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24

RAY OPTICS AND


OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
9. The image formed by a concave mirror is
FACT/DEFINITION TYPE QUESTIONS
(a) always real
1. Electromagnetic radiation belonging to _________ region (b) always virtual
of spectrum is called light. (c) certainly real if the object is virtual
(a) 100 nm to 400 nm (b) 400 nm to 750 nm (d) certainly virtual if the object is real
(c) 750 nm to 10 nm (d) 1000 nm to 1400 nm 10. In image formation from spherical mirrors, only paraxial rays
are considered because they
2. The turning back of light into the same medium after incident
(a) are easy to handle geometrically
on a boundary separating two media is called
(b) contain most of the intensity of the incident light
(a) reflection of light (b) refraction of light (c) form nearly a point image of a point source
(c) dispersion of light (d) interference of light (d) show minimum dispersion effect
3. A point source of light is placed in front of a plane mirror. Then 11. For reflection through spherical surfaces, the normal at
(a) all the reflected rays meet at a point when produced the point of incidence is
backward (a) perpendicular to the principle axis and passes through
(b) only the reflected rays close to the normal meet at a the centre of curvature
point when produced backward. (b) perpendicular to the focal plane and passes through
(c) only the reflected rays making a small angle with the the pole.
mirror, meet at a point when produced backward. (c) perpendicular to the tangent plane at pole and passes
(d) light of different colours make different images. through the focus.
4. The field of view is maximum for (d) perpendicular to the tangent plane at the point of
(a) plane mirror (b) concave mirror incidence and passes through the centre of curvature.
(c) convex mirror (d) cylindrical mirror n2 n1 n2 - n1
12. The equation - = holds true for
5. A virtual image larger than the object can be obtained by v u R
(a) concave mirror (b) convex mirror (a) only concave mirror
(c) plane mirror (d) concave lens (b) only convex mirror
6. An object is placed 40 cm from a concave mirror of focal (c) both concave and convex mirror
length 20 cm. The image formed is (d) any type of reflecting surface
(a) real, inverted and same in size 13. Which of the following (referred to a spherical mirror)
(b) real, inverted and smaller depends on whether the rays are paraxial or not?
(c) virtual, erect and larger (a) Pole (b) Focus
(d) virtual, erect and smaller (c) Radius of curvature (d) Principal axis
7. All of the following statements are correct except 14. Which of the following is correct for the beam which
(a) the magnification produced by a convex mirror is enters the medium?
(a) Travel as a cylindrical beam
always less than one
(b) Diverge
(b) a virtual, erect, same-sized image can be obtained using
(c) Converge
a plane mirror (d) Diverge near the axis and converge near the periphery
(c) a virtual, erect, magnifield image can be formed using 15. When light is refracted into a medium,
a concave mirror (a) its wavelength and frequency both increase
(d) a real, inverted, same-sized image can be formed using (b) its wavelength increases but frequency remains
a convex mirror. unchanged
8. A person is six feet tall. How tall must a plane mirror be if he (c) its wavelength decreases but frequency remains
is able to see his entire length? unchanged
(a) 3 ft (b) 4.5 ft (c) 7.5 ft (d) 6 ft (d) its wavelength and frequency both decrease
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16. When light is refracted, which of the following does not (c) The height measured normal to the principal axis
change ? upwards is positive
(a) Wavelength (b) Frequency (d) The magnification for virtual image formed by a
(c) Velocity (d) Amplitude concave lens is negative
17. If the light moving in a straight line bends by a small but
25. The apparent flattening of the sun at sunset and sunrise
fixed angle, it may be a case of
is due to
(a) reflection (b) refraction
(c) diffraction (d) both (a) & (b) (a) refraction
18. Total internal reflection can take place only if (b) diffraction
(a) light goes from optically rarer medium (smaller (c) total internal reflection
refractive index) to optically denser medium (d) interference
(b) light goes from optically denser medium to rarer 26. The speed of light in an isotropic medium depends on
medium (a) the nature of the source
(c) the refractive indices of the two media are close to (b) its wavelength
different (c) its direction of propagation
(d) the refractive indices of the two media are widely (d) its intensity
different 27. A parallel beam of light is incident on a converging lens
19. The difference between reflection and total internal parallel to its principal axis. As one moves away from the
reflection is that lens on the other side on its principal axis, the intensity
(a) the laws of reflection hold true for reflection but not of light
for total internal reflection. (a) remains constant
(b) total internal reflection can take place only when light (b) continuously increases
travels from a rarer medium to a denser medium while (c) continuously decreases
reflection can take place vice-versa also. (d) first increases then decreases
(c) reflection can take place when light travels from a 28. The rays of different colours fail to converge at a point
rarer medium to denser medium and vice-versa but after going through a converging lens. This defect is called
total internal reflection can take place only when it (a) spherical aberration (b) distortion
travels from an optically denser to an optically rarer (c) coma (d) chromatic aberration
medium. 29. What causes chromatic aberration?
(d) reflection is a natural phenomena while total internal (a) Marginal rays
reflection is man-made. (b) Central rays
20. When the angle of incidence of a light ray is greater than (c) Difference in radii of curvature of its surfaces
the critical angle it gets
(d) Variation of focal length of lens with colour
(a) critically refracted
30. The focal length of a converging lens are fV and fR for
(b) totally reflected
(c) total internally reflected violet and red light respectively. Then
(d) totally refracted (a) fV > fR
21. Which of the following phenomena is used in optical fibres ? (b) fV = fR
(a) Total internal reflection (c) fV < fR
(b) Scattering (d) any of the three is possible depending on the value of
(c) Diffraction the average refractive index m
(d) Refraction 31. A narrow beam of white light goes through a slab having
22. Critical angle of light passing from glass to water is minimum parallel faces
for (a) the light never splits in different colours
(a) red colour (b) green colour
(b) the emergent beam is white
(c) yellow colour (d) violet colour
(c) the light inside the slab is split into different colours
23. Which of the following is not due to total internal reflection?
(a) Working of optical fibre (d) the light inside the slab is white
(b) Difference between apparent and real depth of pond 32. Chromatic aberration in a lens is caused by
(c) Mirage on hot summer days (a) reflection (b) interference
(d) Brilliance of diamond (c) diffraction (d) dispersion
24. Identify the wrong sign convention 33. Which of the following is Lens makers formula?
(a) The magnification for virtual image formed by a convex m2 m1 m2 -m1 1 1 1
(a) = = (b) - =
lens is positive v u R v u R
(b) The magnification for real image formed by a convex 1 1 1 1 1 1
lens is negative (c) = + (d) f = ( m - 1) R - R
f v u 1 2
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34. The angular dispersion produced by a prism (c) Random.


