mr 0 # 2h sin q 0
2 dt #
5pmr 02 t
= w0 exp ;
3mh sin q E
or
2pwmR 4
=
4DR
pwmR L pwmR
Ttotal = +
DR DR
= T DR
2pwR3 (L + R/4)
T (r R)
=
2pwR3 (L + R/4)
FM 1.56 Option (B) is correct.
We have L= mm = . m, = 0.008 kg/m.s, t film = . mm = . m
D = mm = . m, N = rpm
mw
Torque is given by T = R Area
t film # #
mwR pmwR L
T = pRL = As = pRL
t film # t film
pm ( pN ) # R L
T = = 2N
t film 60
4p2 mNR3 L
T =
60 # t film
pa + s r p pa + s r p pa + s r p
; RT E # 9 D C + ; RT E # 9 D C = ; RT E # 9 D C
P Pa = s
R
The temperature cancels out, and we may clean up and rearrange as follows
pa D + sD = (pa D 23 + 8sD 22) + (pa D 13 + 8sD 12)
The skate bottom and the melted ice are like two parallel plates.
= mV
h
mVLb
F = tA =
h
Using F = ma to find the stopping distance
mVLb
Fx = F = = max = m dV The 2 is for two blades
h dt
Separate and integrate once to find the velocity
V
dV = t mLb dt
V
#o
V mh #
2mLb
or log e :V D = t
Vo mh
2mLb
or V = Vo e mh t
Integrate once again to find distance
2mLb
# Vdt = #
3 3
x = Vo e mh
t
dt
= Vo mh
2mLb
FM 1.60 Option (C) is correct
Consider the right side of the liquid column, the surface tension acts tangent to
the local surface that is along the dashed line at right. This force has magnitude
F = sb as shown. Its vertical component is F cos (  ) as shown. There are two
plates, therefore the total vertical force on the liquid column is
Fvertical = 2sb cos (q f)
Then the vertical force holds up the entire weight of liquid column between
plates, which is
W = rgbh (L h tan f)
Set W equal to F, we get
2 cos (  ) = rgbh (L h tan f)
r ( tan f)
or =
2 cos (q f)
***********
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