(a) increases if the average refractive index increases (d) White and dark alternatively
(b) increases if the average refractive index decreases 44. Which light rays undergoes two internal reflection inside
(c) remains constant whether the average refractive index a raindrop, which of the rainbow is formed?
increases or decreases (a) Primary rainbow (b) Secondary rainbow
(d) has no relation with average refractive index. (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Cant say
35. If a glass prism is dipped in water, its dispersive power 45. In secondary rainbow what is the order of colours observed
(a) increases from earth?
(b) decreases (a) Violet innermost, red outermost.
(c) does not change (b) Red innermost, violet outer most.
(d) may increase or decrease depending on whether the (c) Random.
angle of the prism is less than or greater than 60 (d) White and dark alternatively.
36. If D is the deviation of a normally falling light beam on a 46. Identify the mismatch in the following
thin prism of angle A and d is the dispersive power of the (a) Myopia - Concave lens
same prism then (b) For rear view - Concave mirror
(a) D is independent of A. (c) Hypermetropia - Convex lens
(b) D is independent of refractive Index. (d) Astigmatism - Cylindrical lens
(c) d is independent of refractive index. 47. Astigmatism is corrected using
(d) d is independent of A. (a) cylindrical lens (b) plano-convex lens
37. When white light enters a prism, it gets split into its (c) plano-concave lens (d) convex lens
constituent colours. This is due to 48. The focal length of a normal eye-lens is about
(a) high density of prism material (a) 1 mm (b) 2 cm
(b) because m is different for different wavelength (c) 25 cm (d) 1 m
(c) diffraction of light 49. A normal eye is not able to see objects closer than 25 cm
(d) velocity changes for different frequency because
38. Yellow light is refracted through a prism producing minimum (a) the focal length of the eye is 25 cm
deviation. If i1 and i2 denote the angle of incidence and (b) the distance of the retina from the eye-lens is 25 cm
emergence for this prism, then
(c) the eye is not able to decrease the distance between
(a) i1 = i2 (b) i1 > i2
the eye-lens and the retina beyond a limit
(c) i1 < i2 (d) i1 + i2 = 90
(d) the eye is not able to decrease the focal length beyond
39. By properly combining two prisms made of different
materials, it is not possible to have a limit
(a) dispersion without average deviation 50. The image formed by an objective of a compound
(b) deviation without dispersion microscope is
(c) both dispersion and average deviation (a) real and diminished (b) real and enlarged
(d) neither dispersion nor average deviation (c) virtual and enlarged (d) virtual and diminished
40. When the incidence angle is equal to the angle of 51. An astronomical telescope has a large aperture to
emergence of light from the prism the refracted ray inside (a) reduce spherical aberration
the prism (b) have high resolution
(a) becomes parallel to the right face of prism (c) increases span of observation
(b) becomes perpendicular to the base of prism (d) have low dispersion
(c) becomes parallel to the base of prism 52. To increase the angular magnification of a simple
(d) becomes perpendicular to the left face of prism microscope, one should increase
41. The dispersive power of a prism depends on its (a) the focal length of the lens
(a) shape (b) the power of the lens
(b) size (c) the aperture of the lens
(c) angle of prism (d) the object size
(d) refractive index of the monitorial of the prism 53. In which of the following the final image is erect ?
42. The angle of prism is 60 and angle of deviation is 30. (a) Simple microscope
In the position of minimum deviation, the values of angle (b) Compound microscope
of incidence and angle of emergence are: (c) Astronomical telescope
(a) i = 45; e = 50 (b) i = 30; e = 45 (d) None of these
(c) i = 45; e = 45 (d) i = 30; e = 30 54. Resolving power of a telescope increases with
43. In primary rainbow what is the order of colours observed (a) increase in focal length of eye-piece
from earth ? (b) increase in focal length of objective
(a) Violet innermost, red outermost. (c) increase in aperture of eye piece
(b) Red innermost, violet outermost. (d) increase in apeture of objective
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55. An experiment is performed to find the refractive index of 62. If i = angle of incidence and r = angle of refraction, then
glass using a travelling microscope. In this experiment sin i
the ratio
distances are measured by sin r
(a) a vernier scale provided on the microscope I. is a constant for a pair of media.
(b) a standard laboratory scale II. is called refractive index of medium 2 with respect to
(c) a meter scale provided on the microscope medium 1.
(d) a screw gauge provided on the microscope III. is called absolute refractive index of medium 2.
56. If the focal length of objective lens is increased then IV. varies with temperature.
magnifying power of : (a) I, II and III (b) II, III and IV
(a) microscope will increase but that of telescope (c) I, II and IV (d) I, III and IV
decrease. 63. Which of the following is/are correct relations?
(b) microscope and telescope both will increase. 1
(c) microscope and telescope both will decrease I. n21 = II. n32 = n31 n12
n12
(d) microscope will decrease but that of telescope
n 1a n 2a
increase. III. n21 = IV. n21 = n
57. The light gathering power of an astronomical telescope n 2a 1a
depends upon (a) I, II and IV (b) I, III and IV
(a) length of tube (b) focal length of objective (c) II, III and IV (d) I, II, III and IV
(c) area of eye-piece (d) area of objective 64. Which of the following statements is/are correct about a
58. The objective of a telescope must be of large diameter in convex lens?
order to I. Convex lens is converging for light for all wavelengths.
(a) remove chromatic aberration II. For virtual object, the image is also virtual.
(b) remove spherical aberration and high magnification III. For real object, the image is always real.
(c) gather more light and for high resolution (a) I and II (b) II and III (c) I and III (d) Only I
(d) increase its range of observation 65. Sunlight reaches to us in composite form and not in its
constituent colours because
STATEMENT TYPE QUESTIONS I. vacuum is nondispersive.
II. speed of all colours is same in vacuum.
59. Which of the following statements about laws of III. light behaves like a particle in vacuum.
reflection is/are correct? IV. light travels in a straght line in vacuum.
I. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all (a) I and II (b) II and III (c) III and IV(d) I and IV
66. Which of the following statements is/are incorrect?
lie in the same plane.
I. At sunset or sunrise, the suns rays have to pass
II. Angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. through a small distance in the atmosphere.
III. After reflection, velocity, wavelength and frequency II. At sunset or sunrise, the suns rays have to pass
of light remains same but intensity decreases. through a larger distance in the atmosphere.
(a) I only (b) II only III. Rayleigh scattering which is proportional to (1/l)2.
(c) I and II (d) I, II and III (a) I and II (b) I and III
60. A convex mirror is used to form the image of an object. (b) II and III (d) I, II and III
Then which of the following statements is/are true?
I. The image lies between the pole and the focus MATCHING TYPE QUESTIONS
II. The image is diminished in size 67. Match the Column-I and Column-II
III. The image is real Column I Column II
(a) I only (b) II only (A) An object is placed at focus (1) Magnification is
(c) I and III (d) I and II before aconvex mirror
61. In case of reflection over spherical surface, which of (B) An object is placed at centre (2) Magnification is 0.5
these are correct ? of curvature before a concave
I. Normal is taken as perpendicular of tangent at point mirror
of incidence. (C) An object is placed at focus (3) Magnification is +1
before a concave mirror
II. Perpendicular to incident ray which is perpendicular
(D) An object is placed at centre (4) Magnification is 1
to plane of incident ray.
of curvature before a convex
III. Line joining centre of curvature of mirror with point mirror
of incidence. (5) Magnification is 0.33
IV. Line joining centre of curvature and pole of curved (a) (A) (2); (B) (3); (C) (4); (D) (5)
surface. (b) (A) (5); (B) (4); (C) (3); (D) (1)
(a) I and II (b) I and III (c) (A) (2); (B) (4); (C) (1); (D) (5)
(c) II and III (d) II and IV (d) (A) (3); (B) (5); (C) (2); (D) (4)
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68. Match the columns I and II 71. For an object placed in front of a mirror, magnification (m)
Column I Column II is given in Column I, Column II gives the possible nature
of the mirror or that of image. Match appropriately.
Column I Column II
1
(A) (1) Planoconvex (A) m = (1) Concave mirror
4
(B) m = 1 (2) Convex mirror
(C) m = 2 (3) Plane mirror
(D) m = 1 (4) Real
(a) (A) (2); (B) (1); (C) (1); (D) (3)
(b) (A) (1); (B) (2); (C) (4); (D) (2)
(c) (A) (2); (B) (4); (C) (1); (D) (3)
(B) (2) Biconcave
(d) (A) (1); (B) (4); (C) (3); (D) (2)
72. Match the following Column II gives nature of image formed
in various cases given in Column I
Column I Column II
f

(C) (3) Convexoconcave


(A) f O f/2 (1) Real

(D) (4) Biconvex (B) O (2) Inverted


f

(a) (A) (3); (B) (1); (C) (2); (D) (4)


(b) (A) (2); (B) (3); (C) (4); (D) (1)
(c) (A) (2); (B) (4); (C) (3); (D) (1)
(d) (A) (3); (B) (2); (C) (1); (D) (4) (C) O (3) Virtual
69. Match the columns I and II
Column I Column II
(A) Mirage (1) Refraction of light by
(B) Apparent depth of object (2) Scattering of sunlight
is lesser than the actual
depth in water (D) f (4) Upright
(C) Blue colour of sky (3) Total internal reflection
(D) The formation of rainbow (4) Dispersion of sunlight
(a) (A) (2); (B) (3); (C) (4); (D) (1) (5) Magnified
(b) (A) (3); (B) (4); (C) (1); (D) (2)
(a) (A) (1, 2, 3); (B) (4, 5); (C) (2); (D) (1, 5)
(c) (A) (4); (B) (1); (C) (2); (D) (3)
(b) (A) (3, 4, 5); (B) (1, 2, 5); (C) (3, 4); (D) (3, 4, 5)
(d) (A) (3); (B) (1); (C) (2); (D) (4)
(c) (A) (1); (B) (2, 3); (C) (4, 5); (D) (1)
70. Column I Column II
(d) (A) (4); (B) (3, 4); (C) (2, 3); (D) (1)
(A) Lens of power + 2.0 D (1) Convex lens of focal
73. Column I Column II
length 200 cm.
(B) Lenses of combination (2) Concave lens of focal
(A) Hypermetropia (1)
of power +0.25 D and length 40 cm
+0.25 D
(C) Lens of power 2.0 D (3) Convex lens of focal (B) Myopia (2)
length 50 cm
(D) Lenses combination of (4) Concave lens of focal
power 60 D and +3.5 D length 50 cm (C) Astigmatism (3)
(a) (A) (1); (B) (2); (C) (3); (D) (4)
(b) (A) (3); (B) (1); (C) (4); (D) (2)
(c) (A) (4); (B) (3); (C) (1); (D) (2) (D) Presbyopia (4)
(d) (A) (3); (B) (4); (C) (2); (D) (1)
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(a) (A) (3); (B) (1); (C) (2); (D) (4)


(b) (A) (4); (B) (3); (C) (2); (D) (1)
(c) (A) (1); (B) (2); (C) (3); (D) (4) I F
(d) (A) (3); (B) (4); (C) (1); (D) (2) (b) O C
74. Match the columns I and II
Column I Column II
(i) Terrestrial telescope (1) Final image is inverted
w.r.t. the object.
(ii) Galileos telescope (2) No chromatic aberration
(iii) Reflecting telescope (3) Final image is erected. (c) O C I F
(iv) Astronomical (4) Uses concave lens for
telescope the eyepiece to obtain
an erected image.
(a) (A) (3); (B) (2); (C) (4); (D) (1)
(b) (A) (1); (B) (4); (C) (3); (D) (2)
(c) (A) (3); (B) (4); (C) (2); (D) (1) I
(d) (A) (2); (B) (1); (C) (2); (D) (3) O C F
(d)
DIAGRAM TYPE QUESTIONS
75. Figure shows two rays A and B being reflected by a mirror 78. Refraction of light from air to glass and from air to water
and going as A' and B'. The mirror are shown in figure (i) and figure (ii) below. The value of
the angle q in the case of refraction as shown in figure
A
(iii) will be

35
A 60
B Glass Air
(i) (ii)
Air 60 Water
41
B
(a) is plane
(b) is convex
(c) is concave q
(iii) Glass
(d) may be any spherical mirror Water
76. The correct sign convention for the following figure 41
where the object is at c will be (a) 30 (b) 35 (c) 60 (d) 41
M 79. The following figure shows refraction of light at the
interface of three media
A

H Medium 1 Medium 2
r2 Medium 3
B P r1
B C h F
r1
i1
A

N Correct the order of optical density (d) of the media is


(a) u = ve; v = +ve; H = +ve; h = ve (a) d1 > d2 > d3 (b) d2 > d1 > d3
(b) u = +ve; v = ve; H= ve; h = +ve (c) d3 > d3 > d2 (d) d2 > d3 > d1
(c) u = ve; v = ve; H = +ve; h = ve 80. A rays of light is incident on a t
(d) u = +ve; v = +ve; H = ve; h = +ve thick slab of glass of thickness t as
77. The correct image formation by a concave mirror is shown in the figure. The emergent I
depicted in ray is parallel to the incident ray
but distance d. If the angles are d
small then d is
I i i
(a) O C
(a) t 1 - (b) rt 1 -
F r r
r r
(c) it 1 - (d) t 1 -
i i
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81. A ray of light passes 1 2 3 D 1


through four transparent (a) n> (b) n > 2
4 2
media with refractive
indices 1, 2, 3 and 4 1
C (c) n< (d) n < 2
as shown in the figure. The B 2
surfaces of all media are 87. A glass prism of refractive index 1.5 is immersed in water
parallel. If the emergent ray A (refractive index 4/3). A light beam incident normally on the
CD is parallel to the incident ray AB, we must have face AB is totally reflected to reach on the face BC if
(a) 1 = 2 (b) 2 = 3 (c) 3 = 4 (d) 4 = 1 8 A B
82. A ray of light from a (a) sin q
9 q
denser medium strike
a rarer medium at an r 2 8
i (b) < sin q <
angle of incidence i 3 9
(see Fig). The reflected 2
and refracted rays r' (c) sin q
3
make an angle of 90 (d) None of these
with each other. The angles of reflection and refraction are
r and r. The critical angle is ASSERTION - REASON TYPE QUESTIONS
(a) sin1(tan r) (b) sin1(tan i)
Directions : Each of these questions contains two statements,
(c) sin1(tan r) (d) tan1(tan i)
Assertion and Reason. Each of these questions also has four
83. A light ray falls on a rectangular glass slab as 45 alternative choices, only one of which is the correct answer. You
shown. The index of refraction of the glass, if
have to select one of the codes (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below.
total internal reflection is to occur at the vertical
(a) Assertion is correct, reason is correct; reason is a correct
face, is
explanation for assertion.
(a) 3/ 2 (b)
( 3 + 1) Glass
(b) Assertion is correct, reason is correct; reason is not a
2 correct explanation for assertion

(c)
(
2 +1 ) (d) 5 / 2
(c) Assertion is correct, reason is incorrect
(d) Assertion is incorrect, reason is correct.
2 88. Assertion : Plane mirror may form real image.
84. The graph between angle of deviation (d) and angle of
Reason : Plane mirror forms virtual image, if object is real.
incidence (i) for a triangular prism is represented by
89. Assertion : The focal length of the convex mirror will
(a) (b) increase, if the mirror is placed in water.
d d
Reason : The focal length of a convex mirror of radius R is
equal to , f = R/2.
90. Assertion : The image formed by a concave mirror is certainly
o o real if the object is virtual.
i i Reason : The image formed by a concave mirror is certainly
(c) (d) virtual if the object is real.
d d 91. Assertion : The image of an extended object placed
perpendicular to the principal axis of a mirror, will be erect if
the object is real but the image is virtual.
o Reason : The image of an extended object, placed
o
i i perpendicular to the principal axis of a mirror, will be erect if
85. An equilateral prism is placed on a horizontal surface. A the object is virtual but the image is real.
ray PQ is incident onto it. For minimum deviation 92. Assertion : An object is placed at a distance of f from a
(a) PQ is horizontal R convex mirror of focal length f its image will form at infinity.
(b) QR is horizontal Q S Reason : The distance of image in convex mirror can never
P
(c) RS is horizontal be infinity.
(d) Any one will be horizontal 93. Assertion : Critical angle is minimum for violet colour.
86. A light ray is incident
1 1
perpendicularly to one face of Reason : Because critical angle qc = sin -1 and m .
a 90 prism and is totally m l
internally reflected at the 94. Assertion : Two convex lenses joined together cannot
glass-air interface. If the produce an achromatic combination.
angle of reflection is 45, we w1 w2
conclude that the refractive Reason : The condition for achromatism is f + f = 0
1 2
index where symbols have their usual meaning.
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95. Assertion : The image of a point object situated at the 106. A glass slab of thickness 4 cm contains the same number of
centre of hemispherical lens is also at the centre. waves as 5 cm of water when both are traversed by the
Reason : For hemisphere Snell's law is not valid. same monochromatic light. If the refractive index of water is
96. Assertion : When a convex lens (g= 3/2) of focal length f is 4/3, what is that of glass?
4 (a) 5/3 (b) 5/4 (c) 16/15 (d) 1.5
dipped in water, its focal length becomes f .
3 107. The index of refraction of diamond is 2.0. The velocity of
Reason : The focal length of convex lens in water becomes 4f. light in diamond is approximately
97. Assertion: The focal length of an equiconvex lens of radius (a) 1.5 1010 cm/sec (b) 2 1010 cm/sec
of curvature R made of material of refractive index = 1.5, is R. 10
(c) 3.0 10 cm/sec (d) 6 1010 cm/sec
Reason : The focal length of the lens will be R/2. 108. Light travels through a glass plate of thickness t and
98. Assertion : If the rays are diverging after emerging from a refractive index m. If c is the speed of light in vacuum, the
lens; the lens must be concave. time taken by light to travel this thickness of glass is
Reason : The convex lens can give diverging rays.
99. Assertion : A lens, whose radii of curvature are different, is t
(a) mtc (b) tc (c) (d) mt
forming the image of an object placed on its axis. If the lens m mc c
is reversed, the position of the image will not change.
Reason : Th e focal length of a lens is given by 109. One face of a rectangular glass plate 6 cm thick is silvered.
An object held 8 cm in front of the first face, forms an image
1 1 1
= (m - 1) - , and so focal length in both the cases 12 cm behind the silvered face. The refractive index of the
f R1 R2 glass is
is same. (a) 0.4 (b) 0.8 (c) 1.2 (d) 1.6
100. Assertion : The resolving power of a telescope is more if 110. A beam of monochromatic blue light of wavelength 420 nm
the diameter of the objective lens is more. in air travels in water (m = 4/3). Its wavelength in water will
Reason : Objective lens of large diameter collects more light. be
101. Assertion : The optical instruments are used to increase (a) 280 nm (b) 560 nm (c) 315 nm (d) 400 nm
the size of the image of the object. 111. The frequency of a light wave in a material is 2 1014 Hz
Reason : The optical instruments are used to increase the
and wavelength is 5000 . The refractive index of material
visual angle.
will be
CRITICAL THINKING TYPE QUESTIONS (a) 1.50 (b) 3.00 (c) 1.33 (d) 1.40
112. A ray of light travelling in a transparent medium of
102. A rod of length 10 cm lies along the principal axis of a refractive index m, falls on a surface separating the
concave mirror of focal length 10 cm in such a way that its medium from air at an angle of incidence of 45. For which
end closer to the pole is 20 cm away from the mirror. The of the following value of m the ray can undergo total
length of the image is internal reflection?
(a) 10 cm (b) 15 cm (c) 2.5 cm (d) 5 cm (a) m = 1.33 (b) m = 1.40 (c) m = 1.50 (d) m = 1.25
1 113. Light travels in two media A and B with speeds 1.8
103. A ray of light travelling in the direction (i + 3 j ) is
2 108 m s1 and 2.4 108 m s1 respectively. Then the
incident on a plane mirror. After reflection, it travels along critical angle between them is
1
the direction (i - 3 j ) . The angle of incidence is -1 2 -1 3
2 (a) sin (b) tan
3
4
(a) 30 (b) 45 (c) 60 (d) 75
2 3
104. A vessel of depth x is half filled with oil of refractive index (c) tan -1 (d) sin -1
m1 and the other half is filled with water of refractive index 3
4
m2. The apparent depth of the vessel when viewed from 114. The critical angle for light going from medium X into medium
above is Y is q. The speed of light in medium X is v, then speed of
x (m1 + m 2 ) light in medium Y is
xm1m 2
(a)
2m1m2
(b) (a) v(1 cos q) (b) v/sin q
2(m1 + m2 ) (c) v/cos q (d) v cos q
xm1m2 2 x (m1 + m2 ) 115. A ray of light travelling in a transparent medium of refractive
(c) (d)
(m1 + m 2 ) m1m2 index m , falls on a surface separating the medium from air at
105. A ray of light travelling inside a rectangular glass block of an angle of incidence of 45. For which of the following
refractive index 2 is incident on the glass-air surface at value of m the ray can undergo total internal reflection?
an angle of incidence of 45. The refractive index of air is (a) m = 1.33 (b) m = 1.40 (c) m = 1.50 (d) m = 1.25
one. Under these conditions the ray will 116. A luminous object is placed at a distance of 30 cm from the
(a) emerge into the air without any deviation convex lens of focal length 20 cm. On the other side of the
(b) be reflected back into the glass lens, at what distance from the lens a convex mirror of radius
(c) be absorbed of curvature 10 cm be placed in order to have an upright
(d) emerge into the air with an angle of refraction equal image of the object coincident with it?
to 90
(a) 12 cm (b) 30 cm (c) 50 cm (d) 60 cm
387

117. A thin glass (refractive index 1.5) lens has optical power of 126. The dispersive power of material of a lens of focal length 20
5 D in air. Its optical power in a liquid medium with refractive cm is 0.08. What is the longitudinal chromatic aberration of
index 1.6 will be the lens ?
(a) 1D (b) 1 D (c) 25 D (d) 25 D (a) 0.08 cm (b) 0.08/20 cm (c) 1.6 cm (d) 0.16 cm
118. A plano-convex lens is made of material of refractive index 127. A planoconvex lens of focal length 16 cm, is to be made of
1.6. The radius of curvature of the curved surface is 60 cm. glass of refractive index 1.5. The radius of curvature of the
The focal length of the lens is curved surface should be
(a) 50 cm (b) 100 cm (c) 200 cm (d) 400 cm (a) 8 cm (b) 12 cm (c) 16 cm (d) 24 cm
119. The radius of curvature of a thin plano-convex lens is 10 cm 128. A mans near point is 0.5 m and far point is 3 m. Power of
(of curved surface) and the refractive index is 1.5. If the spectacle lenses required for (i) reading purposes, (ii) seeing
plane surface is silvered, then it behaves like a concave distant objects, respectively, are
mirror of focal length (a) 2 D and + 3 D (b) +2 D and 3 D
120. Two identical thin plano-convex glass lenses (refractive (c) +2 D and 0.33 D (d) 2 D and + 0.33 D
index 1.5) each having radius of curvature of 20 cm are 129. Two thin lenses are in contact and the focal length of the
placed with their convex surfaces in contact at the centre. combination is 80 cm. If the focal length of one lens is 20
The intervening space is filled with oil of refractive index cm, then the power of the other lens will be
1.7. The focal length of the combination is (a) 1.66 D (b) 4.00 D (c) 100 D (d) 3.75 D
(a) 25 cm (b) 50 cm (c) 50 cm (d) 20 cm 130. A thin convergent glass lens (mg = 1.5) has a power of
3 + 5.0 D. When this lens is immersed in a liquid of refractive
121. A thin convex lens made from crown glass m = has index m, it acts as a divergent lens of focal length 100 cm.
2
The value of m must be
focal length f. When it is measured in two different liquids (a) 4/3 (b) 5/3 (c) 5/4 (d) 6/5
4 5 131. For the angle of minimum deviation of a prism to be equal to
having refractive indices and , it has the focal lengths its refracting angle, the prism must be made of a material
3 3
whose refractive index
f1 and f2 respectively. The correct relation between the focal
lengths is: (a) lies between 2 and 1
(a) f1 = f2 < f
(b) lies between 2 and 2
(b) f1 > f and f2 becomes negative
(c) f2 > f and f1 becomes negative (c) is less than 1
(d) f1 and f2 both become negative (d) is greater than 2
122. A green light is incident from the water to the air - water 132. The refractive index of a glass is 1.520 for red light and 1.525
interface at the critical angle (q). Select the correct statement. for blue light. Let D1 and D2 be angles of minimum deviation
(a) The entire spectrum of visible light will come out of for red and blue light respectively in a prism of this glass.
the water at an angle of 90 to the normal. Then,
(a) D1 < D2
(b) The spectrum of visible light whose frequency is less
(b) D1 = D2
than that of green light will come out to the air medium.
(c) D1 can be less than or greater than D2 depending
(c) The spectrum of visible light whose frequency is more
upon the angle of prism
than that of green light will come out to the air medium.
(d) D1 > D2
(d) The entire spectrum of visible light will come out of
133. A right prism is made by
the water at various angles to the normal.
selecting a proper material
123. A plano convex lens of refractive index 1.5 and radius of
and the angle A and B (B <<
curvature 30 cm. Is silvered at the curved surface. Now this
A) as shown in fig. It is desired
lens has been used to form the image of an object. At what
that a ray of light incident on
distance from this lens an object be placed in order to have
the face AB emerges parallel
a real image of size of the object
to the incident direction after
(a) 60 cm (b) 30 cm (c) 20 cm (d) 80 cm
two internal reflections.
124. A double convex lens of focal length 6 cm is made of glass
What should be the minimum refractive index m for this to
of refractive index 1.5. The radius of curvature of one surface
be possible ?
is double that of other surface. The value of small radius of
curvature is (a) 3 (b) 1.5 (c) 2 (d) 1.8
(a) 6 cm (b) 4.5 cm (c) 9 cm (d) 4 cm 134. The refractive index of the material of a prism is 2 and its
125. An achromatic convergent doublet of two lenses in contact refracting angle is 30. One of the refracting surfaces of the
has a power of + 2D. The convex lens has power + 5D. prism is made a mirror inwards. A beam of monochromatic
What is the ratio of dispersive powers of convergent and light enters the prism from the mirrored surface if its angle
divergent lenses ? of incidence of the prism is
(a) 2 : 5 (b) 3 : 5 (c) 5 : 2 (d) 5 : 3 (a) 30 (b) 45 (c) 60 (d) 0
388

135. The angle of a prism is A. One of its refracting surfaces is and the latter is equal to 3/4th of the angle of prism. The
silvered. Light rays falling at an angle of incidence 2A on angle of deviation is
the first surface returns back through the same path after (a) 45 (b) 39 (c) 20 (d) 30
suffering reflection at the silvered surface. The refractive 141. A telescope has an objective lens of 10 cm diameter and is
index m, of the prism is : situated at a distance of one kilometer from two objects.
(a) 2 sin A (b) 2 cos A The minimum distance between these two objects, which
1 can be resolved by the telescope, when the mean
(c) cos A (d) tan A wavelength of light is 5000 , is of the order of
2
(a) 5 cm (b) 0.5 m (c) 5 m (d) 5mm
136. The refracting angle of a prism is A, and refractive index of 142. Wavelength of light used in an optical instrument are
the material of the prism is cot(A/2). The angle of minimum
o o
deviation is : l1 = 4000 A and l 2 = 5000 A , then ratio of their
(a) 180 2A (b) 90 A respective resolving powers (corresponding to ll and l2) is
(c) 180 + 2A (d) 180 3A
137. A ray of light is incident normally on one refracting surface (a) 16 : 25 (b) 9 : 1 (c) 4 : 5 (d) 5 : 4.
of an equilateral prism. If the refractive index of the material 143. The magnifying power of a telescope is 9. When it is
of the prism is 1.5, then adjusted for parallel rays, the distance between the objective
(a) the emergent ray is deviated by 30 and the eye piece is found to be 20 cm. The focal length of
(b) the emergent ray is deviated by 60 lenses are
(c) the emergent ray just graces the second reflecting (a) 18 cm, 2 cm (b) 11 cm, 9 cm
surface (c) 10 cm, 10 cm (d) 15 cm, 5 cm
(d) the ray undergoes total internal reflection at second 144. The focal length of the objective of a telescope is 60 cm. To
refracting surface obtain a magnification of 20, the focal length of the eye
(e) the ray emerges normally from the second refracting piece should be
surface (a) 2 cm (b) 3 cm (c) 4 cm (d) 5 cm
138. A thin prism of angle 15 made of glass of refractive index 145. The focal lengths of objective and eye lens of an
1 = 1.5 is combined with another prism of glass of refractive astronomical telelscope are respectively 2 meter and 5 cm.
index 2 = 1.75. The combination of the prism produces Final image is formed at (i) least distance of distinct vision
dispersion without deviation. The angle of the second prism (ii) infinity Magnifying power in two cases will be
should be (a) 48, 40 (b) 40, 48
(a) 7 (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 5 (c) 40, + 48 (d) 48, + 40
139. A prism has a refracting angle of 60. When placed in the 146. A simple telescope, consisting of an objective of focal length
position of minimum deviation, it produces a deviation of 60 cm and a single eye lens of focal length 5 cm is focussed on
30. The angle of incidence is a distant object in such a way that parallel rays emerge from
(a) 30 (b) 45 (c) 15 (d) 60 the eye lens. If the object subtends an angle of 2 at the
140. A ray of light passes through an equilateral prism such that objective, the angular width of the image is
the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of emergence (a) 10 (b) 24 (c) 50 (d) (1/6)
389

FACT/DEFINITION TYPE QUESTIONS place when ray of light travels from optically denser
medium (m1 > m2) to optically rarer medium.
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (c) 19. (c) For total internal reflection light ray must travel from
5. (a) Virtual image formed is larger in size in case of optically denser to an optically rarer medium.
concave mirror. 20. (c) As i > ic
6. (a) Real, inverted and same in size because object is at At i = ic angle of refraction
the centre of curvature of the mirror.
r = 90
7. (d) Convex mirror always forms, virtual, erect and
smaller image. sin ic
\ ==1
8. (a) To see his full image in a plane mirror a person requires sin 90
a mirror of at least half of his height. 21. (a) The basic principle of communication in fibre optics is
H based on the phenomenon of total internal reflection.
M
22. (d)
E H 23. (b) Difference between apparent and real depth of a pond
H 2 is due to the refraction of light, not due to the total
internal reflection. Other three phenomena are due to
M' the total internal reflection.
L 24. (d) The magnification for vertual image formed by
9. (c) concave lens is positive.
10. (c) Because they form nearly point image of point source. 25. (a) The apparent flattening (oval shape) of the sun at
11. (d) sunset and sunrise is due to refraction.
n 2 n1 n 2 - n1 26. (b) In an isotropic medium, speed of light depends on
12. (c) Relation - = true for both concave
v u R its wavelength.
and convex mirror. 27. (a)
13. (b) 28. (d) Since refractive index for different wave length of
14. (c) Since the refractive index is less at beam boundary, light is different. Hence the different colours of light
the ray at the edges of the beam move faster forms images at different position. This phenomenon
compared to the axis of beam. Hence the beam is called chromatic aberration.
converges. 29. (d) The cause of chromatic aberration is that lens
sin i v1 m 2 focusses different colours at different points.
15. (b) According to Snells law = =
sin r v 2 m1 30. (c) Since lR > lV mR< mV
From fig. we see that 1 1
Q m f V < fR Q (m - 1)
l f
i medium 1 (m1) 31. (b,c) If faces of prism on which light is incident & from
denser
which it emerge are parallel, then angle of prism will
rare 90 r be zero & so deviation will also be zero i.e., the prism
r
will act as a transparent prism.
medium 2 (m2) 32. (d) 33. (d)
r > i v2 > v1 from Snells Law 34. (a) The angular dispersion q i.e., the angle between the
So v2 = nl2 > v1 = nl1 l2 > l1 extreme rays of light,
(Frequency of wave does not change on refraction) q = (dV dR) where dV = (mV1)A, dR = (mV1)A & A is
16. (b) Frequency does not change on refraction. angle of prism.
17. (d) It occurs in both reflection & refraction & the angle of So if refractive index increases, then d increases &
bending rays is constant. hence q increases.
sin i m 2 m - mR dm
18. (b) According to Snells Law, = 35. (b) Dispersive power of a prism w = V = ,
sin r m1 my -1 m -1
where r = 90 for particular incidence angle called critical mV + mR
angle. When the incidence angle is equal to or greater where m = m y =
2
than ic, then total internal reflection occurs. It takes 36. (d)
390

37. (b) Refractive index of medium is given by by increasing the aperture of objective resolving power
B can be increased.
m = A+ 2 ( where A and Bare constant ). 55. (a) To find the refractive index of glass using a travelling
l
Light has seven different colour, so its each colour microscope, a vernier scale is provided on the
has different wavelength and so different refractive microscope.
index. 56. (d) Magnifying power of microscope
Due to difference in refractive index different refractive LD 1
sin i =
angle m = . f 0f e f0
sin r
Hence with increase f0 magnifyig power of microscope
So this is due to dependence on wavelength of
decreases.
refractive index.
38. (a) In the position of minimum deviation, i1 = i2. f0
Magnifying power of telescope = f0
39. (d) We can combine two prisms in such a way fe
(i) deviation is zero but dispersion not Hence with increase f0 magnifying power of telescope
(ii) dispersion is zero but deviation is not. increases.
But in any situation both deviation & dispersion 57. (d) Because of large objective area more light is gathered.
can not be zero simultaneously.
40. (c) At the minimum deviation, A
b
As magnification m =
f = Dm angle of incidence a
i = angle of emergence b = angle subtended at the eye by the final image
e and inside the prism i e a = angle subtended by the object at the lens or eye
refracted ray parallel to the O 58. (c) With large diameters of objective, the ability to
base of the prism B C
observe two objects distinctly, increases as more
41. (d) light is gathered.
42. (c) In the position of minimum deviation
STATEMENT TYPE QUESTIONS
A + dm 60 + 30
i=e= = = 45
2 2 59. (d)
43. (a) 60. (d) The image formed by a convex mirror is always
44. (b) Secondary rainbow is formed by rays undergoing virtual.
interanal reflection twice inside the drop. 61. (b) Normal is perpendicular to the tangent to surface at
45. (b) the point of incidence i.e., the normal is along the
46. (b) For rear view, Convex mirror is used in vehicle radius, the line joining the centre of curvature of the
47. (a) Cylindrical lens is used to rectify eye defect astigmatism mirror to the point of incidence.
48. (b) So, geometric centre of a spherical mirror is called its
49. (d) Because, the focal length of eye lens can not pole while that of a spherical lens is called its optical
decrease beyond a certain limit. centre. The line joining the pole and the centre of
50. (b) The image formed by objective lens of compound curvature of the spherical mirror is known as the
microscope is real and enlarged, while final image formed principal axis. In the case of spherical lenses, the
by compound microscope is inverted, virtual, enlarged pricipal axis is the line joining the optical centre with
and at a distance D to infinite or from an eye, on same its principal focus.
side of eye piece. 62. (c) The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the
51. (b) The aperture of objective lens of Astronomical sine of angle of refraction is constant. Remember
telescope is large to get better resolution. Since that the angles of incidence (i) and refraction (r) are
D the angles that the incident and its refracted ray
resolution of telescope power is R = , where D make with the normal, respectively. We have,
1.22 l
is the diameter of the objective lens of Telescope. sin i
52. (b) One should increase the power of lens i.e., decrease = n21 ...(i)
sin r
the focal length of a lens.
where, n21 is a constant, called the refractive index
53. (a) In simple microscope the final image is erect.
of the medium 2 w.r.t. the medium 1. Eq. (i) is the well
54. (d) Resolving power = l plane transmission grating known Snells law of refraction. We note that n21 is
dl
a characteristic of the pair of media (and also
Resolving power for telescope
1 d d depends on the wavelength of light) but is
= = = 0 independent of the angle of incidence
limit of resolution 1.22 l dl
391

63. (a) If n21 is the refractive index of medium 2 with respect 1


to medium 1 and n12 the refractive index of medium 70. (b) (i) P = +2.0 f = 100 cm = + 50 cm
+2.0
1 with respect to medium 2, then it should be clear that (Positive power convex lens)
1
n12 = (ii) P = P1 + P2 = (+0.25) + (+0.25) = +0.50 D
n21
It also follows that if n32 is the refractive index of 1 1
f= = 100 cm = 200 cm
medium 3 with respect to medium 2, then n32 = P +0.5
n31 n12, where n31 is the refractive index of medium 1
III with respect to medium I. (iii) P = 2.0 f = 100 cm = 50 cm
-2.0
64. (a) Convex lens is a converging lens provided refractive
(ve power concave lens)
index of the material of the lens is greater than the
surrounding medium in which the lens is kept. (iv) P = P1 + P2 = (6.0) + (+3.5) = 2.5 Da
From lens makers formula, 1 1
1 1 1 f= = 100 cm = 40 cm
= (m 2 - 1) - p 2.5
f R1 R2 1
Refracting index of lens varies inversely with the 71. (a) A - (2) : M = is for erect or virtrual image and so it
4
wavelength of light used. is possible for convex mirror.
II. For virtual object, image is real for convex lens. B - (1): m = 1, negative magnification is possible
in concave mirror.
C - (1) : m = 2, is possible for concave mirror when
O I O object is put between focal point and pole
(Virtual object)
Real image
of the mirror.
D - (3) : m = 1 is possible for plane mirror.
65. (a) The variation of refractive index with wavelength
72. (b)
may be more pronounced in some media than the
other. In vacuum, of course, the speed of light is 73. (d) 74. (c)
independent of wavelength. Thus, vacuum (or air
approximately) is a non-dispersive medium in which DIAGRAM TYPE QUESTIONS
all colours travel with the same speed. 75. (a)
This also follows from the fact that sunlight reaches 76. (c) According to sign-convention, distance left or
us in the form of white light and not as its components.
below pole is (ve) and right or above pole is +(ve).
On the other hand, glass is a dispersive medium.
66. (b) At sunset or sunrise the suns rays have to pass 77. (d) The ray parallel to principle axis after reflection through
through a larger distance in the atmosphere and mirror passes through the focus and the ray passing
most of the blue or other shorter wavelengths are through the centre of curvature set retr its path.
removed by scattering. sin 60
78. (b) amg = ... (i)
sin 35
MATCHING TYPE QUESTIONS sin 60
a
mw = sin 41 ... (ii)
67. (c) A-2 : For u = f,
1 1
+
1 sin 41
v -f = f
w
mg = sin q ... (iii)
f a
mw wmg = amg
\ v=
2
v f /2 sin 60 sin 41 sin 60
and M = - = - = 0.5 . = (Using (i), (ii) and (iii))
u (- f ) sin 41 sin q sin 35
= sinq = sin35 q = 35
B-4 : u = 2f, so v = 2f
79. (d) As r1 < i1 i.e., the incident ray bends towards the
v -2 f
M = - = = -1 normal medium 2 is denser than medium 1.
u -2 f Or r2 < i1 medium 3 is denser than medium 1.
C-1 : In concave mirror, u = 2f, v = Also, r2 > r1 medium 2 is denser than medium 3.
v
\ M= - = . 80. (c) t
u
D-5 : In convex mirror u = 2f A B
I
2f r N
1 1 1
so + = v= .
v -2 f f 3 d
v 1
Now M = = . From figure, in right angled DCDB
u 3
68. (b) 69. (d) CBD = (i r)
392

CD d 87. (a) The phenomenon of total internal reflection takes


\ sin(i r) = =
BC BC place during reflection at P.
or d = BC sin(i r) .... (i) 1
Also, in right angled DCNB sin q = (i)
w
BN t gm
cos r = = When q is the angle of incidence at P
BC BC
l
t B A
or BC = .... (ii) q
cos r q
Substitute equation (ii) in equation (i), we get R P
t
d= sin(i r)
cos r C
For small angles sin(i r) sin i r cosr 1 a
r w gh 1. 5
d = t (i r), d = it 1 - Now, gm =
w
= = 1.125
i gm
4/3
81. (d) 1 8
Putting in (i), sin q = =
1 sin 90 1 1.125 9
82. (a) 2m = = [For critical angle] 8
sin C sin C
\ sin q should be greater than or equal to .
1 9
\ C = sin -1 (i)
1m
2 ASSERTION - REASON TYPE QUESTIONS
Applying Snells law at P, we get
88. (b) Plane mirror may form real image, if object is virtual.
1 sin r sin(90 - r)
2m = = [Q i = r; r '+ r = 90]
sin i sin r
1 cos r ... (ii)
m= (Real) I O (virtual)
2 sin r
From (i) and (ii) 89. (d) Focal length of the spherical mirror does not depend
C = sin1 (tan r)
on the medium in which it placed.
sin 45 1 90. (c) The image of real object may be real in case of concave
83. (a) For point A, a mg = sin r =
sin r 2 a mg mirror.
for point B, sin (90 r) = gma 91. (b)
45 Air 92. (d) The distance of image in convex mirror is always v f .
(90 r) is critical angle.
90 r r A 93. (a) 94. (a)
1 95. (c) The rays from centre of hemisphere cut at the centre after
\ cos r = g m a =
m
a g 90 r refraction - Snell's law is valid in each case of refraction.
B 3
1
a mg = - 1
amg -1
cos r
Glass
96. (d) fw = f = f 2 =4f
1 1 amg 3/ 2
= - 1 - 1
= 4/3
1 - sin 2 r 1 a mw
1-
2 amg2 1 1 1 1 1
97. (c) = (m - 1) - = (1.5 1) -
1 2 a m 2g f R1 R2 R -R
2
a mg = = or f = R.
1 2 a m 2g - 1
1- 98. (d) If the rays cross focal point of convex lens, they
2 a m g2 become diverging.
2 3 99. (a)
2 a mg - 1 = 2 a mg =
2 100. (a) RP diameter of objective.
84. (c) For the prism as the angle of incidence (i) increases, 101. (d)
the angle of deviation (d) first decreases goes to
minimum value and then increases. CRITICALTHINKING TYPE QUESTIONS
85. (b) For minimum deviation, incident angle is equal to
emerging angle. 102. (d) f = 10 cm
\ QR is horizontal.
86. (b) The incident angle is 45 incident angle > critical angle,
i > ic B A
\ sin i > sin i c or sin 45 > sin i c 10 cm 20 cm

1 1 1 1
sin i c = \ sin 45 > or > n> 2
n n 2 n
393

The focal length of the mirror 5 4


106. (a) Given that w mg = and a m w =
1 1 1 4 3
= + 5 4 5
f v u \ a mg =w mg a m w = =
For A end of the rod the image distance 4 3 3
When u1 = 20 cm 107. (a)
108. (d) Total thickness = t; Refrative index = m
-1 1 1
= - c
10 v1 20 Speed of light in Glass plate =
m
1 -1 1 -2 + 1 Speed of light in vacuum
= +
v1 10 20 = 20 Q v =
R.I. of Medium
v1 = 20 cm t mt
Time taken = c = c
For when u2 = 30 cm
m
1 1 1
= - (where t = thickness of glass plate)
f v2 30
109. (c) Thickness of glass plate (t) = 6 cm;
1 -1 1 - 30 + 10 -20 Distance of the object (u) = 8 cm. and
= + =
v2 10 30 = 300 300 distance of the image (v) = 12 cm.
v2 = 15 cm Let x = Apparent position of the silvered surface in cm.
L = v2 v1 = 15 ( 20) Since the image is formed due to relfection at the silvered
L = 5 cm face and by the property of mirror image distance of object
i 3 i 3 from the mirror = Distance of image from the mirror
2+ j . - j
2 2 2
or x + 8 = 12 + 6 x or x = 5 cm.

103. (a) cos(180 - 2a ) = Therefore refractive index of glass
2 2 2 Re al depth 6
1 3 1 3
+ + - = Apparent depth = 5 = 1.2 .
2 2 2 2
c l 420
1 110. (c) v = or l m = 0 \ lm = = 315 nm
\ cos(180 - 2a ) = - m m ( 4 / 3)
2
velocity of light in vacuum (c)
111. (b) m=
velocity of light in medium (v)
But v = ul = 2 1014 5000 1010
In the medium, v = 108 m/s.
v 3 108
\ m = vac = = 3.
\ 180 2a = 120 \ a = 30 vmed 108
Option (a) is correct. 112. (c) : For total internal reflection
sin i > sin C
Oil m1 where,
104. (a) i = angle of incidence, C = critical angle
Water m2 1 1 1
But, sinC = \ sini > or m >
m m sin i
Real depth 1
As refractive index, m = m> (i = 45 (Given))
Apparent depth sin 45
\ Apparent depth of the vessel when viewed from m> 2
above is Hence, option (c) is correct.
x x x 1 1 113. (d) Here, vA = 1.8 108 m s1
dapparent = + = +
2m1 2m 2 2 m1 m 2 vB = 2.4 108 m s1
Light travels slower in denser medium. Hence
x m2 + m1 x (m1 + m 2 ) medium A is a denser medium and medium B is a
= =
2 m1m 2 2m1m2 rarer medium. Here, Light travels from medium A to
medium B. Let C be the critical angle between them.
1 1 1
105. (d) sin C = = \ C = sin -1 = 45 1
m 2 2
\ sinC = AmB = B
mA
sin C 1 sin 45 1 Refractive index of medium B w.r.t. to medium A is
Now = or =
sin r m sin r 2 Velocity of light in medium A v
sin r = 1 or r = 90
A
mB = = A
Velocity of light in medium B vB
394

vA 1.8 108 3 1 2(m 1) 1 2(m 1)


\ sin C = = = or C = sin1 3 \ = + =
vB 2.4 10 8 4 4 F R R
R
114. (b) F=
115. (c) For total internal reflection, 2(m 1)
1 Here R = 20 cm, m = 1.5
m >1.414 = 1.50
sin C 2
20
\ F= = 20cm
f = 20 cm 2(1.5 1)
116. (c)
120. (b) Using lens makers formula,
l
O 1 1 1
= (m 1)
f R
1 R 2
30 cm 10 cm
60 cm 1 1.5 1 1
= 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 f1 1 20
- = ; - = v = 60 cm
v u f v - 30 20 f1 = 40cm n = 1.5 n = 1.5
Coincidence is possible when the image is formed at n = 1.7
1 1.7 1 1
= 1
the centre of curvature of the mirror. Only then the f2 1 20 +20
rays refracting through the lens will fall normally on
100
the convex mirror and retrace their path to form the f2 = cm
7
image at O. So the distance between lens and mirror =
60 10 = 50 cm. 1 1.5 1 1
and = 1 f3 = 40 cm
1 1. 5 1 1 f3 1 20
117. (b) = - 1 - (i) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
fa 1 R1 R 2 = + + = + +
f eq f1 f 2 f3 f eq 40 100 / 7 40
1 mg 1 1
= - 1 -
\ feq = 50 cm
fm mm 1 R R 2
Therefore, the focal length of the combination is
1 1.5 1 1 (ii)
= - 1 - 50 cm.
f m 1.6 R1 R 2 121. (b) By Lens maker's formula for convex lens

f m 1.5 - 1 1 m
=
2
- 1
Dividing (i) by (ii), = =8
f m L
f a 1.5 R
- 1
1.6 4
1 1 for, m L1 = , f1 = 4 R
Pa = - 5 = fa = - 3
fa 5 5
1 8 for m L 2 = , f 2 = -5 R f2 = () ve
f m = - 8 f a = -8 - = 3
5 5 122. (b) For critical angle qc,
m 1.6
Pm = = 5 = 1D 1
fm 8 sin qc = air
118. (b) R1 = 60 cm, R2 = , m = 1.6 m
q Water
1 1 1 For greater wavelength or
= (m - 1) -
lesser frequency m is less. So,
f R
1 R 2
critical angle would be more. So, they will not suffer
1 1
= (1.6 - 1) f = 100 cm. reflection and come out at angles less then 90.
f 60 123. (c)
119. (c) The silvered plano convex lens behaves as a concave
mirror; whose focal length is given by
1 2 1 C O
= + X
F f1 f m x
If plane surface is silvered
R For the image to be real and of same size as object,
fm = 2 = = final image should be formed at the position of object
2 2
1 1 1 itself.
\ = (m 1)
Let x be the distance of object from plane surface.
f1 R1 R 2 Apparent distance from surface = mx
1 1 m 1 This should be centre of curve
= (m 1) =
R R \ mx = 30 1.5x = 30 x = 20
395

124. (b) If R1 = R, R2 = 2 R 2A = i + e
1 1 1 in case of d min i = e
= (m - 1) -

f R1 R 2 A
2A = 2i r1 = r2 =
1 1 1 0 .5 3 2
= (1.5 - 1) + =
6 R 2 R 2R i = A = 90
from smells law
R = 4.5 cm
1 sin i = n sin r1
125. (b) Here, P1 = 5 D
A
P2 = P P1 = 2 5 = 3 D sin A = n sin
w1 f - P2 3 2
=- 1 = = A A A
w2 f2 P1 5 2 sin cos = n sin
2 2 2
126. (c) Longitudinal chromatic aberration = w f
A
= 0.08 20 = 1.6 cm 2 cos = n
2
1 1 1 when A = 90 = imin
127. (a) = (m - 1) -

f R
1 R 2 then nmin = 2
1 1 1 i = A = 0 nmax = 2
= (1.5 - 1) - 132. (a) For a thin prism, D = (m 1) A
16 R
1 1 Since lb < lr mr < mb D1 < D2
= 0.5 R = 8 cm 133. (c) The ray is incident on face AC at an angle A, after
16 R
reflection, it incident of face BC at an angle B. Thus
128. (c) For reading purposes :
u = 25 cm, v = 50 cm, f = ? A + B = 90.
1 1 1 1 1 1 As B < A, so the ray if totally reflected from face BC, it
= - =- + = ; must be reflected from AC also. For this angle B should
f v u 50 25 50
be greater than critical angle C. For minimum value of
100
P= = +2 D m, B can be infinitesimally than C, so B = C (critical
f angle).We know that
For distant vision, f' = distance of far point = 3 m
1 1 1 1
P = = - D = -0.33 D m= =
f 3 sin C sin B
100 100 For A = B, B = 45
129. (d) P2 = P - P1 = - = -3 .75 D 1
80 20 \ mmin = sin 45 = 2
mg
- 1 134. (b) The angle must be equal to the critical angle,
Pa m a +5
130. (b) = = = -5 1 1
P1 m g - 100 / 100 C = sin -1 = sin -1 = 45

m - 1 m
2
1 135. (b)
m g mg
- 5 - 1 = -1
m1 m a
1 .5 -1 1 .5 5
-1 = (1 .5 - 1) = -0 .1 ; m1 = =
m1 5 0.9 3
131. (b) A Prism angle
A sin i
Smin
Angle of According to Snells law m =
minimum sin r
deviation (1) sin 2A = (m) sin A m = 2 cos A
Incident C e Angle of 136. (a) As we know, the refractive index of the material of the
r1 r2
angle emergence prism
d + A
sin m
2
B C m=
sin (A/ 2)
The angle of minimum deviation is given as
A + dm
d min = i + eA sin
2 cos (A/ 2)
for minimum deviation cot A/2 = =
sin A / 2 sin (A / 2)
d min = A then [Q = cot (A/2)]
396

dm + A 3
Sin 140. (d) i1 = i 2 =A
2
= sin(90 + A/2)
4
dmin = 180 2A As A + d = i1 + i 2
1
137. (d) As we know m = 3 3 A 60
sin C \ d = i1 + i 2 - A = A+ A-A = = = 30
4 4 2 2
1 2
m = sin 60 = x 1.22l 1.22 5 103 10 -10 10 3
3 141. (d) Here = or x =
1000 D 10 10 -2
For total internal reflection to take place
or x = 1.22 5 103 m = 6.1 m
1 2 x is of the order of 5 mm.
sinC = =
m 3 142. (d) Resolving power a(1/l).
2 (R.P)1 l 2 5
C = sin1 @ 42 Hence, = =
3 (R.P) 2 l1 4
q < 45
f0
Angle of incidence > critical angle, hence TIR takes 143. (a) = 9 , \ f0 = 9 fe
fe
place
138. (b) Deviation = zero Also f0 + fe = 20 (Q final image is at infinity)
So, d = d1 + d2 = 0 9 fe + fe = 20, fe = 2 cm, \ f0 = 18 cm
(m1 1)A1 + (m2 1) A2 = 0 144. (b) In normal adjustment,
A2 (1.75 1) = (1.5 1) 15 f f 60
M = 0 = 20 , f e = 0 = = 3 cm
0.5 fe 20 20
A2 = - 15
0.75 f 0 f e - 200 1 + 5 = - 48
145. (a) (i) M = - 1 + =
or A2 = 10. fe d 5 25
Negative sign shows that the second prism is inverted (since least distance d = 25cm)
with respect to the first. f 200
(ii) M = - 0 = - = -40
A + d m 60 + 30 fe 5
139. (b) i= = = 45
2 2 b f
146. (b) M = = 0
fe
f 60
\ b = 0 = 2 = 24
fe 5